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Bitter taste receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811937/association-between-salivary-leptin-levels-and-taste-perception-in-children
#1
Lénia Rodrigues, Rosa Espanca, Ana Rodrigues Costa, Célia Miguel Antunes, Clarinda Pomar, Fernando Capela-Silva, Cristina Conceição Pinheiro, Francisco Amado, Elsa Lamy
The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI) affects such relationship...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811548/ligand-binding-modes-from-low-resolution-gpcr-models-and-mutagenesis-chicken-bitter-taste-receptor-as-a-test-case
#2
Antonella Di Pizio, Louisa-Marie Kruetzfeldt, Shira Cheled-Shoval, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Maik Behrens, Masha Y Niv
Bitter taste is one of the basic taste modalities, warning against consuming potential poisons. Bitter compounds activate members of the bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of functional Tas2rs is species-dependent. Chickens represent an intriguing minimalistic model, because they detect the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptor subtypes. We investigated the binding modes of several known agonists of a representative chicken bitter taste receptor, ggTas2r1...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801754/expression-profiling-of-tas2r-genes-reveals-a-complex-pattern-along-the-mouse-gi-tract-and-the-presence-of-tas2r131-in-a-subset-of-intestinal-paneth-cells
#3
Simone Prandi, Anja Voigt, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Maik Behrens
The chemical variability of the intestinal lumen requires the presence of molecular receptors detecting the various substances naturally occurring in the diet and as a result of the activity of the microbiota. Despite their early discovery, intestinal bitter taste receptors (Tas2r) have not yet been assigned an unambiguous physiological function. Recently, using a CRE-recombinant approach we showed that the Tas2r131 gene is expressed in a subset of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon of mice. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the expression of the Tas2r131 locus is not restricted to this region...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798468/the-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r16-achieves-high-specificity-and-accommodates-diverse-glycoside-ligands-by-using-a-two-faced-binding-pocket
#4
Anu Thomas, Chidananda Sulli, Edgar Davidson, Eli Berdougo, Morganne Phillips, Bridget A Puffer, Cheryl Paes, Benjamin J Doranz, Joseph B Rucker
Although bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are important for human health, little is known of the determinants of ligand specificity. TAS2Rs such as TAS2R16 help define gustatory perception and dietary preferences that ultimately influence human health and disease. Each TAS2R must accommodate a broad diversity of chemical structures while simultaneously achieving high specificity so that diverse bitter toxins can be detected without all foods tasting bitter. However, how these G protein-coupled receptors achieve this balance is poorly understood...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792937/rewiring-the-taste-system
#5
Hojoon Lee, Lindsey J Macpherson, Camilo A Parada, Charles S Zuker, Nicholas J P Ryba
In mammals, taste buds typically contain 50-100 tightly packed taste-receptor cells (TRCs), representing all five basic qualities: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Notably, mature taste cells have life spans of only 5-20 days and, consequently, are constantly replenished by differentiation of taste stem cells. Given the importance of establishing and maintaining appropriate connectivity between TRCs and their partner ganglion neurons (that is, ensuring that a labelled line from sweet TRCs connects to sweet neurons, bitter TRCs to bitter neurons, sour to sour, and so on), we examined how new connections are specified to retain fidelity of signal transmission...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776826/intragastric-infusion-of-the-bitter-tastant-quinine-suppresses-hormone-release-and-antral-motility-during-the-fasting-state-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#6
E Deloose, M Corsetti, L Van Oudenhove, I Depoortere, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Intragastric administration of the bitter tastant denatonium benzoate inhibits the increase of motilin plasma levels and antral contractility. While these findings suggest that gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors could be new targets to modulate gastrointestinal motility and hormone release, they need confirmation with other bitter receptor agonists. The primary aim was to evaluate the effect of intragastric administration of the bitter tastant quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl) on motilin and ghrelin plasma levels...
