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Bitter taste receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#1
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748385/activation-of-airway-epithelial-bitter-taste-receptors-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quinolones-modulates-calcium-cyclic-amp-and-nitric-oxide-signaling
#2
Jenna R Freund, Corrine J Mansfield, Laurel J Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Danielle R Reed, Peihua Jiang, Robert J Lee
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), discovered in many tissues outside the tongue, have recently become potential therapeutic targets. We showed previously that airway epithelial cells express several T2Rs that activate innate immune responses that may be important for treatment of airway diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis. It is imperative to more clearly understand what compounds activate airway T2Rs as well as their full range of functions. T2R isoforms in airway motile cilia (T2Rs 4, 14, 16, and 38) produce bactericidal levels of nitric oxide (NO) that also increase ciliary beating, promoting clearance of mucus and trapped pathogens...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706068/beef-protein-derived-peptides-as-bitter-taste-receptor-t2r4-blockers
#3
Chunlei Zhang, Monisola Alashi, Nisha Singh, Kun Liu, Prashen Chelikani, Rotimi E Aluko
The aim of this work was to determine the bitter taste-blocking ability of enzymatic beef protein hydrolysates and identified peptide sequences. Beef protein was hydrolyzed with each of six commercial enzymes (alcalase, chymotrypsin, trypsin, pepsin, flavourzyme, and thermoase). Electronic tongue measurements showed that the hydrolysates had significantly (p < 0.05) lower bitter scores than quinine. Addition of the hydrolysates to quinine led to reduced bitterness intensity of quinine with trypsin and pepsin hydrolysates being the most effective...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701767/development-of-full-sweet-umami-and-bitter-taste-responsiveness-requires-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-21-rgs21
#4
Adam B Schroer, Joshua D Gross, Shane W Kaski, Kim Wix, David P Siderovski, Aurelie Vandenbeuch, Vincent Setola
The mammalian tastes of sweet, umami, and bitter are initiated by activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the T1R and T2R families on taste receptor cells. GPCRs signal via nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, the latter hastened by GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) that include the Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) protein family. We previously reported that RGS21, uniquely expressed in Type II taste receptor cells, decreases the potency of bitter-stimulated T2R signaling in cultured cells, consistent with its in vitro GAP activity...
April 26, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686110/-tas2r38-predisposition-to-bitter-taste-associated-with-differential-changes-in-vegetable-intake-in-response-to-a-community-based-dietary-intervention
#5
Larissa Calancie, Thomas C Keyserling, Lindsey Smith Taillie, Kimberly Robasky, Cam Patterson, Alice S Ammerman, Jonathan C Schisler
Although vegetable consumption associates with decreased risk for a variety of diseases, few Americans meet dietary recommendations for vegetable intake. TAS2R38 encodes a taste receptor that confers bitter taste sensing from chemicals found in some vegetables. Common polymorphisms in TAS2R38 lead to coding substitutions that alter receptor function and result in the loss of bitter taste perception. Our study examined whether bitter taste perception TAS2R38 diplotypes associated with vegetable consumption in participants enrolled in either an enhanced or a minimal nutrition counseling intervention...
April 23, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681531/calhm3-is-essential-for-rapid-ion-channel-mediated-purinergic-neurotransmission-of-gpcr-mediated-tastes
#6
Zhongming Ma, Akiyuki Taruno, Makoto Ohmoto, Masafumi Jyotaki, Jason C Lim, Hiroaki Miyazaki, Naomi Niisato, Yoshinori Marunaka, Robert J Lee, Henry Hoff, Riley Payne, Angelo Demuro, Ian Parker, Claire H Mitchell, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Jessica E Tanis, Ichiro Matsumoto, Michael G Tordoff, J Kevin Foskett
Binding of sweet, umami, and bitter tastants to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in apical membranes of type II taste bud cells (TBCs) triggers action potentials that activate a voltage-gated nonselective ion channel to release ATP to gustatory nerves mediating taste perception. Although calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) is necessary for ATP release, the molecular identification of the channel complex that provides the conductive ATP-release mechanism suitable for action potential-dependent neurotransmission remains to be determined...
