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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221085/compact-single-etched-sub-wavelength-grating-couplers-for-o-band-application
#1
Yun Wang, Luhua Xu, Amar Kumar, Yannick D'Mello, David Patel, Zhenping Xing, Rui Li, Md Ghulam Saber, Eslam El-Fiky, David V Plant
We demonstrate two single-etched sub-wavelength grating coupler (SWGC) designs for O-band application, one targeting at high coupling efficiency and the other targeting at broad operating bandwidth. The high-efficiency SWGC has a measured peak coupling efficiency of -3.8 dB and a 3-dB bandwidth of 40 nm, and the broadband SWGC has a measured peak coupling efficiency of -4.3 dB and a 3-dB bandwidth of 71 nm. Focusing gratings have been used in our SWGCs to reduce the design footprints and the dimensions of our SWGCs are smaller than 45 μm × 24 μm...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221045/spectral-shaping-of-lasing-in-vertically-aligned-coupled-nanowire-lasers
#2
Ran Ditcovski, Tal Ellenbogen
We use numerical simulations to study the effects of nanowire geometry on the emission spectra of nanowire-based lasers. The studied nanowire lasers are made from gallium-nitride and the simulations are performed using finite difference time domain method. We show that changes in the diameter of the nanowire lasers also change the effective refractive index of their optical guided modes, which allows control over their Fabry-Perot spectrum. In addition, we show that evanescent coupling of two vertically standing nanowire lasers, having different cross section sizes, leads to a Vernier effect, which results in single mode emission from the small footprint coupled lasers system...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221043/silicon-photonic-integrated-circuit-for-fast-and-precise-dual-comb-distance-metrology
#3
C Weimann, M Lauermann, F Hoeller, W Freude, C Koos
We demonstrate an optical distance sensor integrated on a silicon photonic chip with a footprint of well below 1 mm2. The integrated system comprises a heterodyne receiver structure with tunable power splitting ratio and on-chip photodetectors. The functionality of the device is demonstrated in a synthetic-wavelength interferometry experiment using frequency combs as optical sources. We obtain accurate and fast distance measurements with an unambiguity range of 3.75 mm, a root-mean-square error of 3.4 µm and acquisition times of 14 µs...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220170/sustainable-conversion-of-carbon-dioxide-an-integrated-review-of-catalysis-and-life-cycle-assessment
#4
Jens Artz, Thomas E Müller, Katharina Thenert, Johanna Kleinekorte, Raoul Meys, André Sternberg, André Bardow, Walter Leitner
CO2 conversion covers a wide range of possible application areas from fuels to bulk and commodity chemicals and even to specialty products with biological activity such as pharmaceuticals. In the present review, we discuss selected examples in these areas in a combined analysis of the state-of-the-art of synthetic methodologies and processes with their life cycle assessment. Thereby, we attempted to assess the potential to reduce the environmental footprint in these application fields relative to the current petrochemical value chain...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218563/a-practical-guide-to-ispot-modeling-an-integrative-structural-biology-platform
#5
An Hsieh, Lanyuan Lu, Mark R Chance, Sichun Yang
Integrative structure modeling is an emerging method for structural determination of protein-protein complexes that are challenging for conventional structural techniques. Here, we provide a practical protocol for implementing our integrated iSPOT platform by integrating three different biophysical techniques: small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), hydroxyl radical footprinting, and computational docking simulations. Specifically, individual techniques are described from experimental and/or computational perspectives, and complementary structural information from these different techniques are integrated for accurate characterization of the structures of large protein-protein complexes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217731/genome-wide-analysis-of-grain-yield-stability-and-environmental-interactions-in-a-multiparental-soybean-population
#6
Alencar Xavier, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Vishnu Ramasubramanian, James E Specht, George L Graef, William D Beavis, Brian W Diers, Qijian Song, Perry Cregan, Randall Nelson, Rouf Mian, J G Shannon, Leah McHale, Dechun Wang, William Schapaugh, Aaron J Lorenz, Shizhong Xu, William Muir, Katy M Rainey
Genetic improvement towards optimized and stable agronomic performance of soybean genotypes is desirable for food security. Understanding how genotypes perform in different environmental conditions helps breeders develop sustainable cultivars adapted to target regions. Complex traits of importance are known to be controlled by a large number of genomic regions with small effects whose magnitude and direction are modulated by environmental factors. Knowledge of the constraints and undesirable effects resulting from genotype by environmental interactions is a key objective in improving selection procedures in soybean breeding programs...
