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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317901/membrane-remodeling-by-the-m2-amphipathic-helix-drives-influenza-virus-membrane-scission
#1
Agnieszka Martyna, Basma Bahsoun, Matthew D Badham, Saipraveen Srinivasan, Mark J Howard, Jeremy S Rossman
Membrane scission is a crucial step in all budding processes, from endocytosis to viral budding. Many proteins have been associated with scission, though the underlying molecular details of how scission is accomplished often remain unknown. Here, we investigate the process of M2-mediated membrane scission during the budding of influenza viruses. Residues 50-61 of the viral M2 protein bind membrane and form an amphipathic α-helix (AH). Membrane binding requires hydrophobic interactions with the lipid tails but not charged interactions with the lipid headgroups...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295320/brefeldin-a-sensitive-mechanisms-contribute-to-endocytotic-membrane-retrieval-and-vesicle-recycling-in-cerebellar-granule-cells
#2
Alberto Rampérez, José Sánchez-Prieto, Magdalena Torres
The recycling of synaptic vesicle (SV) proteins and transmitter release both occur at multiple sites along the axon. These processes are sensitive to inhibition of the small GTP binding protein ARF1, which regulates the AP-1/AP-3 complex. As the axon matures, SV recycling becomes restricted to the presynaptic bouton, and its machinery undergoes a complex process of maturation. We used the styryl dye FM1-43 to highlight differences in the efficiency of membrane recycling at different sites in cerebellar granule cells cultured for 7 days in vitro...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273919/differential-modulation-of-the-cellular-and-humoral-immune-responses-in-drosophila-is-mediated-by-the-endosomal-arf1-asrij-axis
#3
Rohan J Khadilkar, Arindam Ray, D R Chetan, Arghyashree RoyChowdhury Sinha, Srivathsa S Magadi, Vani Kulkarni, Maneesha S Inamdar
How multicellular organisms maintain immune homeostasis across various organs and cell types is an outstanding question in immune biology and cell signaling. In Drosophila, blood cells (hemocytes) respond to local and systemic cues to mount an immune response. While endosomal regulation of Drosophila hematopoiesis is reported, the role of endosomal proteins in cellular and humoral immunity is not well-studied. Here we demonstrate a functional role for endosomal proteins in immune homeostasis. We show that the ubiquitous trafficking protein ADP Ribosylation Factor 1 (ARF1) and the hemocyte-specific endosomal regulator Asrij differentially regulate humoral immunity...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255787/expression-profiling-of-auxin-response-factor-genes-during-somatic-embryogenesis-induction-in-arabidopsis
#4
Barbara Wójcikowska, Małgorzata D Gaj
Extensive modulation of numerous ARF transcripts in the embryogenic culture of Arabidopsis indicates a substantial role of auxin signaling in the mechanism of somatic embryogenesis induction. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is induced by auxin in plants and auxin signaling is considered to play a key role in the molecular mechanism that controls the embryogenic transition of plant somatic cells. Accordingly, the expression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes in embryogenic culture of Arabidopsis was analyzed. The study revealed that 14 of the 22 ARFs were transcribed during SE in Arabidopsis...
March 2, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238095/adp-ribosylation-factor-1-arf1-takes-part-in-cell-proliferation-and-cell-adhesion-mediated-drug-resistance-cam-dr
#5
Xiaohong Xu, Qiru Wang, Yunhua He, Linlin Ding, Fei Zhong, Yangyu Ou, Yaodong Shen, Hong Liu, Song He
Cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) remains the primary obstacle in human multiple myeloma (MM) therapy. In this study, we aimed at investigating the expression and biologic function of ARF1 in MM. We determined that ARF1 expression was positively correlated with cell proliferation and knockdown of ARF1 contributed to CAM-DR. The enhancement in the adhesion of MM cells to fibronectin (FN) or the bone marrow stroma cell line HS-5 cells translated to an increased CAM-DR phenotype. Importantly, we showed that this CAM-DR phenotype was correlated with the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in MM cells...
