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Antoine Prandota Trzcinski, Lily Ganda, Chinagarn Kunacheva, Dong Qing Zhang, Li Leonard Lin, Guihe Tao, Yingjie Lee, Wun Jern Ng
In light of global warming mitigation efforts, increasing sludge disposal costs, and need for reduction in the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plants, innovation in treatment technology has been tailored towards energy self-sufficiency. The AB process is a promising technology for achieving maximal energy recovery from wastewaters with minimum energy expenditure and therefore inherently reducing excess sludge production. Characterization of this novel sludge and its comparison with the more conventional B-stage sludge are necessary for a deeper understanding of AB treatment process design...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jonathan W Moore, Julian D Olden
Integrating knowledge of environmental degradation, biodiversity change, and ecosystem processes across large spatial scales remains a key challenge to illuminating the resilience of Earth's systems. There is now a growing realization that the manner in which communities will respond to anthropogenic impacts will ultimately control the ecosystem consequences. Here we examine the response of freshwater fishes and their nutrient excretion - a key ecosystem process that can control aquatic productivity - to human land development across the contiguous United States...
October 20, 2016: Global Change Biology
Stefan Wanning, Richard Süverkrüp, Alf Lamprecht
In spray freeze-srying (SFD), a solution is sprayed into a refrigerant medium, frozen, and subsequently sublimation dried, which allows the production of flowable lyophilized powders. SFD allows commonly freeze-dried active pharmaceutical ingredients (e.g., proteins and peptides) to be delivered using new applications such as needle-free injection and nasal or pulmonary drug delivery. In this study, a droplet stream was injected into a vortex of cold gas in order to reduce the risk of droplet collisions and therefore droplet growth before congelation, which adversely affects the particle size distribution...
October 19, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Hamid Abbasi, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn, Charles P Unsworth
Currently, there are no developed methods to detect sharp wave transients that exist in the latent phase after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) in order to determine if these micro-scale transients are potential biomarkers of HI. A major issue with sharp waves in the HI-EEG is that they possess a large variability in their sharp wave profile making it difficult to build a compact 'footprint of uncertainty' (FOU) required for ideal performance of a Type-2 fuzzy logic system (FLS) classifier...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
Juliana Blin, Emiliano P Ricci
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques have revolutionized most biomedical research fields over the past decade by allowing a broader vision on biological processes that occur at the molecular level. Among these, ribosome profiling or footprinting is a powerful tool to study mRNA translation in a transcriptome-wide manner. Ribosome profiling has been used to study the impact of translational control of gene expression under many different cellular conditions including viral infections. Indeed, translation is a critical step during the viral replication cycle in which the infected cell is embezzled to produce viral proteins...
October 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
J F Cors, A Stucki, G V Kaigala
We present a new, general concept termed Hydrodynamic Thermal Confinement (HTC), and its implementation for the creation of microscale dynamic thermo-chemical microenvironments on biological surfaces. HTC is based on a scanning probe and operates under physiological conditions. The temperature can be regulated between 30° and 80 °C with ±0.2 °C precision and temperature ramps of 5 °C s(-1) over a footprint of ∼50 μm × 80 μm in a volume of ∼50 × 80 × 15 μm(3) (∼50 pl).
October 19, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Buyong Ma, Ruth Nussinov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Michael D Caggiano, Wade T Tinkham, Chad Hoffman, Antony S Cheng, Todd J Hawbaker
The wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where human development encroaches on undeveloped land, is expanding throughout the western United States resulting in increased wildfire risk to homes and communities. Although census based mapping efforts have provided insights into the pattern of development and expansion of the WUI at regional and national scales, these approaches do not provide sufficient detail for fine-scale fire and emergency management planning, which requires maps of individual building locations...
October 2016: Heliyon
Luke Pett, Konstantinos Kiakos, Vijay Satam, Pravin Patil, Sarah Laughlin-Toth, Matthew Gregory, Michael Bowerman, Kevin Olson, Mia Savagian, Megan Lee, Moses Lee, W David Wilson, Daniel Hochhauser, John A Hartley
BACKGROUND: Sequence specific polyamide HxIP 1, targeted to the inverted CCAAT Box 2 (ICB2) on the topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) promoter can inhibit NF-Y binding, re-induce gene expression and increase sensitivity to etoposide. To enhance biological activity, diamino-containing derivatives (HxI*P 2 and HxIP* 3) were synthesised incorporating an alkyl amino group at the N1-heterocyclic position of the imidazole/pyrrole. METHODS: DNase I footprinting was used to evaluate DNA binding of the diamino Hx-polyamides, and their ability to disrupt the NF-Y:ICB2 interaction assessed using EMSAs...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Zhijiao Song, Miaomiao Zhang, Fagen Li, Qijie Weng, Chanpin Zhou, Mei Li, Jie Li, Huanhua Huang, Xiaoyong Mo, Siming Gan
Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Naser Amini, Nasim Vousooghi, Mansoureh Soleimani, Ali Samadikuchaksaraei, Mehdi Akbari, Hosein Safakheil, Pezhman Atafimanesh, Ali Shahbazi, Peiman Brouki Milan, Sara Ramezani, Masoud Mozafari, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei
INTRODUCTION: Hemolytic kernicterus, an indirect bilirubin-induced brain dysfunction, is associated with hyper-bilirubinemia in mammalian neonates. In this study, a new model of kernicterus has been developed using intra-peritoneal injections of phenyl hydrazine and subcutaneous injections of sulfisoxazole. These drugs can potentially induce kernicterus in neonatal through changes in hemolysis and hypo-albumin. METHODS: For this purpose, 7-day-old male Wistar rats (n=72; mean weight 11±1 g) were used...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Laetitia Claverie, Anne Ille, Pierre Moretto
The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of discrete sensors under the footprint for accurate plantar pressure analyses. For this purpose, two different sensor layouts have been tested and compared, to determine which was the most accurate to monitor plantar pressure with wireless devices in research and/or clinical practice. Ten healthy volunteers participated in the study (age range: 23-58 years). The barycenter of pressures (BoP) determined from the plantar pressure system (W-inshoe®) was compared to the center of pressures (CoP) determined from a force platform (AMTI) in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions...