April 13, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679682/bitter-and-sweet-tasting-molecules-it-s-complicated
#7
REVIEW
Antonella Di Pizio, Yaron Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, John E Hayes, Masha Y Niv
"Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25 member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678794/aggravated-gut-inflammation-in-mice-lacking-the-taste-signaling-protein-%C3%AE-gustducin
#8
Pu Feng, Jinghua Chai, Huilan Yi, Kevin Redding, Robert F Margolskee, Liquan Huang, Hong Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating immune-related condition that affects over 1.4 million Americans. Recent studies indicate that taste receptor signaling is involved in much more than sensing food flavor, and taste receptors have been localized in a variety of extra-oral tissues. One of the newly revealed functions of taste receptors and downstream signaling proteins is modulation of immune responses to microbes and parasites. We previously found that components of the taste receptor signaling pathway are expressed in subsets of the intestinal epithelial cells...
April 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665689/the-human-sweet-receptor-t1r3-is-functional-in-human-gastric-parietal-tumor-cells-hgt-1-and-modulates-cyclamate-and-acesulfame-k-induced-mechanisms-of-gastric-acid-secretion
#9
Muhammet Zopun, Kathrin I Liszt, Verena Stoeger, Maik Behrens, Ulrike Redel, Jakob P Ley, Joachim Hans, Veronika Somoza
The non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) cyclamate (Cycl) and acesulfame K (AceK) are widely added to foods and beverages. Little is known about their impact on gastric acid secretion (GAS), which is stimulated by dietary protein and bitter-tasting compounds. Since Cycl and AceK have a bitter off-taste in addition to their sweet-taste, we hypothesized they modulate mechanisms of GAS in human gastric parietal cells (HGT-1). HGT-1 cells were exposed to sweet tastants (50 mM of glucose, D-threonine, Cycl or AceK), and analyzed for their intracellular pH index (IPX), as indicator of proton secretion by means of a pH-sensitive dye, and for mRNA-levels of GAS-associated genes by RT-qPCR...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643854/the-role-of-quinine-responsive-taste-receptor-family-2-in-airway-immune-defense-and-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#10
Alan D Workman, Ivy W Maina, Steven G Brooks, Michael A Kohanski, Beverly J Cowart, Corrine Mansfield, David W Kennedy, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Danielle R Reed, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
Background: Bitter (T2R) and sweet (T1R) taste receptors in the airway are important in innate immune defense, and variations in taste receptor functionality in one T2R (T2R38) correlate with disease status and disease severity in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Quinine is a bitter compound that is an agonist for several T2Rs also expressed on sinonasal cells, but not for T2R38. Because of this property, quinine may stimulate innate immune defense mechanisms in the airway, and functional differences in quinine perception may be reflective of disease status in CRS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625111/insect-taste-receptors-relevant-to-host-identification-by-recognition-of-secondary-metabolite-patterns-of-non-host-plants
#11
Mayu Kasubuchi, Fumika Shii, Kana Tsuneto, Takayuki Yamagishi, Satomi Adegawa, Haruka Endo, Ryoichi Sato
The taste sensing system is crucial for food recognition in insects and other animals. It is commonly believed that insect gustatory receptors (Grs) expressed in gustatory organs are indispensable for host plant selection. Many behavioral studies have shown that mono- or oligo-phagous lepidopteran insects use the balance between feeding attractants and feeding deterrents in host plants and that these are sensed by taste organs for host plant recognition. However, the molecular mechanism underlying taste recognition, especially of feeding deterrents, remains to be elucidated...
April 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588172/short-term-perception-of-and-conditioned-taste-aversion-to-umami-taste-and-oral-expression-patterns-of-umami-taste-receptors-in-chickens
#12
Yuta Yoshida, Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Umami taste is one of the five basic tastes (sweet, umami, bitter, sour, and salty), and is elicited by l-glutamate salts and 5'-ribonucleotides. In chickens, the elucidation of the umami taste sense is an important step in the production of new feedstuff for the animal industry. Although previous studies found that chickens show a preference for umami compounds in long-term behavioral tests, there are limitations to our understanding of the role of the umami taste sense in chicken oral tissues because the long-term tests partly reflected post-ingestive effects...
March 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576440/evolution-of-dietary-preferences-and-the-innate-urge-to-heal-drug-discovery-lessons-from-ayurveda
#13
REVIEW
Akhila Hosur Shrungeswara, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan Unnikrishnan
Highly specialized and functionally integrated cognitive systems facilitate hedonistic and healthy food preferences. Guided by survival needs, flavor preferences not only select safe, nutritious dietary components, but also those with negligible calorific value but significant health benefits, for example, spices. Feeding behavior, both innate and acquired, is guided not only by taste receptors on the tongue but also visceral organs. The gustatory cortex receives information from all senses, not just taste, suggesting multiple checkpoints in predicting and evaluating healthy foods...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575306/6-n-propylthiouracil-taste-disruption-and-tas2r38-nontasting-form-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Giovanni Cossu, Melania Melis, Marianna Sarchioto, Marta Melis, Maurizio Melis, Micaela Morelli, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
BACKGROUND: The few studies that evaluated taste function in Parkinson's disease (PD) showed inconsistent results. The inherited ability to taste the bitter compound of 6-n-propylthiouracil has been considered to be a paradigm of general taste perception. 6-n-propylthiouracil taste perception is mediated by the TAS2R38 receptor, and reduced 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity has been associated with several diseases not typically related to taste function. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the 6-n-propylthiouracil taste perception and the TAS2R38 gene as genetic risk factors for the development of idiopathic PD in PD patients and healthy controls (HC)...
