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Mojtaba Keshavarz
OBJECTIVE: The exact pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is not yet fully understood, and there are many questions in this area which should be answered. This review aims to discuss the roles of glial cells in the pathophysiology of BD and their contribution to the mechanism of action of mood-stabilising drugs. METHODS: We critically reviewed the most recent advances regarding glial cell roles in the pathophysiology and treatment of BD and the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of these cells...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Olga Calcagnile, Anders Anell, Johan Undén
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with substantial costs due to over-triage of patients to computed tomography (CT) scanning, despite validated decision rules. Serum biomarker S100B has shown promise for safely omitting CT scans but the economic impact from clinical use has never been reported. In 2007, S100B was adapted into the existing Scandinavian management guidelines in Halmstad, Sweden, in an attempt to reduce CT scans and save costs. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients with mild TBI (GCS 14-15, loss of consciousness and/or amnesia), managed with the aid of S100B, were prospectively included in this study...
October 20, 2016: BMC Neurology
Byoung-Joon Oh, Yong-Gyun Im, Eunjung Park, Young-Gi Min, Sang-Cheon Choi
OBJECTIVE: The effect of induced hypothermia on severe acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains to be addressed further. We investigated the effect of induced hypothermia on severe acute CO poisoning. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who diagnosed as severe acute CO poisoning in emergency department and underwent induced hypothermia from May 2013 to May 2014. Hospital courses with critical medication and major laboratory results were investigated through the chart review...
June 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Joana Felix, Bruno Cassinat, Raphael Porcher, Marie-Hélène Schlageter, Eve Maubec, Cécile Pages, Barouyr Baroudjian, Laurence Homyrda, Wahid Boukouaci, Ryad Tamouza, Martine Bagot, Anne Caignard, Antoine Toubert, Céleste Lebbé, Hélène Moins-Teisserenc
Metastatic melanoma is a rapidly spreading cancer whose prognosis remains poor although important therapy advances in recent years. Ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy used in advanced melanoma, is an effective immunotherapy alone or combined with other agents but with few predictive biomarkers of response. Here, we sought to analyze the potential of S100B, MIA, soluble MICA, anti-MICA antibodies and LDH as serum biomarkers of response and survival in a cohort of 77 advanced melanoma patients subjected to ipilimumab...
October 8, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Josiane Budni, Ágatha Oliveira, Júlia M Rosa, Gianni Mancini, Leidiane Mazzardo, André R Colla, Marina C Leite, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins, Andreza F de Bem, Carlos Alberto S Gonçalves, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces motor and nonmotor dysfunctions resembling Parkinson's disease (PD); however, studies investigating the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active oxidative product of MPTP, are scarce. This study investigated the behavioral and striatal neurochemical changes (related to oxidative damage, glial markers, and neurotrophic factors) 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of MPP(+) (1.8-18 μg/mouse) in C57BL6 mice...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Benjamin Weide, Tina Schäfer, Alexander Martens, Anastasia Kuzkina, Laura Uder, Seema Noor, Claus Garbe, Patrick N Harter, Michel Mittelbronn, Jörg Wischhusen
Biomarkers are strongly needed for diagnostic surveillance of metastatic melanoma patients. Based on its known association with tumor metastasis and its ability to induce cancer cachexia we investigated serum levels of growth and differentiation factor 15 (sGDF-15) as marker for overall survival (OS). sGDF-15 was retrospectively measured by ELISA in 761 samples obtained at distinct time points during routine clinical care of stage III/IV melanoma patients. In the entire cohort sGDF-15 ≥1.5ng/mL was strongly associated with reduced OS after assessment...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Alison Halstrom, Ellen MacDonald, Claire Neil, Glenn Arendts, Daniel Fatovich, Melinda Fitzgerald