December 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216951/-design-and-application-of-portable-rescue-vehicle
#7
Ying Guo, Huaying Qi, Shen Wang
The disease of critically ill patients was with rapid changes, and at any time faced the risk of emergency. The current commonly used rescue vehicles were larger and bulky implementation, which were not conducive to the operation, therefore the design of a portable rescue vehicle was needed. This new type of rescue vehicle is multi-layer folding structure, with small footprint, large storage space, so a variety of first aid things can be classified and put, easy to be cleaned and disinfected. In the rescue process, the portable rescue vehicles can be placed in the required position; box of various emergency items can be found at a glance with easy access; the height of the infusion stand can adjust freely according to the user height; the rescue vehicle handle can be easy to pull and adjust accord with human body mechanics principle...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216242/the-oxyr-regulated-phnw-gene-encoding-2-aminoethylphosphonate-pyruvate-aminotransferase-helps-protect-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-tert-butyl-hydroperoxide
#8
Warunya Panmanee, Nisanart Charoenlap, Sopapan Atichartpongkul, Aekkapol Mahavihakanont, Matthew D Whiteside, Geoff Winsor, Fiona S L Brinkman, Skorn Mongkolsuk, Daniel J Hassett
The LysR member of bacterial transactivators, OxyR, governs transcription of genes involved in the response to H2O2 and organic (alkyl) hydroperoxides (AHP) in the Gram-negative pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We have previously shown that organisms lacking OxyR are rapidly killed by <2 or 500 mM H2O2 in planktonic and biofilm bacteria, respectively. In this study, we first employed a bioinformatic approach to elucidate the potential regulatory breadth of OxyR by scanning the entire P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome for canonical OxyR promoter recognition sequences (ATAG-N7-CTAT-N7-ATAG-N7-CTAT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216143/ultra-compact-waveguide-crossing-for-a-mode-division-multiplexing-optical-network
#9
Chunlei Sun, Yu Yu, Xinliang Zhang
We propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultra-compact multimode waveguide crossing that can process two modes simultaneously. The symmetric Y-junction is introduced to split the high-order modes into fundamental ones, easing the subsequent processing. The footprint of the proposed crossing is as compact as 21  μm×21  μm. The measured results show an insertion loss of ∼1.82  dB for the TE0 mode and ∼0.46  dB for the TE1 mode at 1550 nm, as well as a crosstalk of <-18  dB from 1510 to 1600 nm...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214919/effect-of-total-contact-orthosis-on-medial-longitudinal-arch-and-lower-extremities-in-flexible-flatfoot-subjects-during-walking
#10
Tulaya Prachgosin, Wipawan Leelasamran, Pruittikorn Smithmaitrie, Surapong Chatpun
BACKGROUND: Total-contact orthosis (TCO) is one kind of foot orthosis (FO) that is used to adjust biomechanics in flexible flatfoot. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a TCO on the MLA moment, MLA deformation angle and lower limb biomechanics. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Seven-flatfoot and thirteen-normal foot subjects were recruited by footprint and radiographs. The biomechanics of subjects with normal foot (NF), flatfoot with shoe only (FWOT) and flatfoot with TCO (FWT) were collected in a 3D motion analysis laboratory and force plates...
December 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214829/promoting-stair-climbing-in-a-worksite-and-public-setting-are-footprints-enough
#11
Ann-Sophie Van Hoecke, Jan Seghers, Filip Boen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of footprints on stair climbing in different settings. DESIGN: Interrupted time-series design. SETTING: A company (stair/elevator choice) and a mall (stair/escalator choice). PARTICIPANTS: Employees (n = 5676) and visitors of the mall (n = 12 623). INTERVENTION: An intervention comprising 3 consecutive phases was implemented-(1) footprints leading to the stairs were stuck on the floor, (2) a health message referring to the footprints was introduced, and (3) passersby were congratulated for their increased stair use...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212006/reconstruction-of-cell-focal-adhesions-using-physical-constraints-and-compressive-regularization
#12
Joshua C Chang, Yanli Liu, Tom Chou
We develop a method to reconstruct, from measured displacements of an underlying elastic substrate, the spatially dependent forces that cells or tissues impart on it. Given newly available high-resolution images of substrate displacements, it is desirable to be able to reconstruct small-scale, compactly supported focal adhesions that are often localized and exist only within the footprint of a cell. In addition to the standard quadratic data mismatch terms that define least-squares fitting, we motivate a regularization term in the objective function that penalizes vectorial invariants of the reconstructed surface stress while preserving boundaries...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211758/rubus-a-compiler-for-seamless-and-extensible-parallelism
#13
Muhammad Adnan, Faisal Aslam, Zubair Nawaz, Syed Mansoor Sarwar
Nowadays, a typical processor may have multiple processing cores on a single chip. Furthermore, a special purpose processing unit called Graphic Processing Unit (GPU), originally designed for 2D/3D games, is now available for general purpose use in computers and mobile devices. However, the traditional programming languages which were designed to work with machines having single core CPUs, cannot utilize the parallelism available on multi-core processors efficiently. Therefore, to exploit the extraordinary processing power of multi-core processors, researchers are working on new tools and techniques to facilitate parallel programming...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211501/viral-subversion-of-apobec3s-lessons-for-anti-tumor-immunity-and-tumor-immunotherapy
#14
Faezeh Borzooee, Mahdi Asgharpour, Emma Quinlan, Michael D Grant, Mani Larijani
APOBEC3s (A3) are endogenous DNA-editing enzymes that are expressed in immune cells including T lymphocytes. A3s target and mutate the genomes of retroviruses that infect immune tissues such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, A3s were classically defined as host anti-viral innate immune factors. In contrast, we and others showed that A3s can also benefit the virus by mediating escape from adaptive immune recognition and drugs. Crucially, whether A3-mediated mutations help or hinder HIV, is not up to chance...
