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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550151/evolutionary-footprints-reveal-insights-into-plant-microrna-biogenesis
#1
Uciel Chorostecki, Belen Moro, Arantxa L M Rojas, Juan M Debernardi, Arnaldo L Schapire, Cedric Notredame, Javier Palatnik
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that recognize target sequences by base complementarity and play a role in the regulation of target gene expression. They are processed from longer precursor molecules that harbor a fold-back structure. Plant miRNA precursors are quite variable in size and shape, and are recognized by the processing machinery in different ways. However, ancient miRNAs and their binding sites in target genes are conserved during evolution. Here, we designed a strategy to systematically analyze MIRNAs from different species generating a graphical representation of the conservation of the primary sequence and secondary structure...
May 26, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548494/resource-footprints-are-good-proxies-of-environmental-damage
#2
Zoran J N Steinmann, Aafke M Schipper, Mara Hauck, Stefan Giljum, Gregor Wernet, Mark A J Huijbregts
Environmental footprints are increasingly used to quantify and compare environmental impacts of for example products, technologies, households, or nations. This has resulted in a multitude of footprint indicators, ranging from relatively simple measures of resource use (water, energy, materials) to integrated measures of eventual damage (for example, extinction of species). Yet, the possible redundancies among these different footprints have not yet been quantified. This paper analyzes the relationships between two comprehensive damage footprints and four resource footprints associated with 976 products...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545892/technical-feasibility-and-carbon-footprint-of-biochar-co-production-with-tomato-plant-residue
#3
Pere Llorach-Massana, Elisa Lopez-Capel, Javier Peña, Joan Rieradevall, Juan Ignacio Montero, Neus Puy
World tomato production is in the increase, generating large amounts of organic agricultural waste, which are currently incinerated or composted, releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. Organic waste is not only produced from conventional but also urban agricultural practices due recently gained popularity. An alternative to current waste management practices and carbon sequestration opportunity is the production of biochar (thermally converted biomass) from tomato plant residues and use as a soil amendment. To address the real contribution of biochar for greenhouse gas mitigation, it is necessary to assess the whole life cycle from the production of the tomato biomass feedstock to the actual distribution and utilisation of the biochar produced in a regional context...
May 22, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545209/the-footprint-of-marginal-agriculture-in-the-mediterranean-mountain-landscape-an-analysis-of-the-central-spanish-pyrenees
#4
T Lasanta, E Nadal-Romero, M P Errea
Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544514/dynamic-enhancer-function-in-the-chromatin-context
#5
REVIEW
Ido Goldstein, Gordon L Hager
Enhancers serve as critical regulatory elements in higher eukaryotic cells. The characterization of enhancer function has evolved primarily from genome-wide methodologies, including chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq), DNase-I hypersensitivity (DNase-seq), digital genomic footprinting (DGF), and the chromosome conformation capture techniques (3C, 4C, and Hi-C). These population-based assays average signals across millions of cells and lead to enhancer models characterized by static and sequential binding...
May 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539929/nitrogen-cycling-from-increased-soil-organic-carbon-contributes-both-positively-and-negatively-to-ecosystem-services-in-wheat-agro-ecosystems
#6
Jeda Palmer, Peter J Thorburn, Jody S Biggs, Estelle J Dominati, Merv E Probert, Elizabeth A Meier, Neil I Huth, Mike Dodd, Val Snow, Joshua R Larsen, William J Parton
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539674/nutrition-label-experience-and-consumption-of-transitional-foods-among-a-nationwide-cohort-of-42-750-thai-adults
#7
Wimalin Rimpeekool, Martyn Kirk, Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Cathy Banwell, Sam-Ang Seubsman, Adrian Sleigh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to assess the usefulness of nutrition labels in Thailand during nutrition transition from traditional to modern diets that increase salt, sugar, and calorie intake and to note socio-demographic interactions and associations with consumption of transitional processed foods. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The authors studied 42,750 distance learning Open University adults aged 23-96 years in 2013 residing nationwide and participating in an ongoing community-based prospective cohort study...
2017: Br Food J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538596/acute-and-hyper-acute-thoracolumbar-corpectomy-for-traumatic-burst-fractures-using-a-mini-open-lateral-approach
#8
William D Smith, Nick Ghazarian, Ginger Christian
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVE: The study purpose was to examine the feasibility of acute (<24 hours) and hyper-acute (<8 hours) treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures to maintain or improve spinal injury scores. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Historically, treatment of spinal burst fractures within 24 hours from injury was considered an "acute" treatment timeframe. Patient polytrauma triage, multiple surgical specialty and hospital resource coordination affect time to treatment...
