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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#1
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
November 29, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901569/rare-donor-program-at-western-province-blood-transfusion-service-in-south-africa
#2
Ruwayda Soeker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871315/management-of-uterine-rupture-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Thomas Obinchemti Egbe, Gregory Edie Halle-Ekane, Charlotte Nguefack Tchente, Jacques Ernest Nyemb, Eugene Belley-Priso
BACKGROUND: Maternal morbidity and mortality has been a major World Health Organization concern over the years, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports uterine rupture with severe hypovolemic shock managed at the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon. Early clinical diagnosis is paramount to maternal survival. CASE PRESENTATION: Mrs. MM aged 25 years, G3P2012, of the Bamileke tribe in Cameroon was admitted to our Department in hypovolemic shock BP = 70/40 mmHg, pulse 120 beats per minute, with altered consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale = 13)...
November 21, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842632/a-cross-sectional-study-of-peripartum-blood-transfusion-in-the-eastern-cape-south-africa
#4
K Van den Berg, E M Bloch, A S Aku, M Mabenge, D V Creel, G J Hofmeyr, E L Murphy
BACKGROUND: Obstetric haemorrhage (OH) remains a major contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. Blood transfusion is critical in OH management; yet, data on peripartum transfusion are lacking. A pilot study reported high rates of peripartum transfusion in a sample of South African (SA) hospitals, which was independently associated with HIV status. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of peripartum transfusion in a sample of Eastern Cape, SA hospitals to evaluate generalisability of preceding study findings...
November 2, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795962/immunity-status-of-blood-donors-regarding-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-a-low-income-district-of-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-west-africa
#5
Liliane Siransy, Sery Romuald Dasse, Serge Pacôme Dou Gonat, Antoinette Legbedji, Koffi N'guessan, Patricia Ama Kouacou, Richard Yeboah, Hervé Menan
Background. Toxoplasmosis is a widespread cosmopolitan anthropozoonosis, which affects more than a third of the world population. Except the modes of transmission well known, Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted during transplantation or blood transfusion. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM Toxoplasma gondii and to estimate the potential risk by blood products. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study on the research for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM) blood donors performed by ELISA...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717603/burden-spectrum-and-impact-of-healthcare-associated-infection-at-a-south-african-children-s-hospital
#6
A Dramowski, A Whitelaw, M F Cotton
BACKGROUND: In most African countries the prevalence and effects of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are unknown. AIM: To investigate the burden, spectrum, risk factors, and impact of paediatric HCAI by prospective clinical surveillance at a South African referral hospital. METHODS: Continuous prospective clinical and laboratory HCAI surveillance using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions was conducted at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, South Africa, from May 1(st) to October 31(st) in 2014 and 2015...
December 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663172/the-contribution-of-unsafe-blood-transfusion-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-incidence-in-sub-saharan-africa-reexamination-of-the-5-to-10-convention
#7
Malika M Morar, John P Pitman, Willi McFarland, Evan M Bloch
BACKGROUND: Historical estimates have attributed 5% to 10% of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to unsafe blood transfusions. Although frequently cited, the validity of this statistic is uncertain or outdated. Recent estimates suggest blood transfusion's contribution to new HIV infections in the region may be much lower. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We searched the peer-reviewed and gray literature for quantitative estimates of the specific contribution of unsafe blood transfusion to the proportion of new HIV infections occurring in SSA...
September 23, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611471/pediatric-blood-transfusion-practices-at-a-regional-referral-hospital-in-kenya
#8
Helen M Nabwera, Greg Fegan, Jay Shavadia, Douglas Denje, Kishor Mandaliya, Imelda Bates, Kathryn Maitland, Oliver W Hassall
BACKGROUND: Severe anemia in children is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we describe clinical and operational aspects of blood transfusion in children admitted to Coast Provincial General Hospital, Kenya. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an observational study where over a 2-year period, demographic and laboratory data were collected on all children for whom the hospital blood bank received a transfusion request. Clinical data were obtained by retrospective review of case notes over the first year...
