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Bitter taste receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101344/evaluation-of-pharmacological-relaxation-effect-of-the-natural-product-naringin-on-in-vitro-cultured-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-and-in-vivo-ovalbumin-induced-asthma-balb-c-mice
#1
Yue Wang, Yun Lu, Mingzhi Luo, Xiaohao Shi, Yan Pan, Huilong Zeng, Linhong Deng
Asthma has become a common chronic respiratory disease worldwide and its prevalence is predicted to continue increasing in the next decade, particularly in developing countries. A key component in asthma therapy is to alleviate the excessive bronchial airway narrowing ultimately due to airway smooth muscle contraction, which is often facilitated by a smooth muscle relaxant, such as the β2-adrenergic agonists. Recently, bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists, including saccharin and chloroquine, have been found to potently relax the airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) via intracellular Ca(2+) signaling...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099851/a-molecular-and-cellular-context-dependent-role-for-ir76b-in-detection-of-amino-acid-taste
#2
Anindya Ganguly, Lisa Pang, Vi-Khoi Duong, Angelina Lee, Hanni Schoniger, Erika Varady, Anupama Dahanukar
Amino acid taste is expected to be a universal property among animals. Although sweet, bitter, salt, and water tastes have been well characterized in insects, the mechanisms underlying amino acid taste remain elusive. From a Drosophila RNAi screen, we identify an ionotropic receptor, Ir76b, as necessary for yeast preference. Using calcium imaging, we identify Ir76b(+) amino acid taste neurons in legs, overlapping partially with sweet neurons but not those that sense other tastants. Ir76b mutants have reduced responses to amino acids, which are rescued by transgenic expression of Ir76b and a mosquito ortholog AgIr76b...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074885/first-objective-evaluation-of-taste-sensitivity-to-6-n-propylthiouracil-prop-a-paradigm-gustatory-stimulus-in-humans
#3
Giorgia Sollai, Melania Melis, Danilo Pani, Piero Cosseddu, Ilenia Usai, Roberto Crnjar, Annalisa Bonfiglio, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
Practical and reliable methods for the objective measure of taste function are critically important for studying eating behavior and taste function impairment. Here, we present direct measures of human gustatory response to a prototypical bitter compound, 6-n-propyltiouracil (PROP), obtained by electrophysiological recordings from the tongue of subjects who were classified for taster status and genotyped for the specific receptor gene (TAS2R38), and in which taste papilla density was determined. PROP stimulation evoked negative slow potentials that represent the summated depolarization of taste cells...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062485/activation-of-bitter-taste-receptors-in-pulmonary-nociceptors-sensitizes-trpv1-channels-through-plc-and-pkc-signaling-pathway
#4
Qihai Gu, Deanna S Joe, Carolyn A Gilbert
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), a G-protein-coupled receptor family capable of detecting numerous bitter-tasting compounds, have recently been shown to be expressed and play diverse roles in many extraoral tissues. Here we report the functional expression of T2Rs in rat pulmonary sensory neurons. In anesthetized spontaneously breathing rats, intratracheal instillation of T2Rs agonist chloroquine (10 mM, 0.1 ml) significantly augmented chemoreflexes evoked by right-atrial injection of capsaicin, a specific activator for transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1); whereas intravenous infusion of chloroquine failed to significantly affect capsaicin-evoked reflexes...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053191/extraoral-bitter-taste-receptors-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Ping Lu, Cheng-Hai Zhang, Lawrence M Lifshitz, Ronghua ZhuGe
Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs or T2Rs) belong to the superfamily of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, which are the targets of >50% of drugs currently on the market. Canonically, T2Rs are located in taste buds of the tongue, where they initiate bitter taste perception. However, accumulating evidence indicates that T2Rs are widely expressed throughout the body and mediate diverse nontasting roles through various specialized mechanisms. It has also become apparent that T2Rs and their polymorphisms are associated with human disorders...
