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Pathology carcinoma sarcoma lymphoma

S Dixit, C Upadhyaya, M Humagain, R Srii, V Marla
Background Head and neck is one of the most prevalent site for cancers along with lungs, cervix, breast and stomach. Hospital based cancer registries required for effective evaluation of diagnosis and management of cancer is inadequate in Nepal. Cancer registry system established by WHO is acquired by seven major hospitals in our country. However, data from tertiary health care centres like ours remain undocumented. Objective The objective of this study is to perform retrospective analysis of clinicohistopathological types of head and neck lesions which were eventually diagnosed as cancer in Dhulikel Hospital, a tertiary health care centre of Central East Nepal...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
Israel Vlodavsky, Preeti Singh, Ilanit Boyango, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Michael Elkin, Ralph D Sanderson, Neta Ilan
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Heparanase expression is enhanced in almost all cancers examined including various carcinomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies. Numerous clinical association studies have consistently demonstrated that upregulation of heparanase expression correlates with increased tumor size, tumor angiogenesis, enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, knockdown of heparanase or treatments of tumor-bearing mice with heparanase-inhibiting compounds, markedly attenuate tumor progression further underscoring the potential of anti-heparanase therapy for multiple types of cancer...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Anna Biernacka, Konstantinos D Linos, Peter A DeLong, Arief A Suriawinata, Vijayalakshmi Padmanabhan, Xiaoying Liu
When confronted with a metastatic poorly differentiated tumor of unknown origin, the initial workup includes the standard panel of immunostains to rule out carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, and the greatest mimicker in pathology - malignant melanoma. Although not specific, the S-100 protein is expressed in over 95% of malignant melanomas. Herein, we present a case of multiorgan metastatic malignancy with a dominant hilar and mediastinal mass in a current smoker; clinically, highly suggestive of widespread primary lung cancer...
2016: CytoJournal
Chia-Hung Wu, Nai-Chi Chiu, Yi-Chen Yeh, Yu Kuo, Sz-Shian Yu, Ching-Yao Weng, Chien-An Liu, Yi-Hong Chou, Yi-You Chiou
BACKGROUND: Beside hepatocellular carcinoma, metastasis, and cholangiocarcinoma, the imaging findings of other relatively uncommon hepatic lesions are less discussed in the literature. Imaging diagnosis of these lesions is a daily challenge. In this article, we review the imaging characteristics of these neoplasms. METHODS: From January 2003 to December 2014, 4746 patients underwent liver biopsy or hepatic surgical resection in our hospital. We reviewed the pathological database retrospectively...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Forat Swaid, Darrell Downs, Alexander S Rosemurgy
The liver is a site of metastasis in 25% of metastatic cancers (Abbruzzese et al., 1995). In Western countries, metastases are the most common type of malignant neoplasms in the liver. The majority of liver metastases arise from carcinomas, but other primary tumor types should also be considered, such as lymphomas, sarcomas, melanomas, and germ cell tumors. Of primary liver malignancies, hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common (Hertz et al., 2000). The differentiation between metastatic carcinoma to the liver and primary hepatocellular carcinoma is sometimes challenging...
December 2016: Cancer Genetics
Yin P Hung, Christopher Dm Fletcher, Jason L Hornick
A distinct subset of round cell sarcomas harbors capicua transcriptional repressor (CIC) rearrangement. Diagnosing these sarcomas can be difficult owing to their resemblance to Ewing sarcoma and other 'small round blue cell tumors'; molecular techniques are generally required. Recent gene expression studies of CIC-rearranged sarcomas identified the upregulation of ETV4. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of ETV4 and WT1 immunohistochemistry for CIC-rearranged sarcoma. We evaluated whole-tissue sections from 40 CIC-rearranged sarcomas, 40 Ewing sarcomas, 4 BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas, 6 unclassified round cell sarcomas, and 150 histologic mimics...