August 4, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764073/an-improved-process-for-the-production-of-highly-purified-recombinant-thaumatin-tagged-variants
#7
Robert D Healey, Helene Lebhar, Simon Hornung, Pall Thordarson, Christopher P Marquis
The sweetest tasting molecule known is the protein thaumatin, first isolated from the katemfe fruit, Thaumatococcus daniellii. Thaumatin is used in the food and beverage industry as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Thaumatin interacts with taste receptors in the oral cavity eliciting a persistent sweet taste and a bitter, liquorice flavor. Recombinant thaumatin was expressed in Pichia pastoris and through a co-expression strategy with a molecular chaperone, yields of one engineered thaumatin variant increased by greater than two-fold...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763216/glucose-and-mannose-a-link-between-hydration-and-sweetness
#8
Natasha Hazel Rhys, Fabio Bruni, Silvia Imberti, Sylvia E McLain, Maria Antonietta Ricci
Glucose and mannose have a different degree of sweetness, implying different affinity to the sweet taste receptor. While the receptor structure is still undefined, there are several geometrical models for its binding mechanism. A detailed study of the hydration structure of sugars with known degree of sweetness is bound to provide information on the accuracy of such models. Our neutron dffraction study on the hydration of glucose and mannose show that both α- and β-glucose form strong hydrogen bonds with water, and that the steric hindrance of their first hydration shell matches the receptor geometrical model...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757530/perceived-6-n-propylthiouracil-prop-bitterness-is-associated-with-dietary-sodium-intake-in-female-japanese-college-students
#9
Hiroko Inoue, Toshiko Kuwano, Kimiko Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Toshiharu Waguri, Teruyo Nakano, Yuichi Suzuki
Despite the negative health consequences of a high sodium consumption, humans consume well above the recommended levels. This study examines whether or not the dietary intake of sodium was affected by individual variation of the perceived bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), and examines the relationship between the perceived bitterness of PROP and the preferred NaCl concentration of broth. Female students (20-22 y old) were recruited from the university community. Genotypes of A49P and I296V polymorphism of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor were determined for each subject...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738701/association-of-the-bitter-taste-receptor-gene-tas2r38-polymorphism-rs713598-with-sensory-responsiveness-food-preferences-biochemical-parameters-and-body-composition-markers-a-cross-sectional-study-in-italy
#10
Simone Perna, Antonella Riva, Giada Nicosanti, Maura Carrai, Roberto Barale, Beatrice Vigo, Pietro Allegrini, Mariangela Rondanelli
This study examined the relationship between TAS2R38 gene polymorphism (RS713598), G/G, C/G or C/C genotype, and sensory responsiveness, food preferences, biochemical parameters and body composition in a cross-sectional study in 118 adults (24 men and 94 women). The frequencies of C/C, G/G and C/G were respectively 20.3%, 29.7% and 50.0%. As regards taste responsiveness, subjects with G-allele had a higher perception threshold than the C/C genotype for 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PROP) (p < .05), and caffeine (p < ...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718657/bitter-taste-of-brassica-vegetables-the-role-of-genetic-factors-receptors-isothiocyanates-glucosinolates-and-flavor-context
#11
Martyna N Wieczorek, Michał Walczak, Marzena Skrzypczak-Zielińska, Henryk H Jeleń
It is well known that consumption of Brassica vegetables has beneficial effect on human's health. The greatest interest is focused on glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products isothiocyanates, due to their potential as cancer preventing compounds. Brassica vegetables are also rich in flavor compounds belonging to many chemical groups. The main sensory sensation related to these vegetable is their characteristic sharp and bitter taste, and unique aroma. Because of these features this group of vegetables is often rejected by consumers...
July 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716170/sinonasal-t2r-mediated-nitric-oxide-production-in-response-to-bacillus-cereus
#12
Ryan M Carey, Alan D Workman, Carol H Yan, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Upper airway epithelial cells produce bactericidal nitric oxide (NO) in response to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our previous work demonstrated that T2R38, a bitter taste receptor (T2R) expressed in airway epithelium, produces NO in response to quorum-sensing molecules secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We also demonstrated that Staphylococci products elicit an NO response when using a T2R-independent pathway. When screening additional human pathogens for epithelial T2R activation, we found that the gram-positive aerobe Bacillus cereus secretes a T2R agonist that yields NO production...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696284/caffeine-induces-gastric-acid-secretion-via-bitter-taste-signaling-in-gastric-parietal-cells
#13
Kathrin Ingrid Liszt, Jakob Peter Ley, Barbara Lieder, Maik Behrens, Verena Stöger, Angelika Reiner, Christina Maria Hochkogler, Elke Köck, Alessandro Marchiori, Joachim Hans, Sabine Widder, Gerhard Krammer, Gareth John Sanger, Mark Manuel Somoza, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Veronika Somoza
Caffeine, generally known as a stimulant of gastric acid secretion (GAS), is a bitter-tasting compound that activates several taste type 2 bitter receptors (TAS2Rs). TAS2Rs are expressed in the mouth and in several extraoral sites, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, in which their functional role still needs to be clarified. We hypothesized that caffeine evokes effects on GAS by activation of oral and gastric TAS2Rs and demonstrate that caffeine, when administered encapsulated, stimulates GAS, whereas oral administration of a caffeine solution delays GAS in healthy human subjects...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687314/participation-of-the-peripheral-taste-system-in-aging-dependent-changes-in-taste-sensitivity
