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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445286/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-improves-the-cognitive-function-of-elderly-patients-following-colon-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Zhenqiu He, Nan Xu, Sihua Qi
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function impairment is one of the most common complications in elderly patients after surgery, and an ideal nonpharmacological therapy has not yet been identified. Thus, we hypothesized that remote ischemic preconditioning could improve cognitive functions in elderly patients after surgery and investigated the mechanism underlying this effect. METHODS: Ninety patients classified as American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status of 2 or 3 and aged 65 to 75 years who were scheduled for elective colon surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to either a remote ischemic preconditioning group (Group R, n = 45) or a control group (Group C, n = 45)...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444637/phase-dependent-astroglial-alterations-in-li-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-young-rats
#2
Adriana Fernanda K Vizuete, Matheus Mittmann Hennemann, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Diogo Losch de Oliveira
Epilepsy prevalence is high in infancy and in the elderly population. Lithium-pilocarpine is widely used to induce experimental animal models of epilepsy, leading to similar neurochemical and morphological alterations to those observed in temporal lobe epilepsy. As astrocytes have been implicated in epileptic disorders, we hypothesized that specific astroglial changes accompany and contribute to epileptogenesis. Herein, we evaluated time-dependent astroglial alterations in the hippocampus of young (27-day-old) rats at 1, 14 and 56 days after Li-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), corresponding to different phases in this model of epilepsy...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440477/synchronized-dual-pulse-gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-gastric-emptying-and-activates-enteric-glial-cells-via-upregulation-of-gfap-and-s100b-with-different-courses-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-in-rats
#3
Nian Wang, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Previous research and clinical practice have indicated that damage to the vagal nerve may seriously affect gastrointestinal physiological movement behavior. The aim of the current study was to observe the change of gastric motility, as well as enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the stomach with different courses of vagal nerve transection in rats prior to and following synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation. The gastric emptying rates were measured to assess the gastric motility. The glial markers, containing calcium binding protein (S100B) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double‑labeling immunofluorescence analysis...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439892/cerebrospinal-fluid-cyto-chemokine-profile-during-acute-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-in-chronic-neurological-sequelae
#4
Kavitha Kothur, Deepak Gill, Melanie Wong, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Sushil Bandodkar, Susan Arbunckle, Louise Wienholt, Russell C Dale
AIM: To examine the cytokine/chemokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acute herpes simplex virus-induced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) autoimmunity and in chronic/relapsing post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) neurological syndromes. METHOD: We measured longitudinal serial CSF cyto-/chemokines (n=34) and a glial marker (calcium-binding astroglial protein, S100B) in one patient during acute HSE and subsequent anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and compared the results with those from two patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis without preceding HSE...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437891/the-therapeutic-effect-of-nano-encapsulated-and-nano-emulsion-forms-of-carvacrol-on-experimental-liver-fibrosis
#5
Jihan Hussein, Mona El-Banna, Khaled F Mahmoud, Safaa Morsy, Yasmin Abdel Latif, Dalia Medhat, Eman Refaat, Abdel Razik Farrag, Sherien M El-Daly
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiency of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol administration on liver injury in thioacetamide (TAA) treated rats. METHODS: To fulfill our target, we used sixty male albino rats classified into six groups as follow: control, nano-encapsulated carvacrol, nano-emulsion carvacrol, thioacetamide, treated nano-encapsulated carvacrol and treated nano-emulsion carvacrol groups. Blood samples were collected from all groups and the separated serum was used for analysis of the following biochemical parameters; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), S100 B protein, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and caspase-3...
April 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435992/elevated-plasma-s100b-psychotic-symptoms-and-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#6
Huiqiong Deng, Ramandeep S Kahlon, Satyajit Mohite, Pooja A Amin, Giovana Zunta-Soares, Gabriela D Colpo, Laura Stertz, Gabriel R Fries, Consuelo Walss-Bass, Jair C Soares, Olaoluwa O Okusaga
S100B is a calcium binding protein mainly produced by glial cells. Previous studies have shown elevated levels of S100B in patients with schizophrenia. We measured S100B levels in fasting plasma of 39 patients with schizophrenia and 19 adult healthy controls. We used linear regression to compare S100B between patients and controls. In patients only, we also investigated the relationship between S100B levels and psychotic symptoms (assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), and cognitive function (assessed by the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery), respectively by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficients...
April 24, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434264/exploring-effects-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-a-pig-model-of-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest
#7
Johanna Herajärvi, Tuomas Anttila, Elitsa Y Dimova, Tuomas Laukka, Mikko Myllymäki, Henri Haapanen, Benjamin A Olenchock, Hannu Tuominen, Ulla Puistola, Peeter Karihtala, Kai Kiviluoma, Peppi Koivunen, Vesa Anttila, Tatu Juvonen
OBJECTIVES: During aortic and cardiac surgery, risks for mortality and morbidity are inevitable. Surgical setups involving deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) are effective to achieve organ protection against ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to identify humoural factors mediating additive protective effects of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in a porcine model of DHCA. DESIGN: Twenty-two pigs were randomized into the RIPC group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 11)...