February 25, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196833/characterization-of-the-activation-of-small-gtpases-by-their-gefs-on-membranes-using-artificial-membrane-tethering
#6
François Peurois, Simon Veyron, Yann Ferrandez, Ilham Ladid, Sarah Benabdi, Mahel Zeghouf, Gérald Peyroche, Jacqueline Cherfils
Attachment of active, GTP-bound small GTPases to membranes by post-translational lipid modifications is pivotal for their ability to process and propagate information in cells. However, generating and manipulating lipidated GTPases has remained difficult, which has limited our quantitative understanding of their activation by GEFs and their termination by GAPs. Here we replaced the lipid modification by a histidine tag in eleven full-length, human small GTPases belonging to the Arf, Rho and Rab families, which allowed to tether them to nickel-lipid containing membranes and characterize the kinetics of their activation by GEFs...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192532/role-of-arf-gtpases-in-fungal-morphogenesis-and-virulence
#7
Hayet Labbaoui, Stéphanie Bogliolo, Vikram Ghugtyal, Norma V Solis, Scott G Filler, Robert A Arkowitz, Martine Bassilana
Virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans depends on the switch from budding to filamentous growth, which requires sustained membrane traffic and polarized growth. In many organisms, small GTPases of the Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) family regulate membrane/protein trafficking, yet little is known about their role in fungal filamentous growth. To investigate these GTPases in C. albicans, we generated loss of function mutants in all 3 Arf proteins, Arf1-Arf3, and 2 Arf-like proteins, Arl1 and Arl3...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098897/overexpression-of-arf1-is-associated-with-cell-proliferation-and-migration-through-pi3k-signal-pathway-in-ovarian-cancer
#8
Guifang Gu, Yannan Chen, Chengwei Duan, Linsen Zhou, Caiwen Chen, Jie Chen, Jialin Cheng, Nannan Shi, Yunfeng Jin, Qinghua Xi, Jianxin Zhong
ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is a small G protein that regulates many cellular processes such as reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and is highly expressed in various tumor cells and tissues. However, the role of ARF1 in ovarian cancer progression remains unknown. In the present study, we explored the expression patterns of ARF1 in clinical ovarian cancer samples and adjacent noncancerous tissues. The results revealed that ARF1 overexpressed in EOC tissues and cell lines, compared with the adjacent non-tumorous tissues and normal ovarian cells...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081213/transcriptome-profiling-to-understand-the-effect-of-citrus-rootstocks-on-the-growth-of-shatangju-mandarin
#9
Xiang-Yu Liu, Juan Li, Meng-Meng Liu, Qing Yao, Jie-Zhong Chen
To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049721/pex35-is-a-regulator-of-peroxisome-abundance
#10
Ido Yofe, Kareem Soliman, Silvia G Chuartzman, Bruce Morgan, Uri Weill, Eden Yifrach, Tobias P Dick, Sara J Cooper, Christer S Ejsing, Maya Schuldiner, Einat Zalckvar, Sven Thoms
Peroxisomes are cellular organelles with vital functions in lipid, amino acid, and redox metabolism. The cellular formation and dynamics of peroxisomes are governed by PEX genes, however, the regulation of peroxisome abundance is yet poorly understood. Here we use a high-content microscopy screen to identify novel regulators of peroxisome size and abundance. Our screen led to the identification of a previously uncharacterized gene, which we term PEX35, which affects peroxisome abundance. PEX35 encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein, a remote homolog to several curvature generating human proteins...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025315/%C3%AE-2-cop-is-involved-in-early-secretory-traffic-in-arabidopsis-and-is-required-for-plant-growth
#11
Fátima Gimeno-Ferrer, Noelia Pastor-Cantizano, César Bernat-Silvestre, Pilar Selvi-Martínez, Francisco Vera-Sirera, Caiji Gao, Miguel Angel Perez-Amador, Liwen Jiang, Fernando Aniento, María Jesús Marcote
COP (coat protein) I-coated vesicles mediate intra-Golgi transport and retrograde transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum. These vesicles form through the action of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) and the COPI heptameric protein complex (coatomer), which consists of seven subunits (α-, β-, β'-, γ-, δ-, ε- and ζ-COP). In contrast to mammals and yeast, several isoforms for coatomer subunits, with the exception of γ and δ, have been identified in Arabidopsis. To understand the role of COPI proteins in plant biology, we have identified and characterized a loss-of-function mutant of α2-COP, an Arabidopsis α-COP isoform...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007918/arf1-at-the-crossroads-of-podosome-construction-and-function
#12
Elisabeth Genot
Podosomes are actin-based proteolytic microdomains of the plasma membrane found in cells that travel across tissues. In this issue, Rafiq et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605104) reveal that the small guanosine triphosphatase ARF1, a well-known orchestrator of membrane traffic at the Golgi, regulates podosome formation, maintenance, and function.