May 22, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538187/bivariate-genomic-footprinting-detects-changes-in-transcription-factor-activity
#9
Songjoon Baek, Ido Goldstein, Gordon L Hager
In response to activating signals, transcription factors (TFs) bind DNA and regulate gene expression. TF binding can be measured by protection of the bound sequence from DNase digestion (i.e., footprint). Here, we report that 80% of TF binding motifs do not show a measurable footprint, partly because of a variable cleavage pattern within the motif sequence. To more faithfully portray the effect of TFs on chromatin, we developed an algorithm that captures two TF-dependent effects on chromatin accessibility: footprinting and motif-flanking accessibility...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538093/toxic-byproduct-formation-during-electrochemical-treatment-of-latrine-wastewater
#10
Justin T Jasper, Yang Yang, Michael R Hoffmann
Electrochemical systems are an attractive option for onsite latrine wastewater treatment due to their high efficiency and small footprint. While concerns remain over formation of toxic byproducts during treatment, rigorous studies examining byproduct formation are lacking. Experiments treating authentic latrine wastewater over variable treatment times, current densities, chloride concentrations, and anode materials were conducted to characterize byproducts and identify conditions that minimize their formation...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537401/low-power-photothermal-self-oscillation-of-bimetallic-nanowires
#11
Roberto De Alba, Thanniyil Sebastian Abhilash, Richard H Rand, Harold G Craighead, Jeevak M Parpia
We investigate the nonlinear mechanics of a bimetallic, optically absorbing SiN-Nb nanowire in the presence of incident laser light and a reflecting Si mirror. Situated in a standing wave of optical intensity and subject to photothermal forces, the nanowire undergoes self-induced oscillations at low incident light thresholds of <1μW due to engineered strong temperature-position (T-z) coupling. Along with inducing self-oscillation, laser light causes large changes to the mechanical resonant frequency ω0 and equilibrium position z0 that cannot be neglected...
May 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535958/dispersal-and-assimilation-of-an-aquaculture-waste-subsidy-in-a-low-productivity-coastal-environment
#12
C A White, P D Nichols, D J Ross, T Dempster
To understand dispersal and assimilation of aquaculture waste subsidies in a naturally low-productivity environment, we applied a novel, rapid transmethylation technique to analyse sediment and biota fatty acid composition. This technique was initially validated at Atlantic salmon farms in Macquarie Harbour, Australia, where sediments were collected at farm and control locations. Subsequently, sediment, benthic polychaete and zooplankton were sampled at sites 0, 50, 250, 500 and 1000m distant from multiple cages...
May 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534321/does-anatomic-single-bundle-acl-reconstruction-using-hamstring-autograft-produce-anterolateral-meniscal-root-tearing
#13
Sebastián Irarrázaval, Angel Masferrer-Pino, Maximiliano Ibañez, Tamer M A Shehata, María Naharro, Joan C Monllau
BACKGROUND: To determine if tibial tunnel reaming during anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring autograft can result in anterolateral meniscal root injury, as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: A case series of 104 primary anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstructions using hamstring autograft was retrospectively reviewed. Pre- and post-operative (>1 year) MRIs were radiologically evaluated for each patient, with a lateral meniscus extrusion > 3 mm at the level of the medial collateral ligament midportion on a coronal MRI, to establish anterolateral meniscal root injury...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532592/extending-the-scope-of-eco-labelling-in-the-food-industry-to-drive-change-beyond-sustainable-agriculture-practices
#14
Marco A Miranda-Ackerman, Catherine Azzaro-Pantel
New consumer awareness is shifting industry towards more sustainable practices, creating a virtuous cycle between producers and consumers enabled by eco-labelling. Eco-labelling informs consumers of specific characteristics of products and has been used to market greener products. Eco-labelling in the food industry has yet been mostly focused on promoting organic farming, limiting the scope to the agricultural stage of the supply chain, while carbon labelling informs on the carbon footprint throughout the life cycle of the product...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529469/a-comparative-genomics-approach-revealed-evolutionary-dynamics-of-microsatellite-imperfection-and-conservation-in-genus-gossypium
#15
Muhammad Mahmood Ahmed, Chao Shen, Anam Qadir Khan, Muhammad Atif Wahid, Muhammad Shaban, Zhongxu Lin
BACKGROUND: Ongoing molecular processes in a cell could target microsatellites, a kind of repetitive DNA, owing to length variations and motif imperfection. Mutational mechanisms underlying such kind of genetic variations have been extensively investigated in diverse organisms. However, obscure impact of ploidization, an evolutionary process of genome content duplication prevails mostly in plants, on non-coding DNA is poorly understood. RESULTS: Genome sequences of diversely originated plant species were examined for genome-wide motif imperfection pattern, and various analytical tools were employed to canvass characteristic relationships among repeat density, imperfection and length of microsatellites...
