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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691877/carbon-footprint-of-organic-beef-meat-from-farm-to-fork-a-case-study-of-short-supply-chain
#1
A Vitali, G Grossi, G Martino, U Bernabucci, A Nardone, N Lacetera
BACKGROUND: Sustainability of food systems is one of the big challenges of humans kind in the next years. Local food networks, especially the organic ones, are growing worldwide and few information is known about their carbon footprint. This study was aimed to assess greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions associated to organic local beef supply chain with a cradle to grave approach. RESULTS: The study pointed out an overall burden of 24.46 kg CO2 eq./kg of cooked meat...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687238/a-skull-mounted-robot-with-a-compact-and-lightweight-parallel-mechanism-for-positioning-in-minimally-invasive-neurosurgery
#2
Changsheng Li, Nicolas Kon Kam King, Hongliang Ren
Robotic systems play an increasingly important role in improving feasibility and effectiveness of minimally invasive neurosurgery (MIN). However, large footprint, bulky size, and complex mechanisms limit the clinical application of existing robotic neurosurgery solutions. This paper proposes a novel skull-mounted robot with a compact and lightweight parallel mechanism for positioning of surgical tools in MIN. The system serves as a mechanical guide for automatic positioning of needles, catheters, probes, or electrodes...
April 23, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687115/fabrication-of-a-three-terminal-graphene-nanoelectromechanical-switch-using-two-dimensional-materials
#3
Ngoc Huynh Van, Manoharan Muruganathan, Jothiramalingam Kulothungan, Hiroshi Mizuta
An alternative three-terminal (3T) subthermal subthreshold slope (SS) switch is required to overcome the exponential increase in leakage current with an increase in the drive current of CMOS devices. In this study, we present a 3T graphene nanoelectromechanical (3T-GNEM) switch with a physically isolated channel in the off-state by using heterogeneously stacked two-dimensional (2D) materials. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) was used as a dielectric layer, and graphene was used as a the top double-clamped beam drain, gate and source electrode material; the drain, gate, and source layers were stacked vertically to achieve a small footprint...
April 24, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685838/shear-wave-elastography-can-predict-passive-stiffness-of-supraspinatus-musculotendinous-unit-during-arthroscopic-rotator-cuff-repair-for-presurgical-planning
#4
Yoshiaki Itoigawa, Yuichiro Maruyama, Takayuki Kawasaki, Tomoki Wada, Keiichi Yoshida, Kai-Nan An, Kazuo Kaneko
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) with B-mode ultrasound in predicting the stiffness of the rotator cuff muscle before arthroscopic rotator cuff repair to evaluate the difficulty of the surgical procedure, as well as to compare SWE with the Goutallier stage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with a full-thickness supraspinatus tear requiring arthroscopic rotator cuff repair participated. The Goutallier stage of fatty infiltration on MRI was measured before surgery, as was the SWE modulus of the anterior superficial, anterior deep, posterior superficial, and posterior deep (PD) regions of the supraspinatus muscle...
April 20, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684781/effect-of-crumb-rubber-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-crushed-recycled-pavement-materials
#5
Jie Li, Mohammad Saberian, Bao Thach Nguyen
The low-carbon footprint of using recycled construction and demolition (C&D) aggregates in civil engineering infrastructure applications has been considered to be a significant solution for the replacement of conventional pavement aggregates. Investigations regarding the use of crumb rubber in the base and subbase layers of pavement have been well documented. However, information on the effects of crumb rubber and its size within C&D aggregates as the base/subbase layers is still very limited. In this study, crumb rubber with particle sizes ranging from 400 to 600 μm (fine) to 10-15 mm (coarse), 20 mm recycled crushed concrete (RCC), and 20 mm crushed rock (CR) were used...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684192/the-exon-intron-gene-structure-upstream-of-the-initiation-codon-predicts-translation-efficiency
#6
Chun Shen Lim, Samuel J T Wardell, Torsten Kleffmann, Chris M Brown
Introns in mRNA leaders are common in complex eukaryotes, but often overlooked. These introns are spliced out before translation, leaving exon-exon junctions in the mRNA leaders (leader EEJs). Our multi-omic approach shows that the number of leader EEJs inversely correlates with the main protein translation, as does the number of upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Across the five species studied, the lowest levels of translation were observed for mRNAs with both leader EEJs and uORFs (29%). This class of mRNAs also have ribosome footprints on uORFs, with strong triplet periodicity indicating uORF translation...