November 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Annalice Chang, Kyle Pfeifer, Peter Chen, Vivek Kalra, Myung Soo Shin
The term "small round blue cell" is frequently used as a cursory radiologic pathological correlation of aggressive tumors throughout the body. We present a pictorial essay of common and uncommon subtypes of small round blue cell tumors in the chest illustrating the characteristic radiologic findings of each lesion. In addition, we review the pathologic findings of each tumor subtype with characteristic hematoxylin- and eosin-stained photomicrographs and immunohistochemical and molecular studies. Represented tumors include small cell carcinoma, Ewing sarcoma, extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Shino Shibata, Kenshiro Shiraishi, Hideomi Yamashita, Reiko Kobayashi, Keiichi Nakagawa
The present study reports a case of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma that occurred in a 62-year-old woman 9 years subsequent to whole breast irradiation for a carcinoma of the left breast, and 18 years following chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; diagnosed at the age of 43). The patient was 53 years of age when a cT2N0M0 stage IIA breast tumor was identified and excised. A 2.5 cm diameter nodule with dimpling in the upper-outer region of the left breast was detected. Pathological examination revealed that the tumor was an invasive ductal carcinoma, of a solid tubular type...
April 2016: Oncology Letters
Y U Dong, Weihong Ren, Jun Qi, B O Jin, Ying Li, Huiqing Tao, Ren Xu, Yanqing Li, Qinxian Zhang, Baohui Han
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), caused by various mutations in a spectrum of cancer driver genes, may have distinct pathological characteristics and drug responses. Extensive genetic screening and pathological characterization is required for the design of customized therapies to improve patient outcomes. Notably, NSCLC in never-smokers exhibits distinctive clinicopathological features, which are frequently associated with tumorigenic mutations, and thus may be treated as a unique disease entity. However, to the best of our knowledge, these mutations have not been extensively and accurately characterized in an NSCLC study with a large sample size...
April 2016: Oncology Letters
Yin P Hung, Christopher D M Fletcher, Jason L Hornick
Ewing sarcoma shows considerable histologic overlap with other round cell tumors. NKX2-2, a homeodomain transcription factor involved in neuroendocrine/glial differentiation and a downstream target of EWSR1-FLI1, has been reported as an immunohistochemical marker for Ewing sarcoma. We assessed the specificity of NKX2-2 for Ewing sarcoma compared with other round cell malignant neoplasms and other soft tissue tumors with EWSR1 translocations. We evaluated whole-tissue sections from 270 cases: 40 Ewing sarcomas (4 with atypical/large cell features), 20 CIC-DUX4 sarcomas, 5 BCOR-CCNB3 sarcomas, 9 unclassified round cell sarcomas, 10 poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas, 10 lymphoblastic lymphomas, 10 alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, 10 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, 10 Merkel cell carcinomas, 10 small cell carcinomas, 20 melanomas, 5 NUT midline carcinomas, 10 Wilms tumors, 10 neuroblastomas, 10 olfactory neuroblastomas, 12 mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, 10 angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas, 10 clear cell sarcomas, 5 gastrointestinal clear cell sarcoma-like tumors, 5 desmoplastic small round cell tumors, 10 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, 10 soft tissue and cutaneous myoepitheliomas, and 19 myoepithelial carcinomas...
April 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Tchin Darré, Nidain Maneh, Matchonna Kpatcha, Azanledji Boumé, Essohana Padaro, Koffi Amégbor, Gado Napo-Koura
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a subject of continuing concern, more common in adults than in children, but often with a poor outcome in the latter. Our study set itself the objective to describe the epidemiological and histological aspects of solid cancers in children in Togo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study focused on cases of solid cancers in children diagnosed from 2010 to 2014 (5 years) at the pathology laboratory of the Tokoin teaching hospital...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Mohamed E M Saeed, Jingming Cao, Babikir Fadul, Onat Kadioglu, Hassan E Khalid, Zahir Yassin, Siddig M Mustafa, Elfatih Saeed, Thomas Efferth
BACKGROUND: While cancer epidemiology is well-investigated in developed countries, the cancer burden in Africa is less well documented. We provide cancer statistics of 33,201 patients from all Sudan diagnosed at the Radiation and Isotope Centre in Khartoum (RICK). This hospital covers approximately 80% of patients with cancer in Sudan and is, therefore, considered representative for the situation in this country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 2009-2013 were collected at RICK...
