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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822941/selenium-status-during-pregnancy-influential-factors-and-effects-on-neuropsychological-development-among-spanish-infants
#1
Rubén Amorós, Mario Murcia, Ferran Ballester, Karin Broberg, Carmen Iñiguez, Marisa Rebagliato, Helena Skröder, Llúcia González, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Sabrina Llop
Selenium (Se) has been positively associated with neurodevelopment in early life. However, its margin of safety is rather narrow, and few prospective studies have evaluated its potential neurotoxic effects at intermediate levels. We aimed to explore the association between maternal Se concentrations and child neuropsychological development, including the genetic effect modification of the Se metabolizing gene INMT. Study subjects were 650 mother-child pairs from the Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2005)...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821687/mri-substrates-of-sustained-attention-system-and-cognitive-impairment-in-pediatric-ms-patients
#2
Ermelinda De Meo, Lucia Moiola, Angelo Ghezzi, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Ruggero Capra, Maria Pia Amato, Elisabetta Pagani, Agnese Fiorino, Lorena Pippolo, Maria C Pera, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: To explore the structural and functional integrity of the sustained attention system in patients with pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and its effect on cognitive impairment. METHODS: We enrolled 57 patients with pediatric MS and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Patients with >3 abnormal tests at neuropsychological evaluation were classified as cognitively impaired (CI). Sustained attention system activity was studied with fMRI during the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CCPT)...
August 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821681/when-brain-beats-behavior-neuroforecasting-crowdfunding-outcomes
#3
Alexander Genevsky, Carolyn Yoon, Brian Knutson
Although traditional economic and psychological theories imply that individual choice best scales to aggregate choice, primary components of choice reflected in neural activity may support even more generalizable forecasts. Crowdfunding represents a significant and growing platform for funding new and unique projects, causes, and products. To test whether neural activity could forecast market-level crowdfunding outcomes weeks later, 30 human subjects (14 female) decided whether to fund proposed projects described on an internet crowdfunding website while undergoing scanning with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820894/short-term-apparent-brain-tissue-changes-are-contributed-by-cerebral-blood-flow-alterations
#4
Qiu Ge, Wei Peng, Jian Zhang, Xuchu Weng, Yong Zhang, Thomas Liu, Yu-Feng Zang, Ze Wang
Structural MRI (sMRI)-identified tissue "growth" after neuropsychological training has been reported in many studies but the origins of those apparent tissue changes (ATC) still remain elusive. One possible contributor to ATC is brain perfusion since T1-weighted MRI, the tool used to identify ATC, is sensitive to perfusion-change induced tissue T1 alterations. To test the hypothetical perfusion contribution to ATC, sMRI data were acquired before and after short-term global and regional perfusion manipulations via intaking a 200 mg caffeine pill and performing a sensorimotor task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820427/a-review-of-the-neuropsychological-dimensions-of-tourette-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Simon Morand-Beaulieu, Julie B Leclerc, Philippe Valois, Marc E Lavoie, Kieron P O'Connor, Bruno Gauthier
Neurocognitive functioning in Tourette syndrome (TS) has been the subject of intensive research in the past 30 years. A variety of impairments, presumably related to frontal and frontostriatal dysfunctions, have been observed. These impairments were found in various domains, such as attention, memory, executive functions, language, motor and visuomotor functions, among others. In line with contemporary research, other neurocognitive domains have recently been explored in TS, bringing evidence of altered social reasoning, for instance...
August 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820054/qsar-modeling-of-histamine-h3r-antagonists-inverse-agonists-as-future-drugs-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
Michelle Fidelis Corrêa, João Paulo Dos Santos Fernandes
Histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is associated with several neuropsychological diseases. It is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system as presynaptic receptor, especially in regions associated with cognition and behavior, and is responsible for modulate the synthesis and release of histamine and other neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin. Therefore, H3R is an important target involved in several CNS disorders, such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819993/lactobacillus-helveticus-fermented-milk-containing-lactononadecapeptide-nippltqtpvvvppflqpe-improves-cognitive-function-in-healthy-middle-aged-adults-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Kazuhito Ohsawa, Fumiya Nakamura, Naoto Uchida, Seiichi Mizuno, Hidehiko Yokogoshi
This study aimed to determine the effects of a Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk drink containing lactononadecapeptide (NIPPLTQTPVVVPPFLQPE) on the cognitive function of healthy middle-aged adults. A randomised, double-blind controlled study was conducted in healthy participants who were randomly assigned to receive a L. helveticus-fermented milk drink (190 g/day) or the equivalent amount of a placebo drink once a day for eight weeks. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) test...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818760/slow-gait-speed-is-associated-with-executive-function-decline-in-older-people-with-mild-to-moderate-dementia-a-one-year-longitudinal-study
#8
Morag E Taylor, Danielle A Lasschuit, Stephen R Lord, Kim Delbaere, Susan E Kurrle, A Stefanie Mikolaizak, Tasha Kvelde, Jacqueline C T Close
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to document change in neuropsychological, physical and functional performance over one year and to investigate the relationship between baseline gait speed and cognitive decline in this period in older people with dementia. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-seven older people with dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination 11-23; Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised <83) residing in the community or low level care facility completed baseline neuropsychological, physical and functional assessments...