April 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683315/all-printed-self-aligned-carbon-nanotube-thin-film-transistors-on-imprinted-plastic-substrates
#7
Donghoon Song, Fazel Zare Bidoky, Woo Jin Hyun, Steven Brett Walker, Jennifer A Lewis, C Daniel Frisbie
We present a self-aligned process for printing thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic with singled walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks as the channel material. The SCALE process (self-aligned capillarity assisted lithography for electronics) combines imprint lithography with inkjet printing. Specifically, inks are jetted into imprinted reservoirs, where they then flow into narrow device cavities due to capillarity. Here, we incorporate a composite high-k gate dielectric and an aligned conducting polymer gate electrode in the SCALE process to enable a smaller areal footprint than prior designs that yields low voltage SWCNT TFTs with average p-type carrier mobilities of 4 cm2 /V·s and ON/OFF current ratios of 104 ...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682852/novel-in-silico-multivariate-mapping-of-intrinsic-and-anticorrelated-connectivity-to-neurocognitive-functional-maps-supports-the-maturational-hypothesis-of-adhd
#8
Nina de Lacy, Ian Kodish, Srinivas Rachakonda, Vince D Calhoun
From childhood to adolescence, strengthened coupling in frontal, striatal and parieto-temporal regions associated with cognitive control, and increased anticorrelation between task-positive and task-negative circuits, subserve the reshaping of behavior. ADHD is a common condition peaking in adolescence and regressing in adulthood, with a wide variety of cognitive control deficits. Alternate hypotheses of ADHD emphasize lagging circuitry refinement versus categorical differences in network function. However, quantifying the individual circuit contributions to behavioral findings, and relative roles of maturational versus categorical effects, is challenging in vivo or in meta-analyses using task-based paradigms within the same pipeline, given the multiplicity of neurobehavioral functions implicated...
April 22, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680543/offshore-pipeline-decommissioning-scale-and-context
#9
Sally Rouse, Peter Hayes, Ian M Davies, Thomas A Wilding
The spatial extent of human activities must be understood for consistent and proportionate regulation, and effective marine planning. Redundant offshore pipelines can be removed or left in situ, but data on the footprint of these options are not readily available. The extents of three North Sea in situ decommissioning scenarios are presented. Leaving pipelines in situ would occupy <0.01% (12.3 km2 ) of UK waters, and this was similar to, or smaller than, other regulated activities (e.g. aggregate extraction)...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679833/the-contribution-of-cattle-urine-and-dung-to-nitrous-oxide-emissions-quantification-of-country-specific-emission-factors-and-implications-for-national-inventories
#10
D R Chadwick, L M Cardenas, M S Dhanoa, N Donovan, T Misselbrook, J R Williams, R E Thorman, K L McGeough, C J Watson, M Bell, S G Anthony, R M Rees
Urine patches and dung pats from grazing livestock create hotspots for production and emission of the greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O), and represent a large proportion of total N2 O emissions in many national agricultural greenhouse gas inventories. As such, there is much interest in developing country specific N2 O emission factors (EFs) for excretal nitrogen (EF3, pasture, range and paddock) deposited during gazing. The aims of this study were to generate separate N2 O emissions data for cattle derived urine and dung, to provide an evidence base for the generation of a country specific EF for the UK from this nitrogen source...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677181/exploiting-glycan-topography-for-computational-design-of-env-glycoprotein-antigenicity
#11
Wen-Han Yu, Peng Zhao, Monia Draghi, Claudia Arevalo, Christina B Karsten, Todd J Suscovich, Bronwyn Gunn, Hendrik Streeck, Abraham L Brass, Michael Tiemeyer, Michael Seaman, John R Mascola, Lance Wells, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Galit Alter