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) encompasses a broad range of injury mechanisms and severity. A detailed determination of TBI severity can be a complex challenge, with current clinical tools sometimes insufficient to tailor a clinical response to a spectrum of patient needs. Blood biomarkers of TBI may supplement clinical assessments but currently available biomarkers have limited sensitivity and specificity. While oxidative stress is known to feature in damage mechanisms following TBI, investigation of blood biomarkers of oxidative stress has been limited...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Claudia Cruz Villagrán, Jim Schumacher, Robert Donnell, Madhu S Dhar
Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to sites of experimentally created nerve injury in laboratory animals has shown promising results in restoring nerve function. This approach for nerve regeneration has not been reported in horses. In this study, we first evaluated the in vitro ability of equine bone marrow-derived MSCs (EBM-MSCs) to trans-differentiate into Schwann-like cells and subsequently tested the MSCs in vivo for their potential to regenerate a transected nerve after implantation. The EBM-MSCs from three equine donors were differentiated into SCLs for 7 days, in vitro, in the presence of specialized differentiation medium and evaluated for morphological characteristics, by using confocal microscopy, and for protein characteristics, by using selected Schwann cell markers (GFAP and S100b)...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Rameshwar K Sharma, Teresa Duda, Clint L Makino
This monograph presents a historical perspective of cornerstone developments on the biochemistry and physiology of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclases (MGCs), highlighting contributions made by the authors and their collaborators. Upon resolution of early contentious studies, cyclic GMP emerged alongside cyclic AMP, as an important intracellular second messenger for hormonal signaling. However, the two signaling pathways differ in significant ways. In the cyclic AMP pathway, hormone binding to a G protein coupled receptor leads to stimulation or inhibition of an adenylate cyclase, whereas the cyclic GMP pathway dispenses with intermediaries; hormone binds to an MGC to affect its activity...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Humberto Choi, Vikram Puvenna, Chanda Brennan, Shamseldeen Mahmoud, Xiao-Feng Wang, Michael Phillips, Damir Janigro, Peter Mazzone
BACKGROUND: S100B is an astrocytic protein that enters the blood stream when there is disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Over time, antibodies against S100B develop in the sera of patients who experience persistent or repeated BBB disruptions. We explored the use of serum S100B protein and S100B autoantibodies for the detection of brain metastasis in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: One hundred and twenty eight untreated patients with lung cancer who had brain imaging performed as part of their routine evaluation, participated...
August 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Sara J E Beishuizen, Rikie M Scholtens, Barbara C van Munster, Sophia E de Rooij
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between serum S100B levels (a marker of brain damage), delirium, and subsequent cognitive decline. DESIGN: Substudy of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Surgical, orthopedic, and trauma surgery wards of two teaching hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older (range 65-102) admitted for hip fracture surgery (N = 385). MEASUREMENTS: During hospitalization, presence of delirium was assessed daily...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
M V de Lecea, T Palomares, D Al Kassam, M Cavia, J L C Geh, P de Llano, P Muñiz, D Armesto, L Martinez-Indart, A Alonso-Varona
BACKGROUND: To date, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and S100B remain the most useful biomarkers for follow-up of melanoma patients. In recent years, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an immunosuppressive enzyme, has been proposed as a new potential tumour biomarker for melanoma. However, further studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of IDO expression as an independent prognostic factor. OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential association between serum IDO levels and melanoma stage at diagnosis and recurrence, and to compare the results to those obtained with LDH and S100B...
September 16, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Nasya M Sturdivant, Sean G Smith, Syed F Ali, Jeffrey C Wolchok, Kartik Balachandran
Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema...
