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blood transfusion africa

A Dramowski, A Whitelaw, M F Cotton
BACKGROUND: In most African countries the prevalence and effects of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are unknown. AIM: To investigate the burden, spectrum, risk factors, and impact of paediatric HCAI by prospective clinical surveillance at a South African referral hospital. METHODS: Continuous prospective clinical and laboratory HCAI surveillance using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions was conducted at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, South Africa, from May 1(st) to October 31(st) in 2014 and 2015...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Malika M Morar, John P Pitman, Willi McFarland, Evan M Bloch
BACKGROUND: Historical estimates have attributed 5% to 10% of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to unsafe blood transfusions. Although frequently cited, the validity of this statistic is uncertain or outdated. Recent estimates suggest blood transfusion's contribution to new HIV infections in the region may be much lower. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We searched the peer-reviewed and gray literature for quantitative estimates of the specific contribution of unsafe blood transfusion to the proportion of new HIV infections occurring in SSA...
September 23, 2016: Transfusion
Helen M Nabwera, Greg Fegan, Jay Shavadia, Douglas Denje, Kishor Mandaliya, Imelda Bates, Kathryn Maitland, Oliver W Hassall
BACKGROUND: Severe anemia in children is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we describe clinical and operational aspects of blood transfusion in children admitted to Coast Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an observational study where over a 2-year period, demographic and laboratory data were collected on all children for whom the hospital blood bank received a transfusion request. Clinical data were obtained by retrospective review of case notes over the first year...
September 9, 2016: Transfusion
Muhammad Imran, Sobia Manzoor, Muhammad Saalim, Saleha Resham, Javed Ashraf, Aneela Javed, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major health burden across the world which leads to the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This review article discusses the prevalence of HIV, its major routes of transmission, natural immunity, and evasion from the host immune system. HIV is mostly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa and low income countries. It is mostly transmitted by sharing syringe needles, blood transfusion, and sexual routes. The host immune system is categorized into three main types; the innate, the adaptive, and the intrinsic immune system...
October 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Olivier Garraud, Luiz Amorim Filho, Syria Laperche, Claude Tayou-Tagny, Bruno Pozzetto
Transfusion has been tainted with the risk of contracting an infection - often severe - and fears about this risk are still prevailing, in sharp contrast with the actual risk in Western countries. Those actual risks are rather immunological, technical (overload) or metabolic. Meanwhile, in developing countries and particularly in Africa, transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) are still frequent, because of both the scarcity of volunteer blood donors and resources and the high incidence and prevalence of infections...
July 2016: La Presse Médicale
W S Nambei, D Rawago-Mandjiza, E Gbangbangai
The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and syphilis as well the risk factors for these diseases among blood donors in Bangui, Central Africa Republic. This cross-sectional study examined samples from donors giving blood in August and September, 2013. HIV1/2 antibodies was screened with the Determine and Unigold HIV tests. Hepatitis B surface antigens were detected by sandwich immunochromatographic methods (DIAspot HBsAg test), and antibodies to HCV by the DIAspot test strip...
May 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Jerry F Brown, Kathleen Rowe, Peter Zacharias, James van Hasselt, John M Dye, David A Wohl, William A Fischer, Coleen K Cunningham, Nathan M Thielman, David L Hoover
PURPOSE: This report describes initiation of apheresis capability in Liberia, Africa to support a clinical trial of convalescent plasma therapy for Ebola Virus Disease. METHODS: A bloodmobile was outfitted in the United States as a four-bed apheresis unit with capabilities including pathogen reduction, electronic blood establishment computer system, designated areas for donor counseling and laboratory testing, and onboard electrical power generation. After air transport to Liberia, the bloodmobile was positioned at ELWA Hospital, Monrovia, and connected to the hospital's power grid...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Y Zheng, R W Maitta
OBJECTIVES: Comparison of the alloimmunisation rates of patients with sickle cell disease in the Unites States versus other countries. BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients treated with chronic transfusion therapy are at a high risk of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed published literature describing alloimmunisation rates of SCD patients. Average alloimmunisation rates and number of alloantibodies per transfused patient in the United States and other countries were evaluated...
June 2016: Transfusion Medicine
Hari Shankar, Demetri Blanas, Kian Bichoupan, Daouda Ndiaye, Ellie Carmody, Valerie Martel-Laferriere, Joan Culpepper-Morgan, Dougles T Dieterich, Andrea D Branch, Mulusew Bekele, Kim Nichols, Ponni V Perumalswami
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan African nations have among the highest rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide, but little is known about HBV infection in African-born persons in the United States. METHODS: From October 2011 to July 2013, community-based HBV screenings were conducted targeting persons originating from Africa in New York City. Persons were identified as currently HBV infected (HBsAg positive) or exposed (HBcAb positive). RESULTS: Overall, 955 persons were screened for HBV; the median age was 45 years (interquartile range, 35-54 years) and 75...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Fatih Şahiner
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Although more than 60 years have passed since the discovery and first reported human cases of the virus, only a small number (< 10) of cases had been encountered in the literature until the last 10 years. Zika virus was known as a virus which caused sporadic infections and was confined to Africa and Asia along a narrow equatorial line. In 2007, however, the first major outbreak of ZIKV occurred in Yap Island (Micronesia), and so it was reported for the first time outside of Africa and Asia...
April 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Masoud Foroutan-Rad, Hamidreza Majidiani, Sahar Dalvand, Ahmad Daryani, Wesam Kooti, Jasem Saki, Faezeh Hedayati-Rad, Ehsan Ahmadpour
Transfusion-transmissible infections include pathogens that may cause severe and debilitating diseases. Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan neglected parasitic infection that can lead to severe complications including death in immune-compromised patients or following infection in utero. Multiple studies have demonstrated the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii by blood transfusion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively assess the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma in blood donors from a worldwide perspective...
