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Rift valley fever

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542242/-we-do-not-bury-dead-livestock-like-human-beings-community-behaviors-and-risk-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-infection-in-baringo-county-kenya
#1
Edna N Mutua, Salome A Bukachi, Bernard K Bett, Benson A Estambale, Isaac K Nyamongo
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley Fever (RVF), is a viral zoonotic disease transmitted by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes. In Kenya, its occurrence is associated with increased rains. In Baringo County, RVF was first reported in 2006 resulting in 85 human cases and 5 human deaths, besides livestock losses and livelihood disruptions. This study sought to investigate the county's current RVF risk status. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of RVF was conducted through a mixed methods approach utilizing a questionnaire survey (n = 560) and 26 focus group discussions (n = 231)...
May 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497117/rna-interference-restricts-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-multiple-insect-systems
#2
Isabelle Dietrich, Stephanie Jansen, Gamou Fall, Stephan Lorenzen, Martin Rudolf, Katrin Huber, Anna Heitmann, Sabine Schicht, El Hadji Ndiaye, Mick Watson, Ilaria Castelli, Benjamin Brennan, Richard M Elliott, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Anna-Bella Failloux, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl, Stefanie C Becker
The emerging bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted to humans and livestock by a large number of mosquito species. RNA interference (RNAi) has been characterized as an important innate immune defense mechanism used by mosquitoes to limit replication of positive-sense RNA flaviviruses and togaviruses; however, little is known about its role against negative-strand RNA viruses such as RVFV. We show that virus-specific small RNAs are produced in infected mosquito cells, in Drosophila melanogaster cells, and, most importantly, also in RVFV vector mosquitoes...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457675/four-segmented-rift-valley-fever-virus-based-vaccines-can-be-applied-safely-in-ewes-during-pregnancy
#3
Paul J Wichgers Schreur, Lucien van Keulen, Jet Kant, Jeroen Kortekaas
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe and recurrent outbreaks on the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula and continues to expand its habitat. This mosquito-borne virus, belonging to the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae contains a tri-segmented negative-strand RNA genome. Previously, we developed four-segmented RVFV (RVFV-4s) variants by splitting the M-genome segment into two M-type segments each encoding one of the structural glycoproteins; Gn or Gc. Vaccination/challenge experiments with mice and lambs subsequently showed that RVFV-4s induces protective immunity against wild-type virus infection after a single administration...
April 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457351/rift-valley-fever
#4
REVIEW
Amy Hartman
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe veterinary disease of livestock that also causes moderate to severe illness in people. The life cycle of RVF is complex and involves mosquitoes, livestock, people, and the environment. RVF virus is transmitted from either mosquitoes or farm animals to humans, but is generally not transmitted from person to person. People can develop different diseases after infection, including febrile illness, ocular disease, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. There is a significant risk for emergence of RVF into new locations, which would affect human health and livestock industries...
June 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442428/rapamycin-modulation-of-p70-s6-kinase-signaling-inhibits-rift-valley-fever-virus-pathogenesis
#5
Todd M Bell, Virginia Espina, Svetlana Senina, Caitlin Woodson, Ashwini Brahms, Brian Carey, Shih-Chao Lin, Lindsay Lundberg, Chelsea Pinkham, Alan Baer, Claudius Mueller, Elizabeth A Chlipala, Faye Sharman, Cynthia de la Fuente, Lance Liotta, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Despite over 60 years of research on antiviral drugs, very few are FDA approved to treat acute viral infections. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), an arthropod borne virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in severe cases, currently lacks effective treatments. Existing as obligate intracellular parasites, viruses have evolved to manipulate host cell signaling pathways to meet their replication needs. Specifically, translation modulation is often necessary for viruses to establish infection in their host. Here we demonstrated phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, S6 ribosomal protein, and eIF4G following RVFV infection in vitro through western blot analysis and in a mouse model of infection through reverse phase protein microarrays (RPPA)...
April 23, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437185/absence-of-evidence-of-rift-valley-fever-infection-in-eulemur-fulvus-brown-lemur-in-mayotte-during-an-interepidemic-period
#6
Raphaëlle Métras, Laure Dommergues, Katia Ortiz, Marion Pannequin, Christian Schuler, Patrick Roux, John W Edmunds, Matt J Keeling, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah, Eric Cardinale
The potential role of Eulemur fulvus (brown lemur) in the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Mayotte, during an interepidemic period, was explored. In February and March 2016, 72 animals were blood sampled and tested for RVF. No evidence of RVF genome or antibodies was found in the samples. The role of other wild mammals on the island should, however, be further investigated.