April 24, 2017: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426650/neural-injury-markers-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-their-relation-to-perinatal-outcomes
#8
E Mazarico, E Llurba, R Cumplido, A Valls, J C Melchor, M Iglesias, L Cabero, E Gratacós, Md Gómez Roig
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to: (1) compare the concentrations of two neural injury markers, S100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses (IUGR) and in fetuses with appropriate growth-for-gestational-age (AGA), and (2) investigate potential relationships between concentrations of these markers, Doppler abnormalities, and adverse perinatal or neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This was a case-controlled, cooperative, prospective study among Spanish Maternal and Child Health Network (Retic SAMID) hospitals...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419114/h-fabp-a-new-biomarker-to-differentiate-between-ct-positive-and-ct-negative-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Linnéa Lagerstedt, Juan José Egea-Guerrero, Alejandro Bustamante, Joan Montaner, Ana Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Amir El Rahal, Natacha Turck, Manuel Quintana, Roser García-Armengol, Carmen Melinda Prica, Elisabeth Andereggen, Lara Rinaldi, Asita Sarrafzadeh, Karl Schaller, Jean-Charles Sanchez
The majority of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) will have normal Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of 15. Furthermore, only 5%-8% of them will be CT-positive for an mTBI. Having a useful biomarker would help clinicians evaluate a patient's risk of developing intracranial lesions. The S100B protein is currently the most studied and promising biomarker for this purpose. Heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) has been highlighted in brain injury models and investigated as a biomarker for stroke and severe TBI, for example...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418321/s100a10-identified-in-a-genome-wide-gene-%C3%A3-cannabis-dependence-interaction-analysis-of-risky-sexual-behaviours
#10
Renato Polimanti, Shashwath A Meda, Godfrey D Pearlson, Hongyu Zhao, Richard Sherva, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide gene × environment interaction analysis to identify genetic variants that interact with cannabis dependence (CaD) in influencing risky sexual behaviours (RSB). METHODS: Our sample included cannabis-exposed and sexually experienced African-American and European-American participants. A DSM-IV CaD diagnosis and RSB were evaluated using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. We analyzed RSBs as a score that takes into account experiences of unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409622/the-activation-of-pka-by-the-calcium-binding-protein-s100a1-is-independent-of-cyclic-amp
#11
Zephan Melville, Erick O Hernandez-Ochoa, Stephen J P Pratt, Yewei Liu, Adam D Pierce, Paul T Wilder, Kaylin A Adipietro, Daniel H Breysse, Krisin Varney, Martin F Schneider, David J Weber
Biochemical and structural studies demonstrate that S100A1 is involved in a Ca2+-dependent interaction with the type-2α and type-2β regulatory subunits of PKA (RIIα and RIIβ) to activate holo-PKA. The interaction was specific for S100A1 since other calcium-binding proteins (i.e. S100B, calmodulin) had no effect. Likewise, a role for S100A1 in PKA-dependent signaling was established since PKA-dependent subcellular redistribution of HDAC4 was abolished in cells derived from S100A1 knockout mice. Thus, the Ca2+-dependent interaction between S100A1 and the type-2 regulatory subunits represents a novel mechanism that provides a link between Ca2+- and PKA-signaling, which is important for the regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle via HDAC4 cytosolic-nuclear trafficking...
April 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392427/immune-dysregulation-in-offspring-of-a-bipolar-parent-altered-serum-levels-of-immune-growth-factors-at-adolescent-age
#12
G Snijders, E Mesman, H de Wit, A Wijkhuijs, W A Nolen, H A Drexhage, M H J Hillegers
Immune dysregulation plays a role in the vulnerability for mood disorders. Immune growth factors, such as Stem Cell Factor (SCF), Insulin-like Growth Factor-Binding Protein-2 (IGF-BP2), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), IL-7 and sCD25 have repeatedly been reported altered in patients with mood disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of these factors in serum of adolescent bipolar offspring, who have a heightened risk for mood disorder development and to also analyze the data combined with previously published data...