July 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Timothy M Block, Harvey J Alter, W Thomas London, Mike Bray
The discovery in 1965 of the "Australia antigen," subsequently identified as the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), was such a watershed event in virology that it is often thought to mark the beginning of hepatitis research, but it is more accurately seen as a critical breakthrough in a long effort to understand the pathogenesis of infectious hepatitis. A century earlier, Virchow provided an authoritative explanation of "catarrhal jaundice," which did not consider an infectious etiology, but the transmission of jaundice by human serum was clearly identified in two outbreaks in 1885, and the distinction between "infectious" and "serum" hepatitis was recognized by the early 1920s...
July 2016: Antiviral Research
Anthony E Pusateri, Michael B Given, Martin A Schreiber, Philip C Spinella, Shibani Pati, Rosemary A Kozar, Abdul Khan, Joseph A Dacorta, Kevin R Kupferer, Nicolas Prat, Heather F Pidcoke, Victor W Macdonald, Wilbur W Malloy, Anne Sailliol, Andrew P Cap
The early transfusion of plasma is important to ensure optimal survival of patients with traumatic hemorrhage. In military and remote or austere civilian settings, it may be impossible to move patients to hospital facilities within the first few hours of injury. A dried plasma product with reduced logistical requirements is needed to enable plasma transfusion where medically needed, instead of only where freezers and other equipment are available. First developed in the 1930s, pooled lyophilized plasma was widely used by British and American forces in WWII and the Korean War...
April 2016: Transfusion
Susan L Stramer, Guixia Yu, Ross Herron, Norma Espinoza, Gregory A Foster, Samia N Naccache, Jaye P Brodsky, Edgar Ong, Jeffrey M Linnen, Nicole Dyer, Linda M Styer, Monica M Parker, Charles Y Chiu
BACKGROUND: Blood donation screening for human immunodeficiency virus Type 2 (HIV-2) has been in place in the United States since 1992. However, only three HIV-2 antibody-positive donors have been reported to date, all detected via HIV-1 cross-reactivity. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Here we identify two additional HIV-2-positive donors by routine anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 screening, including a first-time male donor living in Georgia having recently immigrated to the United States from West Africa (from a 1998 donation) and a Taiwanese female repeat donor (nurse) living in California with no travel outside of Taiwan or apparent connections to West Africa (from a 2015 donation)...
June 2016: Transfusion
Heather A Hume, Henry Ddungu, Racheal Angom, Hannington Baluku, Henry Kajumbula, Dorothy Kyeyune-Byabazaire, Jackson Orem, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos, Aaron A R Tobian
BACKGROUND: Little data are available on bacterial contamination (BC) of platelet units or acute transfusion reactions to platelet transfusions (PTs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective, observational study evaluated the rate of BC in whole blood-derived platelet units (WB-PUs), the utility of performing Gram stains to prevent septic reactions, characteristics of patients receiving PTs, and the rate of acute reactions associated with PTs at the Uganda Cancer Institute in Kampala, Uganda...
August 2016: Transfusion
David J Roberts, Stephen Field, Meghan Delaney, Imelda Bates
A safe supply of blood and the knowledge, skill, and resources for the appropriate use of blood are essential for medical services. Many problems are faced in the development of transfusion services in low- or medium-income countries (LMICs). Unfortunately, in many countries, providing safe blood is made more difficult by a lack of blood donors and the high frequency of transfusion-transmissible infections. The problems are compounded by the frequent need for urgent life-saving transfusions. This article examines the problems in supply, safety, and use of blood and how they are being addressed in LMICs, predominantly focusing on sub-Saharan Africa...
April 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Sandy Koen, Leon Cornelius Snyman, Robert C Pattinson, Jennifer A Makin
BACKGROUND: Globally 166 000 women die annually as a result of obstetric haemorrhage. More than 50% of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Uterine atony is the commonest cause of severe postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Bleeding at or after caesarean section (CS) is responsible for >30% of maternal deaths due to obstetric haemorrhage in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVE: To compare oxytocin alone with oxytocin + ergometrine in terms of primary prophylaxis for PPH at the time of CS...
April 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Ogbodo Ekene Newton, Otue Akpevwe Oghene, Iheanyi Omezuruike Okonko
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common routes of infection and as such, co-infection is expected. Co-infection of the two viruses is of great medical importance as it determines the effect of drugs used for treatment at various stages. OBJECTIVE: This interplay between HIV and HCV sets the tone for the objective of this study which is to ascertain the seroprevalence of HCV among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli, a suburban area of Delta State, Nigeria...
September 2015: African Health Sciences
Michelle S Chevalier, Matthew Kuehnert, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Adam Bjork, John P Pitman
Blood transfusion is a life-saving medical intervention; however, challenges to the recruitment of voluntary, unpaid or otherwise nonremunerated whole blood donors and insufficient funding of national blood services and programs have created obstacles to collecting adequate supplies of safe blood in developing countries (1). Since 2004, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided approximately $437 million in bilateral financial support to strengthen national blood transfusion services in 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean* that have high prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections...
February 12, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jonas J Astrin, Fay Betsou
Biobanks have become indispensable tools for a wide array of life and environmental sciences, and biotechnology. To evaluate trends in biobanking, 20,000 bibliographic records were retrieved and analyzed between 1939 and 2014 from the Scopus database using a series of biobank-related search terms within titles and keywords. Since the 1990s, the field of biobanking has been, and still is, experiencing above-average growth in terms of publications, journals, and thematic orientations. Almost two-thirds of all indexed biobanking documents have been published in the last decade, with now >1,000 publications in 600 distinct journals per year...
February 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
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