#14
Masataka Narukawa, Azusa Kurokawa, Rie Kohta, Takumi Misaka
Previous studies have shown that aging modifies taste sensitivity. However, the factors affecting the changes in taste sensitivity remain unclear. To investigate the cause of the age-related changes in taste sensitivity, we compared the peripheral taste detection systems in young and old mice. First, we examined whether taste sensitivity varied according to age using behavioral assays. We confirmed that the taste sensitivities to salty and bitter tastes decreased with aging. In other assays, the gustatory nerve responses to salty and sweet tastes increased significantly with aging, while those to bitter taste did not change...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669668/orosensory-detection-of-bitter-in-fat-taster-healthy-and-obese-participants-genetic-polymorphism-of-cd36-and-tas2r38
#15
Inchirah Karmous, Jiří Plesník, Amira Sayed Khan, Omar Šerý, Abdelmajid Abid, Amani Mankai, Abdellah Aouidet, Naim Akhtar Khan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We assessed orosensory detection of a long-chain fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA), and a bitter taste marker, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), and correlated lipid-taster subjects with PROP detection and polymorphism in genes encoding bitter and lipid taste receptors, respectively, TAS2R38 and CD36, in normal weight and obese subjects. DESIGN: The normal weight (n = 52, age = 35.3 ± 4.10 years, BMI = 23.22 ± 1.44 kg/m(2)) and obese (n = 52, age = 35...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660093/the-taste-of-caffeine
#16
REVIEW
Rachel L Poole, Michael G Tordoff
Many people avidly consume foods and drinks containing caffeine, despite its bitter taste. Here, we review what is known about caffeine as a bitter taste stimulus. Topics include caffeine's action on the canonical bitter taste receptor pathway and caffeine's action on noncanonical receptor-dependent and -independent pathways in taste cells. Two conclusions are that (1) caffeine is a poor prototypical bitter taste stimulus because it acts on bitter taste receptor-independent pathways, and (2) caffeinated products most likely stimulate "taste" receptors in nongustatory cells...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Caffeine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652185/genetic-variation-in-bitter-taste-receptor-gene-tas2r38-prop-taster-status-and-their-association-with-body-mass-index-and-food-preferences-in-indian-population
#17
Shweta Deshaware, Rekha Singhal
Polymorphisms in bitter taste receptor gene TAS2R38 alter the ability to sense the intensity of bitterness of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). Genetic variation in sensitivity towards PTC and PROP may affect food preferences and susceptibility to certain diseases. This is the first study aimed at investigating frequency and distribution of TAS2R38 haplotypes in an Indian cohort. Additionally, we studied the association of TAS2R38 and PROP taster status with BMI and food preference...
June 23, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559440/bitter-taste-receptors-as-targets-for-tocolytics-in-preterm-labor-therapy
#18
Kaizhi Zheng, Ping Lu, Ellen Delpapa, Karl Bellve, Ruitang Deng, Jennifer C Condon, Kevin Fogarty, Lawrence M Lifshitz, Tiffany A Moore Simas, Fangxiong Shi, Ronghua ZhuGe
Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity, with few prevention and treatment options. Uterine contraction is a central feature of PTB, so gaining new insights into the mechanisms of this contraction and consequently identifying novel targets for tocolytics are essential for more successful management of PTB. Here we report that myometrial cells from human and mouse express bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and their canonical signaling components (i.e., G-protein gustducin and phospholipase C β2)...
May 30, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552880/genotyping-analysis-of-bitter-taste-receptor-genes-tas2r38-and-tas2r46-in-japanese-patients-with-gastrointestinal-cancers
#19
Michiko Yamaki, Hiroki Saito, Kunio Isono, Tomoko Goto, Hitoshi Shirakawa, Noriaki Shoji, Shizuko Satoh-Kuriwada, Takashi Sasano, Ryo Okada, Katsuyoshi Kudoh, Fuyuhiko Motoi, Michiaki Unno, Michio Komai
Type-2 bitter-taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are important for the evaluation of food quality and the nutritional control in animals. Mutations in some TAS2Rs including TAS2R38 are known to increase susceptibility to various diseases. However, the involvement of TAS2Rs in cancers has not been well understood. We conducted a pilot study by genotyping two TAS2R genes, TAS2R38 and TAS2R46, in Japanese cancer patients diagnosed with the following types of cancer: biliary tract cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer and gastric cancer...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544530/denatonium-induced-sinonasal-bacterial-killing-may-play-a-role-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-outcomes
#20
Ryan M Carey, Alan D Workman, Kyle M Hatten, Adam P Siebert, Steven G Brooks, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) contribute to upper airway innate immunity and correlate with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) clinical outcomes. A subset of T2Rs expressed on sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) are activated by denatonium, resulting in a calcium-mediated secretion of bactericidal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in neighboring ciliated epithelial cells. We hypothesized that there is patient variability in the amount of bacterial killing induced by different concentrations of denatonium and that the differences correlate with CRS clinical outcomes...
July 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
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