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007915/podosome-assembly-is-controlled-by-the-gtpase-arf1-and-its-nucleotide-exchange-factor-arno
#13
Nisha Bte Mohd Rafiq, Zi Zhao Lieu, Tingting Jiang, Cheng-Han Yu, Paul Matsudaira, Gareth E Jones, Alexander D Bershadsky
Podosomes represent a class of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions formed by migrating and matrix-degrading cells. We demonstrate that in macrophage-like THP1 cells and fibroblasts stimulated to produce podosomes, down-regulation of the G-protein ARF1 or the ARF1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, ARNO, by small, interfering RNA or pharmacological inhibitors led to striking podosome elimination. Concomitantly, treatments inducing podosome formation increased the level of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound ARF1...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004015/influenza-infection-modulates-vesicular-trafficking-and-induces-golgi-complex-disruption
#14
Vibha Yadav, Antonito T Panganiban, Kerstin Honer Zu Bentrup, Thomas G Voss
Influenza A virus (IFV) replicates its genome in the nucleus of infected cells and uses the cellular protein transport system for genome trafficking from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. However, many details of the mechanism of this process, and its relationship to subsequent cytoplasmic virus trafficking, have not been elucidated. We examined the effect of nuclear transport inhibitors Leptomycin B (LB), 5,6 dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), the vesicular transport inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), the caspase inhibitor ZWEHD, and microtubule inhibitor Nocodazole (NOC) on virus replication and intracellular trafficking of viral nucleoprotein (NP) from the nucleus to the ER and Golgi...
December 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003365/impairment-of-cargo-transportation-caused-by-gbf1-mutation-disrupts-vascular-integrity-and-causes-hemorrhage-in-zebrafish-embryos
#15
Jing Chen, Xiaotong Wu, Likun Yao, Lu Yan, Lin Zhang, Juhui Qiu, Xingfeng Liu, Shunji Jia, Anming Meng
ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors including Gbf1 (Golgi brefeldin A-resistant factor 1) and play important roles in regulating organelle structure and cargo-selective vesicle trafficking. However, the developmental role of Gbf1 in vertebrates remains elusive. In this study, we report the zebrafish mutant line tsu3994 that arises from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-mediated mutagenesis and is characterized by prominent intracerebral and trunk hemorrhage. The mutant embryos develop hemorrhage accompanied by fewer pigments and shorter caudal fin at day 2 of development...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925692/a-method-to-generate-and-analyze-modified-myristoylated-proteins
#16
Huanyao Gao, Wei Sun, Zhiquan Song, Yanbao Yu, Li Wang, Xian Chen, Qisheng Zhang
Covalent lipid modification of proteins is essential to their cellular localizations and functions. Engineered lipid motifs, coupled with bio-orthogonal chemistry, have been utilized to identify myristoylated or palmitoylated proteins in cells. However, whether modified proteins have similar properties as endogenous ones has not been well investigated mainly due to lack of methods to generate and analyze purified proteins. We have developed a method that utilizes metabolic interference and mass spectrometry to produce and analyze modified, myristoylated small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1)...
