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Carol A Casey, Ganapati Bhat, Melissa S Holzapfel, Armen Petrosyan
BACKGROUND: It is known that ethanol (EtOH) and its metabolites have a negative effect on protein glycosylation. The fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus induced by alteration of the structure of largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin, is the major consequence of damaging effects of EtOH-metabolism on the Golgi; however, the link between this and abnormal glycosylation remains unknown. Because previously we have shown that Golgi morphology dictates glycosylation, we examined the effect EtOH administration has on function of Golgi residential enzymes involved in N-glycosylation...
October 17, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Daniel Humphreys, Vikash Singh, Vassilis Koronakis
To establish pathogenicity, bacteria must evade phagocytosis directed by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that macrophages facilitate pathogen phagocytosis through actin polymerization mediated by the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), small GTPases Arf and Rac1, and the Arf1 activator ARNO. To establish extracellular infections, enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli hijack the actin cytoskeleton by injecting virulence effectors into the host cell. Here, we find that the virulence effector EspG counteracts WRC-dependent phagocytosis, enabling EPEC and EHEC to remain extracellular...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Miranda Arnold, Rebecca Cross, Kaela S Singleton, Stephanie Zlatic, Christopher Chapleau, Ariana P Mullin, Isaiah Rolle, Carlene C Moore, Anne Theibert, Lucas Pozzo-Miller, Victor Faundez, Jennifer Larimore
AGAP1 is an Arf1 GTPase activating protein that interacts with the vesicle-associated protein complexes adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) and Biogenesis of Lysosome Related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1). Overexpression of AGAP1 in non-neuronal cells results in an accumulation of endosomal cargoes, which suggests a role in endosome-dependent traffic. In addition, AGAP1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for two neurodevelopmental disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ); yet its localization and function in neurons have not been described...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Shree Ram Singh, Xiankun Zeng, Jiangsha Zhao, Ying Liu, Gerald Hou, Hanhan Liu, Steven X Hou
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumour dormancy, relapse and the eventual death of most cancer patients. In addition, these cells are usually resistant to cytotoxic conditions. However, very little is known about the biology behind this resistance to therapeutics. Here we investigated stem-cell death in the digestive system of adult Drosophila melanogaster. We found that knockdown of the coat protein complex I (COPI)-Arf79F (also known as Arf1) complex selectively killed normal and transformed stem cells through necrosis, by attenuating the lipolysis pathway, but spared differentiated cells...
September 28, 2016: Nature
Jon E Paczkowski, J Christopher Fromme
Protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions play a critical role in shaping biological membranes through direct physical contact with the membrane surface. This is particularly evident in many steps of membrane trafficking, in which proteins deform the membrane and induce fission to form transport carriers. The small GTPase Arf1 and related proteins have the ability to remodel membranes by insertion of an amphipathic helix into the membrane. Arf1 and the exomer cargo adaptor coordinate cargo sorting into subset of secretory vesicle carriers in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Pin Huan, Hongxia Wang, Baozhong Liu
The early development of mollusks exhibits important characteristics from the developmental and evolutionary perspective. With the increasing number of genome-wide studies, accurate analyses of quantitative gene expression during development are impeded by the lack of validated reference genes. To improve the situation, in this study, we analyzed the expression stability of seven candidate housekeeping genes during early development of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas: actin, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate-dehydrogenase (gapdh), α subunit of elongation factor 1 (elf1α), adp-ribosylation factor 1 (arf1), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein q, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme e2d2 and ribosomal protein s18...
August 31, 2016: Genes & Genetic Systems
Emily J Koubek, Lorraine C Santy
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent signaling factor that acts on epithelial cells, causing them to dissociate and scatter. This migration is coordinated by a number of small GTPases, such as ARF6 and Rac1. Active ARF6 is required for HGF-stimulated migration and intracellular levels of ARF6-GTP and Rac1-GTP increase following HGF treatment. During migration, cross talk between ARF6 and Rac1 occurs through formation of a multi-protein complex containing the ARF-GEF cytohesin-2, the scaffolding protein GRASP/Tamalin, and the Rac1-GEF Dock180...