January 4, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013542/vertebrate-bitter-taste-receptors-keys-for-survival-in-changing-environments
#6
Maik Behrens, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Research on bitter taste receptors has made enormous progress during recent years. Although in the early period after the discovery of this highly interesting receptor family special emphasis was placed on the deorphanization of mainly human bitter taste receptors, the research focus has shifted to sophisticated structure-function analyses, the discovery of small-molecule interactors, and the pharmacological profiling of nonhuman bitter taste receptors. These findings allowed novel perspectives on, for example, evolutionary and ecological questions that have arisen and that are discussed...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012014/analysis-of-the-expression-of-human-bitter-taste-receptors-in-extraoral-tissues
#7
Appalaraju Jaggupilli, Nisha Singh, Jasbir Upadhyaya, Anurag S Sikarwar, Makoto Arakawa, Shyamala Dakshinamurti, Rajinder P Bhullar, Kangmin Duan, Prashen Chelikani
The 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in humans perform a chemosensory function. However, very little is known about the level of expression of these receptors in different tissues. In this study, using nCounter gene expression we analyzed the expression patterns of human TAS2R transcripts in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial (CuFi-1), normal bronchial epithelial (NuLi-1), airway smooth muscle (ASM), pulmonary artery smooth muscle (PASM), mammary epithelial, and breast cancer cells. Our results suggest a specific pattern of TAS2R expression with TAS2R3, 4, 5, 10, 13, 19, and 50 transcripts expressed at moderate levels and TAS2R14 and TAS2R20 (or TASR49) at high levels in the various tissues analyzed...
December 23, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984170/autism-genes-are-selectively-targeted-by-environmental-pollutants-including-pesticides-heavy-metals-bisphenol-a-phthalates-and-many-others-in-food-cosmetics-or-household-products
#8
REVIEW
C J Carter, R A Blizard
The increasing incidence of autism suggests a major environmental influence. Epidemiology has implicated many candidates and genetics many susceptibility genes. Gene/environment interactions in autism were analysed using 206 autism susceptibility genes (ASG's) from the Autworks database to interrogate ∼1 million chemical/gene interactions in the comparative toxicogenomics database. Any bias towards ASG's was statistically determined for each chemical. Many suspect compounds identified in epidemiology, including tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, pesticides, particulate matter, benzo(a)pyrene, heavy metals, valproate, acetaminophen, SSRI's, cocaine, bisphenol A, phthalates, polyhalogenated biphenyls, flame retardants, diesel constituents, terbutaline and oxytocin, inter alia showed a significant degree of bias towards ASG's, as did relevant endogenous agents (retinoids, sex steroids, thyroxine, melatonin, folate, dopamine, serotonin)...
October 27, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966661/variation-in-the-tas2r31-bitter-taste-receptor-gene-relates-to-liking-for-the-nonnutritive-sweetener-acesulfame-k-among-children-and-adults
#9
Nuala Bobowski, Danielle R Reed, Julie A Mennella
The nonnutritive sweetener (NNS) acesulfame potassium (Ace-K) elicits a bitter off-taste that varies among adults due to polymorphisms in a bitter taste receptor gene. Whether polymorphisms affect liking for Ace-K by children, who live in different sensory worlds, is unknown. We examined hedonic response to Ace-K among children compared to adults, and whether response was related to common variants of the TAS2R31 bitter taste receptor gene and to NNS intake. Children (N = 48) and their mothers (N = 34) rated liking of Ace-K, and mothers reported whether they or their children ever consume NNSs via questionnaire...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935538/the-correlation-of-tas2r38-gene-variants-with-higher-risk-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis-in-polish-patients
#10
Karolina Dżaman, Mariola Zagor, Elżbieta Sarnowska, Antoni Krzeski, Ireneusz Kantor
BACKGROUND: Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs), especially T2R38s appear as innovative regulators of innate immunity in the respiratory system. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TAS2R38 gene may contribute to individual differences in susceptibility to respiratory infections especially chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). TAS2R38 genotypes distribution varies by geographic region, race and ethnicity. The aim of the preliminary study was the identification of SNPs in TAS2R38 encoding genes in Polish patients with CRS and finding potential correlation with CRS phenotypes...
