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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703878/obstetric-hemorrhage-and-safe-blood-for-transfusion-in-ethiopia-the-challenges-of-bridging-the-gap
#1
REVIEW
Addisalem Taye Makuria, Daniel Gebremichael, Habtemariam Demoz, Azmach Hadush, Yetmgeta Abdella, Yemane Berhane, Naynesh Kamani
BACKGROUND: Obstetric hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa, and the shortage of blood for transfusion is a contributory factor. In Ethiopia, the National Blood Bank Service continues to be confronted with challenges in its efforts to ensure the availability of blood for health care facilities. This paper reviews the available data on the contribution of obstetric hemorrhage to maternal mortality and examines the current status of the blood supply in Ethiopia...
July 13, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671283/low-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-rna-in-blood-donors-with-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-reactivity-in-rwanda
#2
Theogene Twagirumugabe, Gatare Swaibu, Tomas Bergström, Timothy David Walker, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Heléne Norder
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of severe liver disease worldwide and is highly endemic in Africa, where it often has nosocomial spread. Little is known on the HCV prevalence, risk for transfusion-transmitted HCV, and circulating genotypes in Rwanda. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors from all regions of the country and genetically characterize identified HCV strains. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on anti-HCV reactivity for all 45,061 Rwandan blood donations during 2014 were compiled...
July 3, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665269/improving-the-safety-of-whole-blood-derived-transfusion-products-with-a-riboflavin-based-pathogen-reduction-technology
#3
REVIEW
Susan Yonemura, Suzann Doane, Shawn Keil, Raymond Goodrich, Heather Pidcoke, Marcia Cardoso
Worldwide safety of blood has been positively impacted by technological, economic and social improvements; nevertheless, growing socio-political changes of contemporary society together with environmental changes challenge the practice of blood transfusion with a continuous source of unforeseeable threats with the emergence and re-emergence of blood-borne pathogens. Pathogen reduction (PR) is a proactive strategy to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. PR technologies for the treatment of single plasma units and platelet concentrates are commercially available and have been successfully implemented in more than 2 dozen countries worldwide...
July 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597489/development-of-a-web-based-application-and-multicountry-analysis-framework-for-assessing-interdicted-infections-and-cost-utility-of-screening-donated-blood-for-hiv-hcv-and-hbv
#4
B Custer, M P Janssen, G Hubben, M Vermeulen, M van Hulst
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most countries test donations for HIV, HCV and HBV using serology with or without nucleic acid testing (NAT). Cost-utility analyses provide information on the relative value of different screening options. The aim of this project was to develop an open access risk assessment and cost-utility analysis web-tool for assessing HIV, HCV and HBV screening options (http://www.isbtweb.org/working-parties/transfusion-transmitted-infectious-diseases/). An analysis for six countries (Brazil, Ghana, the Netherlands, South Africa, Thailand and USA) was conducted...
June 8, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584527/efficacy-and-safety-of-manual-partial-red-cell-exchange-in-the-management-of-severe-complications-of-sickle-cell-disease-in-a-developing-country
#5
B F Faye, D Sow, M Seck, N Dieng, S A Toure, M Gadji, A B Senghor, Y B Gueye, D Sy, A Sall, T N Dieye, A O Toure, S Diop
INTRODUCTION: The realization of red cell exchange (RCE) in Africa faces the lack of blood, transfusion safety, and equipment. We evaluated its efficacy and safety in severe complications of sickle cell disease. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Manual partial RCE was performed among sickle cell patients who had severe complications. Efficacy was evaluated by clinical evolution, blood count, and electrophoresis of hemoglobin. Safety was evaluated on adverse effects, infections, and alloimmunization...
2017: Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508402/risk-factors-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-among-blood-donors-in-cameroon-evidence-for-the-design-of-an-africa-specific-donor-history-questionnaire
#6
Claude T Tagny, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Diderot Fopa, Celestin Ashu, Estel Tante, Pauline Ngo Balogog, Olivier Donfack, Dora Mbanya, Syria Laperche, Edward Murphy
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa improving the deferral of at-risk blood donors would be a cost-effective approach to reducing transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We performed a pilot case-control study to identify the risk factors for HIV infection and to develop an adapted donor history questionnaire (DHQ) for sub-Saharan Africa. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 137 HIV-positive donors (cases) and 256 HIV-negative donors (controls) and gathered risk factor data using audio computer-assisted self-interview...