September 9, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539675/hiv-1-and-hijacking-of-the-host-immune-system-the-current-scenario
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran, Sobia Manzoor, Muhammad Saalim, Saleha Resham, Javed Ashraf, Aneela Javed, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major health burden across the world which leads to the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This review article discusses the prevalence of HIV, its major routes of transmission, natural immunity, and evasion from the host immune system. HIV is mostly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa and low income countries. It is mostly transmitted by sharing syringe needles, blood transfusion, and sexual routes. The host immune system is categorized into three main types; the innate, the adaptive, and the intrinsic immune system...
October 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476017/the-infectious-risks-in-blood-transfusion-as-of-today-a-no-black-and-white-situation
#10
Olivier Garraud, Luiz Amorim Filho, Syria Laperche, Claude Tayou-Tagny, Bruno Pozzetto
Transfusion has been tainted with the risk of contracting an infection - often severe - and fears about this risk are still prevailing, in sharp contrast with the actual risk in Western countries. Those actual risks are rather immunological, technical (overload) or metabolic. Meanwhile, in developing countries and particularly in Africa, transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) are still frequent, because of both the scarcity of volunteer blood donors and resources and the high incidence and prevalence of infections...
July 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412978/seroepidemiology-of-hiv-syphilis-and-hepatitis-b-and-c-viruses-among-blood-donors-in-bangui-central-african-republic
#11
W S Nambei, D Rawago-Mandjiza, E Gbangbangai
The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and syphilis as well the risk factors for these diseases among blood donors in Bangui, Central Africa Republic. This cross-sectional study examined samples from donors giving blood in August and September, 2013. HIV1/2 antibodies was screened with the Determine and Unigold HIV tests. Hepatitis B surface antigens were detected by sandwich immunochromatographic methods (DIAspot HBsAg test), and antibodies to HCV by the DIAspot test strip...
May 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393614/apheresis-for-collection-of-ebola-convalescent-plasma-in-liberia
#12
Jerry F Brown, Kathleen Rowe, Peter Zacharias, James van Hasselt, John M Dye, David A Wohl, William A Fischer, Coleen K Cunningham, Nathan M Thielman, David L Hoover
PURPOSE: This report describes initiation of apheresis capability in Liberia, Africa to support a clinical trial of convalescent plasma therapy for Ebola Virus Disease. METHODS: A bloodmobile was outfitted in the United States as a four-bed apheresis unit with capabilities including pathogen reduction, electronic blood establishment computer system, designated areas for donor counseling and laboratory testing, and onboard electrical power generation. After air transport to Liberia, the bloodmobile was positioned at ELWA Hospital, Monrovia, and connected to the hospital's power grid...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197689/alloimmunisation-rates-of-sickle-cell-disease-patients-in-the-united-states-differ-from-those-in-other-geographical-regions
#13
Y Zheng, R W Maitta
OBJECTIVES: Comparison of the alloimmunisation rates of patients with sickle cell disease in the Unites States versus other countries. BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients treated with chronic transfusion therapy are at a high risk of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed published literature describing alloimmunisation rates of SCD patients. Average alloimmunisation rates and number of alloantibodies per transfused patient in the United States and other countries were evaluated...
June 2016: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190318/a-novel-collaborative-community-based-hepatitis-b-screening-and-linkage-to-care-program-for-african-immigrants
#14
Hari Shankar, Demetri Blanas, Kian Bichoupan, Daouda Ndiaye, Ellie Carmody, Valerie Martel-Laferriere, Joan Culpepper-Morgan, Dougles T Dieterich, Andrea D Branch, Mulusew Bekele, Kim Nichols, Ponni V Perumalswami
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan African nations have among the highest rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide, but little is known about HBV infection in African-born persons in the United States. METHODS: From October 2011 to July 2013, community-based HBV screenings were conducted targeting persons originating from Africa in New York City. Persons were identified as currently HBV infected (HBsAg positive) or exposed (HBcAb positive). RESULTS: Overall, 955 persons were screened for HBV; the median age was 45 years (interquartile range, 35-54 years) and 75...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175508/-global-spread-of-zika-virus-epidemic-current-knowledges-and-uncertainties
#15
REVIEW
Fatih Şahiner
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Although more than 60 years have passed since the discovery and first reported human cases of the virus, only a small number (< 10) of cases had been encountered in the literature until the last 10 years. Zika virus was known as a virus which caused sporadic infections and was confined to Africa and Asia along a narrow equatorial line. In 2007, however, the first major outbreak of ZIKV occurred in Yap Island (Micronesia), and so it was reported for the first time outside of Africa and Asia...