Mounting evidence suggests that glycans, rather than merely serving as a "shield", contribute critically to antigenicity of the HIV envelope (Env) glycoprotein, representing critical antigenic determinants for many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). While many studies have focused on defining the role of individual glycans or groups of proximal glycans in bNAb binding, little is known about the effects of changes in the overall glycan landscape in modulating antibody access and Env antigenicity...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675154/inedible-saccharides-a-platform-for-co-2-capturing
#12
REVIEW
Abdussalam K Qaroush, Hiba S Alshamaly, Shrouq S Alazzeh, Ream H Abeskhron, Khaleel I Assaf, Ala'a F Eftaiha
The economic viability of eco-friendly and renewable materials promotes the development of an alternative technology for climate change mitigation. Investigations reported over the past few years have allowed understanding the mechanism of action for a wide spectrum of saccharides toward carbon dioxide (CO2 ), in terms of reactivity, reversibility, stability and uptake. Exploiting bio-renewables, viz. , inedible saccharides, to reduce the anthropogenic carbon footprint upon providing a sustainable and promising technology that is of interest to different groups of scientists, to overcome demerits associated with the current state-of-the-art aqueous amine scrubbing agents, following a "green chemistry guideline", by employing materials with properties relevant to the environment toward sustainable development...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672625/mechanistic-studies-of-depr-in-regulating-fk228-biosynthesis-in-chromobacterium-violaceum-no-968
#13
Yongjian Qiao, Tiantian Tong, Jiao Xue, Wenjing Lin, Zixin Deng, Yi-Qiang Cheng, Dongqing Zhu
DepR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator encoded by the last gene of the putative min operon (orf21-20-19-depR) located at the downstream region of the anticancer agent FK228 biosynthetic gene cluster in Chromobacterium violaceum No. 968, positively regulates the biosynthesis of FK228. In this work, the mechanism underlining this positive regulation was probed by multiple approaches. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNase I footprinting assay (DIFA) identified a conserved 35-nt DNA segment in the orf21-orf22 intergenic region where the purified recombinant DepR binds to...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669837/amino-acid-substitutions-within-hla-b-27-restricted-t-cell-epitopes-prevent-recognition-by-hepatitis-delta-virus-specific-cd8-t-cells
#14
Hadi Karimzadeh, Muthamia M Kiraithe, Anna D Kosinska, Manuel Glaser, Melanie Fiedler, Valerie Oberhardt, Elahe Salimi Alizei, Maike Hofmann, Juk Yee Mok, Melanie Nguyen, Wim J E van Esch, Bettina Budeus, Jan Grabowski, Maria Homs, Antonella Olivero, Hossein Keyvani, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, David Tabernero, Maria Buti, Andreas Heinold, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Tanja Bauer, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Bijan Raziorrouh, Daniel Hoffmann, Antonina Smedile, Mario Rizzetto, Heiner Wedemeyer, Jörg Timm, Iris Antes, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Ulrike Protzer, Michael Roggendorf
Virus-specific CD8 T-cell response seems to play a significant role in the outcome of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection. However, the HDV-specific T-cell epitope repertoire and mechanisms of CD8 T-cell failure in HDV infection have merely been characterized. We therefore aimed to characterize HDV-specific CD8 T cell epitopes and the impact of viral mutations on immune escape. In this study, we predicted peptide epitopes binding the most frequent HLA types and assessed their HLA binding capacity. These epitopes were characterized in HDV-infected patients by intracellular IFN-γ staining...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669443/arthroscopic-knotless-single-row-repair-preserving-full-footprint-versus-tear-completion-repair-for-partial-articular-sided-rotator-cuff-tear
#15
Cen Tao Liu, Heng An Ge, Rui Hu, Jing Biao Huang, Yi Chao Cheng, Min Wang, Peng Wu, Biao Cheng
BACKGROUND: The comparison of clinical outcomes of arthroscopic footprint-preserving knotless single-row repair with the tear completion repair technique for articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 68 patients diagnosed with articular-sided PTRCTs who underwent rotator cuff repair between December 2014 and June 2015 were included. Of the 68 patients, 30 received footprint-preserving knotless single-row repair (group 1) and 38 received the tear completion repair technique (group 2)...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666290/viral-diversity-of-house-mice-in-new-york-city
#16
