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Rift valley fever

Cynthia de la Fuente, Chelsea Pinkham, Deemah Dabbagh, Brett Beitzel, Aura Garrison, Gustavo Palacios, Kimberley Alex Hodge, Emanuel F Petricoin, Connie Schmaljohn, Catherine E Campbell, Aarthi Narayanan, Kylene Kehn-Hall
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191983.].
2018: PloS One
Maria Grazia Dente, Flavia Riccardo, Gloria Nacca, Alessia Ranghiasci, Camille Escadafal, Lobna Gaayeb, Miguel Angel Jiménez-Clavero, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Marie Picard, Jovita Fernández-Pinero, Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Vincent Robert, Kathleen Victoir, Silvia Declich
In the context of One Health, there is presently an effort to integrate surveillance of human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors. This aims to strengthen the prevention of, and preparedness against, arbovirus infections, also in the light of environmental and climate changes that could increase the risk of transmission. However, criteria to define integrated surveillance, and to compare different systems, still need to be identified and tested. We conducted a scoping review to identify and examine surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV), chikungunya virus (CHKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which involve human, animal, entomological, and environmental sectors...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gaby E R Monteiro, Petrus Jansen Van Vanuren, Paul J Wichgers Schreur, Lieza Odendaal, Sarah J Clift, Jeroen Kortekaas, Janusz T Paweska
The NSs protein encoded by the S segment of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is the major virulence factor, counteracting the host innate antiviral defence. It contains five highly conserved cysteine residues at positions 39, 40, 149, 178 and 194, which are thought to stabilize the tertiary and quaternary structure of the protein. Here, we report significant differences between clinical, virological, histopathological and host gene responses in BALB/c mice infected with wild-type RVFV (wtRVFV) or a genetic mutant having a double cysteine-to-serine substitution at residues 39 and 40 of the NSs protein (RVFV-C39S/C40S)...
March 9, 2018: Virus Research
Baptiste Dungu, Baratang A Lubisi, Tetsuro Ikegami
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne bunyaviral disease associated with high abortion rates, neonatal deaths, and fetal malformations in ruminants, and mild to severe disease in humans. Outbreaks of RVF cause huge economic losses and public health impacts in endemic countries in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A proper vaccination strategy is important for preventing or minimizing outbreaks. Vaccination against RVF is not practiced in many countries, however, due to absence or irregular occurrences of outbreaks, despite serological evidence of RVF viral activity...
March 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Rebekah C Kading, Robert M Kityo, Eric C Mossel, Erin M Borland, Teddie Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Jeremy P Ledermann, Nicholas A Panella, Amy T Gilbert, Mary B Crabtree, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Jonathan S Towner, Brian R Amman, Tara K Sealy, Stuart T Nichol, Ann M Powers, Julius J Lutwama, Barry R Miller
Introduction: A number of arboviruses have previously been isolated from naturally-infected East African bats, however the role of bats in arbovirus maintenance is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure history of Ugandan bats to a panel of arboviruses. Materials and methods: Insectivorous and fruit bats were captured from multiple locations throughout Uganda during 2009 and 2011-2013. All serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), Zika virus (ZIKV), Babanki virus (BBKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Annabelle de St Maurice, Luke Nyakarahuka, Lawrence Purpura, Elizabeth Ervin, Alex Tumusiime, Stephen Balinandi, Jackson Kyondo, Sophia Mulei, Patrick Tusiime, Craig Manning, Pierre E Rollin, Barbara Knust, Trevor Shoemaker
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF) is a zoonotic virus in the Phenuiviridae family. RVF outbreaks can cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Following the diagnosis of two RVF cases in March 2016 in southern Kabale district, Uganda, we conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) survey to identify knowledge gaps and at-risk behaviors related to RVF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multidisciplinary team interviewed 657 community members, including abattoir workers, in and around Kabale District, Uganda...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Emna Ayari-Fakhfakh, Abdeljelil Ghram, Emmanuel Albina, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah
The mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe diseases in domesticated animals including cattle, sheep, camels and goats. Capripoxviruses (CPV) are suitable vectors for multivalent vaccine development. A recombinant rKS1-based CPV expressing the gene encoding the viral glycoprotein Gn of RVFV has been shown to induce protection in mice and sheep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity induced by this candidate vaccine in goats, and the level of cytokines produced by RVFV-specific Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Gema Lorenzo, Elena López-Gil, Javier Ortego, Alejandro Brun
The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA and MVA vaccines encoding the RVFV glycoproteins Gn and Gc in an ovine model of RVFV infection. Adult sheep of both sexes were challenged 12 weeks after the last immunization and clinical, virological, biochemical and immunological consequences, were analyzed. Strategies based on immunization with homologous DNA or heterologous DNA/MVA prime-boost were able to induce a rapid in vitro neutralizing antibody response as well as IFNγ production after in vitro virus specific re-stimulation...