2017: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528874/animal-health-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-the-paradox-of-periparturient-parasitism
#16
J G M Houdijk, B J Tolkamp, J A Rooke, M R Hutchings
Here we provide the first known direct measurements of pathogen challenge impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) production, yield and intensity. Twin-rearing ewes were ad libitum fed pelleted lucerne from day -32 to 36 (day 0 is parturition), and repeatedly infected with 10,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae (n=16), or sham-dosed with water (n=16). A third group of 16 ewes were fed at 80% of uninfected ewes' feed intake during lactation. Methane emissions were measured in respiration chambers (day 30 to -36) whilst total tract apparent nutrient digestibility around day 28 informed calculated manure methane and nitrous oxide emissions estimates...
May 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527951/digital-food-photography-technology-improves-efficiency-and-feasibility-of-dietary-intake-assessments-in-large-populations-eating-ad-libitum-in-collective-dining-facilities
#17
Holly L McClung, Catherine M Champagne, H Raymond Allen, Susan M McGraw, Andrew J Young, Scott J Montain, Aaron P Crombie
BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of dietary intake continues to challenge researchers, especially in field, or non-laboratory settings. OBJECTIVE: In this study, digital food photography (DFP) methodology was used to assess nutritional intake (NI) of Soldiers participating in the US Army's Ranger Selection and Assessment Program (RASP). METHODS: During this high-intensity six-week course, Soldiers complete simulated operational missions, perform various military tasks, and importantly, eating time is severely limited...
May 17, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527796/genetic-parameters-of-mid-infrared-methane-predictions-and-their-relationships-with-milk-production-traits-in-holstein-cattle
#18
P B Kandel, M-L Vanrobays, A Vanlierde, F Dehareng, E Froidmont, N Gengler, H Soyeurt
Many countries have pledged to reduce greenhouse gases. In this context, the dairy sector is one of the identified sectors to adapt production circumstances to address socio-environmental constraints due to its large carbon footprint related to CH4 emission. This study aimed mainly to estimate (1) the genetic parameters of 2 milk mid-infrared-based CH4 proxies [predicted daily CH4 emission (PME, g/d), and log-transformed predicted CH4 intensity (LMI)] and (2) their genetic correlations with milk production traits [milk (MY), fat (FY), and protein (PY) yields] from first- and second-parity Holstein cows...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527768/randomized-comparison-of-absorb-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-and-mirage-microfiber-sirolimus-eluting-scaffold-using-multimodality-imaging
#19
Erhan Tenekecioglu, Patrick W Serruys, Yoshinobu Onuma, Ricardo Costa, Daniel Chamié, Yohei Sotomi, Ting-Bin Yu, Alexander Abizaid, Houng-Bang Liew, Teguh Santoso
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Mirage bioresorbable microfiber sirolimus-eluting scaffold compared with the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold in the treatment of stenotic target lesions located in native coronary arteries, ranging from ≥2.25 to ≤4.0 mm in diameter. Secondary objectives were to establish the medium-term safety, effectiveness, and performance of the Mirage device. BACKGROUND: The current generation of bioresorbable scaffolds has several limitations, such as thick square struts with large footprints that preclude their deep embedment into the vessel wall, resulting in protrusion into the lumen with microdisturbance of flow...
May 11, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526559/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-1b-p27-kip1-associated-with-human-vein-graft-failure-affects-growth-of-human-venous-adventitial-cells-but-not-smooth-muscle-cells
#20
Richard D Kenagy, Shinsuke Kikuchi, Lihua Chen, Errol S Wijelath, Andrew B Stergachis, John Stamatoyannopoulos, Gale L Tang, Alexander W Clowes, Michael Sobel
BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27(Kip1)) is a cell-cycle inhibitor whose -838C>A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs36228499; hereafter called p27 SNP) has been associated with the clinical failure of peripheral vein grafts, but the functional effects of this SNP have not been demonstrated. METHODS: Human saphenous vein adventitial cells and intimal/medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were derived from explants obtained at the time of lower extremity bypass operations...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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