April 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145927/toxoplasmosis-in-blood-donors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Masoud Foroutan-Rad, Hamidreza Majidiani, Sahar Dalvand, Ahmad Daryani, Wesam Kooti, Jasem Saki, Faezeh Hedayati-Rad, Ehsan Ahmadpour
Transfusion-transmissible infections include pathogens that may cause severe and debilitating diseases. Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan neglected parasitic infection that can lead to severe complications including death in immune-compromised patients or following infection in utero. Multiple studies have demonstrated the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii by blood transfusion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively assess the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma in blood donors from a worldwide perspective...
July 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27107897/a-historical-perspective-on-the-discovery-and-elucidation-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus
#17
Timothy M Block, Harvey J Alter, W Thomas London, Mike Bray
The discovery in 1965 of the "Australia antigen," subsequently identified as the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), was such a watershed event in virology that it is often thought to mark the beginning of hepatitis research, but it is more accurately seen as a critical breakthrough in a long effort to understand the pathogenesis of infectious hepatitis. A century earlier, Virchow provided an authoritative explanation of "catarrhal jaundice," which did not consider an infectious etiology, but the transmission of jaundice by human serum was clearly identified in two outbreaks in 1885, and the distinction between "infectious" and "serum" hepatitis was recognized by the early 1920s...
July 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100749/dried-plasma-state-of-the-science-and-recent-developments
#18
Anthony E Pusateri, Michael B Given, Martin A Schreiber, Philip C Spinella, Shibani Pati, Rosemary A Kozar, Abdul Khan, Joseph A Dacorta, Kevin R Kupferer, Nicolas Prat, Heather F Pidcoke, Victor W Macdonald, Wilbur W Malloy, Anne Sailliol, Andrew P Cap
The early transfusion of plasma is important to ensure optimal survival of patients with traumatic hemorrhage. In military and remote or austere civilian settings, it may be impossible to move patients to hospital facilities within the first few hours of injury. A dried plasma product with reduced logistical requirements is needed to enable plasma transfusion where medically needed, instead of only where freezers and other equipment are available. First developed in the 1930s, pooled lyophilized plasma was widely used by British and American forces in WWII and the Korean War...
April 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079968/two-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-2-cases-in-us-blood-donors-including-serologic-molecular-and-genomic-characterization-of-an-epidemiologically-unusual-case
#19
Susan L Stramer, Guixia Yu, Ross Herron, Norma Espinoza, Gregory A Foster, Samia N Naccache, Jaye P Brodsky, Edgar Ong, Jeffrey M Linnen, Nicole Dyer, Linda M Styer, Monica M Parker, Charles Y Chiu
BACKGROUND: Blood donation screening for human immunodeficiency virus Type 2 (HIV-2) has been in place in the United States since 1992. However, only three HIV-2 antibody-positive donors have been reported to date, all detected via HIV-1 cross-reactivity. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Here we identify two additional HIV-2-positive donors by routine anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 screening, including a first-time male donor living in Georgia having recently immigrated to the United States from West Africa (from a 1998 donation) and a Taiwanese female repeat donor (nurse) living in California with no travel outside of Taiwan or apparent connections to West Africa (from a 2015 donation)...
June 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079627/platelet-transfusion-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa-bacterial-contamination-recipient-characteristics-and-acute-transfusion-reactions
#20
Heather A Hume, Henry Ddungu, Racheal Angom, Hannington Baluku, Henry Kajumbula, Dorothy Kyeyune-Byabazaire, Jackson Orem, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos, Aaron A R Tobian
BACKGROUND: Little data are available on bacterial contamination (BC) of platelet units or acute transfusion reactions to platelet transfusions (PTs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective, observational study evaluated the rate of BC in whole blood-derived platelet units (WB-PUs), the utility of performing Gram stains to prevent septic reactions, characteristics of patients receiving PTs, and the rate of acute reactions associated with PTs at the Uganda Cancer Institute in Kampala, Uganda...
August 2016: Transfusion
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