August 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502333/zika-virus-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-human-disease
#7
REVIEW
Elizabeth K Nugent, Anne K Nugent, Rebecca Nugent, Kenneth Nugent
The Zika virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA arbovirus in the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. This virus was initially isolated in Africa and is transmitted to nonhuman primates and humans by mosquitoes. Initial reports describe sporadic mild viral infection with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and conjunctivitis in Africa and Asia. However, its geographic distribution has significantly increased, and it has caused large outbreaks in the Yap Islands in 2007, in French Polynesia in 2013 and in Brazil in 2015...
May 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488960/towards-pathogen-inactivation-of-red-blood-cells-and-whole-blood-targeting-viral-dna-rna-design-technologies-and-future-prospects-for-developing-countries
#8
REVIEW
Victor J Drew, Lassina Barro, Jerard Seghatchian, Thierry Burnouf
Over 110 million units of blood are collected yearly. The need for blood products is greater in developing countries, but so is the risk of contracting a transfusion-transmitted infection. Without efficient donor screening/viral testing and validated pathogen inactivation technology, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections correlates with the infection rate of the donor population. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on good manufacturing practices in an effort to ensure a strong global standard of transfusion and blood product safety...
April 13, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449225/transfusion-research-priorities-for-blood-services-in-sub-saharan-africa
#9
REVIEW
Imelda Bates, Oliver Hassall, Tonderai Mapako
Evidence to support many blood transfusion policies and practices in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is weak or lacking. SSA cannot extrapolate from wealthy countries' research findings because its environment, users and structures are very different and SSA has critical blood shortages. SSA needs to generate its own evidence but research funds are very scarce and need to be carefully targeted to match need. This study aimed to define this need by determining research priorities for blood services in SSA. Thirty-five stakeholders representing diverse blood services' interests and expertise participated in a workshop...
June 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434852/p-%C3%A2-falciparum-malaria-prevalence-among-blood-donors-in-bamako-mali
#10
B Kouriba, A B Diarra, I Douyon, D T Diabaté, F Kamissoko, H Guitteye, M Baby, M A Guindo, O K Doumbo
AIM: Malaria parasite is usually transmitted to humans by Anopheles mosquitoes but it can also be transmitted through blood transfusion. Usually malaria transmission is low in African urban settings. In West Africa where the P. falciparum is the most predominant malaria species, there are limited measures to reduce the risk of blood transfusion malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria carriage among blood donors in the National Blood Center of Bamako, capital city of Mali...
June 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369755/strengthening-medical-education-in-haematology-and-blood-transfusion-postgraduate-programmes-in-tanzania
#11
REVIEW
Julie Makani, Magdalena Lyimo, Pius Magesa, David J Roberts
Haematology and blood transfusion, as a clinical and laboratory discipline, has a far-reaching impact on healthcare both through direct patient care as well as provision of laboratory and transfusion services. Improvement of haematology and blood transfusion may therefore be significant in achieving advances in health in Africa. In 2005, Tanzania had one of the lowest distributions of doctors in the world, estimated at 2·3 doctors per 100 000 of population, with only one haematologist, a medical doctor with postgraduate medical education in haematology and blood transfusion...
June 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340908/preparing-the-united-states-for-zika-virus-pre-emptive-vector-control-and-personal-protection
#12
EDITORIAL
James H Diaz
Discovered in 1947 in a monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda, Zika virus was dismissed as a cause of a mild illness that was confined to Africa and Southeast Asia and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In 2007, Zika virus appeared outside of its endemic borders in an outbreak on the South Pacific Island of Yap. In 2013, Zika virus was associated with a major neurological complication, Guillain-Barré syndrome, in a larger outbreak in the French Polynesian Islands. From the South Pacific, Zika invaded Brazil in 2015 and caused another severe neurological complication, fetal microcephaly...
December 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316432/blood-transfusion-safety-current-status-and-challenges-in-nigeria
#13
REVIEW
John C Aneke, Chide E Okocha
The attainment of blood transfusion safety in Nigeria (and probably the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa) remains an uphill task due to a number of factors, ranging from shortage of blood, poor implementation of blood transfusion guidelines, infrastructural deficits to high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), particularly hepatitis and human immune deficiency viruses. We reviewed available data on blood transfusion practices and safety in Nigeria using the PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and African Index Medicus search engines, through a combination of word and phrases relevant to the subject...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281428/a-review-of-blood-transfusions-in-a-trauma-unit-for-young-children
#14
M Salverda, N Ketharanathan, M Van Dijk, E Beltchev, H Buys, A Numanoglu, A B Van As
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Blood transfusions play an incremental role in the acute phase, yet practice varies owing to variations in transfusion thresholds and concerns about potential complications, especially in children. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate protocol adherence to blood transfusion thresholds in paediatric trauma patients and determine the degree of blood product wastage, as defined by discarded units. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study of trauma patients (age 0 - 13 years) who received a blood transfusion in the trauma unit at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, over a 5...
