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blood transfusion africa

Gregory J Kato, Frédéric B Piel, Clarice D Reid, Marilyn H Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R Smith, Julie A Panepinto, David J Weatherall, Fernando F Costa, Elliott P Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system...
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Brian Custer, Shimian Zou, Simone A Glynn, Julie Makani, Claude Tayou Tagny, Magdy El Ekiaby, Ester C Sabino, Nabajyoti Choudhury, Diana Teo, Kenrad Nelson, Emmanuel Peprah, LeShawndra Price, Michael M Engelgau
In April 2017, a workshop sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Division of Blood Diseases and Resources, and the Center for Translation Research and Implementation Science was held to discuss blood availability and transfusion safety in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The purpose of the workshop was to identify research opportunities for implementation science (IS) to improve the availability of safe blood and blood components and transfusion practices in LMICs. IS describes the late stages of the translational research spectrum and studies optimal and sustainable strategies to deliver proven-effective interventions...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
E F Klinkenberg, E M J Huis In 't Veld, P D de Wit, A van Dongen, J G Daams, W L A M de Kort, M P Fransen
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to gain more insight into, and summarise, blood donation determinants among migrants or minorities of Sub-Saharan heritage by systematically reviewing the current literature. BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africans are under-represented in the blood donor population in Western high-income countries. This causes a lack of specific blood types for transfusions and prevention of alloimmunisation among Sub-Saharan African patients. METHODS/MATERIALS: Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and BIOSIS were searched for relevant empirical studies that focused on barriers and facilitators of blood donation among Sub-Saharan Africans in Western countries until 22 June 2017...
March 1, 2018: Transfusion Medicine
Oluseyi Oniyangi, Damian H Cohall
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease, a common recessively inherited haemoglobin disorder, affects people from sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Mediterranean basin, Indian subcontinent, Caribbean and South America. It is associated with complications and a reduced life expectancy. Phytomedicines (medicine derived from plants in their original state) encompass many of the plant remedies from traditional healers which the populations most affected would encounter. Laboratory research and limited clinical trials have suggested positive effects of phytomedicines both in vivo and in vitro...
February 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Yaw Asante Awuku, Joseph Adu, Faustina Pappoe, Evans Obboh, Paul Nsiah, Daniel Amoako-Sakyi, Jacques Simpore
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus is an emerging infection in Africa with poor maternal and foetal outcomes. There is scanty data on the sero-prevalence of HEV infection among pregnant women in Ghana. This study highlighted the prevalence and risk factors associated with HEV infection among pregnant women in Cape Coast Metropolis, Central Region of Ghana. METHODS: A multicenter (3 selected sites) analytical cross sectional study involving 398 pregnant women in the Cape Coast metropolis was conducted...
2018: PloS One
Ayşe Sağmak Tartar, Ayhan Akbulut, Ömür Gökmen Sevindik, Hatice Handan Akbulut, Kutbeddin Demirdağ
In our country, within years, despite a dramatic drop in the number of patients with malaria, a dramatic increase in the number of patients with import malaria is noteworthy. A 32-year-old male patient presented with fever, shivering, malaise, and loss of appetite. He had travelled to West Africa. Laboratory findings were as follows: hemoglobin: 8.8 g/dL and anti-HIV: positive. Microscopic examinations of thin blood smears and thick blood preparations revealed widespread trophozoites. The presence of double-dotted ring forms and banana-shaped gametocytes resulted in Plasmodium falciparum malaria being diagnosed...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
M Seck, A Tall, B F Faye, D Sy Bah, Y Guéye, A Sall, A O Touré, S Diop
Blood transfusion is an essential therapeutic tool in the treatment of sickle cell disease. Its indications and modalities vary from one country to another as a function of the clinical severity of the disease and the availability of blood products. This study seeks to evaluate the frequency and modalities of blood transfusions as well as their indications in patients with sickle cell syndrome at the Dakar hematology department from 1995 through 2015. This retrospective study reviewed the records of a cohort of 1078 patients with SS, SC, Sβ0 and Sβ + thalassemia sickle cell syndromes and collected data about the type of blood products, indications, modalities, and acute transfusion complications...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
P Boma Muteb, J F J Kaluila Mamba, P Muhau Pfutila, V Bilo, J D Panda Mulefu, D A Diallo
The partial exchange transfusions necessary for management of some sickle-cell complications raise the issue of effectiveness in the context of limited resources and inadequate blood safety. This study evaluated the effectiveness, safety, and cost of partial exchange transfusions in 39 patients with sickle-cell anemia in Lubumbashi, looking at the patients' age and gender and the tolerability and direct cost of the transfusions. Excel and SPSS 18 were used for data entry and analysis. Chi2 and Fisher exact tests were used for comparisons...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Ambroise Wonkam, Khuthala Mnika, Valentina J Ngo Bitoungui, Bernard Chetcha Chemegni, Emile R Chimusa, Collet Dandara, Andre P Kengne
We aimed to investigate the clinical and genetic predictors of painful vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) in sickle cell disease (SCD) in Cameroon. Socio-demographics, clinical variables/events and haematological indices were acquired. Genotyping was performed for 40 variants in 17 pain-related genes, three fetal haemoglobin (HbF)-promoting loci, two kidney dysfunctions-related genes, and HBA1/HBA2 genes. Statistical models using regression frameworks were performed in R® . A total of 436 hydoxycarbamide- and opioid-naïve patients were studied; median age was 16 years...
January 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Ananta Shrestha, Birendra P Gupta, Thupten K Lama
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection results in nearly 20 million new infections, resulting in 70,000 deaths globally each year. Previously thought as a disease limited to developing nations with poor sanitation and hygiene, it is increasingly recognized that even the most developed nations are not spared. A clear dichotomy in epidemiology of HEV is noted between developing and industrialized nations. The HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are common in Asia and Africa and are transmitted mainly by contaminated drinking water...
