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Laura Hokkanen, Sandra Lettner, Fernando Barbosa, Marios Constantinou, Lauren Harper, Erich Kasten, Sara Mondini, Bengt Persson, Nataliya Varako, Erik Hessen
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to analyze the current European situation of specialist education and training within clinical neuropsychology, and the legal and professional status of clinical neuropsychologists in different European countries. METHOD: An online survey was prepared in 2016 by a Task Force established by the European Federation of Psychological Associations, and representatives of 30 countries gave their responses. Response rate was 76%. RESULTS: Only three countries were reported to regulate the title of clinical neuropsychologist as well as the education and practice of clinical neuropsychologists by law...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Richard Huskey, Britney Craighead, Michael B Miller, René Weber
Cognitive control is a framework for understanding the neuropsychological processes that underlie the successful completion of everyday tasks. Only recently has research in this area investigated motivational contributions to control allocation. An important gap in our understanding is the way in which intrinsic rewards associated with a task motivate the sustained allocation of control. To address this issue, we draw on flow theory, which predicts that a balance between task difficulty and individual ability results in the highest levels of intrinsic reward...
June 19, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Paul J Moberg, Mara J Richman, David R Roalf, Chelsea L Morse, Anna C Graefe, Laura Brennan, Kayci Vickers, Wangchen Tsering, Vidyulata Kamath, Bruce I Turetsky, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a known risk factor for development of schizophrenia and is characterized by a complex neuropsychological profile. To date, a quantitative meta-analysis examining cognitive functioning in 22q11.2DS has not been conducted. A systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with 22q11.2DS with age-matched healthy typically developing and sibling comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators were analyzed...
June 19, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Antti Tolonen, Hanneke F M Rhodius-Meester, Marie Bruun, Juha Koikkalainen, Frederik Barkhof, Afina W Lemstra, Teddy Koene, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen, Tong Tong, Ricardo Guerrero, Andreas Schuh, Christian Ledig, Marta Baroni, Daniel Rueckert, Hilkka Soininen, Anne M Remes, Gunhild Waldemar, Steen G Hasselbalch, Patrizia Mecocci, Wiesje M van der Flier, Jyrki Lötjönen
Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) hold potential for the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. We developed a novel CDSS, the PredictND tool, designed for differential diagnosis of different types of dementia. It combines information obtained from multiple diagnostic tests such as neuropsychological tests, MRI and cerebrospinal fluid samples. Here we evaluated how the classifier used in it performs in differentiating between controls with subjective cognitive decline, dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Fulvia Palesi, Andrea De Rinaldis, Paolo Vitali, Gloria Castellazzi, Letizia Casiraghi, Giancarlo Germani, Sara Bernini, Nicoletta Anzalone, Matteo Cotta Ramusino, Federica M Denaro, Elena Sinforiani, Alfredo Costa, Giovanni Magenes, Egidio D'Angelo, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Giuseppe Micieli
Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) together represent the majority of dementia cases. Since their neuropsychological profiles often overlap and white matter lesions are observed in elderly subjects including AD, differentiating between VaD and AD can be difficult. Characterization of these different forms of dementia would benefit by identification of quantitative imaging biomarkers specifically sensitive to AD or VaD. Parameters of microstructural abnormalities derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been reported to be helpful in differentiating between dementias, but only few studies have used them to compare AD and VaD with a voxelwise approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Chooza Moon, Kelsey E Melah, Sterling C Johnson, Lisa C Bratzke
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sleep-disordered breathing is common in individuals with heart failure and may contribute to changes in the brain and decreased cognition. However, limited research has explored how the apnea-hypopnea index contributes to brain structure and cognition in this population. The aims of this study were to explore how the apnea-hypopnea index is associated with brain volume and cognition in heart failure patients. METHODS: Data of 28 heart failure patients (mean age = 67...
June 19, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Laura B Bragdon, Brandon E Gibb, Meredith E Coles
BACKGROUND: Investigations of neuropsychological functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have produced mixed results for deficits in executive functioning (EF), attention, and memory. One potential explanation for varied findings may relate to the heterogeneity of symptom presentations, and different clinical or neurobiological characteristics may underlie these different symptoms. METHODS: We investigated differences in neuropsychological functioning between two symptoms groups, obsessing/checking (O/C) and symmetry/ordering (S/O), based on data suggesting an association with different motivations: harm avoidance and incompleteness, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
(no author information available yet)
Parkinson\'s disease (PD) is often accompanied by significant changes in emotionality, such as apathy, anhedonia, anxiety and depression. The present review summarizes the empirical evidence, including amygdala changes and psychological changes in emotionality in people suffering with PD. Seventeen empirical full-text articles including research on both amygdala and emotionality in PD were reviewed.The changes in amygdala volumes as well as changes in binding potentials, functional connectivity, regional homogeneity and regional cerebral blood flow were found to have various impacts on emotionality in people with PD...
May 19, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Sophie Dorothee van der Linden, Margriet Maria Sitskoorn, Geert-Jan Maria Rutten, Karin Gehring
BACKGROUND: Many patients with primary brain tumors suffer from cognitive deficits, which negatively impact their quality of life. However, cognitive rehabilitation programs for these patients are scarce. We developed an iPad-based cognitive rehabilitation program for brain tumor patients, which was based on our effective face-to-face cognitive rehabilitation program. After successful completion of a feasibility study, a randomized controlled trial has been started. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of the iPad-based program on cognitive performance and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients with primary brain tumors in an early stage of the disease...
