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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471208/understanding-biopharmaceutical-production-at-single-nucleotide-resolution-using-ribosome-footprint-profiling
#1
REVIEW
Ioanna Tzani, Craig Monger, Paul Kelly, Niall Barron, Ronan M Kelly, Colin Clarke
Biopharmaceuticals such as monoclonal antibodies have revolutionised the treatment of a variety of diseases. The production of recombinant therapeutic proteins, however, remains expensive due to the manufacturing complexity of mammalian expression systems and the regulatory burden associated with administrating these medicines to patients in a safe and efficacious manner. In recent years, academic and industrial groups have begun to develop a greater understanding of the biology of host cell lines, such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and utilise that information for process development and cell line engineering...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469845/inverse-design-of-optical-elements-based-on-arrays-of-dielectric-spheres
#2
Alan Zhan, Taylor K Fryett, Shane Colburn, Arka Majumdar
Arrays of wavelength scale scatterers are a promising platform for designing optical elements with a compact footprint. The large number of degrees of freedom in this system allows for unique and plentiful functionalities. However, the many variables also create a complex design problem. While intuitive forward design methods work for simple optical elements, they often fail to produce complicated elements, especially those involving multiple elements. We present an inverse design methodology for large arrays of wavelength scale spheres based on both adjoint optimization or sensitivity analysis and generalized multi-sphere Mie theory as a solution to the design problem...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467493/c-jun-ap-1-overexpression-reprograms-er%C3%AE-signaling-related-to-tamoxifen-response-in-er%C3%AE-positive-breast-cancer
#3
Huan He, Indranil Sinha, Rongrong Fan, Lars-Arne Haldosen, Feifei Yan, Chunyan Zhao, Karin Dahlman-Wright
A critical mechanism that has been proposed for transcription regulation by estrogen receptor α (ER) is the tethering of ER to DNA via other transcription factors, such as AP-1. However, genome-wide assessment of the overlap in chromatin binding repertoires of these two transcription factors has not been reported. Here, we show that the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun interacts with ER and that c-Jun chromatin binding shows extensive overlap with ER binding at the global level. Further, we show that c-Jun overexpression reprograms ER chromatin binding and modulates ER-mediated gene regulation...
February 22, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462170/mitochondrial-dna-variants-of-podolian-cattle-breeds-testify-for-a-dual-maternal-origin
#4
Piera Di Lorenzo, Hovirag Lancioni, Simone Ceccobelli, Licia Colli, Irene Cardinali, Taki Karsli, Marco Rosario Capodiferro, Emine Sahin, Luca Ferretti, Paolo Ajmone Marsan, Francesca Maria Sarti, Emiliano Lasagna, Francesco Panella, Alessandro Achilli
BACKGROUND: Over the past 15 years, 300 out of 6000 breeds of all farm animal species identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have gone extinct. Among cattle, many Podolian breeds are seriously endangered in various European areas. Podolian cattle include a group of very ancient European breeds, phenotypically close to the aurochs ancestors (Bos primigenius). The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of Podolian breeds and to reconstruct their origin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460938/spin-encoded-subwavelength-all-optical-logic-gates-based-on-single-element-optical-slot-nanoantennas
#5
Zichen Yang, Yang Fu, Jing Yang, Chuang Hu, Jiasen Zhang
Optical logic gates are important elements in optical computing and optical circuits. However, the footprints of the present optical logic gates are still on the micrometer scale. Further miniaturization of the logic gates to nanometer scale remains challenging. Here we propose, and demonstrate experimentally, subwavelength all-optical logic gates based on single-element optical slot nanoantennas. By employing a spin-encoded scheme, we achieve OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR logic gates via an L-shaped optical slot nanoantenna with a footprint of 300 nm by 300 nm, and a XNOR logic gate via a rectangle optical slot nanoantenna with a footprint of 220 nm by 60 nm...
February 20, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459920/amplification-free-detection-of-dna-in-a-paper-based-microfluidic-device-using-electroosmotically-balanced-isotachophoresis
#6
Tally Rosenfeld, Moran Bercovici
We present a novel microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) which utilizes the native high electroosmotic flow (EOF) in nitrocellulose to achieve stationary isotachophoresis (ITP) focusing. This approach decouples sample accumulation from the length of the channel, resulting in significant focusing over short channel lengths. We provide a brief theory for EOF-balanced ITP focusing under continuous injection from a depleting reservoir and present the design of a short (7 mm) paper-based microfluidic channel, which allows a 200 μL sample to be processed in approximately 6 min, resulting in a 20 000-fold increase in concentration - a full order of magnitude improvement compared to previous paper-based ITP devices...