May 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431166/landscape-genetics-of-aedes-mcintoshi-diptera-culicidae-an-important-vector-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-northeastern-kenya
#7
Lindsay P Campbell, Alana M Alexander
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne, zoonotic disease that affects humans, wild ungulates, and domesticated livestock in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Rift Valley fever virus exhibits interepizootic and epizootic phases, the latter defined by widespread virus occurrence in domesticated livestock. Kenya appears to be particularly vulnerable to epizootics, with 11 outbreaks occurring between 1951 and 2007. The mosquito species Aedes mcintoshi (subgenus Neomelaniconion) is an important primary vector for RVFV in Kenya...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427961/evidence-for-enzootic-circulation-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-among-livestock-in-cameroon
#8
M Rissmann, M Eiden, A Wade, R Poueme, S Abdoulkadiri, H Unger, U Ziegler, T Homeier, M H Groschup
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen, causing serious epidemics in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In Cameroon serological data indicate the presence of RVFV, but active circulation of RVFV, causing clinical infections has not been proven yet. For this purpose we carried out a serological and molecular study on a total of 1953 randomly selected serum samples of small ruminants and cattle, which were collected in years 2013 and 2014 in Cameroon. In a first step, sera were screened serologically using a variety of assay formats to reveal RVFV specific antibodies...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425834/rift-valley-fever-vaccines-an-overview-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-live-attenuated-mp-12-vaccine-candidate
#9
Tetsuro Ikegami
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic viral disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. High rates of abortion among infected ruminants and hemorrhagic fever in infected humans are major public health concerns. Commercially available veterinary RVF vaccines are important for preventing the spread of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in endemic countries; however, RVFV outbreaks continue to occur frequently in endemic countries in the 21st century. In the U.S., the live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine has been developed for both animal and human vaccination...
May 2, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397519/emerging-vector-borne-diseases-in-dromedaries-in-tunisia-west-nile-bluetongue-epizootic-haemorrhagic-disease-and-rift-valley-fever
#10
Thameur B Hassine, Jihane Amdouni, Federica Monaco, Giovanni Savini, Soufien Sghaier, Imed B Selimen, Walid Chandoul, Khaled B Hamida, Salah Hammami
A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4...
March 31, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387600/serological-evidence-for-the-circulation-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-domestic-small-ruminants-in-southern-gabon
#11
Gael Darren Maganga, Andre Lea Abessolo Ndong, Clency Sylde Mikala Okouyi, Sheila Makiala Mandanda, Nadine N'Dilimabaka, Anais Pinto, Ernest Agossou, Brieuc Cossic, Jean-Paul Akue, Eric Maurice Leroy
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease, which caused several epidemics in humans in many countries of Africa. Using an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time reverse transcription PCR, and nested one-step reverse transcription PCR, we conducted a cross-sectional study in populations of sheep and goats from the Mongo County in 2014 to determine the circulation of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in small ruminants from this area. From a total of 201 small ruminants (95 sheep and 106 goats), the overall IgG seroprevalence against the RVFV was 6...
April 7, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386524/surveillance-of-arthropod-borne-viruses-and-their-vectors-in-the-mediterranean-and-black-sea-regions-within-the-medilabsecure-network
#12
REVIEW
Anna-Bella Failloux, Ali Bouattour, Chafika Faraj, Filiz Gunay, Nabil Haddad, Zoubir Harrat, Elizabeta Jancheska, Khalil Kanani, Mohamed Amin Kenawy, Majlinda Kota, Igor Pajovic, Lusine Paronyan, Dusan Petric, Mhammed Sarih, Samir Sawalha, Taher Shaibi, Kurtesh Sherifi, Tatiana Sulesco, Enkelejda Velo, Lobna Gaayeb, Kathleen Victoir, Vincent Robert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arboviruses, viruses transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and fleas are a significant threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. The geographical distribution of mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile (WN), Rift Valley fever (RVF), Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika has expanded over the last decades. Countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions are not spared. Outbreaks of WN are repeatedly reported in the Mediterranean basin...
2017: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381251/seroprevalence-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-livestock-during-inter-epidemic-period-in-egypt-2014-15
#13
Claudia Mroz, Mayada Gwida, Maged El-Ashker, Mohamed El-Diasty, Mohamed El-Beskawy, Ute Ziegler, Martin Eiden, Martin H Groschup
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) caused several outbreaks throughout the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula posing significant threat to human and animal health. In Egypt the first and most important Rift Valley fever epidemic occurred during 1977/78 with a multitude of infected humans and huge economic losses in livestock. After this major outbreak, RVF epidemics re-occurred in irregular intervals between 1993 and 2003. Seroprevalence of anti-RVFV antibodies in livestock during inter-epidemic periods can be used for supporting the evaluation of the present risk exposure for animal and public health...