February 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276593/association-between-sickle-cell-anemia-and-alpha-thalassemia-reveals-a-high-prevalence-of-the-%C3%AE-3-7-triplication-in-congolese-patients-than-in-worldwide-series
#15
Tite Minga Mikobi, Prosper Tshilobo Lukusa, Michel Ntetani Aloni, Aimé Lumaka, Pierre Zalagile Akilimali, Koenraad Devriendt, Gert Matthijs, Jean-Marie Mbuyi Muamba, Valerie Race
BACKGROUND: Information about the association with alpha thalassemia in sickle cell patients is unknown in the Democratic Republic of Congo. There is very little data on the alpha thalassemia in patients suffering from sickle cell anemia in Central Africa, and their consequences on the clinical expression of the disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 106 sickle cell patients living in the country's capital Kinshasa. The diagnosis of sickle cell anemia was confirmed with a molecular test using PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259182/an-unexpected-diagnosis-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-2-infection-in-an-overseas-visitor-a-case-report
#16
Asma Sohail, Lyndal Van Leer, Natasha Holmes
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus 2 infection is endemic in West Africa but is also found in parts of Europe, North and South America, and India where it is thought to have been introduced secondary to migration and commercial trade ties. It is less common than Human immunodeficiency virus 1, with differences in pathogenicity, lower rates of transmission, longer asymptomatic period and slower progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human immunodeficiency virus 2 is also associated with diagnostic challenges given the lack of commercially available diagnostic tests, and management challenges given intrinsic resistance to many anti-retroviral therapies...
March 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250985/factors-associated-with-growth-retardation-in-children-suffering-from-sickle-cell-anemia-first-report-from-central-africa
#17
Aimé Lukusa Kazadi, René Makuala Ngiyulu, Jean Lambert Gini-Ehungu, Jean Marie Mbuyi-Muamba, Michel Ntetani Aloni
Background. The aim of this study was to investigate and determine the risk factors associated with poor growth among SCA children. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa, the capital's country. The nutritional status was assessed using the Z scores of the anthropometric indices. Results. We gathered data on the 256 patients, 138 females (53.9%), who entered the study. The mean age at presentation was 8.4 ± 4.9 years of age. Underweight, stunting, and wasting were found, respectively, in 47...
2017: Anemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240466/liberal-transfusion-strategies-still-the-trend-in-burn-surgery
#18
N L Allorto, M D T Smith, D L Clarke
OBJECTIVE: Blood is a limited resource in middle-income countries such as South Africa. Transfusion is associated with complications and expense. We aimed to understand our transfusion practices in burn surgery as well as ascertain the opinion of a broader group of surgeons and anaesthetists regarding transfusion triggers in order to understand the rationale and bias that drives current transfusion practice in our setting. METHOD: Firstly, we investigated the current blood practices at our regional burn service through an audit of perioperative notes for all patients receiving packed cell transfusions in a 24-month period...
September 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170418/impact-of-prematurity-and-immigration-on-neonatal-screening-for-sickle-cell-disease
#19
Ernesto Cortés-Castell, Antonio Palazón-Bru, Carolina Pla, Mercedes Goicoechea, María Mercedes Rizo-Baeza, Mercedes Juste, Vicente Francisco Gil-Guillén
BACKGROUND: Others have described a relationship between hemoglobin A levels and gestational age, gender and ethnicity. However, studies are needed to determine normal cut-off points considering these factors. To address this issue we designed a study to determine the percentiles of normality of neonatal hemoglobin A levels taking these factors into account. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 16,025 samples for sickle cell disease screening in the province of Alicante, Spain, which has a high immigration rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112094/retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-a-cohort-of-neonates-at-groote-schuur-hospital-cape-town-south-africa
#20
Q Keraan, C Tinley, A Horn, T Pollock, J Steffen, Y Joolay
BACKGROUND: Severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can cause blindness. Before 2016, resource limitations precluded routine screening for ROP at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town, South Africa. Previous pilot studies at GSH found no patients with ROP requiring treatment; however, improved preterm infant survival may affect the prevalence. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and severity of ROP, describe potential risk factors, and assess the feasibility of ROP screening...
December 21, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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