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Bitter taste receptors

Cristina M Crava, Sukania Ramasamy, Lino Ometto, Gianfranco Anfora, Omar Rota-Stabelli
Chemosensory perception allows insects to interact with the environment by perceiving odorant or tastant molecules; genes encoding chemoreceptors are the molecular interface between the environment and the insect, and play a central role in mediating its chemosensory behavior. Here we explore how the evolution of these genes in the emerging pest Drosophila suzukii correlates with the peculiar ecology of this species. We annotated approximately 130 genes coding for gustatory receptors (GRs) and divergent ionotropic receptors (dIRs) in D...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Vendula Bartáková, Katarína Kuricová, Filip Zlámal, Jana Bělobrádková, Katetřina Kaňková
PURPOSE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents the most frequent metabolic disorder in pregnancy. Since dietary intake plays an important role in obesity and type 2 diabetes development, it is likely to be for the susceptibility to GDM too. Food preferences, driving partly the diet composition, are changing during pregnancy. Taste and genetic variability in taste receptors is an important factor in determining food preferences. Aims of our study were (1) to characterize dietary habits of pregnant women and to find possible differences in food preferences between healthy pregnant women and those with GDM and (2) to ascertain possible association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in taste receptor (TR) genes with GDM...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Kei Tsutsui, Masahiro Otoh, Kodama Sakurai, Nami Suzuki-Hashido, Takashi Hayakawa, Takumi Misaka, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Filippo Aureli, Amanda D Melin, Shoji Kawamura, Hiroo Imai
BACKGROUND: New World monkeys (NWMs) are unique in that they exhibit remarkable interspecific variation in color vision and feeding behavior, making them an excellent model for studying sensory ecology. However, it is largely unknown whether non-visual senses co-vary with feeding ecology, especially gustation, which is expected to be indispensable in food selection. Bitter taste, which is mediated by bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in the tongue, helps organisms avoid ingesting potentially toxic substances in food...
October 12, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jose Luis Ortiz, Amparo Ortiz, Javier Milara, Miguel Armengot, Celia Sanz, Desamparados Compañ, Esteban Morcillo, Julio Cortijo
Different image techniques have been used to analyze mucociliary clearance (MCC) in humans, but current small animal MCC analysis using in vivo imaging has not been well defined. Bitter taste receptor (T2R) agonists increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and cause bronchodilation but their effects in vivo are not well understood. This work analyzes in vivo nasal and bronchial MCC in guinea pig animals using three dimension (3D) micro-CT-SPECT images and evaluates the effect of T2R agonists. Intranasal macroaggreggates of albumin-Technetium 99 metastable (MAA-Tc99m) and lung nebulized Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were used to analyze the effect of T2R agonists on nasal and bronchial MCC respectively, using 3D micro-CT-SPECT in guinea pig...
2016: PloS One
Davide S Risso, Julia Kozlitina, Eduardo Sainz, Joanne Gutierrez, Stephen Wooding, Betelihem Getachew, Donata Luiselli, Carla J Berg, Dennis Drayna
Common TAS2R38 taste receptor gene variants specify the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and structurally related compounds. Tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of chemical substances of varying structure and functionality, some of which activate different taste receptors. Accordingly, it has been suggested that non-taster individuals may be more likely to smoke because of their inability to taste bitter compounds present in tobacco smoke, but results to date have been conflicting...