Simon H Williams, Xiaoyu Che, Joel A Garcia, John D Klena, Bohyun Lee, Dorothy Muller, Werner Ulrich, Robert M Corrigan, Stuart Nichol, Komal Jain, W Ian Lipkin
The microbiome of wild Mus musculus (house mouse), a globally distributed invasive pest that resides in close contact with humans in urban centers, is largely unexplored. Here, we report analysis of the fecal virome of house mice in residential buildings in New York City, NY. Mice were collected at seven sites in Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx over a period of 1 year. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing of feces revealed 36 viruses from 18 families and 21 genera, including at least 6 novel viruses and 3 novel genera...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664827/skin-graft-fixation-using-hydrofiber-aquacel%C3%A2-extra
#17
Ya-Hui Yen, Chih-Ming Lin, Honda Hsu, Ying-Chen Chen, Yi-Wen Chen, Wan-Yu Li, Chia-Nan Hsieh, Chieh-Chi Huang
BACKGROUND: The traditional method of skin graft fixation is with tie-over bollus dressing. The use of splints in the extremities for skin graft fixation is a common practice. However, these splints are heavy and uncomfortable and contribute considerably to our overall medical waste. Hydrofiber (Aquacel Extra) has a strong fluid absorption property and fixates well to the underlying wound once applied. In this study, we used hydrofiber for fixation, avoiding the use of splints after skin grafting...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663323/single-pass-diafiltration-integrated-into-a-fully-continuous-mab-purification-process
#18
Joanna Rucker-Pezzini, Lindsay Arnold, Kevin Hill-Byrne, Tom Sharp, Maksim Avazhanskiy, Chris Forespring
The concept of continuous manufacturing has gained significant interest from the biopharmaceutical industry over the past several years. Benefits include increased manufacturing productivity, improved quality control, reduction in plant footprint, and more flexible management of facility capacity. There are several technologies currently available that enable continuous processing for chromatography and ultrafiltration. However, a single pass diafiltration design that meets the required small molecule clearance and has been integrated into a fully continuous monoclonal antibody purification process has not been previously published...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662838/the-cpxa-cpxr-two-component-system-affects-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-in-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#19
Huan Li, Feng Liu, Wei Peng, Kang Yan, Haixu Zhao, Ting Liu, Hui Cheng, Peixi Chang, Fangyan Yuan, Huanchun Chen, Weicheng Bei
Gram-negative bacteria have evolved numerous two-component systems (TCSs) to cope with external environmental changes. The CpxA/CpxR TCS consisting of the kinase CpxA and the regulator CpxR, is known to be involved in the biofilm formation and virulence of Escherichia coli . However, the role of CpxA/CpxR remained unclear in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , a bacterial pathogen that can cause porcine contagious pleuropneumonia (PCP). In this report, we show that CpxA/CpxR contributes to the biofilm formation ability of A...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662170/c-maf-controls-immune-responses-by-regulating-disease-specific-gene-networks-and-repressing-il-2-in-cd4-t-cells
#20
Leona Gabryšová, Marisol Alvarez-Martinez, Raphaëlle Luisier, Luke S Cox, Jan Sodenkamp, Caroline Hosking, Damián Pérez-Mazliah, Charlotte Whicher, Yashaswini Kannan, Krzysztof Potempa, Xuemei Wu, Leena Bhaw, Hagen Wende, Michael H Sieweke, Greg Elgar, Mark Wilson, James Briscoe, Vicki Metzis, Jean Langhorne, Nicholas M Luscombe, Anne O'Garra
The transcription factor c-Maf induces the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in CD4+ T cells in vitro. However, the global effects of c-Maf on diverse immune responses in vivo are unknown. Here we found that c-Maf regulated IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells in disease models involving the TH 1 subset of helper T cells (malaria), TH 2 cells (allergy) and TH 17 cells (autoimmunity) in vivo. Although mice with c-Maf deficiency targeted to T cells showed greater pathology in TH 1 and TH 2 responses, TH 17 cell-mediated pathology was reduced in this context, with an accompanying decrease in TH 17 cells and increase in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells...
April 16, 2018: Nature Immunology
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