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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139158/macro-anatomical-and-morphometric-studies-of-the-hindlimb-of-grasscutter-thryonomys-swinderianus-temminck-1827
#1
K T Onwuama, S A Ojo, J O Hambolu, T Dzenda, F O Zakari, S O Salami
The hindlimb of the grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck-1827) was studied using 12 adult (≥6 months) rats of either sex with the mean weights of 1.42 ± 0.20 kg and 0.82 ± 0.13 kg for buck (n = 6) and doe (n = 6), respectively (p < .05). Characteristics of the bones were studied by gross observation after their preparation. Measurements of different segments of the hindlimb were also taken, giving a total average length of 31.80 cm. Correlation coefficients between length of bone and weight of rats were positive (p < ...
November 14, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137568/first-dorsal-metatarsal-artery-perforator-flap-to-cover-great-toe-defect
#2
Roongsak Limthongthang, Perajit Eamsobhana
BACKGROUND: There were very few options available for distal foot and toe defects that required a vascularized flap for coverage. As such, the use of a free flap was often justified in this region of the foot. The use of perforator flaps has created a new subset of local tissue transfer alternatives that increases the potential that the difficulties associated with microvascular tissue transfers could be avoided. The first dorsal metatarsal artery (FDMA) perforator flap was one variant of this new type of tissue transfer...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135783/beyond-the-bottom-of-the-foot-topographic-organization-of-the-foot-dorsum-in-walking
#3
Taryn Klarner, Gregory E P Pearcey, Yao Sun, Trevor S Barss, Chelsea Kaupp, Bridget Munro, Nick Frank, E Paul Zehr
INTRODUCTION: Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. METHODS: Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking...
December 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134100/three-dimensional-innate-mobility-of-the-human-foot-bones-under-axial-loading-using-biplane-x-ray-fluoroscopy
#4
Kohta Ito, Koh Hosoda, Masahiro Shimizu, Shuhei Ikemoto, Takeo Nagura, Hiroyuki Seki, Masateru Kitashiro, Nobuaki Imanishi, Sadakazu Aiso, Masahiro Jinzaki, Naomichi Ogihara
The anatomical design of the human foot is considered to facilitate generation of bipedal walking. However, how the morphology and structure of the human foot actually contribute to generation of bipedal walking remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the three-dimensional kinematics of the foot bones under a weight-bearing condition using cadaver specimens, to characterize the innate mobility of the human foot inherently prescribed in its morphology and structure. Five cadaver feet were axially loaded up to 588 N (60 kgf), and radiographic images were captured using a biplane X-ray fluoroscopy system...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128666/comparison-of-plantar-pressure-distribution-in-cad-cam-and-prefabricated-foot-orthoses-in-patients-with-flexible-flatfeet
#5
Banafsheh Khodaei, Hassan Saeedi, Maryam Jalali, Maede Farzadi, Ehsan Norouzi
BACKGROUNDS: The effect of foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution has been proven by researchers but there are some controversies about advantages of custom-made foot orthoses to less expensive prefabricated foot orthoses. METHODS: Nineteen flatfeet adults between 18 and 45 participated in this study. CAD-CAM foot orthoses were made for these patients according to their foot scan. Prefabricated foot orthoses were prepared according to their foot size. Plantar pressure, force and contact area were measured using pedar(®)-x in-shoe system wearing shoe alone, wearing CAD-CAM foot orthoses and wearing prefabricated foot orthoses...
July 13, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126046/study-on-the-foot-shape-characteristics-of-the-elderly-in-china
#6
Xiang Dong Luo, Chao-Hua Xue, Yan Li
BACKGROUND: With aging, the feet of the elderly above 60 years old in China present degenerative changes, deformities, and diseases, which significantly affect their daily activities. OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to study the morphological characteristics of the feet and identify the foot type according to size (length and width) and defect characteristics of elderly feet in China. METHODS: A convenient sample of 1000 subjects above 60 years old was recruited mainly in the regions of Shanghai, Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, and Sichuan in China...
April 24, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126044/medial-forefoot-fillet-flap-for-primary-closure-of-transmetatarsal-amputation-a-series-of-four-cases
#7
Eliezer Sidon, Shai Shemesh, Yoav Rosenthal, Snir Heller, Steven Velkes, Alon Burg
Amputation of the forefoot is a salvage procedure for several forefoot acute or chronic infection. A good, sensate and durable skin cover is important for quicker and better rehabilitation. The use of filleted flaps (or "spare parts technique") has been published in the past as a creative technique. The purpose of this article is to introduce a reproducible, pre-planned, technique that requires less creativity for the use of the "spare parts". The authors describe a case series of 4 patients with deep infection and osteomyelitis of the forefoot, without involvement of the medial skin that underwent two staged procedure for transmetatarsal amputation with medial forefoot fillet flap...
