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Nalidixic acid resistance salmonella typhi

Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Ujjwayini Ray, Indranil Roy, Shanta Dutta
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Muthu Gopal, Sathishkumar Elumalai, Suresh Arumugam, Vishnuprabu Durairajpandian, Munirajan Arasambattu Kannan, Esthermary Selvam, Srivani Seetharaman
INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever is endemic in India and other developing countries, causing major public health problems with high morbidity and mortality. The resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) towards commonly prescribed antimicrobials is increasing in developing countries. However, there have been several reports of the therapeutic failure of fluoroquinolones in patients with Salmonella infection. Resistance to quinolones/ fluoroquinolones commonly arises due to target site mutation...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Lavan Singh, M P Cariappa
BACKGROUND: Enteric fevers contribute majorly to the burden of morbidity from infectious diseases in the developing world. Due to growing antibiotic resistance seen in their management, Salmonella and its various species are required to be periodically tested for sensitivity and resistance patterns, to guide the clinical management at the local level. This will also enable planning of antibiotic recycling wherever feasible. METHODS: A retrospective study of the results of blood culture isolates covering a period of 27 months was done at a tertiary care hospital...
July 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Sumanth Gandra, Nestor Mojica, Eili Y Klein, Ashvin Ashok, Vidya Nerurkar, Mamta Kumari, Uma Ramesh, Sunanda Dey, Viral Vadwai, Bibhu R Das, Ramanan Laxminarayan
OBJECTIVE: There have been no long-term studies on trends in antibiotic resistance (ABR) on a national scale in India. Using a private laboratory network, the ABR patterns of organisms most commonly associated with bacteremia, obtained from patients across India between 2008 and 2014, were examined. METHODS: A retrospective study of patient blood cultures collected over a 7-year period (January 1, 2008-December 31, 2014) was conducted. Data on the microorganism(s) identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility were obtained from SRL Diagnostics (Mumbai, India)...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ashoka Mahapatra, Somi Patro, Snigdharani Choudhury, Ambareesh Padhee, Rekha Das
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is classically caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi.Recently the frequency of isolation of S. paratyphi A (SPA) has been increased in comparison to S. typhi in Indian scenario. AIM: To observe the rate of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of SPA from suspected enteric fever cases attending tertiary care centres of Eastern Orissa. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study Materials and Methods: 1488 blood samples were collected during different duration of fever and cultured in BACTEC blood culture system and bottles showing signal for growth were subcultured and identified as Salmonella spp...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
R Sharvani, Hemavathi, D K Dayanand, Poornima Shenoy, Pooja Sarmah
INTRODUCTION: Enteric fever is a major problem especially in developing countries. Timely and appropriate treatment plays a very important role in reducing the mortality. Fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins are the treatment options for enteric fever. Recent studies have shown that it is time to reconsider the use of earlier antibiotics. AIM: The study was aimed to know whether salvage is possible and to avoid treatment failures following fluoroquinolone usage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A one year retrospective data of Salmonella species isolated from 319 blood samples from our hospital and other diagnostic centers were studied...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Krishma Laxmi Shrestha, Narayan Dutt Pant, Raju Bhandari, Sabita Khatri, Basudha Shrestha, Binod Lekhak
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever is an important public health problem in Nepal. Due to emergence of multidrug resistant strains of Salmonella spp. the conventional first-line drugs, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole have not been used as empiric therapy for treatment of enteric fever for last two decades and there have been increased uses of fluoroquinolones as the drugs of choice. The aim of this study was to evaluate and analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella spp...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Surojit Das, Ujjwayini Ray, Shanta Dutta
In recent years, increase in occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant S almonella Typhi isolates has caused considerable inconvenience in selecting appropriate antimicrobials for treatment of typhoid. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends azithromycin for the empirical treatment option of uncomplicated typhoid. The CLSI updated the breakpoints of disc diffusion (DD) and MIC results of FQs and azithromycin for Salmonella Typhi in 2015, but DD breakpoints of ofloxacin and levofloxacin were not included...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Edna Catering Rodríguez, Paula Díaz-Guevara, Jaime Moreno, Adriana Bautista, Lucy Montaño, María Elena Realpe, Anabella Della Gaspera, Magdalena Wiesner
INTRODUCTION: Salmonella is an enteropathogen acquired through contaminated food or water. In Colombia, Salmonella spp. is included in the national surveillance of Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases and typhoid fever initiated in 1997. This report shows the phenotype and genotype results obtained from 2005 to 2011. METHODS: A total of 4010 isolates of Salmonella enterica were analysed by serotyping with Kauffmann-White-LeMinor, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
March 30, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Robert Skov, Erika Matuschek, Maria Sjölund-Karlsson, Jenny Åhman, Andreas Petersen, Marc Stegger, Mia Torpdahl, Gunnar Kahlmeter
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are among the drugs of choice for treatment of Salmonella infections. However, fluoroquinolone resistance is increasing in Salmonella due to chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the topoisomerase genes gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and/or plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms including qnr variants, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB. Some of these mutations cause only subtle increases in the MIC, i.e., MICs ranging from 0.12 to 0...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Lucy G Osborne, M Brown, M S Bailey
Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin...