2016: Scientific Reports
Narjes Hendouei, Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini, Amin Panahi, Zahra Khazaeipour, Fatemeh Barari, Adeleh Sahebnasagh, Shahram Ala
Recently, extensive efforts have been made to understand the rate of energy expenditure and the weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment, including identification of markers of obesity risk. In recent years, leptin, an adipocyte hormone, has gained significant interest in psychiatric disorders. S100B has been considered as a surrogate marker for astrocyte-specific damage in neurologic disorders. Also, S100B has been detected in adipose with concentration as high as nervous tissue as a second release source...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Eric Peter Thelin, Emma Jeppsson, Arvid Frostell, Mikael Svensson, Stefania Mondello, Bo-Michael Bellander, David W Nelson
BACKGROUND: In order to improve assessment and outcome prediction in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI), cerebral protein levels in serum have been suggested as biomarkers of injury. However, despite much investigation, biomarkers have yet to reach broad clinical utility in TBI. This study is a 9-year follow-up and clinical experience of the two most studied proteins, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100B, in a neuro-intensive care TBI population. Our aims were to investigate to what extent NSE and S100B, independently and in combination, could predict outcome, assess injury severity, and to investigate if the biomarker levels were influenced by extracranial factors...
September 8, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Dong Li, Kaihua Li, Gang Chen, Jianlong Xia, Ting Yang, Ping Cai, Chen Yao, Yongjiang Yang, Shichang Yan, Rihua Zhang, Hui Chen
S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is expressed and released by adipocytes, and is positively correlated with body mass index, however, the direct effects of S100B on adipocytes remain unclear. Bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes, which is important for bone metabolism. The current study aimed to determine the effect of S100B on adipogenesis and osteogenesis. The mouse embryo cell line C3H/10T1/2 was used to build cell models with varying levels of S100B protein expression...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Fuminori Yamaguchi, Mitsumasa Tsuchiya, Seiko Shimamoto, Tomohito Fujimoto, Hiroshi Tokumitsu, Masaaki Tokuda, Ryoji Kobayashi
Oxidative stress is the consequence of an imbalance between the production of harmful reactive oxygen species and the cellular antioxidant system for neutralization, and it activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is a serine/threonine phosphatase involved in oxidative stress responses. Previously, we reported that S100 proteins activate PP5 in a calcium-dependent manner. S100 proteins belong to a family of small EF-hand calcium-binding proteins involved in many processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Nalin Leelatian, Deon B Doxie, Allison R Greenplate, Bret C Mobley, Jonathan M Lehman, Justine Sinnaeve, Rondi M Kauffmann, Jay A Werkhaven, Akshitkumar M Mistry, Kyle D Weaver, Reid C Thompson, Pierre P Massion, Mary A Hooks, Mark C Kelley, Lola B Chambless, Rebecca A Ihrie, Jonathan M Irish
BACKGROUND: Mass cytometry measures 36 or more markers per cell and is an appealing platform for comprehensive phenotyping of cells in human tissue and tumor biopsies. While tissue disaggregation and fluorescence cytometry protocols were pioneered decades ago, it is not known whether established protocols will be effective for mass cytometry and maintain cancer and stromal cell diversity. METHODS: Tissue preparation techniques were systematically compared for gliomas and melanomas, patient derived xenografts of small cell lung cancer, and tonsil tissue as a control...
September 6, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Ping Ye, Hong Yu, Mojgan Houshmandi
BACKGROUND: Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) has been widely employed in our laboratory for structural and functional analysis of clinical dental specimens and live cell imaging of cultured oral epithelial cells. METHODS: In this vitro study, a Fluoview 1000 (Olympus) confocal system was utilised to study thick sections of carious lesions (40-100 μm) and periodontal disease tissue samples (20-40 μm) by 2D Z stacking imaging and 3-dimentional (3D) reconstruction...
2016: BMC Oral Health
Regina Biasibetti, João Paulo Almeida Dos Santos, Letícia Rodrigues, Krista Minéia Wartchow, Lucas Zingano Suardi, Patrícia Nardin, Nicholas Guerini Selistre, Dandara Vázquez, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves
The majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are sporadic and aging is the major risk factor for developing the disease, affecting more women than men. In spite of different gender prevalence, most experimental studies in animal models have been performed in male. This study investigates the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced AD model at three different times (2, 4 and 8 weeks afterwards) and in male and female rats, evaluating cognitive deficit, cholinergic neurotransmission, glucose uptake, glutathione content and specific glial markers (GFAP and S100B protein) in the hippocampus of the rat...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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