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Nalidixic acid resistance salmonella typhi

Shesh Raj Patel, Sujit Bharti, Chandra Bhan Pratap, Gopal Nath
INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever is an endemic disease in India against which many antibiotics are available. In the recent times, emerging resistance to traditional antibiotics, such as Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Azithro-mycin and third generation Cephalosporins are being reported and increasingly being used in the treatment of invasive Salmonella infections. However, the latter two drugs have been reported with occasional clinical failures. Currently, we do not have data regarding their drug resistance levels in the recent isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Indranil Roy, Sathish Sankar, Rajni Gaind, Monorama Deb, Raghavendra Kulkarni, Dilip Kumar Paul, Shanta Dutta
Molecular subtyping, and recently DNA sequencing based methods, which are commonly used for discriminating Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates, leads to improved molecular epidemiological investigations for prevention and control of typhoid fever. We included S. Typhi blood isolates (n=66) from India during 2007-14 for molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) in association with antibiotic resistance profiles...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Preeti Behl, Varsha Gupta, Atul Sachdev, Vishal Guglani, Jagdish Chander
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Multidrug-resistant Salmonellae have emerged worldwide as also in India. The aim of this study was to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated at a tertiary care hospital in northern India. METHODS: A total of 106 S. enterica serovars isolated from various clinical samples from January 2011 to June 2012 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone was determined both by agar dilution method and E-test for all the isolates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Qifa Song, Yuanbin Yang, Wenping Lin, Bo Yi, Guozhang Xu
We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiological characteristics and clinical treatment outcome of typhoid fever in Ningbo, China, 2005-2014. Eighty-eight Salmonella Typhi isolates were obtained from 307 admitted patients. Three prevalent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of 54 isolates in 3 outbreaks were identified. Overall, there were 64 (72.7%) isolates from cases in clusters and 24 (27.3%) isolates from sporadic cases. Resistance to nalidixic acid (n=47; 53.4%) and ampicillin (n=40; 45...
March 28, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Azmat Ali, Hafiz Awais Ali, Fazal Hussain Shah, Arslan Zahid, Hina Aslam, Benazir Javed
OBJECTIVE: To see the pattern of antimicrobial drug resistance among Salmonella serovars. METHODS: This longitudinal, observational study was conducted at Khan Research Laboratories Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from May 2012 to December 2014. All patients presenting with typhoid fever with positive blood culture were included. Age, gender, salmonella serovar and sensitivity to 9 antimicrobial drugs were taken into account. The tested antimicrobial drugs were ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ceftriaxone and cefixime...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Sushila Dahiya, Priyanka Sharma, Bhavana Kumari, Sangeeta Pandey, Rooma Malik, Neelam Manral, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Pallab Ray, Vikas Gautam, Sujata Sistla, Subhash Chandra Parija, Kamini Walia, Vinod Ohri, Bimal Kumar Das, Seema Sood, Arti Kapil
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to establish 'Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network' in India and to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of clinical isolates to establish a national network across the country for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, nodal centre with clinical isolates of Salmonellae collected from four centres across India, which included Christian Medical College, Vellore; Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh and Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Ujjwayini Ray, Indranil Roy, Shanta Dutta
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Muthu Gopal, Sathishkumar Elumalai, Suresh Arumugam, Vishnuprabu Durairajpandian, Munirajan Arasambattu Kannan, Esthermary Selvam, Srivani Seetharaman
INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever is endemic in India and other developing countries, causing major public health problems with high morbidity and mortality. The resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) towards commonly prescribed antimicrobials is increasing in developing countries. However, there have been several reports of the therapeutic failure of fluoroquinolones in patients with Salmonella infection. Resistance to quinolones/ fluoroquinolones commonly arises due to target site mutation...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Lavan Singh, M P Cariappa
BACKGROUND: Enteric fevers contribute majorly to the burden of morbidity from infectious diseases in the developing world. Due to growing antibiotic resistance seen in their management, Salmonella and its various species are required to be periodically tested for sensitivity and resistance patterns, to guide the clinical management at the local level. This will also enable planning of antibiotic recycling wherever feasible. METHODS: A retrospective study of the results of blood culture isolates covering a period of 27 months was done at a tertiary care hospital...