2016: PloS One
Andrew P Bantel, Charles R Tessier
Olfactory and gustatory perception of the environment is vital for animal survival. The most obvious application of these chemosenses is to be able to distinguish good food sources from potentially dangerous food sources. Gustation requires physical contact with a chemical compound which is able to signal through taste receptors that are expressed on the surface of neurons. In insects, these gustatory neurons can be located across the animal's body allowing taste to play an important role in many different behaviors...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Klaus Deckmann, Wolfgang Kummer
A peculiar cell type of the respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia, originally termed "brush cell" or "tuft cell" by electron microscopists because of its apical tuft of microvilli, utilizes the canonical bitter taste transduction cascade known from oropharyngeal taste buds to detect potential hazardous compounds, e.g. bacterial products. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes and local inflammatory responses through release of acetylcholine and chemokines. Guided by the understanding of these cells as sentinels, they have been newly discovered at previously unrecognized anatomical locations, including the urethra...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Jatinder Singh, Ramanpreet Shah, Dhandeep Singh
Asthma is inveterate inflammatory disorder, delineated by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway wall remodeling. Although, asthma is a vague term, and is recognized as heterogenous entity encompassing different phenotypes. Targeting single mediator or receptor did not prove much clinical significant, as asthma is complex disease involving myriad inflammatory mediators. Asthma may probably involve a large number of different types of molecular and cellular components interacting through complex pathophysiological pathways...
September 22, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
K De Pauw, B Roelands, J Van Cutsem, U Marusic, T Torbeyns, R Meeusen
OBJECTIVE: A direct link between the mouth cavity and the brain for glucose (GLUC) and caffeine (CAF) has been established. The aim of this study is to determine whether a direct link for both substrates also exist between the nasal cavity and the brain. METHODS: Ten healthy male subjects (age 22 ± 1 years) performed three experimental trials, separated by at least 2 days. Each trial included a 20-s nasal spray (NAS) period in which solutions placebo (PLAC), GLUC, or CAF were provided in a double-blind, randomized order...
September 23, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Yuan Su, Diyan Li, Uma Gaur, Yan Wang, Nan Wu, Binlong Chen, Zhongxian Xu, Huadong Yin, Yaodong Hu, Qing Zhu
The sense of bitter taste plays a critical role in animals as it can help them to avoid intake of toxic and harmful substances. Previous research had revealed that chicken has only three bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2r1, Tas2r2 and Tas2r7). To better understand the genetic polymorphisms and importance of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs) in chicken, here, we sequenced Tas2rs of 30 Sichuan domestic chickens and 30 Tibetan chickens. Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including three nonsynonymous mutations (m...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Noam A Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) refractory to therapeutic intervention may involve a particularly resistant infection known as a bacterial biofilm. Critical to biofilm formation is the microbial process of quorum sensing whereby microbes secrete factors that regulate the expression of microbial genes involved in biofilm formation, persistence, and virulence. Here, we review recent work demonstrating that the bitter taste receptor T2R38, expressed on the apical surface of the sinonasal epithelium, serves a sentinel role in eavesdropping on microbial quorum-sensing communications and regulates localized innate biocidal defenses...
September 21, 2016: Laryngoscope
Waldo Acevedo, Fernando González-Nilo, Eduardo Agosin
Stevia is one of the sweeteners with the greatest consumer demand because of its natural origin and minimal calorie content. Steviol glycosides (SG) are the main active compounds present in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana and are responsible for its sweetness. However, recent in vitro studies in HEK 293 cells revealed that SG specifically activate the hT2R4 and hT2R14 bitter taste receptors, triggering this mouth feel. The objective of this study was to characterize the interaction of SG with these two receptors at the molecular level...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sebastian Hückesfeld, Marc Peters, Michael J Pankratz
Bitter is a taste modality associated with toxic substances evoking aversive behaviour in most animals, and the valence of different taste modalities is conserved between mammals and Drosophila. Despite knowledge gathered in the past on the peripheral perception of taste, little is known about the identity of taste interneurons in the brain. Here we show that hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons in the Drosophila larval brain are necessary for avoidance behaviour to caffeine, and when activated, result in cessation of feeding and mediates a bitter taste signal within the brain...