August 12, 2016: Small GTPases
Francisco F Rodrigues, Wei Shao, Tony J C Harris
Biosynthetic traffic from the Golgi drives plasma membrane growth. For Drosophila embryo cleavage, this growth is rapid but regulated for cycles of furrow ingression and regression. The highly conserved small G protein Arf1 organizes Golgi trafficking. Arf1 is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, but essential roles for Arf1 GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are less clear. We report that the conserved Arf GAP Asap is required for cleavage furrow ingression in the early embryo. Because Asap can affect multiple subcellular processes, we used genetic approaches to dissect its primary effect...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Xiayang Xie, Shou-Ching Tang, Yafei Cai, Wenhu Pi, Libin Deng, Guangyu Wu, Alain Chavanieu, Yong Teng
Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death in breast cancer patients, which is controlled by specific sets of genes. Targeting these genes may provide a means to delay cancer progression and allow local treatment to be more effective. We report for the first time that ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is the most amplified gene in ARF gene family in breast cancer, and high-level amplification of ARF1 is associated with increased mRNA expression and poor outcomes of patients with breast cancer. Knockdown of ARF1 leads to significant suppression of migration and invasion in breast cancer cells...
August 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Hernán Martinez, Iris A García, Luciana Sampieri, Cecilia Alvarez
The GTPase Rab1b is involved in ER to Golgi transport, with multiple Rab1b effectors (located at ERES, VTCs and the Golgi complex) being required for its function. In this study, we performed live-cell dual-expression studies to analyze the dynamics of Rab1b and some effectors located at the ERES-Golgi interface. Rab1b occupied widely distributed mobile punctate and tubular structures, displaying a transient overlaps with its effectors and showing that these overlaps occurred at the same time in spatially distinct steps of ER to Golgi transport...
2016: PloS One
Y D Zhong, X Y Sun, E Y Liu, Y Q Li, Z Gao, F X Yu
Liriodendron hybrids (Liriodendron chinense x L. tulipifera) are important landscaping and afforestation hardwood trees. To date, little genomic research on adventitious rooting has been reported in these hybrids, as well as in the genus Liriodendron. In the present study, we used adventitious roots to construct the first cDNA library for Liriodendron hybrids. A total of 5176 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated and clustered into 2921 unigenes. Among these unigenes, 2547 had significant homology to the non-redundant protein database representing a wide variety of putative functions...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Antonio Galindo, Nicolas Soler, Stephen H McLaughlin, Minmin Yu, Roger L Williams, Sean Munro
The GTPase Arf1 is the major regulator of vesicle traffic at both the cis- and trans-Golgi. Arf1 is activated at the cis-Golgi by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) GBF1 and at the trans-Golgi by the related GEF BIG1 or its paralog, BIG2. The trans-Golgi-specific targeting of BIG1 and BIG2 depends on the Arf-like GTPase Arl1. We find that Arl1 binds to the dimerization and cyclophilin binding (DCB) domain in BIG1 and report a crystal structure of human Arl1 bound to this domain. Residues in the DCB domain that bind Arl1 are required for BIG1 to locate to the Golgi in vivo...
July 19, 2016: Cell Reports
Deok-Jin Jang, Yong-Woo Jun, Jaehoon Shim, Su-Eon Sim, Jin-A Lee, Chae-Seok Lim, Bong-Kiun Kaang
ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanosine triphosphatases of the Ras superfamily involved in membrane trafficking and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Aplysia Sec7 protein (ApSec7), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ARF1 and ARF6, induces neurite outgrowth and plays a key role in 5-hydroxyltryptamine-induced neurite growth and synaptic facilitation in Aplysia sensory-motor synapses. However, the specific role of ARF6 signaling on neurite outgrowth in Aplysia neurons has not been examined...