July 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Sumanth Gandra, Nestor Mojica, Eili Y Klein, Ashvin Ashok, Vidya Nerurkar, Mamta Kumari, Uma Ramesh, Sunanda Dey, Viral Vadwai, Bibhu R Das, Ramanan Laxminarayan
OBJECTIVE: There have been no long-term studies on trends in antibiotic resistance (ABR) on a national scale in India. Using a private laboratory network, the ABR patterns of organisms most commonly associated with bacteremia, obtained from patients across India between 2008 and 2014, were examined. METHODS: A retrospective study of patient blood cultures collected over a 7-year period (January 1, 2008-December 31, 2014) was conducted. Data on the microorganism(s) identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility were obtained from SRL Diagnostics (Mumbai, India)...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ashoka Mahapatra, Somi Patro, Snigdharani Choudhury, Ambareesh Padhee, Rekha Das
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is classically caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi.Recently the frequency of isolation of S. paratyphi A (SPA) has been increased in comparison to S. typhi in Indian scenario. AIM: To observe the rate of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of SPA from suspected enteric fever cases attending tertiary care centres of Eastern Orissa. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study Materials and Methods: 1488 blood samples were collected during different duration of fever and cultured in BACTEC blood culture system and bottles showing signal for growth were subcultured and identified as Salmonella spp...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
R Sharvani, Hemavathi, D K Dayanand, Poornima Shenoy, Pooja Sarmah
INTRODUCTION: Enteric fever is a major problem especially in developing countries. Timely and appropriate treatment plays a very important role in reducing the mortality. Fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins are the treatment options for enteric fever. Recent studies have shown that it is time to reconsider the use of earlier antibiotics. AIM: The study was aimed to know whether salvage is possible and to avoid treatment failures following fluoroquinolone usage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A one year retrospective data of Salmonella species isolated from 319 blood samples from our hospital and other diagnostic centers were studied...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Krishma Laxmi Shrestha, Narayan Dutt Pant, Raju Bhandari, Sabita Khatri, Basudha Shrestha, Binod Lekhak
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever is an important public health problem in Nepal. Due to emergence of multidrug resistant strains of Salmonella spp. the conventional first-line drugs, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole have not been used as empiric therapy for treatment of enteric fever for last two decades and there have been increased uses of fluoroquinolones as the drugs of choice. The aim of this study was to evaluate and analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella spp...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Surojit Das, Ujjwayini Ray, Shanta Dutta
In recent years, increase in occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant S almonella Typhi isolates has caused considerable inconvenience in selecting appropriate antimicrobials for treatment of typhoid. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends azithromycin for the empirical treatment option of uncomplicated typhoid. The CLSI updated the breakpoints of disc diffusion (DD) and MIC results of FQs and azithromycin for Salmonella Typhi in 2015, but DD breakpoints of ofloxacin and levofloxacin were not included...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Edna Catering Rodríguez, Paula Díaz-Guevara, Jaime Moreno, Adriana Bautista, Lucy Montaño, María Elena Realpe, Anabella Della Gaspera, Magdalena Wiesner
INTRODUCTION: Salmonella is an enteropathogen acquired through contaminated food or water. In Colombia, Salmonella spp. is included in the national surveillance of Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases and typhoid fever initiated in 1997. This report shows the phenotype and genotype results obtained from 2005 to 2011. METHODS: A total of 4010 isolates of Salmonella enterica were analysed by serotyping with Kauffmann-White-LeMinor, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
March 30, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Robert Skov, Erika Matuschek, Maria Sjölund-Karlsson, Jenny Åhman, Andreas Petersen, Marc Stegger, Mia Torpdahl, Gunnar Kahlmeter
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are among the drugs of choice for treatment of Salmonella infections. However, fluoroquinolone resistance is increasing in Salmonella due to chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the topoisomerase genes gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and/or plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms including qnr variants, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB. Some of these mutations cause only subtle increases in the MIC, i.e., MICs ranging from 0.12 to 0...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Lucy G Osborne, M Brown, M S Bailey
Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin...
June 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Helga Abgottspon, Grethe Sägesser, Nicole Cernela, Roger Stephan
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is an acute, invasive, and potentially fatal systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi). Drug resistance to antimicrobials such as ciprofloxacin is emerging in developing countries, threatening the efficacy of treatment of patients in endemic regions as well as of travellers returning from these countries. METHODS: We compared the antimicrobial resistance profiles of 192 S. Typhi isolated from patients over a time span of twelve years...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Beena Uppal, Naz Perween, Prabhav Aggarwal, Shyam Kishor Kumar
BACKGROUND: Infectious diarrhea causes a major health problem in developing countries with significant morbidity and mortality. Very often, rehydration therapy alone does not suffice, mandating the use of antimicrobial agents. However, rapidly decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility is complicating the matters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study aimed to determine the prevalent bacterial and parasitic agents of diarrhea in India. A cross-sectional study was done at Maulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, during 2012-14...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Farhana Khanam, Md Abu Sayeed, Feroza Kaneez Choudhury, Alaullah Sheikh, Dilruba Ahmed, Doli Goswami, Md Lokman Hossain, Abdullah Brooks, Stephen B Calderwood, Richelle C Charles, Alejandro Cravioto, Edward T Ryan, Firdausi Qadri
BACKGROUND: Children bear a large burden of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) in endemic areas. However, immune responses and clinical findings in children are not well defined. Here, we describe clinical and immunological characteristics of young children with S. Typhi bacteremia, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated strains. METHODS: As a marker of recent infection, we have previously characterized antibody-in-lymphocyte secretion (TPTest) during acute typhoid fever in adults...
April 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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