December 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211035/high-resolution-structure-analysis-of-antibody-v5-and-u4-conformational-epitopes-on-human-papillomavirus-16
#15
Jian Guan, Stephanie M Bywaters, Sarah A Brendle, Robert E Ashley, Alexander M Makhov, James F Conway, Neil D Christensen, Susan Hafenstein
Cancers attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) place a huge burden on the health of both men and women. The current commercial vaccines are genotype specific and provide little therapeutic benefit to patients with existing HPV infections. Identifying the conformational epitopes on the virus capsid supports the development of improved recombinant vaccines to maximize long-term protection against multiple types of HPV. Fragments of antibody (Fab) digested from the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies H16.V5 (V5) and H16...
December 6, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210762/decentralization-the-corridor-is-the-problem-not-the-alcove
#16
D Kirk Hamilton, Sandra M Swoboda, Jin-Ting Lee, Diana C Anderson
There is controversy today about whether decentralized intensive care unit (ICU) designs featuring alcoves and multiple sites for charting are effective. There are issues relating to travel distance, visibility of patients, visibility of staff colleagues, and communications among caregivers, along with concerns about safety risk. When these designs became possible and popular, many ICU designs moved away from the high-visibility circular, semicircular, or box-like shapes and began to feature units with more linear shapes and footprints similar to acute bed units...
January 2018: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209312/dual-molecular-mechanisms-govern-escape-at-immunodominant-hla-a2-restricted-hiv-epitope
#17
David K Cole, Anna Fuller, Garry Dolton, Efthalia Zervoudi, Mateusz Legut, Kim Miles, Lori Blanchfield, Florian Madura, Christopher J Holland, Anna M Bulek, John S Bridgeman, John J Miles, Andrea J A Schauenburg, Konrad Beck, Brian D Evavold, Pierre J Rizkallah, Andrew K Sewell
Serial accumulation of mutations to fixation in the SLYNTVATL (SL9) immunodominant, HIV p17 Gag-derived, HLA A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope produce the SLFNTIAVL triple mutant "ultimate" escape variant. These mutations in solvent-exposed residues are believed to interfere with TCR recognition, although confirmation has awaited structural verification. Here, we solved a TCR co-complex structure with SL9 and the triple escape mutant to determine the mechanism of immune escape in this eminent system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206982/measures-and-metrics-of-sustainable-diets-with-a-focus-on-milk-yogurt-and-dairy-products
#18
Adam Drewnowski
The 4 domains of sustainable diets are nutrition, economics, society, and the environment. To be sustainable, foods and food patterns need to be nutrient-rich, affordable, culturally acceptable, and sparing of natural resources and the environment. Each sustainability domain has its own measures and metrics. Nutrient density of foods has been assessed through nutrient profiling models, such as the Nutrient-Rich Foods family of scores. The Food Affordability Index, applied to different food groups, has measured both calories and nutrients per penny (kcal/$)...
December 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206898/somatic-mutation-footprinting-reveals-a-unique-tetra-nucleotide-signature-associated-with-intron-exon-boundaries-in-lung-cancer
#19
Samuel Wormald, Anita Lerch, Dmitri Mouradov, Liam O'Connor
Cigarette smoke comprises a large number of carcinogenic substances that can increase DNA mutation load in epithelial cells of the mouth, throat and lungs. While a strong C:A substitution preference is abundant in tobacco-related cancer genomes, detection of complex or less abundant somatic mutation signatures may be confounded by the heterogeneity of carcinogens present in smoke. Tri-nucleotide signatures are defined for a variety of somatic mutation processes, yet the extent to which this configuration optimally defines and discriminates between mutational processes is not clear...
December 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206159/energy-management-in-smart-cities-based-on-internet-of-things-peak-demand-reduction-and-energy-savings
#20
Chinmaya Mahapatra, Akshaya Kumar Moharana, Victor C M Leung
Around the globe, innovation with integrating information and communication technologies (ICT) with physical infrastructure is a top priority for governments in pursuing smart, green living to improve energy efficiency, protect the environment, improve the quality of life, and bolster economy competitiveness. Cities today faces multifarious challenges, among which energy efficiency of homes and residential dwellings is a key requirement. Achieving it successfully with the help of intelligent sensors and contextual systems would help build smart cities of the future...
December 5, 2017: Sensors
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