October 10, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Jung Ah Choi, Dong-Yeon Kim, Yeong Hwan Seo, Jong-In Han
In this study, Chlorella sorokiniana was successfully cultivated in the recycled medium whose nitrogen was supplied directly from the coagulant, Fe(NO3)3. With a dosage of 0.80g/L, harvesting efficiency of 95% could be achieved. What is more, this amount of nitrate in the coagulant was enough to fully support the growth of C. sorokiniana during the 8day cultivation period, almost as much as the initial nitrogen content in the BG11 culture medium. Other nutrients had to be supplemented, however, with at least 50% amount as in the BG11 recipe...
September 30, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Figen Sisman Nayal, Aydin Mammadov, Nilgun Ciliz
While Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of agricultural goods, it is also, at the same time a net importer of energy carriers. This dichotomy offers a strong incentive to generate energy from agricultural and farming waste; something which could provide energy security for rural areas. Combined with the enhanced energy security for farming areas, the production of energy in this manner could conceivably contribute to the overall national effort to reduce the Turkey's carbon footprint...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Tiziano Gaiotto, Simon E Hufton
Cross-neutralising monoclonal antibodies against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are of considerable interest as both therapeutics and diagnostic tools. We have recently described five different single domain antibodies (nanobodies) which share this cross-neutralising activity and suggest their small size, high stability, and cleft binding properties may present distinct advantages over equivalent conventional antibodies. We have used yeast display in combination with deep mutational scanning to give residue level resolution of positions in the antibody-HA interface which are crucial for binding...
2016: PloS One
Sang C Lee, Jack Zhang, Josh Strom, Danzhou Yang, Thai Nho Dinh, Kyle Kappeler, Qin M Chen
Inhibition of protein synthesis serves as a general measure of cellular consequence to chemical stress. A few proteins are translated selectively and influence cell fate. How these proteins can bypass the general control of translation remains unknown. We found that low to mild doses of oxidants induce de novo translation of NRF2 protein. Here we demonstrate the presence of a G-quadruplex structure in 5' Untranslated Region (5' UTR) of NRF2 mRNA, as measured by Circular Dichroism, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and Dimethylsulfate Footprinting...
October 10, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Hao Zhang, Hong-Sheng Lim, Berhard Knapp, Charlotte M Deane, Milos Aleksic, Omer Dushek, P Anton van der Merwe
The interaction between the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and antigenic peptide in complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is a crucial step in T cell activation. The relative contributions of TCR:peptide and TCR:MHC contacts to the overall binding energy remain unclear. This has important implications for our understanding of T cell development and function. In this study we used site directed mutagenesis to estimate the contribution of HLA-A2 side-chains to the binding of four TCRs. Our results show that these TCRs have very different energetic 'footprints' on HLA-A2, with no residues contributing to all TCR interactions...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jeffrey D Coe, James F Zucherman, Donald W Kucharzyk, Kornelis A Poelstra, Larry E Miller, Sandeep Kunwar
The increasing adoption of minimally invasive techniques for spine surgery in recent years has led to significant advancements in instrumentation for lumbar interbody fusion. Percutaneous pedicle screw fixation is now a mature technology, but the role of expandable cages is still evolving. The capability to deliver a multiexpandable interbody cage with a large footprint through a narrow surgical cannula represents a significant advancement in spinal surgery technology. The purpose of this report is to describe a multiexpandable lumbar interbody fusion cage, including implant characteristics, intended use, surgical technique, preclinical testing, and early clinical experience...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T Nguyen, Justin D Lew, Larry D Teeter, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Blanca I Restrepo, Eric L Brown, Susan E Dorman, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: The TSPOT.TB (TSPOT) diagnostic test for latent tuberculosis infection is based on a cell-mediated response to the Mycobacteria tuberculosis antigens, ESAT-6 and/or CFP-10, producing an "interferon-gamma footprint". We investigated the within-sample and within-subject variability of positive TSPOT assays due to the individual assay antigens' reactivity. METHODS: Positive TSPOT assay frequencies due to ESAT-6 or CFP-10 among health care workers (HCWs) at 6-month intervals for 18 months were compared...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Shawn W Foley, Brian D Gregory
Every eukaryotic RNA transcript undergoes extensive post-transcriptional processing from the moment of transcription up through degradation. This regulation is performed by a distinct cohort of RNA-binding proteins which recognize their target transcript by both its primary sequence and secondary structure. Here, we describe protein interaction profile sequencing (PIP-seq), a technique that uses ribonuclease-based footprinting followed by high-throughput sequencing to globally assess both protein-bound RNA sequences and RNA secondary structure...
October 10, 2016: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
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