April 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387891/evaluation-of-the-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-patients-with-general-anesthesia
#13
Y-L Chi, Z-S Li, C-S Lin, Q Wang, Y-K Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The present study is aimed to study the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100b proteins in the evaluation of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients with general anesthesia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 142 aged patients, who were treated with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery under general anesthesia with propofol from June 2014 to December 2015, were randomly divided into two groups. The experiment group was given scopolamine butylbromide by intramuscular injection before the operation, while the control group had no preoperative intramuscular injection...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386293/long-term-intake-of-uncaria-rhynchophylla-reduces-s100b-and-rage-protein-levels-in-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizures-rats
#14
Nou-Ying Tang, Yi-Wen Lin, Tin-Yun Ho, Chin-Yi Cheng, Chao-Hsiang Chen, Ching-Liang Hsieh
Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg, i.p.) and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its underlying mechanisms. Electroencephalogram and epileptic behaviors revealed that the KA injection induced epileptic seizures...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378467/compared-effects-on-cerebral-oxygenation-of-ephedrine-vs-phenylephrine-to-treat-hypotension-during-carotid-endarterectomy
#15
Jugurtha Aliane, Christian Dualé, Nader Guesmi, Charlotte Baud, Eugenio Rosset, Bruno Pereira, Damien Bouvier, Pierre Schoeffler
While both ephedrine and phenylephrine are currently used to treat hypotension occurring during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under general anaesthesia, phenylephrine may have deleterious effects on the cerebral watershed, due to its exclusively vasoconstrictive action. In this controlled, double-blind randomised trial, we compared the effects of ephedrine and phenylephrine administered in a standardised algorithm to treat the first hypotensive event occurring since induction of anaesthesia until carotid cross-clamping...
April 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377727/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-claudin-interactome-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-disease-phenotype-asbestos-exposure-and-cdkn2a-deletion-status
#16
Erasmia Rouka, Georgios D Vavougios, Evgeniy I Solenov, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis, Chrissi Hatzoglou, Sotirios G Zarogiannis
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive tumor primarily associated with asbestos exposure. Early detection of MPM is restricted by the long latency period until clinical presentation, the ineffectiveness of imaging techniques in early stage detection and the lack of non-invasive biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study we used transcriptome data mining in order to determine which CLAUDIN (CLDN) genes are differentially expressed in MPM as compared to controls. Using the same approach we identified the interactome of the differentially expressed CLDN genes and assessed their expression profile...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374133/post-natal-deletion-of-neuronal-camp-responsive-element-binding-creb-1-promotes-pro-inflammatory-changes-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#17
Elisa Marchese, Valentina Di Maria, Daniela Samengo, Giovambattista Pani, Fabrizio Michetti, Maria Concetta Geloso
By taking advantage of a "floxed" conditional CREB mutant mouse (CREB1loxP/loxP), in which postnatal deletion of the Creb gene in the forebrain is driven by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-α gene (Camk2a) promoter (BCKO mice), we here show that selective disruption of CREB function in adult forebrain neurons results, in adult mice, in morphological alterations at the hippocampal level, including hippocampal shrinkage, reduced somal volume of neurons, microgliosis and mild reactive astrocytosis, mainly involving the CA1 subfield...
April 4, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368280/x-ray-crystal-structure-of-human-calcium-bound-s100a1
#18
Zephan Melville, Ehson Aligholizadeh, Laura E McKnight, Dylan J Weber, Edwin Pozharski, David J Weber
S100A1 is a member of the S100 family of Ca(2+)-binding proteins and regulates several cellular processes, including those involved in Ca(2+) signaling and cardiac and skeletal muscle function. In Alzheimer's disease, brain S100A1 is overexpressed and gives rise to disease pathologies, making it a potential therapeutic target. The 2.25 Å resolution crystal structure of Ca(2+)-S100A1 is solved here and is compared with the structures of other S100 proteins, most notably S100B, which is a highly homologous S100-family member that is implicated in the progression of malignant melanoma...
April 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361971/pg2-for-patients-with-acute-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#19
Chun-Chung Chen, XianXiu Chen, Tsai-Chung Li, Hung-Lin Lin, Yen-Tze Chu, Han-Chung Lee, Yu-Kai Cheng, Der-Cherng Chen, Shiu-Chiu Tsai, Der-Yang Cho, Ching-Liang Hsieh
PG2 is an infusible polysaccharide extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, which is a Chinese herb traditionally used for stroke treatment. We investigated the effect of PG2 on patients with spontaneous acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 61 patients with acute spontaneous ICH were randomized to either the treatment group (TG, 30 patients), which received 3 doses of PG2 (500 mg, IV) per week for 2 weeks, or the control group (CG, 31 patients), which received PG2 placebo. At 84 days after PG2 administration, the percentage of patients with a good Glasgow outcome scale (GOS 4-5) score in the TG was similar to that in the CG (69...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358925/serum-s100b-a-proxy-marker-for-grey-and-white-matter-status-in-the-absence-and-presence-of-increased-risk-of-psychotic-disorder
#20
Christine van der Leeuw, Sanne Peeters, Ed Gronenschild, Stijn Michielse, Marcel Verbeek, Paul Menheere, Jim van Os, Machteld Marcelis
S100B is a protein with dose-dependent neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. Whether S100B in psychotic disorder mirrors pathophysiological mechanisms (which elicit exacerbation of disease) or compensatory action is unclear, as is its validity as a proxy marker for brain status. Insight may be gained by examining associations between serum S100B and indices of grey (cortical thickness (CT)) and white matter (fractional anisotropy (FA)), in relation to the absence or presence of (increased risk of) psychotic disorder...
2017: PloS One
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