July 31, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818523/cognitive-impairments-and-subjective-cognitive-complaints-after-survival-of-cardiac-arrest-a-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-study
#9
Catherine V M Steinbusch, Caroline M van Heugten, Sascha M C Rasquin, Jeanine A Verbunt, Véronique R M Moulaert
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest can lead to hypoxic brain injury, which can affect cognitive functioning. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the course of objective and subjective cognitive functioning and their association during the first year after cardiac arrest. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective longitudinal cohort study with one year follow-up (measurements at two weeks, three months and one year). Cognitive functioning was measured with a neuropsychological test battery and subjective cognitive functioning with the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire...
August 14, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818144/refining-selection-for-elite-troops-by-predicting-military-training-outcome
#10
Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands, Sabine Kubesch, Olivier Mairesse, Guy de Schutter, Nathalie Pattyn
INTRODUCTION: Paratrooper training courses are very demanding, leading to a high number of drop-outs, despite existing selection criteria. This study investigated physiological, neuropsychological, and subjective data of completers and drop-outs during paratrooper training to identify potential predictive indices. METHODS: Tested were 24 paratrooper soldiers before (t0), after 8 wk (t1), and at the end of a 12-wk training camp (t2). There were 11 soldiers who completed the course and 13 dropped out...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818092/associations-of-thyroid-hormone-serum-levels-with-in-vivo-alzheimer-s-disease-pathologies
#11
Hyo Jung Choi, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Bo Kyung Sohn, Jun Ho Lee, Jun-Young Lee, Yu Kyung Kim, Dong Young Lee
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the relationships between thyroid hormone serum levels or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and two Alzheimer's disease (AD)-specific biomarkers, cerebral amyloid beta (Aβ) burden and glucose metabolism, in AD-signature brain regions in cognitively normal (CN) middle-aged and older individuals. METHODS: This study assessed 148 CN individuals who received comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments that included (11)C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-positron emission tomography (PET) scans, (18)F-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scans, and the quantification of serum triiodothyronine (T3), free T3, free thyroxine (fT4), and TSH levels...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817578/deliberate-self-harm-behavior-among-young-violent-offenders
#12
Natalie Laporte, Andrejs Ozolins, Sofie Westling, Åsa Westrin, Eva Billstedt, Björn Hofvander, Märta Wallinius
Deliberate self-harm behavior (DSH) can have profound effects on a person's quality of life, and challenges the health care system. Even though DSH has been associated with aggressive interpersonal behaviors, the knowledge on DSH in persons exhibiting such behaviors is scarce. This study aims to (1) specify the prevalence and character of DSH, (2) identify clinical, neurocognitive, psychosocial, and criminological characteristics associated with DSH, and (3) determine predictors of DSH among young violent offenders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817065/evaluation-and-treatment-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-the-role-of-neuropsychology
#13
REVIEW
Carolyn Prince, Maya E Bruhns
Awareness of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and persisting post-concussive syndrome (PCS) has increased substantially in the past few decades, with a corresponding increase in research on diagnosis, management, and treatment of patients with mTBI. The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current literature on behavioral assessment and management of patients presenting with mTBI/PCS, and to detail the potential role of neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists in interdisciplinary care for this population during the acute, subacute, and chronic phases of recovery...