February 20, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456279/uncertainty-footprint-visualization-of-nonuniform-behavior-of-iterative-algorithms-applied-to-4d-cell-tracking
#7
Y Wan, C Hansen
Research on microscopy data from developing biological samples usually requires tracking individual cells over time. When cells are three-dimensionally and densely packed in a time-dependent scan of volumes, tracking results can become unreliable and uncertain. Not only are cell segmentation results often inaccurate to start with, but it also lacks a simple method to evaluate the tracking outcome. Previous cell tracking methods have been validated against benchmark data from real scans or artificial data, whose ground truth results are established by manual work or simulation...
June 2017: Computer Graphics Forum: Journal of the European Association for Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455450/update-evidence-of-a-broad-histamine-footprint-on-the-human-exercise-transcriptome
#8
Steven A Romero, Austin D Hocker, Joshua E Mangum, Meredith J Luttrell, Douglas W Turnbull, Adam J Struck, Matthew R Ely, Dylan C Sieck, Hans C Dreyer, John R Halliwill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453119/an-analysis-of-environmental-incidents-for-a-national-antarctic-program
#9
Shaun T Brooks, Julia Jabour, Andy J Sharman, Dana M Bergstrom
Research stations in Antarctica are concentrated on scarce ice-free habitats. Operating these stations in the harsh Antarctic climate provides many challenges, including the need to handle bulk fuel and cargo increasing the risk of environmental incidents. We examined 195 reports of environmental incidents from the Australian Antarctic Program, spanning six years, to investigate the impacts and pathways of contemporary environmental incidents. Fuel and chemical spills were most common, followed by biosecurity incursions...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450991/mass-spectrometry-based-fast-photochemical-oxidation-of-proteins-fpop-for-higher-order-structure-characterization
#10
Ke Sherry Li, Liuqing Shi, Michael L Gross
Assessment of protein structure and interaction is crucial for understanding protein structure/function relationships. Compared to high-resolution structural tools, including X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and cryo-EM, and traditional low-resolution methods, such as circular dichroism, UV-vis, and florescence spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS)-based protein footprinting affords medium-to-high resolution (i.e., regional and residue-specific insights) by taking advantage of proteomics methods focused on the primary structure...
February 16, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450567/coronal-tibial-anteromedial-tunnel-location-has-minimal-effect-on-knee-biomechanics
#11
Shigehiro Asai, Donghwi Kim, Yuichi Hoshino, Chan-Woong Moon, Akira Maeyama, Monica Linde, Patrick Smolinski, Freddie H Fu
PURPOSE: Studies have found anatomic variation in the coronal position of the insertion site of anteromedial (AM) bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) on the tibia, which can lead to questions about tunnel placement during ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine how mediolateral placement of the tibial AM graft tunnel in double-bundle ACL reconstructions affects knee biomechanics. METHODS: Two different types of double-bundle ACL reconstructions were performed...
February 15, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446497/specific-interaction-sites-determine-differential-adsorption-of-protein-structural-isomers-to-nanoparticle-surfaces
#12
Andrea Bortot, Serena Zanzoni, Mariapina D'Onofrio, Michael Assfalg
In biological milieus, nanoparticles (NPs) elicit bioactivity upon interaction with proteins. As a result of post-translational modification, proteins occur in a variety of alternative covalent forms, including structural isomers, which present unique molecular surfaces. We aimed at a detailed description of the recognition of protein isomeric species by NP surfaces. The transient adsorption of isomeric Ub dimers to NPs was investigated by solution NMR spectroscopy. Lys63-linked Ub2 and Lys48-linked Ub2 adsorbed to large anionic NPs with different affinity, while the binding strength was similar in the case of smaller particles...
February 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446125/feasibility-of-high-spatiotemporal-resolution-for-an-abbreviated-3d-radial-breast-mri-protocol
#13
Jorge E Jimenez, Roberta M Strigel, Kevin M Johnson, Leah C Henze Bancroft, Scott B Reeder, Walter F Block
PURPOSE: To develop a volumetric imaging technique with 0.8-mm isotropic resolution and 10-s/volume rate to detect and analyze breast lesions in a bilateral, dynamic, contrast-enhanced MRI exam. METHODS: A local low-rank temporal reconstruction approach that also uses parallel imaging and spatial compressed sensing was designed to create rapid volumetric frame rates during a contrast-enhanced breast exam (vastly undersampled isotropic projection [VIPR] spatial compressed sensing with temporal local low-rank [STELLR])...
