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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196833/characterization-of-the-activation-of-small-gtpases-by-their-gefs-on-membranes-using-artificial-membrane-tethering
#1
François Peurois, Simon Veyron, Yann Ferrandez, Ilham Ladid, Sarah Benabdi, Mahel Zeghouf, Gérald Peyroche, Jacqueline Cherfils
Attachment of active, GTP-bound small GTPases to membranes by post-translational lipid modifications is pivotal for their ability to process and propagate information in cells. However, generating and manipulating lipidated GTPases has remained difficult, which has limited our quantitative understanding of their activation by GEFs and their termination by GAPs. Here we replaced the lipid modification by a histidine tag in eleven full-length, human small GTPases belonging to the Arf, Rho and Rab families, which allowed to tether them to nickel-lipid containing membranes and characterize the kinetics of their activation by GEFs...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192532/role-of-arf-gtpases-in-fungal-morphogenesis-and-virulence
#2
Hayet Labbaoui, Stéphanie Bogliolo, Vikram Ghugtyal, Norma V Solis, Scott G Filler, Robert A Arkowitz, Martine Bassilana
Virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans depends on the switch from budding to filamentous growth, which requires sustained membrane traffic and polarized growth. In many organisms, small GTPases of the Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) family regulate membrane/protein trafficking, yet little is known about their role in fungal filamentous growth. To investigate these GTPases in C. albicans, we generated loss of function mutants in all 3 Arf proteins, Arf1-Arf3, and 2 Arf-like proteins, Arl1 and Arl3...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098897/overexpression-of-arf1-is-associated-with-cell-proliferation-and-migration-through-pi3k-signal-pathway-in-ovarian-cancer
#3
Guifang Gu, Yannan Chen, Chengwei Duan, Linsen Zhou, Caiwen Chen, Jie Chen, Jialin Cheng, Nannan Shi, Yunfeng Jin, Qinghua Xi, Jianxin Zhong
ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is a small G protein that regulates many cellular processes such as reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and is highly expressed in various tumor cells and tissues. However, the role of ARF1 in ovarian cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we explored the expression patterns of ARF1 in clinical ovarian cancer samples and adjacent noncancerous tissues. The results revealed that ARF1 overexpressed in EOC tissues and cell lines, compared with the adjacent non-tumorous tissues and normal ovarian cells...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081213/transcriptome-profiling-to-understand-the-effect-of-citrus-rootstocks-on-the-growth-of-shatangju-mandarin
#4
Xiang-Yu Liu, Juan Li, Meng-Meng Liu, Qing Yao, Jie-Zhong Chen
To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049721/pex35-is-a-regulator-of-peroxisome-abundance
#5
Ido Yofe, Kareem Soliman, Silvia G Chuartzman, Bruce Morgan, Uri Weill, Eden Yifrach, Tobias P Dick, Sara J Cooper, Christer S Ejsing, Maya Schuldiner, Einat Zalckvar, Sven Thoms
Peroxisomes are cellular organelles with vital functions in lipid, amino acid, and redox metabolism. The cellular formation and dynamics of peroxisomes are governed by PEX genes, however, the regulation of peroxisome abundance is yet poorly understood. Here we use a high-content microscopy screen to identify novel regulators of peroxisome size and abundance. Our screen led to the identification of a previously uncharacterized gene, which we term PEX35, which affects peroxisome abundance. PEX35 encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein, a remote homolog to several curvature generating human proteins...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025315/%C3%AE-2-cop-is-involved-in-early-secretory-traffic-in-arabidopsis-and-is-required-for-plant-growth
#6
Fátima Gimeno-Ferrer, Noelia Pastor-Cantizano, César Bernat-Silvestre, Pilar Selvi-Martínez, Francisco Vera-Sirera, Caiji Gao, Miguel Angel Perez-Amador, Liwen Jiang, Fernando Aniento, María Jesús Marcote
COP (coat protein) I-coated vesicles mediate intra-Golgi transport and retrograde transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum. These vesicles form through the action of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) and the COPI heptameric protein complex (coatomer), which consists of seven subunits (α-, β-, β'-, γ-, δ-, ε- and ζ-COP). In contrast to mammals and yeast, several isoforms for coatomer subunits, with the exception of γ and δ, have been identified in Arabidopsis. To understand the role of COPI proteins in plant biology, we have identified and characterized a loss-of-function mutant of α2-COP, an Arabidopsis α-COP isoform...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007918/arf1-at-the-crossroads-of-podosome-construction-and-function
#7
Elisabeth Genot
Podosomes are actin-based proteolytic microdomains of the plasma membrane found in cells that travel across tissues. In this issue, Rafiq et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605104) reveal that the small guanosine triphosphatase ARF1, a well-known orchestrator of membrane traffic at the Golgi, regulates podosome formation, maintenance, and function.