January 2017: Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
A D Ware, C Jacquot, A A R Tobian, E A Gehrie, P M Ness, E M Bloch
Transfusion-transmitted infection risk remains an enduring challenge to blood safety in Africa. A high background incidence and prevalence of the major transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs), dependence on high-risk donors to meet demand, suboptimal testing and quality assurance collectively contribute to the increased risk. With few exceptions, donor testing is confined to serological evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and syphilis. Barriers to implementation of broader molecular methods include cost, limited infrastructure and lack of technical expertise...
January 2018: Vox Sanguinis
André Loua, Janaki Sonoo, Laurent Musango, Jean Baptiste Nikiema, Thomas Lapnet-Moustapha
In 2001, the WHO Office for Africa adopted a strategy for blood safety defining four targets. This paper describes the progress made by Mauritius in the implementation of this strategy. The blood safety indicators were collected and compared with the norms recommended by WHO. The country has formulated its blood policy and developed a strategic plan for its implementation since 2004. The total number of blood donations increased from 31,228 in 2002 to 43,742 in 2016, giving an annual blood collection rate evolving from 26...
2017: Journal of Blood Transfusion
Susan Munabi-Babigumira, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Atle Fretheim, Harriet Nabudere
BACKGROUND: In many low- and middle-income countries women are encouraged to give birth in clinics and hospitals so that they can receive care from skilled birth attendants. A skilled birth attendant (SBA) is a health worker such as a midwife, doctor, or nurse who is trained to manage normal pregnancy and childbirth. (S)he is also trained to identify, manage, and refer any health problems that arise for mother and baby. The skills, attitudes and behaviour of SBAs, and the extent to which they work in an enabling working environment, impact on the quality of care provided...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jamilu Abdullahi Faruk, Gboye Olufemi Ogunrinde, Aisha Indo Mamman
Background: Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites (MPs). The present study therefore aimed to document the frequency of blood transfusion-induced donor-recipient malaria parasitaemia patterns, in children receiving blood transfusion in a tertiary health-centre. Methodology: A cross-sectional, observational study involving 140 children receiving blood transfusion was carried out...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Dilip R Karnad, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Severe malaria is common in tropical countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South and Central America. It may also occur in travelers returning from endemic areas. Plasmodium falciparum accounts for most cases, although P vivax is increasingly found to cause severe malaria in Asia. Cerebral malaria is common in children in Africa, manifests as coma and seizures, and has a high morbidity and mortality. In other regions, adults may also develop cerebral malaria but neurological sequelae in survivors are rare...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Robert O Opoka, Christopher M Ndugwa, Teresa S Latham, Adam Lane, Heather A Hume, Phillip Kasirye, James S Hodges, Russell E Ware, Chandy C John
Hydroxyurea treatment is recommended for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) living in high-resource malaria-free regions, but its safety and efficacy in malaria-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where the greatest sickle cell burden exists, remain unknown. In vitro studies suggest hydroxyurea could increase malaria severity, and hydroxyurea-associated neutropenia could worsen infections. NOHARM was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial conducted in malaria-endemic Uganda, comparing hydroxyurea to placebo at 20 ± 2...
October 19, 2017: Blood
Tamir Kanias, Marion C Lanteri, Grier P Page, Yuelong Guo, Stacy M Endres, Mars Stone, Sheila Keating, Alan E Mast, Ritchard G Cable, Darrell J Triulzi, Joseph E Kiss, Edward L Murphy, Steve Kleinman, Michael P Busch, Mark T Gladwin
Genetic polymorphisms in blood donors may contribute to donor-specific differences in the survival of red blood cells (RBCs) during cold storage and after transfusion. Genetic variability is anticipated to be high in donors with racial admixture from malaria endemic regions such as Africa and Asia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that donor genetic background, reflected by sex and self-reported ethnicity, significantly modulates RBC phenotypes in storage. High throughput hemolysis assays were developed and used to evaluate stored RBC samples from 11 115 African American, Asian, white, and Hispanic blood donors from 4 geographically diverse regions in the United States...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
Fabian P Mghanga, Christopher M Genge, Leonia Yeyeye, Zainab Twalib, Wilfred Kibopile, Fredrick J Rutalemba, Tito M Shengena
Introduction Anemia is a significant public health problem among children and women globally. It is one of the most common causes of deaths among children admitted to hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa. Case fatality rates of 6 percent to 18 percent have been reported even in facilities that have blood transfusions services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnitude, severity, and morphological types of anemia among hospitalized children under five years of age in the southern part of Tanzania...
July 21, 2017: Curēus
M Govender, O Y Matsevych
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy has rapidly become a standard of care for patients requiring excision of segments 2 and 3. We present our technique of the resection. METHOD: Videos of patients having had left lateral sectionectomies were reviewed. Patients were placed in supine with reverse Trendelenburg position. Three ports were used: one 12 mm at the umbilicus for the camera, one 12 mm placed 5 cm above and to the right of the umbilicus and one 5 mm port to the left...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
Duaa W Al-Sadeq, Amin F Majdalawieh, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus with 4 main genotypes. HEV-1 and HEV-2 infect solely humans, while HEV-3 and HEV-4 infect humans and various animals such as pigs, deer, and rabbits. HEV-5 and HEV-6 infect mainly wild boar. Recently, new genotypes, known as HEV-7 and HEV-8, were found to infect camels and humans. HEV is globally distributed into different epidemiological patterns based on socioeconomic factors and ecology. Although HEV is mainly transmitted through the fecal-oral route, it was also recognized as a transfusion-transmitted virus...
September 6, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
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