August 17, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816636/the-distress-thermometer-predicts-subjective-but-not-objective-cognitive-complaints-six-months-after-treatment-initiation-in-cancer-patients-receiving-a-curative-cancer-treatment
#14
Michelle Lycke, Tessa Lefebvre, Lies Pottel, Hans Pottel, Lore Ketelaars, Karin Stellamans, Koen Van Eygen, Philippe Vergauwe, Patrick Werbrouck, Laurence Goethals, Patricia Schofield, Tom Boterberg, Philip R Debruyne
OBJECTIVES: Research has indicated that cancer-related cognitive impairments (CRCI) may be influenced by psychosocial factors such as distress, worry and fatigue. Therefore, we aimed to validate the distress thermometer (DT) as a screening tool to detect CRCI six months post treatment initiation in a group of general cancer patients. METHODS: Patients(18 years, n 125) with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of a solid cancer or haematological malignancy, scheduled for a curative treatment, were evaluated at baseline (T0) and six months post-treatment initiation (T1) for CRCI by a neuropsychological assessment including patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815180/assessing-cognitive-estimation-and-its-effects-on-community-integration-in-people-with-acquired-brain-injury-undergoing-rehabilitation
#15
Dónal G Fortune, Helen L Richards
The purpose of the present study was to examine the convergent and divergent validity of the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test (BCET) in individuals with ABI undergoing postacute rehabilitation and to assess the measure's ability to account for unique variance in community integration following rehabilitation. Participants with ABI referred for postacute rehabilitation (N = 201) were assessed on the BCET and a number of other neuropsychological tests that have been demonstrated to rely on aspects of executive processing (Trail-Making Test, Modified Six Elements Test, and verbal fluency measures) and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814282/alterations-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-an-fmri-study
#16
Moyi Li, Guohua Zheng, Yuhui Zheng, Zhenyu Xiong, Rui Xia, Wenji Zhou, Qin Wang, Shengxiang Liang, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen
BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by cognitive functional decline, especially in memory. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in neuroimaging studies that explore alterations between patients and normal individuals to elucidate the pathological mechanisms of different diseases. The current study was performed to investigate alterations in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in aMCI patients compared to healthy elderly controls, as well as further define the association between neurological alterations and memory function...
August 16, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813816/computational-rehabilitation-of-neglect-using-state-space-models-to-understand-the-recovery-mechanisms
#17
Giulia Sedda, Marcella Ottonello, Elena Fiabane, Caterina Pistarini, Anna Sedda, Vittorio Sanguineti
Unilateral spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome often observed in right hemisphere stroke patients. The symptoms differ from subject to subject. A few rehabilitation approaches, e.g. prism adaptation, have demonstrated some effect in reducing the symptoms, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. Recently, neural models have been proposed to qualitatively describe cortical lesions, the resulting neglect symptoms and the effects of treatment. However, these predictions are qualitative and cannot be used to compare different hypotheses or to interpret symptoms at individual subjects level...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813214/cognitive-function-in-a-randomized-trial-of-evolocumab
#18
Robert P Giugliano, François Mach, Kenton Zavitz, Christopher Kurtz, Kyungah Im, Estella Kanevsky, Jingjing Schneider, Huei Wang, Anthony Keech, Terje R Pedersen, Marc S Sabatine, Peter S Sever, Jennifer G Robinson, Narimon Honarpour, Scott M Wasserman, Brian R Ott
Background Findings from clinical trials of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have led to concern that these drugs or the low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol that result from their use are associated with cognitive deficits. Methods In a subgroup of patients from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of evolocumab added to statin therapy, we prospectively assessed cognitive function using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. The primary end point was the score on the spatial working memory strategy index of executive function (scores range from 4 to 28, with lower scores indicating a more efficient use of strategy and planning)...
August 17, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813204/prefrontal-cortex-and-neurological-impairments-of-active-thought
#19
Tim Shallice, Lisa Cipolotti
This article reviews the effects of lesions to the frontal cortex on the ability to carry out active thought, namely, to reason, think flexibly, produce strategies, and formulate and realize plans.Wediscuss how and why relevant neuropsychological studies should be carried out. The relationships between active thought and both intelligence and language are considered. The following basic processes necessary for effective active thought are reviewed: concentration, set switching, inhibiting potentiated responses, and monitoring and checking...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812221/multimodal-neuroimaging-in-schizophrenia-description-and-dissemination
#20
C J Aine, H J Bockholt, J R Bustillo, J M Cañive, A Caprihan, C Gasparovic, F M Hanlon, J M Houck, R E Jung, J Lauriello, J Liu, A R Mayer, N I Perrone-Bizzozero, S Posse, J M Stephen, J A Turner, V P Clark, Vince D Calhoun
In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e...
August 15, 2017: Neuroinformatics
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