February 21, 2018: Veterinary Research
Robert F Brand, Melinda K Rostal, Alan Kemp, Assaf Anyamba, Herman Zwiegers, Cornelius W Van Huyssteen, William B Karesh, Janusz T Paweska
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in Africa and parts of the Middle East. It is an emerging zoonotic disease threat to veterinary and public health. Outbreaks of the disease have severe socio-economic impacts. RVF virus emergence is closely associated with specific endorheic wetlands that are utilized by the virus' mosquito vectors. Limited botanical vegetation surveys had been published with regard to RVF virus (RVFV) ecology. We report on a phytosociological classification, analysis and description of wetland vegetation and related abiotic parameters to elucidate factors possibly associated with the 2010-2011 RVFV disease outbreak in South Africa...
2018: PloS One
Vincent O Nyasembe, David P Tchouassi, Christian W W Pirk, Catherine L Sole, Baldwyn Torto
The global spread of vector-borne diseases remains a worrying public health threat, raising the need for development of new combat strategies for vector control. Knowledge of vector ecology can be exploited in this regard, including plant feeding; a critical resource that mosquitoes of both sexes rely on for survival and other metabolic processes. However, the identity of plant species mosquitoes feed on in nature remains largely unknown. By testing the hypothesis about selectivity in plant feeding, we employed a DNA-based approach targeting trnH-psbA and matK genes and identified host plants of field-collected Afro-tropical mosquito vectors of dengue, Rift Valley fever and malaria being among the most important mosquito-borne diseases in East Africa...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shahin Fakour, Salahedin Naserabadi, Elham Ahmadi
Background & objectives: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic vector-borne disease that primarily affects domestic animals but can also infect humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against RVF virus (RVFV) in ruminants, viz. cattle, sheep, and goats in Kurdistan Province of western Iran. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 288 ruminants (118 cattle, 142 sheep and 28 goats) of both sexes, under age groups ≤1, 1-3, 3-5 and ≥5 yr, from January 2016 to December 2016...
October 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Cynthia de la Fuente, Chelsea Pinkham, Deemah Dabbagh, Brett Beitzel, Aura Garrison, Gustavo Palacios, Kimberley Alex Hodge, Emanuel F Petricoin, Connie Schmaljohn, Catherine E Campbell, Aarthi Narayanan, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infects both ruminants and humans leading to a wide variance of pathologies dependent on host background and age. Utilizing a targeted reverse phase protein array (RPPA) to define changes in signaling cascades after in vitro infection of human cells with virulent and attenuated RVFV strains, we observed high phosphorylation of Smad transcription factors. This evolutionarily conserved family is phosphorylated by and transduces the activation of TGF-β superfamily receptors. Moreover, we observed that phosphorylation of Smad proteins required active RVFV replication and loss of NSs impaired this activation, further corroborating the RPPA results...
2018: PloS One
Glady Hazitha Samuel, Zach N Adelman, Kevin M Myles
More than 100 pathogens, spanning multiple virus families, broadly termed 'arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses)' have been associated with human and/or animal diseases. These viruses persist in nature through transmission cycles that involve alternating replication in susceptible vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Collectively, these viruses are among the greatest burdens to global health, due to their widespread prevalence, and the severe morbidity and mortality they cause in human and animal hosts. Specific examples of mosquito-borne pathogens include Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV 1-4), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV)...