April 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359234/identification-of-novel-5-6-dimethoxyindan-1-one-derivatives-as-antiviral-agents
#14
Siddappa A Patil, Vikrant Patil, Renukadevi Patil, Kenneth Beaman, Shivaputra A Patil
BACKGROUND: Discovery of novel antiviral agents is essential because viral infection continues to threaten human life globally. Various heterocyclic small molecules have been developed as antiviral agents. The 5,6-dimethoxy indan-1-one nucleus is of considerable interest as this ring is the key constituent in a range of bioactive compounds, both naturally occurring and synthetic, and often of considerable complexity. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this research was to discover and develop small molecule heterocycles as broad-spectrum of antiviral agents...
March 29, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281877/comprehensive-analysis-of-interaction-networks-of-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-with-multiple-bioinformatic-approaches-deep-mining-the-potential-functions-of-telomere-and-telomerase
#15
Chunyu Hou, Fei Wang, Xuewen Liu, Guangming Chang, Feng Wang, Xin Geng
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the protein component of telomerase complex. Evidence has accumulated showing that the nontelomeric functions of TERT are independent of telomere elongation. However, the mechanisms governing the interaction between TERT and its target genes are not revealed clear. The biological functions of TERT are not fully elucidated and have thus far been underestimated. To further explore these functions, we investigated TERT interaction networks using multiple bioinformatic databases, including BioGRID, STRING, DAVID, GeneCards, GeneMANIA, PANTHER, miRWalk, mirTarBase, miRNet, miRDB, and TargetScan...
April 21, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273071/ethnic-groups-knowledge-attitude-and-practices-and-rift-valley-fever-exposure-in-isiolo-county-of-kenya
#16
Hippolyte Affognon, Peter Mburu, Osama Ahmed Hassan, Sarah Kingori, Clas Ahlm, Rosemary Sang, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, affecting humans and livestock. For spread of infectious diseases, including RVF, knowledge, attitude and practices play an important role, and the understanding of the influence of behavior is crucial to improve prevention and control efforts. The objective of the study was to assess RVF exposure, in a multiethnic region in Kenya known to experience RVF outbreaks, from the behavior perspective...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240033/seroprevalence-of-rift-valley-fever-in-cattle-along-the-akagera-nyabarongo-rivers-rwanda
#17
Thérèse Umuhoza, Dirk Berkvens, Isidore Gafarasi, Joseph Rukelibuga, Borden Mushonga, Savino Biryomumaisho
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is caused by a zoonotic arbovirus that is endemic to eastern and southern Africa. It has also been reported in West and North Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes, but people can also become infected while handling blood or other body fluids of animals and humans with RVF. In 2007, there was a large outbreak of RVF in Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan and Somalia. Outbreaks were also reported in South Africa in 2008-2011. The epidemiology of RVF and factors for disease occurrence in Rwanda are neither clear nor documented...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212379/distribution-and-abundance-of-key-vectors-of-rift-valley-fever-and-other-arboviruses-in-two-ecologically-distinct-counties-in-kenya
#18
Rosemary Sang, Samwel Arum, Edith Chepkorir, Gladys Mosomtai, Caroline Tigoi, Faith Sigei, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Tobias Landmann, Hippolyte Affognon, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207905/the-one-health-approach-to-identify-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-that-affect-community-involvement-in-the-control-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks
#19
Osama Ahmed Hassan, Hippolyte Affognon, Joacim Rocklöv, Peter Mburu, Rosemary Sang, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202077/repellent-effects-of-the-essential-oils-of-cymbopogon-citratus-and-tagetes-minuta-on-the-sandfly-phlebotomus-duboscqi
#20
Albert Kimutai, Moses Ngeiywa, Margaret Mulaa, Peter G N Njagi, Johnstone Ingonga, Lydia B Nyamwamu, Cyprian Ombati, Philip Ngumbi
BACKGROUND: The sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi is a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) that is an important public health problem in Eastern Africa. Repellents have been used for protection of humans against vectors of ZCL and other vectors that transmit killer diseases including malaria, Rift Valley fever, dengue, and yellow fever. The repellent effects of different doses of the essential oils from the lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus and Mexican marigold, Tagetes minuta were evaluated in a two-chamber bioassay against 3- to 7-day-old unfed females of P...
February 15, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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