March 24, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570813/in-vivo-biofilm-formation-gram-negative-infections-and-tas2r38-polymorphisms-in-crsw-np-patients
#15
Elena Cantone, Rossella Negri, Emanuela Roscetto, Rossella Grassia, Maria Rosaria Catania, Pasquale Capasso, Marianna Maffei, Amata Amy Soriano, Carlo Antonio Leone, Maurizio Iengo, Luigi Greco
OBJECTIVES: Among the predisposing factors implicated in the immune response to airway bacterial infections, genetic variations of the bitter taste receptor TAS2R38, which is expressed in the cilia of the human sinonasal epithelial cells, seem to be associated with susceptibility to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and in vitro biofilm formation. Polymorphisms in TAS2R38 generate two common haplotypes: the nonfunctional AVI (Alanine, Valine, Isoleucine) and the functional PAV (Proline, Alanine, Valine) alleles, with the latter protecting against gram-negative sinonasal infections...
March 23, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564227/taste-receptor-polymorphisms-and-immune-response-a-review-of-receptor-genotypic-phenotypic-variations-and-their-relevance-to-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#16
REVIEW
Vasiliki Triantafillou, Alan D Workman, Michael A Kohanski, Noam A Cohen
Bitter (T2R) and sweet taste (T1R) receptors have emerged as regulators of upper airway immune responses. Genetic variation of these taste receptors additionally confers susceptibility to infection and has been implicated in severity of disease in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Ongoing taste receptor research has identified a variety of biologically active compounds that activate T1R and T2R receptors, increasing our understanding of not only additional receptor isoforms and their function but also how receptor function may contribute to the pathophysiology of CRS...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556329/overcoming-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-role-of-the-bitter-taste-receptor-t2r10
#17
Louisa Stern, Nathalia Giese, Thilo Hackert, Oliver Strobel, Peter Schirmacher, Klaus Felix, Matthias M Gaida
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are G-protein coupled transmembrane proteins initially identified in the gustatory system as sensors for the taste of bitter. Recent evidence on expression of these receptors outside gustatory tissues suggested alternative functions, and there is growing interest of their potential role in cancer biology. In this study, we report for the first time, expression and functionality of the bitter receptor family member T2R10 in both human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissue and PDAC derived cell lines...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552563/independent-evolution-of-strychnine-recognition-by-bitter-taste-receptor-subtypes
#18
Ava Yuan Xue, Antonella Di Pizio, Anat Levit, Tali Yarnitzky, Osnat Penn, Tal Pupko, Masha Y Niv
The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs) recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513745/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-chrn-expression-and-function-in-cultured-human-adult-fungiform-hbo-taste-cells
#19
Jie Qian, Shobha Mummalaneni, James Larsen, John R Grider, Andrew I Spielman, Mehmet Hakan Özdener, Vijay Lyall
In rodents, CHRNs are involved in bitter taste transduction of nicotine and ethanol. Currently, it is not clear if CHRNs are expressed in human taste cells and if they play a role in transducing the bitter taste of nicotine and ethanol or in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of CHRNs in HBO cells. Using molecular techniques, we demonstrate that a subset of HBO cells express CHRNs that also co-express TRPM5, T1R3 or T2R38. Exposing HBO cells to nicotine or ethanol acutely or to nicotine chronically induced a differential increase in the expression of CHRN mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502953/identification-of-a-single-pair-of-interneurons-for-bitter-taste-processing-in-the-drosophila-brain
#20
Ali Asgar Bohra, Benjamin R Kallman, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Drosophila has become an excellent model system for investigating the organization and function of the gustatory system due to the relatively simple neuroanatomical organization of its brain and the availability of powerful genetic and transgenic technology. Thus, at the molecular and cellular levels, a great deal of insight into the peripheral detection and coding of gustatory information has already been attained. In contrast, much less is known about the central neural circuits that process this information and induce behaviorally appropriate motor output...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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