January 2016: Anticancer Research
Kim HooKim, Jennifer Gaitor, Oscar Lin, Michelle D Reid
BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is routinely used to evaluate primary thyroid lesions (PTLs), however, its role in diagnosing secondary thyroid neoplasms (STNs) has not been extensively studied. The goal was to examine the clinical and cytopathologic features of STNs diagnosed on FNA. METHODS: The clinico-pathologic features of 28 STNs were analyzed. All PTLs, lymphomas, and locally invasive tumors were excluded. RESULTS: There were 28 STNs (0...
November 2015: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Sahar A Saddoughi, Jim Taswell, William S Harmsen, Matthew L Inra, Shanda H Blackmon, Francis C Nichols, Stephen D Cassivi, Dennis A Wigle, K Robert Shen, Mark S Allen
BACKGROUND: Although surgical resection of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is standard practice, the treatment strategy for other malignant rare esophageal cancers is still under debate. The aim of this study was to examine the treatment of rare malignant esophageal cancers and to evaluate the survival of these patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of all esophagectomies performed at Mayo Clinic from 1980 to 2014 (approximately 4,000 cases) identified 24 patients with histologic features other than adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma...
January 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Gregorio Carozzi, Alessandro Zotti, Monica Alberti, Federica Rossi
Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used to investigate head tumors in dogs, however little information is available for lesions of the pharyngeal area. The purpose of this multicentric, retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe the CT findings in a sample of dogs with pathologically confirmed pharyngeal neoplasia and determine whether any CT features allowed differentiation of tumor type. Location of lesions, size and shape, margins, relationship with surrounding structures and vessels, attenuation characteristics and enhancement pattern, regional lymph node changes, and presence of metastasis were recorded by three observers (1 DECVDI)...
November 2015: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Denasha Lavanya Reddy, Willem Daniel Francois Venter, Sugeshnee Pather
BACKGROUND: Lymphadenopathy is a common clinical presentation of disease in South Africa (SA), particularly in the era of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection. METHODS: Data from 560 lymph node biopsy reports of specimens from patients older than 12 years at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH) between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012 was extracted from the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), division of Anatomical Pathology...
2015: PloS One
Gregor Mikuz
At least 90% of testicular tumors belong to the group of germ cell tumors (GCTs), which are classified according to the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Race is one of the most important etiologic factors in the development of GCTs. White men living in Western industrialized countries show the highest rates of incidence. Known risk factors are cryptorchidism, contralateral GCT, familial association, infertility, testicular atrophy, trauma, surgery, socioeconomic status, environmental factors, and occupational exposure to noxious conditions...
February 2015: Analytical and Quantitative Cytopathology and Histopathology
F Anthony Greco, Wayne J Lennington, David R Spigel, John D Hainsworth
PURPOSE: Definition of the lineage of poorly differentiated neoplasms (PDNs) presenting as cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is important since many of these tumors are treatment-sensitive. Gene expression profiling and a molecular cancer classifier assay (MCCA) may provide a new method of diagnosis when standard pathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining is unsuccessful. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty of 751 CUP patients (4%) seen from 2000-2012 had PDNs without a definitive lineage diagnosed by histology or IHC (median 18 stains, range 9-46)...
April 2015: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
L Cogorno-Wasylkowski, E Martínez-Pérez, D F Carvajal-Buitrago, G Vázquez-Rodríguez, C E Guinda-Sevillano
OBJECTIVE: To present two cases of infrequent renal masses, trying to achieve the diagnosis before surgery. METHODS: We describe a case referred from the Department of Hematology in which bilateral perirrenal masses were described in the CT scan; after biopsy they where classified as extramedullary hematopoietic tissue. The other case was a patient presenting to the emergency room with dyspnea. CT Scan showed lungs with multiple cysts, chylothorax and a cystic-solid mass in the left perirenal space...
December 2014: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Fresia Pareja, John P Crapanzano, Mahesh M Mansukhani, William A Bulman, Anjali Saqi
BACKGROUND: Correlation between histology and genotype has been described in lung adenocarcinomas. For example, studies have demonstrated that adenocarcinomas with an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement may have mucinous features. The objective of the current study was to determine whether a similar association can be identified in cytological specimens. METHODS: A retrospective search for ALK-rearranged cytopathology (CP) and surgical pathology (SP) lung carcinomas was conducted...
March 2015: Cancer Cytopathology
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