January 29, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Mohamed A Kenawy, Yousrya M Abdel-Hamid, John C Beier
This article reviews and discusses the historical and recent status of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Egypt and the other African countries based on the available and scattered reports. The recent outbreaks in African countries were reviewed and mapped out. Four major epidemics have been recorded in Egypt (1977, 1978, 1993 and 2003). The outbreak resulted in unpredicted human disease with severe clinical manifestations and heavy mortality as well as many abortions and deaths in sheep, goats, cattle, water buffalo and camels...
January 31, 2018: Acta Tropica
Md Koushikul Islam, Mårten Strand, Michael Saleeb, Richard Svensson, Pawel Baranczewski, Per Artursson, Göran Wadell, Clas Ahlm, Mikael Elofsson, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne hemorrhagic fever virus affecting both humans and animals with severe morbidity and mortality and is classified as a potential bioterror agent due to the possible aerosol transmission. At present there is no human vaccine or antiviral therapy available. Thus, there is a great need to develop new antivirals for treatment of RVFV infections. Benzavir-2 was previously identified as potent inhibitor of human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and type 2. Here we assess the anti-RVFV activity of benzavir-2 together with four structural analogs and determine pre-clinical pharmacokinetic parameters of benzavir-2...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
T N J J Nepomichene, F N Raharimalala, S F Andriamandimby, J-P Ravalohery, A-B Failloux, J-M Heraud, S Boyer
Culex antennatus (Diptera: Culicidae), Anopheles coustani (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis were found to be infected with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) during an epidemic that occurred in 2008 and 2009 in Madagascar. To understand the roles played by Cx. antennatus and An. coustani in virus maintenance and transmission, RVFV vector competence was assessed in each species. Mosquito body parts and saliva of mosquitoes that fed on RVFV-infected blood were tested for RVFV using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays...
January 31, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Steinar Halldorsson, Sai Li, Mengqiu Li, Karl Harlos, Thomas A Bowden, Juha T Huiskonen
Entry of enveloped viruses relies on insertion of hydrophobic residues of the viral fusion protein into the host cell membrane. However, the intermediate conformations during fusion remain unknown. Here, we address the fusion mechanism of Rift Valley fever virus. We determine the crystal structure of the Gn glycoprotein and fit it with the Gc fusion protein into cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the virion. Our analysis reveals how the Gn shields the hydrophobic fusion loops of the Gc, preventing premature fusion...
January 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Sonu Subudhi, Martin Dakouo, Angela Sloan, Derek R Stein, Allen Grolla, Shane Jones, Antonia Dibernardo, Kyle Rosenke, Miriam Sas, Abdalah Traore, Robbin Lindsay, Martin H Groschup, Vikram Misra, Heinz Feldmann, Nafomon Sogoba, David Safronetz, Mamadou Niang
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) outbreaks have considerable impact on human and animal health. Here, we are reporting a serosurvey of cattle from all regions of Mali. These demonstrated that few had been exposed to RVFV from 2005 to 2014. Recent outbreaks of RVF in Niger and a single human case in Mali provide justification for further entomological and ecological studies of this virus.
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Fatim-Zohra Tmimi, Chafika Faraj, Meriem Bkhache, Khadija Mounaji, Anna-Bella Failloux, M'hammed Sarih
BACKGROUND: Control of the mosquito vector Culex pipiens with insecticides is the main way to control arboviruses that the species can transmit such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). However, its efficiency has been hampered by the emergence of insecticide resistance. Little is known about the insecticide-resistance status and underlying resistance mechanisms of field-collected populations of Cx. pipiens in Morocco. METHODS: Mosquito adults from Mohammadia city in Morocco were reared from immature stages...
January 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sebastian Napp, Veronique Chevalier, Núria Busquets, Paolo Calistri, Jordi Casal, Mohamed Attia, Rehab Elbassal, Heba Hosni, Hatem Farrag, Noura Hassan, Rasha Tawfik, Sohair Abd Elkader, Shahin Bayomy
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis, which may cause significant losses for the livestock sector and have serious public health implications. Egypt has been repeatedly affected by RVF epidemics, mainly associated to the importation of animals from sub-Saharan countries, where the disease is endemic. The objective of our study was the improvement of the surveillance and control strategies implemented in Egypt. In order to do that, first we evaluated the legal trade of live animals into and within Egypt...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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