June 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Helga Abgottspon, Grethe Sägesser, Nicole Cernela, Roger Stephan
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is an acute, invasive, and potentially fatal systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi). Drug resistance to antimicrobials such as ciprofloxacin is emerging in developing countries, threatening the efficacy of treatment of patients in endemic regions as well as of travellers returning from these countries. METHODS: We compared the antimicrobial resistance profiles of 192 S. Typhi isolated from patients over a time span of twelve years...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Beena Uppal, Naz Perween, Prabhav Aggarwal, Shyam Kishor Kumar
BACKGROUND: Infectious diarrhea causes a major health problem in developing countries with significant morbidity and mortality. Very often, rehydration therapy alone does not suffice, mandating the use of antimicrobial agents. However, rapidly decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility is complicating the matters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study aimed to determine the prevalent bacterial and parasitic agents of diarrhea in India. A cross-sectional study was done at Maulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, during 2012-14...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Farhana Khanam, Md Abu Sayeed, Feroza Kaneez Choudhury, Alaullah Sheikh, Dilruba Ahmed, Doli Goswami, Md Lokman Hossain, Abdullah Brooks, Stephen B Calderwood, Richelle C Charles, Alejandro Cravioto, Edward T Ryan, Firdausi Qadri
BACKGROUND: Children bear a large burden of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) in endemic areas. However, immune responses and clinical findings in children are not well defined. Here, we describe clinical and immunological characteristics of young children with S. Typhi bacteremia, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated strains. METHODS: As a marker of recent infection, we have previously characterized antibody-in-lymphocyte secretion (TPTest) during acute typhoid fever in adults...
April 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Aqsa Shaheen, Fouzia Ismat, Mazhar Iqbal, Abdul Haque, Rita De Zorzi, Osman Mirza, Thomas Walz, Moazur Rahman
Multidrug resistance mediated by efflux pumps is a well-known phenomenon in infectious bacteria. Although much work has been carried out to characterize multidrug efflux pumps in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, such information is still lacking for many deadly pathogens. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the substrate specificity of previously uncharacterized transporters of Salmonella Typhi to identify their role in the development of multidrug resistance. S. Typhi genes encoding putative members of the major facilitator superfamily were cloned and expressed in the drug-hypersensitive Escherichia coli strain KAM42, and tested for transport of 25 antibacterial compounds, including representative antibiotics of various classes, antiseptics, dyes and detergents...
May 2015: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
R J Lane, D Holland, S McBride, S Perera, I Zeng, M Wilson, K Read, T Jelleyman, R J H Ingram
BACKGROUND: There are limited clinical data on enteric fever in the Pacific and New Zealand (NZ) compared with the Indian subcontinent (ISC) and South-East Asia (SEA). Our objective was to describe enteric fever in Auckland - a large Pacific city, focusing on disease acquired in these regions. METHODS: We reviewed enteric fever cases hospitalised in Auckland from January 2005 to December 2010. RESULTS: Microbiologically confirmed EF was identified in 162 patients...
February 2015: Internal Medicine Journal
Hari Jung Chand, Komal Raj Rijal, Biswas Neupane, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Bharat Jha
INTRODUCTION: Enteric fever is endemic in Nepal and poses a significant public health burden. The first-line drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole have not been part of empirical therapy for two decades due to the development of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains. The objective of this study was to determine the antibiogram pattern of Salmonella serovars isolated from the blood of clinically suspected enteric fever patients. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Lalitpur, Nepal, between July 2011 and February 2012...
November 2014: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Mingliu Wang, Biao Kan, Jin Yang, Mei Lin, Meiying Yan, Jun Zeng, Yi Quan, Hezhuang Liao, Lingyun Zhou, Zhenling Jiang, Dehui Huang
OBJECTIVE: Through analyzing the typhoid epidemics and to determine and monitor regional resistance characteristics of the shift of drug resistant profile on Salmonella (S.) Typhi, to understand the related epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and to provide evidence for the development of strategies, in Guangxi. METHODS: Data of typhoid fever from surveillance and reporting system between 1994 to 2013 was collected and statistically analyzed epidemiologically...
August 2014: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
B A Rahman, M O Wasfy, M A Maksoud, N Hanna, E Dueger, B House
Typhoid fever is common in developing countries, with an estimated 120 million infections and 700 000 annual deaths, worldwide. Fluoroquinolones have been the treatment of choice for infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). However, alarming reports of fluoroquinolone-resistance and failure of typhoid fever treatment have recently been published. To determine the proportion of S. Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (RSC) from six countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, 968 S...
July 2014: New Microbes and New Infections
Adnan Mannan, Mohammad Shohel, Sultana Rajia, Niaz Uddin Mahmud, Sanjana Kabir, Imtiaj Hasan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the resistance and sensitivity of Salmonella typhi samples to commonly used antibiotics in three major divisions of Bangladesh and to evaluate the gradually developing resistance pattern. METHODS: The antibiotic susceptibility of 70 clinical isolates collected from blood, sputum, urine and pus samples were identified by specific antisera and with standard biochemical tests. The patients were divided into 5 age groups. Susceptibility and resistance was also tested by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using 12 regularly used antibiotics...
April 2014: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
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