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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938735/the-age-of-fathers-in-the-usa-is-rising-an-analysis-of-168-867-480-births-from-1972-to-2015
#1
Yash S Khandwala, Chiyuan A Zhang, Ying Lu, Michael L Eisenberg
STUDY QUESTION: How has the mean paternal age in the USA changed over the past 4 decades? SUMMARY ANSWER: The age at which men are fathering children in the USA has been increasing over time, although it varies by race, geographic region and paternal education level. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: While the rise in mean maternal age and its implications for fertility, birth outcomes and public health have been well documented, little is known about paternal characteristics of births within the USA...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934094/estimated-changes-in-life-expectancy-and-adult-mortality-resulting-from-declining-pm2-5-exposures-in-the-contiguous-united-states-1980-2010
#2
Neal Fann, Sun-Young Kim, Casey Olives, Lianne Sheppard
BACKGROUND: PM2.5 precursor emissions have declined over the course of several decades, following the implementation of local, state, and federal air quality policies. Estimating the corresponding change in population exposure and PM2.5-attributable risk of death prior to the year 2000 is made difficult by the lack of PM2.5 monitoring data. OBJECTIVES: We used a new technique to estimate historical PM2.5 concentrations, and estimated the effects of changes in PM2...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928720/potential-risk-areas-of-aedes-albopictus-in-south-eastern-iran-a-vector-of-dengue-fever-zika-and-chikungunya
#3
Jalil Nejati, Rubén Bueno-Marí, Francisco Collantes, Ahmad A Hanafi-Bojd, Hassan Vatandoost, Zabihollah Charrahy, Seyed M Tabatabaei, Mohammad R Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Abdolghafar Hasanzehi, Mohammad R Shirzadi, Seyed H Moosa-Kazemi, Mohammad M Sedaghat
The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus. We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922383/timing-and-adequate-attendance-of-antenatal-care-visits-among-women-in-ethiopia
#4
Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Michael Ekholuenetale, Vaibhav Shah, Bernard Kadio, Ogochukwu Udenigwe
INTRODUCTION: Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia. METHODS: Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919117/global-regional-and-national-incidence-prevalence-and-years-lived-with-disability-for-328-diseases-and-injuries-for-195-countries-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#5
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. METHODS: We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914177/sedentariness-and-weight-status-related-to-ses-and-family-characteristics-in-italian-adults-exploring-geographic-variability-through-multilevel-models
#6
Domenica Matranga, Garden Tabacchi, Donatella Cangialosi
AIM: In this study, our aim was to assess the prevalence of sedentariness and overweight/obesity, two modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and to investigate the geographic variability in their association with socio-economic status (SES) and family characteristics in Italian adults. METHODS: The Multipurpose Survey on Health Conditions and the Recourse to Health Services (MSHC), 2012/2013 edition, conducted by the National Institute of Statistics was used as data source...
September 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910593/construction-of-a-north-american-cancer-survival-index-to-measure-progress-of-cancer-control-efforts
#7
Christopher J Johnson, Hannah K Weir, Angela Mariotto, Reda Wilson, Diane Nishri
INTRODUCTION: Population-based cancer survival data provide insight into the effectiveness of health care delivery. Comparing survival for all cancer sites combined is challenging, because the primary cancer site and age distribution of patients may differ among areas or change over time. Cancer survival indices (CSIs) are summary measures of survival for cancers of all sites combined and are used in England and Europe to monitor temporal trends and examine geographic differences in survival...
September 14, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895923/st-producing-e-coli-oppose-carcinogen-induced-colorectal-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#8
Peng Li, Jieru E Lin, Adam E Snook, Scott A Waldman
There is a geographic inequality in the incidence of colorectal cancer, lowest in developing countries, and greatest in developed countries. This disparity suggests an environmental contribution to cancer resistance in endemic populations. Enterotoxigenic bacteria associated with diarrheal disease are prevalent in developing countries, including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) producing heat-stable enterotoxins (STs). STs are peptides that are structurally homologous to paracrine hormones that regulate the intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) receptor...