February 1, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872253/gtpase-cross-talk-regulates-trappii-activation-of-rab11-homologues-during-vesicle-biogenesis
#17
Laura L Thomas, J Christopher Fromme
Rab guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) control cellular trafficking pathways by regulating vesicle formation, transport, and tethering. Rab11 and its paralogs regulate multiple secretory and endocytic recycling pathways, yet the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rab11 in most eukaryotic cells is unresolved. The large multisubunit transport protein particle (TRAPP) II complex has been proposed to act as a GEF for Rab11 based on genetic evidence, but conflicting biochemical experiments have created uncertainty regarding Rab11 activation...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848911/phospholipase-d-activity-couples-plasma-membrane-endocytosis-with-retromer-dependent-recycling
#18
Rajan Thakur, Aniruddha Panda, Elise Coessens, Nikita Raj, Shweta Yadav, Sruthi Balakrishnan, Qifeng Zhang, Plamen Georgiev, Bishal Basak, Renu Pasricha, Michael Jo Wakelam, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Padinjat Raghu
During illumination, the light-sensitive plasma membrane (rhabdomere) of Drosophila photoreceptors undergoes turnover with consequent changes in size and composition. However, the mechanism by which illumination is coupled to rhabdomere turnover remains unclear. We find that photoreceptors contain a light-dependent phospholipase D (PLD) activity. During illumination, loss of PLD resulted in an enhanced reduction in rhabdomere size, accumulation of Rab7 positive, rhodopsin1-containing vesicles (RLVs) in the cell body and reduced rhodopsin protein...
November 16, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812735/hygromycin-b-hypersensitive-hhy-mutants-implicate-an-intact-trans-golgi-and-late-endosome-interface-in-efficient-tor1-vacuolar-localization-and-torc1-function
#19
Daniele E Ejzykowicz, Kristopher M Locken, Fiona J Ruiz, Surya P Manandhar, Daniel K Olson, Editte Gharakhanian
Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuoles are functionally analogous to mammalian lysosomes. Both also serve as physical platforms for Tor Complex 1 (TORC1) signal transduction, the master regulator of cellular growth and proliferation. Hygromycin B is a eukaryotic translation inhibitor. We recently reported on hygromycin B hypersensitive (hhy) mutants that fail to grow at subtranslation inhibitory concentrations of the drug and exhibit vacuolar defects (Banuelos et al. in Curr Genet 56:121-137, 2010). Here, we show that hhy phenotype is not due to increased sensitivity to translation inhibition and establish a super HHY (s-HHY) subgroup of genes comprised of ARF1, CHC1, DRS2, SAC1, VPS1, VPS34, VPS45, VPS52, and VPS54 that function exclusively or inclusively at trans-Golgi and late endosome interface...
November 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791132/endocytosis-of-wingless-via-a-dynamin-independent-pathway-is-necessary-for-signaling-in-drosophila-wing-discs
#20
Anupama Hemalatha, Chaitra Prabhakara, Satyajit Mayor
Endocytosis of ligand-receptor complexes regulates signal transduction during development. In particular, clathrin and dynamin-dependent endocytosis has been well studied in the context of patterning of the Drosophila wing disc, wherein apically secreted Wingless (Wg) encounters its receptor, DFrizzled2 (DFz2), resulting in a distinctive dorso-ventral pattern of signaling outputs. Here, we directly track the endocytosis of Wg and DFz2 in the wing disc and demonstrate that Wg is endocytosed from the apical surface devoid of DFz2 via a dynamin-independent CLIC/GEEC pathway, regulated by Arf1, Garz, and class I PI3K...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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