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Ki-Mo Jang, Jong-Hoon Park, Minho Chang, Youngjun Kim, Deukhee Lee, Sehyung Park, Joon Ho Wang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical similarity of three-dimensional (3D) morphometric parameters between right and left knees. Materials and Methods: Ten fresh-frozen paired cadaveric knees were tested. Following dissection, footprint areas of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) were measured. Surface scanning was performed using a 3D scanner. Scanned data were reproduced and morphometric parameters were measured on specialized software...
October 19, 2017: Knee Surgery & related Research
Chelsey R Canavan, Ramadhani A Noor, Christopher D Golden, Calestous Juma, Wafaie Fawzi
Sustainable food systems are an important component of a planetary health strategy to reduce the threat of infectious disease, minimize environmental footprint and promote nutrition. Human population trends and dietary transition have led to growing demand for food and increasing production and consumption of meat, amid declining availability of arable land and water. The intensification of livestock production has serious environmental and infectious disease impacts. Land clearing for agriculture alters ecosystems, increases human-wildlife interactions and leads to disease proliferation...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Philippe Amat
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of class II malocclusions is the core of our clinical activity. What elements can clinician rely on to offer their patients, whether children or adolescents, a treatment of their class II malocclusion that is not only effective but also the most appropriate for each individual case? Which schedule and what therapeutic device should be used? MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evidence-based orthodontics, along with a search for the best data on two-phase treatments, were used to judge the validity of the main objectives sought when correcting a Class II malocclusion in children or adolescents, including treatment of mandibular retrognathy...
September 2017: L' Orthodontie Française
G Maino, R Carleer, W Marchal, G Bonneux, A Hardy, M K Van Bael
LiMn2O4 (LMO) is interesting from the viewpoint of its energy storage applications as it is a cathode in lithium ion batteries (LIB), which contains no rare, toxic or expansive elements, while it provides a high theoretical capacity (148 mA h g(-1)) at a reasonable voltage (4 V region) and a higher thermal stability compared to cobalt based cathodes and has a good rechargeability and cycling stability due to its spinel structure. Low temperature synthesis routes for cathode materials are currently gaining attention, in order to decrease the ecological footprint of the final LIB...
October 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Apratim Majumder, Bing Shen, Randy Polson, Rajesh Menon
Polarization controlling devices such as polarization splitters and rotators are critical elements in integrated-photonic circuits that function via polarization-diversity schemes. Here, we present the design of an ultra-compact nanophotonic-polarization rotator (NPR) that rotates the polarization state from TE to TM with a simulated extinction ratio of 23dB over a coupling length of 5µm and an operating bandwidth of 40nm. This all-silicon device can be fabricated in a single lithography step and we have fabricated and characterized a preliminary device exhibiting 9dB extinction ratio...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
M H Alizadeh, B M Reinhard
The development of optical materials and devices that mimic the functionalities of conventional bulky optical components but on a much smaller footprint remains an important priority in nanophotonics. One prominent class of such optical elements are polarizers that change the polarization state of incident light. Recently, advances in plasmonic and photonic metasurfaces have given rise to different classes of subwavelength polarizers. Low efficiency and narrow band of operation remain, however, significant challenges...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
Tomonori Matsushita, Yuki Nakamura, Takashi Kondo
We have proposed and designed zigzag-folded U-shaped waveguides to realize highly efficient wavelength conversion with an extremely small footprint. Extreme high efficiencies are achieved with a combination of modal phase matching and 4¯ quasi phase matching in inversion-stacked AlGaAs/Alox waveguides. Numerical simulations reveal that the conversion efficiency of second harmonic generation pumped at 1.55 μm as high as 12000 %W(-1) can be achieved in an 8.0-mm-long AlGaAs/Alox waveguide that is folded up into a small domain of 0...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
Jie Zhou, Taojie Zhou, Jiagen Li, Kebo He, Zhiren Qiu, Bocang Qiu, Zhaoyu Zhang
A flexible photonic crystal cavity, consisting of a III-V active layer embedded in a flexible medium, with a line-defect by removing three air holes for nanoscale structural deformation detection is proposed and optimized. The cavity can hold the photonic band-gap modes with the fundamental mode located at approximately 686 nm, overlapping with the photoluminescence spectrum of the InGaP/InGaAlP quantum wells. Results of finite-difference time-domain simulations indicate that the L3 cavity features an ultra-compact mode volume of 10(-3) µm(3) and high quality factor of 10(4) at a sub-micron footprint within the studied visible wavelength...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
Jing Li, Han Ye, Zhongyuan Yu, Yumin Liu
In this paper, we propose a new scheme for a reciprocal optical diode integrated in a multimode silicon waveguide. The compact 4μm long functional region consists of a tapered coupler, a narrow single-mode waveguide, and a half-elliptical silver surface plasmonic splitter with refractive index modification of silicon. This spatial asymmetric design achieves even-to-odd mode conversion in the forward direction and blocks propagation of the even mode in the backward direction. The maximum contrast ratio and forward transmission efficiency reach approximately 0...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
Haiming Qin, Cheng Wang, Xiaohuan Xi, Jianlin Tian, Guoqing Zhou
Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is critical for assessing forest productivity and evaluating carbon sequestration rates. Discrete-return LiDAR has been widely used to estimate forest AGB, however, fewer studies have estimated the coniferous forest AGB using airborne small-footprint full-waveform LiDAR data. The objective of this study was to extract a suite of newly proposed metrics from airborne small-footprint full-waveform LiDAR data and to evaluate the ability of these metrics in estimating coniferous forest AGB...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
Ximing Li, Jingjing Yang, Yun Feng, Meixia Yang, Ming Huang
A metasurface (MS) is highly useful for improving the performance of patch antennae and reducing their size due to their inherent and unique electromagnetic properties. In this paper, a compact and broadband antenna based on a step-shaped metasurface (SMS) at an operating frequency of 4.3 GHz is presented, which is fed by a planar monopole and enabled by selecting an SMS with high selectivity. The SMS consists of an array of metallic step-shaped unit cells underneath the monopole, which provide footprint miniaturization and bandwidth expansion...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
Sananthan Sivakanthan, Pawel G Ochalski, Claudiu Schirda, Johnathan A Engh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Daniel R Weinberger
Since a proposal in 1986 that schizophrenia involved early neurodevelopmental deviations beginning in intrauterine life that showed varying expressivity as relevant neural systems matured, our understanding of the developmental components of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has substantially evolved. This commentary highlights recent genetic and epigenetic evidence that prenatal development is a critical period for the expression of schizophrenia risk. Studies of gene expression have been fairly consistent in showing that genes implicated in schizophrenia show relatively greater expression during fetal than postnatal life...