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007915/podosome-assembly-is-controlled-by-the-gtpase-arf1-and-its-nucleotide-exchange-factor-arno
#8
Nisha Bte Mohd Rafiq, Zi Zhao Lieu, Tingting Jiang, Cheng-Han Yu, Paul Matsudaira, Gareth E Jones, Alexander D Bershadsky
Podosomes represent a class of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions formed by migrating and matrix-degrading cells. We demonstrate that in macrophage-like THP1 cells and fibroblasts stimulated to produce podosomes, down-regulation of the G-protein ARF1 or the ARF1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, ARNO, by small, interfering RNA or pharmacological inhibitors led to striking podosome elimination. Concomitantly, treatments inducing podosome formation increased the level of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound ARF1...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004015/influenza-infection-modulates-vesicular-trafficking-and-induces-golgi-complex-disruption
#9
Vibha Yadav, Antonito T Panganiban, Kerstin Honer Zu Bentrup, Thomas G Voss
Influenza A virus (IFV) replicates its genome in the nucleus of infected cells and uses the cellular protein transport system for genome trafficking from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. However, many details of the mechanism of this process, and its relationship to subsequent cytoplasmic virus trafficking, have not been elucidated. We examined the effect of nuclear transport inhibitors Leptomycin B (LB), 5,6 dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), the vesicular transport inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), the caspase inhibitor ZWEHD, and microtubule inhibitor Nocodazole (NOC) on virus replication and intracellular trafficking of viral nucleoprotein (NP) from the nucleus to the ER and Golgi...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003365/impairment-of-cargo-transportation-due-to-gbf1-mutation-disrupts-vascular-integrity-and-causes-hemorrhage-in-zebrafish-embryos
#10
Jing Chen, Xiaotong Wu, Likun Yao, Lu Yan, Lin Zhang, Juhui Qiu, Xingfeng Liu, Shunji Jia, Anming Meng
ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors including Golgi Brefeldin A-resistant factor 1 (Gbf1) and play important roles in regulating organelle structure and cargo-selective vesicle trafficking. However, the developmental role of Gbf1 in vertebrates remains elusive. In this study, we report the zebrafish mutant line tsu3994 that arises from ENU-mediated mutagenesis and is characterized by prominent intracerebral and trunk hemorrhage. The mutant embryos develop hemorrhage accompanied by fewer pigments and shorter caudal fin at day 2 of development...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925692/a-method-to-generate-and-analyze-modified-myristoylated-proteins
#11
Huanyao Gao, Wei Sun, Zhiquan Song, Yanbao Yu, Li Wang, Xian Chen, Qisheng Zhang
Covalent lipid modification of proteins is essential to their cellular localizations and functions. Engineered lipid motifs, coupled with bio-orthogonal chemistry, have been utilized to identify myristoylated or palmitoylated proteins in cells. However, whether modified proteins have similar properties as endogenous ones has not been well investigated mainly due to lack of methods to generate and analyze purified proteins. We have developed a method that utilizes metabolic interference and mass spectrometry to produce and analyze modified, myristoylated small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1)...
February 1, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872253/gtpase-cross-talk-regulates-trappii-activation-of-rab11-homologues-during-vesicle-biogenesis
#12
Laura L Thomas, J Christopher Fromme
Rab guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) control cellular trafficking pathways by regulating vesicle formation, transport, and tethering. Rab11 and its paralogs regulate multiple secretory and endocytic recycling pathways, yet the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rab11 in most eukaryotic cells is unresolved. The large multisubunit transport protein particle (TRAPP) II complex has been proposed to act as a GEF for Rab11 based on genetic evidence, but conflicting biochemical experiments have created uncertainty regarding Rab11 activation...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848911/phospholipase-d-activity-couples-plasma-membrane-endocytosis-with-retromer-dependent-recycling
#13
Rajan Thakur, Aniruddha Panda, Elise Coessens, Nikita Raj, Shweta Yadav, Sruthi Balakrishnan, Qifeng Zhang, Plamen Georgiev, Bishal Basak, Renu Pasricha, Michael Jo Wakelam, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Padinjat Raghu
During illumination, the light-sensitive plasma membrane (rhabdomere) of Drosophila photoreceptors undergoes turnover with consequent changes in size and composition. However, the mechanism by which illumination is coupled to rhabdomere turnover remains unclear. We find that photoreceptors contain a light-dependent phospholipase D (PLD) activity. During illumination, loss of PLD resulted in an enhanced reduction in rhabdomere size, accumulation of Rab7 positive, rhodopsin1-containing vesicles (RLVs) in the cell body and reduced rhodopsin protein...
November 16, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812735/hygromycin-b-hypersensitive-hhy-mutants-implicate-an-intact-trans-golgi-and-late-endosome-interface-in-efficient-tor1-vacuolar-localization-and-torc1-function
#14
Daniele E Ejzykowicz, Kristopher M Locken, Fiona J Ruiz, Surya P Manandhar, Daniel K Olson, Editte Gharakhanian
Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuoles are functionally analogous to mammalian lysosomes. Both also serve as physical platforms for Tor Complex 1 (TORC1) signal transduction, the master regulator of cellular growth and proliferation. Hygromycin B is a eukaryotic translation inhibitor. We recently reported on hygromycin B hypersensitive (hhy) mutants that fail to grow at subtranslation inhibitory concentrations of the drug and exhibit vacuolar defects (Banuelos et al. in Curr Genet 56:121-137, 2010). Here, we show that hhy phenotype is not due to increased sensitivity to translation inhibition and establish a super HHY (s-HHY) subgroup of genes comprised of ARF1, CHC1, DRS2, SAC1, VPS1, VPS34, VPS45, VPS52, and VPS54 that function exclusively or inclusively at trans-Golgi and late endosome interface...