June 29, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126041/the-effect-of-eliminating-leg-length-difference-on-plantar-foot-pressure-distribution-in-patients-wearing-forefoot-offloading-shoe
#8
Ezequiel Palmanovich, Moshe Ayalon, David Ben Sira, Meir Nyska, Iftach Hetsroni
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated heel construction offloads the forefoot after surgery. However, side-to-side height difference alters limb kinetics, whereas leg-length equalizing-sole at non-operated side may have beneficial effects on foot loading. The purpose of this study was to characterize leg-length equalizing sole effect on bilateral plantar pressures when using heel-lift forefoot-offloading shoe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty men were tested walking. Plantar peak pressures (PP) and pressure-time integrals (PTI) in the forefoot-offloading shoe and in contralateral running shoe were compared between two conditions: one with- and the other without leg-length equalizing sole elevation at the running shoe...
October 24, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126039/the-resistance-to-failure-of-spring-ligament-reconstruction
#9
Chandra Pasapula, Adam Devany, Nicole C Fischer, Coen A Wijdicks, Tim Hübner, Franziska Reifenscneider, Sajid Shariff
INTRODUCTION: The spring ligament (SL) is increasingly recognised as the major structure that fails in acquired adult flatfoot deformity (AAFD). This is the first study that demonstrates integrity of repair of the SL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six pairs of fresh frozen cadavers were setup in a standardised fashion with ankle in plantargrade (mean age 59 years, BMI 25). A 25N lateral force was applied to the medial metatarsal head using an algometer. Lateral displacement of the foot was measured with SL intact, sectioned, following FibreWire(®) repair, then Arthrex InternalBrace (IB) reconstruction, then with selective sectioning of each limb of the IB reconstruction...
June 3, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126035/histomorphological-and-biochemical-properties-of-plantar-soft-tissue-in-diabetes
#10
Yak-Nam Wang, Kara Lee, Jane B Shofer, William R Ledoux
BACKGROUND: Diabetes results in pathophysiological changes, leading to tissue that is unable to withstand and adapt to the same loads, resulting in breakdown. Certain locations are more susceptible to breakdown, yet differences between locations are largely not well understood. The authors performed a histological and biochemical analysis of isolated plantar adipose tissue at six relevant locations. METHODS: Tissue from six plantar locations (hallux, first, third and fifth metatarsal heads, lateral midfoot and calcaneus) was taken from fresh cadaveric feet of older diabetic and older non-diabetic intact donors...
June 7, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110516/minimally-invasive-distal-metatarsal-diaphyseal-osteotomy-dmdo-for-chronic-plantar-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#11
Carlo Biz, Stefano Gastaldo, Miki Dalmau-Pastor, Marco Corradin, Andrea Volpin, Pietro Ruggieri
BACKGROUND: The aims of this prospective study were first to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive distal metatarsal diaphyseal osteotomies (DMDOs) for treating a consecutive series of diabetic patients with chronic plantar diabetic foot ulcers (CPDFUs) and second to assess their clinical-functional and radiographic outcomes. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients affected by diabetes mellitus with CPDFUs, not responsive to previous nonoperative management, underwent DMDO...
November 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110501/first-metatarsal-head-osteochondral-defect-treatment-with-particulated-juvenile-cartilage-allograft-transplantation-a-case-series
#12
Bryan Van Dyke, Gregory C Berlet, Justin L Daigre, Christopher F Hyer, Terrence M Philbin
BACKGROUND: Focal damage to articular cartilage, also called an osteochondral defect (OCD), can be a cause of pain and decreased range of motion. Recent advancements have led to transplantation techniques using particulated juvenile articular cartilage allograft. This technique has been applied to the first metatarsal head to a very limited degree, with no published results to our knowledge. The aim of this study was to review the clinical results of patients who underwent particulated juvenile cartilage allograft implantation for first metatarsal head OCDs...
November 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106811/epidemiology-and-impact-on-performance-of-lower-extremity-stress-injuries-in-professional-basketball-players
#13
Moin Khan, Kim Madden, M Tyrrell Burrus, Joseph P Rogowski, Jeff Stotts, Marisa J Samani, Robby Sikka, Asheesh Bedi
BACKGROUND: Professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during both regular-season and off-season training. Little is known about the incidence of lower extremity bony stress injuries and their impact on return to play and performance in these athletes. HYPOTHESIS: Stress injuries of the lower extremity will have significant impact on performance. STUDY DESIGN: Case series...