2016: Nature Communications
Barbara Suess, Anne Brockhoff, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Thomas Hofmann
Sensory studies showed the volatile fraction of lemon grass and its main constituent, the odor-active citronellal, to significantly decrease the perceived bitterness of a black tea infusion as well as caffeine solutions. Seven citronellal-related derivatives were synthesized and shown to inhibit the perceived bitterness of caffeine in a structure-dependent manner. The aldehyde function at carbon 1, the (R)-configuration of the methyl-branched carbon 3, and a hydrophobic carbon chain was found to favor the bitter inhibitory activity of citronellal, e...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Alex Clop, Abdoallah Sharaf, Anna Castelló, Sebastián Ramos-Onsins, Susanna Cirera, Anna Mercadé, Sophia Derdak, Sergi Beltran, Abe Huisman, Merete Fredholm, Pieter van As, Armand Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Taste receptors (TASRs) are essential for the body's recognition of chemical compounds. In the tongue, TASRs sense the sweet and umami and the toxin-related bitter taste thus promoting a particular eating behaviour. Moreover, their relevance in other organs is now becoming evident. In the intestine, they regulate nutrient absorption and gut motility. Upon ligand binding, TASRs activate the appetite-reward circuitry to signal the nervous system and keep body homeostasis. With the aim to identify genetic variation in the swine TASRs and in the genes from the appetite and the reward pathways, we have sequenced the exons of 201 TASRs and appetite-reward genes from 304 pigs belonging to ten breeds, wild boars and to two phenotypically extreme groups from a F2 resource with data on growth and fat deposition...
2016: BMC Genomics
Anthi A Apostolopoulou, Saskia Köhn, Bernhard Stehle, Michael Lutz, Alexander Wüst, Lorena Mazija, Anna Rist, C Giovanni Galizia, Alja Lüdke, Andreas S Thum
The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Rie Fujiyama, Kazuo Toda
Thermal modulation of signaling pathways leads to excitation of taste receptor cells, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Furthermore, it has long been known that there are contrast effects in various senses. In this study, we investigated cold-taste contrast and the relationship between taste and somatosensation. We lowered intraoral temperature using cold stimulus as a pretreatment, then returned to normal temperature in 249 healthy subjects, before administering room temperature taste-stimulating solutions to investigate changes in sensitivity to the four basic tastes (Sweet, Salt, Sour, and Bitter)...
August 22, 2016: Odontology
Harry P F Peters, Wieneke Koppenol, Ewoud A H Schuring, Robin Gouka, David J Mela, Wendy A M Blom
Triggering of gastro-intestinal bitter taste receptors might have implications for appetite and food intake, but the evidence in humans is mixed and limited to acute studies. We previously reported that 15-days consumption of drinks with purified Hoodia gordonii extract and its taste-matched control both produced similar, significant energy intake (EI) reductions in females in an in-patient setting, with no significant differences between treatments. In that study the control was matched to Hoodia flavour and bitterness using Raisin Flavour (RF), Sucrose Octa Acetate (SOA) and Quassia Extract (QE)...
August 10, 2016: Appetite
Ryan M Carey, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by sinonasal epithelial cells as part of the innate immune response against bacteria. We previously described bitter-taste-receptor-dependent and -independent NO responses to product(s) secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. We hypothesized that sinonasal epithelium would be able to detect the gram-positive, coagulase-negative bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis and mount a similar NO response. METHODS: Sinonasal air-liquid interface cultures were treated with conditioned medium (CM) from lab strains and clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci and S aureus...
August 10, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Liang-Dar Hwang, Paul A S Breslin, Danielle R Reed, Gu Zhu, Nicholas G Martin, Margaret J Wright
Perceived intensities of sweetness and bitterness are correlated with one another and each is influenced by genetics. The extent to which these correlations share common genetic variation, however, remains unclear. In a mainly adolescent sample (n = 1901, mean age 16.2 years), including 243 monozygotic (MZ) and 452 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, we estimated the covariance among the perceived intensities of 4 bitter compounds (6-n-propylthiouracil [PROP], sucrose octa-acetate, quinine, caffeine) and 4 sweeteners (the weighted mean ratings of glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone, aspartame) with multivariate genetic modeling...
August 9, 2016: Chemical Senses
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