November 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791132/endocytosis-of-wingless-via-a-dynamin-independent-pathway-is-necessary-for-signaling-in-drosophila-wing-discs
#15
Anupama Hemalatha, Chaitra Prabhakara, Satyajit Mayor
Endocytosis of ligand-receptor complexes regulates signal transduction during development. In particular, clathrin and dynamin-dependent endocytosis has been well studied in the context of patterning of the Drosophila wing disc, wherein apically secreted Wingless (Wg) encounters its receptor, DFrizzled2 (DFz2), resulting in a distinctive dorso-ventral pattern of signaling outputs. Here, we directly track the endocytosis of Wg and DFz2 in the wing disc and demonstrate that Wg is endocytosed from the apical surface devoid of DFz2 via a dynamin-independent CLIC/GEEC pathway, regulated by Arf1, Garz, and class I PI3K...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748959/study-of-ethanol-induced-golgi-disorganization-reveals-the-potential-mechanism-of-alcohol-impaired-n-glycosylation
#16
Carol A Casey, Ganapati Bhat, Melissa S Holzapfel, Armen Petrosyan
BACKGROUND: It is known that ethanol (EtOH) and its metabolites have a negative effect on protein glycosylation. The fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus induced by alteration of the structure of largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin, is the major consequence of damaging effects of EtOH-metabolism on the Golgi; however, the link between this and abnormal glycosylation remains unknown. Because previously we have shown that Golgi morphology dictates glycosylation, we examined the effect EtOH administration has on function of Golgi residential enzymes involved in N-glycosylation...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732847/inhibition-of-wave-regulatory-complex-activation-by-a-bacterial-virulence-effector-counteracts-pathogen-phagocytosis
#17
Daniel Humphreys, Vikash Singh, Vassilis Koronakis
To establish pathogenicity, bacteria must evade phagocytosis directed by remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that macrophages facilitate pathogen phagocytosis through actin polymerization mediated by the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), small GTPases Arf and Rac1, and the Arf1 activator ARNO. To establish extracellular infections, enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli hijack the actin cytoskeleton by injecting virulence effectors into the host cell. Here, we find that the virulence effector EspG counteracts WRC-dependent phagocytosis, enabling EPEC and EHEC to remain extracellular...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713690/the-endosome-localized-arf-gap-agap1-modulates-dendritic-spine-morphology-downstream-of-the-neurodevelopmental-disorder-factor-dysbindin
#18
Miranda Arnold, Rebecca Cross, Kaela S Singleton, Stephanie Zlatic, Christopher Chapleau, Ariana P Mullin, Isaiah Rolle, Carlene C Moore, Anne Theibert, Lucas Pozzo-Miller, Victor Faundez, Jennifer Larimore
AGAP1 is an Arf1 GTPase activating protein that interacts with the vesicle-associated protein complexes adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) and Biogenesis of Lysosome Related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1). Overexpression of AGAP1 in non-neuronal cells results in an accumulation of endosomal cargoes, which suggests a role in endosome-dependent traffic. In addition, AGAP1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for two neurodevelopmental disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ); yet its localization and function in neurons have not been described...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680705/the-lipolysis-pathway-sustains-normal-and-transformed-stem-cells-in-adult-drosophila
#19
Shree Ram Singh, Xiankun Zeng, Jiangsha Zhao, Ying Liu, Gerald Hou, Hanhan Liu, Steven X Hou
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) may be responsible for tumour dormancy, relapse and the eventual death of most cancer patients. In addition, these cells are usually resistant to cytotoxic conditions. However, very little is known about the biology behind this resistance to therapeutics. Here we investigated stem-cell death in the digestive system of adult Drosophila melanogaster. We found that knockdown of the coat protein complex I (COPI)-Arf79F (also known as Arf1) complex selectively killed normal and transformed stem cells through necrosis, by attenuating the lipolysis pathway, but spared differentiated cells...
October 6, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632000/analysis-of-arf1-gtpase-dependent-membrane-binding-and-remodeling-using-the-exomer-secretory-vesicle-cargo-adaptor
#20
Jon E Paczkowski, J Christopher Fromme
Protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions play a critical role in shaping biological membranes through direct physical contact with the membrane surface. This is particularly evident in many steps of membrane trafficking, in which proteins deform the membrane and induce fission to form transport carriers. The small GTPase Arf1 and related proteins have the ability to remodel membranes by insertion of an amphipathic helix into the membrane. Arf1 and the exomer cargo adaptor coordinate cargo sorting into subset of secretory vesicle carriers in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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