November 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098692/ontogeny-of-hallucal-metatarsal-rigidity-and-shape-in-the-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta-and-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes
#14
Biren A Patel, Jason M Organ, Tea Jashashvili, Stephanie H Bui, Holly M Dunsworth
Life history variables including the timing of locomotor independence, along with changes in preferred locomotor behaviors and substrate use during development, influence how primates use their feet throughout ontogeny. Changes in foot function during development, in particular the nature of how the hallux is used in grasping, can lead to different structural changes in foot bones. To test this hypothesis, metatarsal midshaft rigidity [estimated from the polar second moment of area (J) scaled to bone length] and cross-sectional shape (calculated from the ratio of maximum and minimum second moments of area, Imax /Imin ) were examined in a cross-sectional ontogenetic sample of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 73) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 79)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081030/percutaneous-treatment-of-hallux-valgus-what-s-the-evidence-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
S Caravelli, M Mosca, S Massimi, G G Costa, M Lo Presti, M Fuiano, A Grassi, S Zaffagnini
Hallux and first MTP joint have a fundamental role in the transfer of the weight-bearing load during the normal ambulation. The aim of this paper is to review and analyze the available literature about the percutaneous surgical management of the hallux valgus to highlight its strengths and weakness, also comparing with other minimal invasive techniques. A systematic search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases has been performed, covering the period between 1981 and 2016. Various combinations of the keyword terms "PDO," "hallux valgus," "bunion," "percutaneous," "surgery," "non-invasive," "minimal invasive," "burr," "osteotomy," "distal," "linear," "saw" have been used...
October 28, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078317/osteocyte-calcium-signals-encode-strain-magnitude-and-loading-frequency-in-vivo
#16
Karl J Lewis, Dorra Frikha-Benayed, Joyce Louie, Samuel Stephen, David C Spray, Mia M Thi, Zeynep Seref-Ferlengez, Robert J Majeska, Sheldon Weinbaum, Mitchell B Schaffler
Osteocytes are considered to be the major mechanosensory cells of bone, but how osteocytes in vivo process, perceive, and respond to mechanical loading remains poorly understood. Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling resulting from mechanical stimulation has been widely studied in osteocytes in vitro and in bone explants, but has yet to be examined in vivo. This is achieved herein by using a three-point bending device which is capable of delivering well-defined mechanical loads to metatarsal bones of living mice while simultaneously monitoring the intracellular Ca(2+) responses of individual osteocytes by using a genetically encoded fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077489/surgical-treatment-of-zone-1-fifth-metatarsal-base-fractures-using-the-locking-compression-plate-distal-ulna-hook-plate
#17
Jingjing Zhao, Bin Yu, Ming Xie, Ruokun Huang, Kai Xiao
BACKGROUND: The distal ulna hook plate was recently introduced for the treatment of fifth metatarsal base fractures, but no special articles have reported the surgical results of the plate fixation of displaced or comminuted fifth metatarsal base fractures in zone 1, which are the most common forefoot fractures. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with Lawrence classification zone 1 fifth metatarsal base fractures with extra-articular displacement greater than 2 mm (n = 13) and intra-articular displacement fractures (n = 8) were included in the study...
September 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076363/effect-of-track-surface-firmness-on-the-development-of-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-french-trotters-during-four-months-of-harness-race-training
#18
Nathalie Crevier-Denoix, Fabrice Audigié, Anne-Laure Emond, Anne-Gaelle Dupays, Philippe Pourcelot, Loic Desquilbet, Henry Chateau, Jean-Marie Denoix
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of track surface firmness on the development of musculoskeletal injuries in French Trotters during 4 months of race training. ANIMALS 12 healthy 3-year-old French Trotters. PROCEDURES Horses were paired on the basis of sex and body mass. Horses within each pair were randomly assigned to either a hard-track or soft-track group. The counterclockwise training protocol was the same for both groups. Surface firmness of each track was monitored throughout the training period. Radiography, ultrasonography, MRI, and scintigraphy were performed on all 4 limbs of each horse before and after 2 and 4 months of training...
November 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075347/intra-observer-and-inter-observer-reliability-of-leg-circumference-measurement-among-six-observers-a-single-blinded-randomized-trial
#19
Y Bakar, Ö C Özdemir, S Sevim, E Duygu, A Tuğral, M Sürmeli
Hypothesis: Circumference measurement of extremities that was reported to be a reliable method as long as being standardized is commonly used both in clinical and home settings by clinicians or caregivers due to its cheapness and easy use. Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the inter-observer and intra-observer reliability of manual circumference measurement among different observers and various measurement points. Methods and Results: A total of 58 lower limbs were included in the study. Both lower limbs of each subject were assessed by 6 observers randomly using circumference measurement method from 9 reference points specified with a Leg-O-Meter...
July 2017: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074476/epidemiology-of-imaging-detected-bone-stress-injuries-in-athletes-participating-in-the-rio-de-janeiro-2016-summer-olympics
#20
Daichi Hayashi, Mohamed Jarraya, Lars Engebretsen, Michel D Crema, Frank W Roemer, Abdalla Skaf, Ali Guermazi
BACKGROUND: Bone stress injuries are common in high-level athletics. AIM: To describe the demographics, frequency and anatomical location of stress injuries (ie, stress reaction and stress fractures) in athletes at the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic Games. METHODS: We recorded all sports injuries at the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics reported by the National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and in the polyclinic and medical venues...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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