June 16, 2018: Neurosurgery
Luis D Medina, Linda Hirshberg, Michael J Taylor, Paul E Gilbert, Robert K Heaton
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome of unknown etiology that can include subjective cognitive symptoms and variable evidence of cognitive dysfunction. Rates of occurrence and severity of cognitive impairment remain unclear. Additionally, comparison of this group with other pain conditions has been limited. The current cross-sectional study sought to identify rates of clinically significant cognitive impairment in FM and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using an automated clinical rating approach...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Eitan Gur, Yael Latzer, Daniel Stein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
S Frisch
The life and works of neurologist and psychiatrist Kurt Goldstein (1878-1965) were almost forgotten for decades but have aroused increasing interest in recent years. Studies on Goldstein generally focus on his groundbreaking contributions to a holistic neurology, neuropsychology and neurorehabilitation; however, his contributions to the development of psychotherapy have received less attention. The present article reviews Goldstein's substantial input to the development of psychotherapy, and especially of humanistic psychotherapies...
June 18, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Nicola Salvadori, Mirella Russo, Leonardo Biscetti, Katia D' Andrea, Massimo Eugenio Dottorini, Lucilla Parnetti
A 68-year-old lawyer developed insidious disturbances in topographic orientation and apraxia. He underwent a geriatric evaluation, only documenting slight cognitive disturbances, and a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), showing mild right-lateralised frontoparietal hypometabolism. After 1 year, because of worsening in spatial orientation and the onset of dressing apraxia, he was referred to our memory clinic. The neuropsychological evaluation documented proeminent visuospatial, praxis deficits and dysgraphia...
June 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Caitlyn Kruiper, Birgitte Fagerlund, Mette Ø Nielsen, Signe Düring, Maria H Jensen, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Birte Y Glenthøj, Bob Oranje
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are already present in early stages of schizophrenia. P3a and P3b event-related potentials (ERPs) are believed to underlie the processes of attention and working memory (WM), yet limited research has been performed on the associations between these parameters. Therefore, we explored possible associations between P3a/b amplitudes and cognition in a large cohort of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia (AN-FES) patients and healthy controls (HC)...
June 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Elizabeth I Pierpont, Rebekah L Hudock, Allison M Foy, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Mary Ella Pierpont, Susan A Berry, Ryan Shanley, Nathan Rubin, Katherine Sommer, Christopher L Moertel
BACKGROUND: Gene mutations within the RAS-MAPK signaling cascade result in Noonan syndrome (NS), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and related disorders. Recent research has documented an increased risk for social difficulties and features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children with these conditions. Despite this emerging evidence, the neuropsychological characteristics associated with social skills deficits are not well understood, particularly for children with NS. METHODS: Parents of children with NS (n = 39), NF1 (n = 39), and unaffected siblings (n = 32) between the ages of 8 and 16 years were administered well-validated caregiver questionnaires assessing their child's social skills, language abilities, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and anxiety...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Alessio Facchin, Janet H Bultitude, Giulia Mornati, Milena Peverelli, Roberta Daini
Prism adaptation (PA) is a technique that induces a temporary change of the alignment between different reference frames. This technique has been shown to reduce many signs of unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Two procedures of prism adaptation have been used. In concurrent exposure participants can see their arm and hand during the movement trajectory, and during terminal exposure, participants can see only the most distal few centimetres. Because the two exposures elicit different proportions of visual and proprioceptive realignment, they could present different rehabilitation efficacies...
June 18, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Mandy Roheger, Elke Kalbe, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is one of the most prevalent non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), often experienced as more debilitating for patients and caregivers than motor problems. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the course of cognitive decline and the identification of valid progression markers for Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is essential. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review summarizes the current state of knowledge on cognitive decline over time by reporting effect sizes of cognitive changes in neuropsychological tests...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Catherine A Sumida, Thao T Vo, Emily J Van Etten, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Objective: Difficulties managing medications, particularly among older adults experiencing cognitive deficits, is an important contributing factor to medication nonadherence that may have significant negative financial and health outcomes. The current study examined the performance of healthy older adults' (HOA) and individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) on the medication management abilities assessment's (MMAA, a performance-based measure of medication management) original scoring criteria and derived error process measures, assessing medication overtaking and undertaking magnitude...
April 18, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Luis M Colon-Perez, Jared J Tanner, Michelle Couret, Shelby Goicochea, Thomas H Mareci, Catherine C Price
In this study, we investigate the organization of the structural connectome in cognitively well participants with Parkinson's disease (PD-Well; n = 31) and a subgroup of participants with Parkinson's disease who have amnestic disturbances (PD-MI; n = 9). We explore correlations between connectome topology and vulnerable cognitive domains in Parkinson's disease relative to non-Parkinson's disease peers (control, n = 40). Diffusion-weighted MRI data and deterministic tractography were used to generate connectomes...
2018: Network neuroscience
Georgios Nikolakaros, Timo Kurki, Janina Paju, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Risto Vataja, Tuula Ilonen
Background: Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are greatly underdiagnosed. There are very few reported cases of neuropsychologically documented non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data are scarce. Methods: We report clinical characteristics and neuropsychological as well as radiological findings from three psychiatric patients (one woman and two men) with a history of probable undiagnosed non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent chronic memory problems...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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