June 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Kentaro Kaneko, Takeshi Takamatsu, Takuya Inomata, Kazusato Oikawa, Kimiko Itoh, Kazuko Hirose, Maho Amano, Shin-Ichiro Nishimura, Kiminori Toyooka, Ken Matsuoka, Javier Pozueta-Romero, Toshiaki Mitsui
Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (NPPs) are widely distributed N-glycosylated enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic breakdown of numerous nucleotides and nucleotide sugars. In many plant species, NPPs are encoded by a small multigene family, which in rice are referred to NPP1-NPP6 Although recent investigations showed that N-glycosylated NPP1 is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi system to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway in rice cells, information on N-glycan composition and subcellular localization of other NPPs is still lacking...
August 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lorissa J Smulan, Wei Ding, Elizaveta Freinkman, Sharvari Gujja, Yvonne J K Edwards, Amy K Walker
Lipogenesis requires coordinated expression of genes for fatty acid, phospholipid, and triglyceride synthesis. Transcription factors, such as SREBP-1 (Sterol regulatory element binding protein), may be activated in response to feedback mechanisms linking gene activation to levels of metabolites in the pathways. SREBPs can be regulated in response to membrane cholesterol and we also found that low levels of phosphatidylcholine (a methylated phospholipid) led to SBP-1/SREBP-1 maturation in C. elegans or mammalian models...
June 28, 2016: Cell Reports
Takayuki Hattori, Miho Watanabe-Takahashi, Isamu Shiina, Yoshimi Ohashi, Shingo Dan, Kiyotaka Nishikawa, Takao Yamori, Mikihiko Naito
Shiga toxin (Stx) is a main virulence factor of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) that contributes to diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis and occasionally to fatal systemic complications. Therefore, the development of an antidote to neutralize Stx toxicity is urgently needed. After internalization into cells, Stx is transferred to the Golgi apparatus via a retrograde vesicular transport system. We report here that 2-methylcoprophilinamide (M-COPA), a compound that induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus by inactivating ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1), suppresses Stx-induced apoptosis...
August 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Brian C Richardson, Steve L Halaby, Margaret A Gustafson, J Christopher Fromme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: ELife
Yafei Duan, Jian Li, Zhe Zhang, Jitao Li, Ping Liu
ADP ribosylation factors (Arf), as highly conserved small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins, participates in intracellular trafficking and organelle structure. In this study, a full-length cDNA of Arf1 (designated EcArf1) was cloned from Exopalaemon carinicauda by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EcArf1 was 1428 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 549 bp, encoding a 182 amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 20...
August 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jason E Davis, Xiayang Xie, Jianhui Guo, Wei Huang, Wen-Ming Chu, Shuang Huang, Yong Teng, Guangyu Wu
ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is a crucial regulator in vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking and involved in the activation of signaling molecules. However, virtually nothing is known about its function in prostate cancer. Here we have demonstrated that ARF1 expression is significantly elevated in prostate cancer cells and human tissues and that the expression levels of ARF1 correlate with the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK1/2. Furthermore, we have shown that overexpression and knockdown of ARF1 produce opposing effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor growth in mouse xenograft models and that ARF1-mediated cell proliferation can be abolished by the Raf1 inhibitor GW5074 and the MEK inhibitors U0126 and PD98059...
May 17, 2016: Oncotarget
B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
Matrix metalloproteinas-9 (MMP-9) is a glycosylated endopeptidase associated with host reaction to microbial endotoxins and also characterizes gastric mucosal inflammatory response to H. pylori infection. Here, we report on the factors involved in gastric mucosal MMP-9 secretion in response to H. pylori LPS, and the effect of hormone, ghrelin. We show that both the LPS-elicited induction in MMP-9 secretion and also the modulatory influence of ghrelin occur at the level of MMP-9 processing between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi...
June 2016: Inflammopharmacology
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