September 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893687/genetic-analysis-of-id1-dbl2x-predicts-its-validity-as-a-vaccine-candidate-in-colombia-and-supports-at-least-two-independently-introduced-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-in-the-region
#9
J Rajwani, C M Klinger, E Arango, M I Arroyo, A Sabbagh, A Maestre, J B Dacks, S Gnidehou, S K Yanow
Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) poses a threat to both the mother and fetus, increasing the risk of severe maternal anemia, fetal growth restriction and low birth weight infants. Two vaccines are currently in development to protect women from Plasmodium falciparum in pregnancy. Both vaccine constructs target the ID1-DBL2X domain of VAR2CSA, a protein expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) that mediates parasite sequestration in the placenta. Although development of an effective vaccine may be hampered by ID1-DBL2X polymorphisms expressed by field isolates, a recent study showed that genetic variation of this domain in South American parasite populations is much lower than in other geographical locations...
September 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890356/multicenter-prevalence-of-anaphylaxis-in-clinic-based-oral-food-challenges
#10
Kwei Akuete, Danielle Guffey, Ryan B Israelsen, John M Broyles, Lori Jo Higgins, Todd D Green, David R Naimi, Andrew J MacGinnitie, Girish Vitalpur, Charles G Minard, Carla M Davis
BACKGROUND: Although previous single-center studies report the rate of anaphylaxis for oral food challenges (OFCs) as 9% to 11%, little is known regarding the epidemiology of clinical OFCs across multiple centers in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To examine the epidemiology, symptoms, and treatment of clinical low-risk OFCs in the nonresearch setting. METHODS: Data were obtained from 2008 to 2013 through a physician survey in 5 food allergy centers geographically distributed across the United States...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888127/environmental-injustice-and-sexual-minority-health-disparities-a%C3%A2-national-study-of-inequitable-health-risks-from-air-pollution-among-same-sex-partners
#11
Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Danielle X Morales
Air pollution is deleterious to human health, and numerous studies have documented racial and socioeconomic inequities in air pollution exposures. Despite the marginalized status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, no national studies have examined if they experience inequitable exposures to air pollution. This cross-sectional study investigated inequities in the exposure of same-sex partner households to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. We examined cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs across 71,207 census tracts using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data...
September 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886096/success-of-a-weight-loss-plan-for-overweight-dogs-the-results-of-an-international-weight-loss-study
#12
John Flanagan, Thomas Bissot, Marie-Anne Hours, Bernabe Moreno, Alexandre Feugier, Alexander J German
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a global concern in dogs with an increasing prevalence, and effective weight loss solutions are required that work in different geographical regions. The main objective was to conduct an international, multi-centre, weight loss trial to determine the efficacy of a dietary weight loss intervention in obese pet dogs. METHODS: A 3-month prospective observational cohort study of weight loss in 926 overweight dogs was conducted at 340 veterinary practices in 27 countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883441/spatio-temporal-patterns-of-the-international-merger-and-acquisition-network
#13
Marco Dueñas, Rossana Mastrandrea, Matteo Barigozzi, Giorgio Fagiolo
This paper analyses the world web of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) using a complex network approach. We use data of M&As to build a temporal sequence of binary and weighted-directed networks for the period 1995-2010 and 224 countries (nodes) connected according to their M&As flows (links). We study different geographical and temporal aspects of the international M&A network (IMAN), building sequences of filtered sub-networks whose links belong to specific intervals of distance or time. Given that M&As and trade are complementary ways of reaching foreign markets, we perform our analysis using statistics employed for the study of the international trade network (ITN), highlighting the similarities and differences between the ITN and the IMAN...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878935/elevated-incidence-rates-of-diabetes-in-peru-report-from-perudiab-a-national-urban-population-based-longitudinal-study
#14
Segundo Nicolas Seclen, Moises Ernesto Rosas, Arturo Jaime Arias, Cecilia Alexandra Medina
OBJECTIVE: A recent report from a non-nationally representative, geographically diverse sample in four separate communities in Peru suggests an unusually high diabetes incidence. We aimed to estimate the national diabetes incidence rate using PERUDIAB, a probabilistic, national urban population-based longitudinal study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 662 subjects without diabetes, selected by multistage, cluster, random sampling of households, representing the 24 administrative and the 3 (coast, highlands and jungle) natural regions across the country, from both sexes, aged 25+ years at baseline, enrolled in 2010-2012, were followed for 3...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877196/predicting-active-layer-soil-thickness-using-topographic-variables-at-a-small-watershed-scale