October 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Doreen A T Sekibo, Keith R Fox
Guanine-rich DNAs can fold into four-stranded structures that contain stacks of G-quartets. Bioinformatics studies have revealed that G-rich sequences with the potential to adopt these structures are unevenly distributed throughout genomes, and are especially found in gene promoter regions. With the exception of the single-stranded telomeric DNA, all genomic G-rich sequences will always be present along with their C-rich complements, and quadruplex formation will be in competition with the corresponding Watson-Crick duplex...
September 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Zoran J N Steinmann, Aafke M Schipper, Mara Hauck, Stefan Giljum, Gregor Wernet, Mark A J Huijbregts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Ryan W Simovitch, Aniruddh Nayak, Jason Scalise, Robert Boudreaux, Neil Olmscheid, Kellen Worhacz, Marc Jacofsky, Tom Vanasse, Christopher Roche
BACKGROUND: A technique for retaining the superior 50% of the subscapularis insertion for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty has been described. This cadaveric study biomechanically evaluates this subscapularis-sparing approach and compares it with a complete subscapularis release and repair technique to determine whether there is a higher load to failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve matched pairs of human cadaveric arms were distributed into 3 test groups. Group 1 consisted of specimens with and without a 100% subscapularis release...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Carolyn E Schaefer, Kunal Kupwade-Patil, Michael Ortega, Carmen Soriano, Oral Büyüköztürk, Anne E White, Michael P Short
Concrete production contributes heavily to greenhouse gas emissions, thus a need exists for the development of durable and sustainable concrete with a lower carbon footprint. This can be achieved when cement is partially replaced with another material, such as waste plastic, though normally with a tradeoff in compressive strength. This study discusses progress toward a high/medium strength concrete with a dense, cementitious matrix that contains an irradiated plastic additive, recovering the compressive strength while displacing concrete with waste materials to reduce greenhouse gas generation...
October 9, 2017: Waste Management
S Zaffagnini, A Grassi, G M Marcheggiani Muccioli, T R Di Sarsina, L Macchiarola, M Mosca, M P Neri, M Marcacci
BACKGROUND: Return to sport after revision ACL reconstruction is a controversial topic, several studies reported the results of different techniques and graft in sportsman, presenting an incredibly wide range of return to the same pre-injury activity level, from 0% to 100%. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes and return to sport rate in young athletes after non anatomic double-bundle revision ACL reconstruction with Achilles allograft. HYPOTHESIS: the present revision technique was effective in terms of stability, return to sport and functional outcomes MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the athletes undergone Revision ACL reconstruction with non-irradiated Achilles tendon allograft with a non-anatomical double-bundle technique were included in the study...
October 12, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Yanqing Zhang, Zhengtao Xiao, Qin Zou, Jianhuo Fang, Qifan Wang, Xuerui Yang, Ning Gao
Heat shock response is a classical stress-induced regulatory system in bacteria, characterized by extensive transcriptional reprogramming. To compare the impact of heat stress on the transcriptome and translatome in Escherichia coli, we conducted ribosome profiling in parallel with RNA-Seq to investigate the alterations in transcription and translation efficiency when E. coli cells were exposed to a mild heat stress (from 30°C to 45°C). While general changes in ribosome footprints correlate with the changes of mRNA transcripts upon heat stress, a number of genes show differential changes at the transcription and translation levels...
October 11, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
I V Dyakonov, M Yu Saygin, I V Kondratyev, A A Kalinkin, S S Straupe, S P Kulik
Integrated optical waveguides, manufactured with femtosecond laser writing (FSLW) technology, enable precise control and manipulation of light in complicated photonic chips. However, due to the intrinsically low anisotropy of FSLW waveguides, polarizing integrated devices have had a relatively large footprint. In this Letter, we demonstrate an approach based on stress-induced anisotropy, allowing us to decrease the size of polarizing directional couplers down to 3.7 mm, almost an order of magnitude shorter than previously reported...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
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