February 14, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445972/design-and-validation-of-an-osteochondral-bioreactor-for-the-screening-of-treatments-for-osteoarthritis
#14
Derek A Nichols, Inderbir S Sondh, Steven R Litte, Paolo Zunino, Riccardo Gottardi
Bioreactors are systems that can be used to monitor the response of tissues and cells to candidate drugs. Building on the experience developed in the creation of an osteochondral bioreactor, we have designed a new 3D printed system, which allows optical access to the cells throughout testing for in line monitoring. Because of the use of 3D printing, the fluidics could be developed in the third dimension, thus maintaining the footprint of a single well of a typical 96 well plate. This new design was optimized to achieve the maximum fluid transport through the central chamber, which corresponds to optimal nutrient or drug exposure...
February 14, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444758/electron-transfer-process-in-microbial-electrochemical-technologies-the-role-of-cell-surface-exposed-conductive-proteins
#15
REVIEW
Nazua L Costa, Thomas A Clarke, Laura-Alina Philipp, Johannes Gescher, Ricardo O Louro, Catarina M Paquete
Electroactive microorganisms have attracted significant interest for the development of novel biotechnological systems of low ecological footprint. These can be used for the sustainable production of energy, bioremediation of metal-contaminated environments and production of added-value products. Currently, almost 100 microorganisms from the Bacterial and Archaeal domains are considered electroactive, given their ability to efficiently interact with electrodes in microbial electrochemical technologies. Cell-surface exposed conductive proteins are key players in the electron transfer between cells and electrodes...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444004/demonstration-of-a-thermo-optic-phase-shifter-by-utilizing-high-q-resonance-in-high-index-contrast-grating
#16
Jiaxin Lv, Xuefan Yin, Jicheng Jin, Haiyang Zhang, Che Zhao, Chao Peng, Weiwei Hu
A thermo-optic phase shifter is proposed and demonstrated by utilizing the high-Q resonance in high-index-contrast grating (HCG). The Q-factor up to ∼12000 is measured in a footprint of 110  μm×300  μm. By heating the HCG with paired metal strip micro-heaters, the optical resonance shifts, which induces phase modulation. A phase shift of ∼1.2π under heating power of ∼32  mW is directly observed and demodulated from the fringes shifting in a Michelson interferometer. The proposed configuration can also be extended to realize high-speed phase shift by adopting electro-optical modulation...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435813/expectations-following-rotator-cuff-surgery
#17
REVIEW
Alejandro Novoa-Boldo, Lawrence V Gulotta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To outline the radiographic and clinical outcomes after a rotator cuff surgery in order to set the expectations with the patient before the surgery to obtain a better outcome, taking into account the factors that can affect the outcome and the technique used for the repair. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of surgeons use arthroscopic repair. The double-row repair has better biomechanical strength, footprint coverage, and radiographic healing rates...
February 13, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433641/in-search-of-the-metabolic-footprint-in-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Manuel Vázquez Carrera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433523/a-clinical-approach-to-new-onset-psychosis-associated-with-immune-dysregulation-the-concept-of-autoimmune-psychosis
#19
Souhel Najjar, Johann Steiner, Amanda Najjar, Karl Bechter
Growing data point to the overlap between psychosis and pathological processes associated with immunological dysregulation as well as inflammation. Notably, the recent discovery of antibodies against synaptic and neuronal cell membrane proteins such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor provides more direct evidence of the etiological connection between autoimmunity and subsequent hazard of psychosis. Here, we advocate the use of term "autoimmune psychosis," as this term suggests that autoimmune disorders can masquerade as drug-resistant primary psychosis, and this subtype of psychosis has anatomical and immunological footprints in the brain, despite the frequent absence of structural abnormalities on conventional brain MRI...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433444/a-novel-short-l-arginine-responsive-protein-coding-gene-laob-antiparallel-overlapping-to-a-cadc-like-transcriptional-regulator-in-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-sakai-originated-by-overprinting
#20
Sarah M Hücker, Sonja Vanderhaeghen, Isabel Abellan-Schneyder, Romy Wecko, Svenja Simon, Siegfried Scherer, Klaus Neuhaus
BACKGROUND: Due to the DNA triplet code, it is possible that the sequences of two or more protein-coding genes overlap to a large degree. However, such non-trivial overlaps are usually excluded by genome annotation pipelines and, thus, only a few overlapping gene pairs have been described in bacteria. In contrast, transcriptome and translatome sequencing reveals many signals originated from the antisense strand of annotated genes, of which we analyzed an example gene pair in more detail...
February 12, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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