#15
Aidi Li, Xing Tan, Wei Wu, Hongbin Liu, Jie Zhu
Knowledge about the spatial distribution of active-layer (AL) soil thickness is indispensable for ecological modeling, precision agriculture, and land resource management. However, it is difficult to obtain the details on AL soil thickness by using conventional soil survey method. In this research, the objective is to investigate the possibility and accuracy of mapping the spatial distribution of AL soil thickness through random forest (RF) model by using terrain variables at a small watershed scale. A total of 1113 soil samples collected from the slope fields were randomly divided into calibration (770 soil samples) and validation (343 soil samples) sets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875229/scaling-to-the-organism-an-innovative-model-of-dynamic-exposure-hotspots-in-stream-systems
#16
Kristen M Harrigan, Paul A Moore
In flowing systems, fluctuations in the frequency, magnitude, and duration of exposure occurs due to turbulence and geomorphology, causing spatial and temporal variations in chemical exposure at the scale of the organism. Spatial models representing toxicant distribution at the appropriate scales of stream organisms are noticeably missing from the literature. To characterize the fine scale distribution of pollutants in freshwater streams at the scale of a benthic organism, nine artificial stream habitats were created (riffle, pool, run, bend, woody debris) with either sand or gravel substrate...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873434/the-latitudinal-diversity-gradient-in-south-american-mammals-revisited-using-a-regional-analysis-approach-the-importance-of-climate-at-extra-tropical-latitudes-and-history-towards-the-tropics
#17
Paula Nilda Fergnani, Adriana Ruggiero
The latitudinal diversity gradient has been considered a consequence of a shift in the impact of abiotic and biotic factors that limit species distributions from the poles to the equator, thus influencing species richness variation. It has also been considered the outcome of evolutionary processes that vary over geographical space. We used six South American mammal groups to test the association of environmental and evolutionary factors and the ecological structuring of mammal assemblages with spatial variation in taxonomic richness (TR), at a spatial resolution of 110 km x 110 km, at tropical and extra-tropical latitudes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868515/comparison-of-wildfire-smoke-estimation-methods-and-associations-with-cardiopulmonary-related-hospital-admissions
#18
Ryan W Gan, Bonne Ford, William Lassman, Gabriele Pfister, Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Emily Fischer, John Volckens, Jeffrey R Pierce, Sheryl Magzamen
Climate forecasts predict an increase in frequency and intensity of wildfires. Associations between health outcomes and population exposure to smoke from Washington 2012 wildfires were compared using surface monitors, chemical-weather models, and a novel method blending three exposure information sources. The association between smoke particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and cardiopulmonary hospital admissions occurring in Washington from 1 July to 31 October 2012 was evaluated using a time-stratified case-crossover design...
March 2017: Geohealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863871/neighborhood-built-environment-and-socio-economic-status-in-relation-to-multiple-health-outcomes-in-adolescents
#19
Javier Molina-García, Ana Queralt, Marc A Adams, Terry L Conway, James F Sallis
The study aim was to examine associations of neighborhood built environment and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES) with multiple physical activity (PA) behaviors, sedentary time, and obesity indicators among adolescents. Cross-sectional study of 325 adolescents aged 14-18years recruited from schools in Valencia, Spain. Participants' home neighborhoods were classified according to walkability and SES levels. Walkability was defined as an index of three built environment characteristics (i.e., residential density, land use mix, and street connectivity) based on geographic information system data...
August 31, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859189/trends-in-adult-cancer-related-emergency-department-utilization-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-nationwide-emergency-department-sample
#20
Donna R Rivera, Lisa Gallicchio, Jeremy Brown, Benmei Liu, Demetrios N Kyriacou, Nonniekaye Shelburne
Importance: The emergency department (ED) is used to manage cancer-related complications among the 15.5 million people living with cancer in the United States. However, ED utilization patterns by the population of US adults with cancer have not been previously evaluated or described in published literature. Objective: To estimate the proportion of US ED visits made by adults with a cancer diagnosis, understand the clinical presentation of adult patients with cancer in the ED, and examine factors related to inpatient admission within this population...
August 31, 2017: JAMA Oncology
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