October 31, 2016: Otolaryngologia Polska. the Polish Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925136/multidimensional-evaluation-of-endogenous-and-health-factors-affecting-food-preferences-taste-and-smell-perception
#11
D Guido, S Perna, M Carrai, R Barale, M Grassi, M Rondanelli
OBJECTIVE: This study, by taking a holistic approach, investigates the relationships between taste, smell sensitivity and food preference with prognostic (endogenous and health) factors including age, gender, genetic taste markers, body mass, cigarette smoking, and number of drugs used. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Northern Italy. PARTICIPANTS: 203 healthy subjects (160 women/43 men; mean age: 58.2±19.8 years) were examined...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924271/amino-acid-residues-of-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r16-that-determine-sensitivity-in-primates-to-%C3%AE-glycosides
#12
Hiroo Imai, Nami Suzuki-Hashido, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Takanobu Sakurai, Lijie Yin, Wenshi Pan, Masaji Ishiguro, Katsuyoshi Masuda, Keiko Abe, Takumi Misaka, Hirohisa Hirai
In mammals, bitter taste is mediated by TAS2Rs, which belong to the family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Since TAS2Rs are directly involved in the interaction between mammals and their dietary sources, it is likely that these genes evolved to reflect species-specific diets during mammalian evolution. Here, we analyzed the amino acids responsible for the difference in sensitivities of TAS2R16s of various primates using a cultured cell expression system. We found that the sensitivity of TAS2R16 varied due to several amino acid residues...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916586/selaginella-uncinata-flavonoids-ameliorated-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-asthma
#13
Bing Yu, Wei Cai, Huan-Huan Zhang, Yu-Sen Zhong, Jie Fang, Wen-You Zhang, Li Mo, Lu-Chen Wang, Chen-Huan Yu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Selaginella uncinata (Desv.) Spring, known as "Cuiyuncao", is a perennial herb widely distributed in the Southeast Asian countries. In the folk medicine, the local minority commonly use it to treat cough and asthma for centuries. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was carried out to investigate the protective mechanisms of total flavonoids from S. uncinata (SUF) on airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokine release and bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) signaling with emphasis on inflammatory responses in a rat model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873143/regulation-of-rac1-gtpase-activity-by-quinine-through-g-protein-and-bitter-taste-receptor-t2r4
#14
Crystal Sidhu, Appalaraju Jaggupilli, Prashen Chelikani, Rajinder P Bhullar
Rac1 belongs to the Rho family of small GTPases and regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization. T2R4 is a bitter taste receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family of proteins. In addition to mediating bitter taste perception from the tongue, T2R4s are found in extra-oral tissues, e.g., nasal epithelium, airways, brain, testis suggesting a much broader physiological function for these receptors. Anti-malarial drug and a bitter tasting compound, quinine, is a known agonist for T2R4, whereas BCML (Nα,Nα-Bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine) acts as an inverse agonist...
November 22, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870442/contributory-role-of-sex-differences-in-the-variations-of-gustatory-function
#15
REVIEW
Louis J Martin, Suzanne I Sollars
Remarkable variability between males and females occurs for an array of taste-guided behaviors in both rodents and humans. Sex differences have been noted for taste preference, detection thresholds, and reactivity to taste stimuli. Manipulating sex hormones during early postnatal development or altering the amount of circulating estrogen in adulthood can dramatically alter the pattern of these behaviors. Receptors for sex hormones appear to be prominent in several nuclei associated with central gustatory pathways, indicating that steroid hormones may modulate central taste processing...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866985/identification-of-functional-bitter-taste-receptors-and-their-antagonist-in-chickens
#16
Bapon Dey, Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Yuta Yoshida, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Elucidation of the taste sense of chickens is important not only for the development of chicken feedstuffs for the chicken industry but also to help clarify the evolution of the taste sense among animals. There are three putative chicken bitter taste receptors, chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), cT2R2 and cT2R7, which were identified using genome information and cell-based assays. Previously, we have shown that cT2R1 is a functional bitter taste receptor through both cell-based assays and behavioral tests. In this study, therefore, we focused on the sensitivities of the other two bitter receptors, cT2R2 and cT2R7, by using their agonists in behavioral tests...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863958/the-expression-of-bitter-taste-receptors-in-mesenteric-cerebral-and-omental-arteries
#17
Jing-Guo Chen, Na-Na Ping, Dong Liang, Meng-Yi Li, Yan-Ni Mi, Sen Li, Lei Cao, Yan Cai, Yong-Xiao Cao
AIM: Bitter taste is sensed by the bitter taste receptor (TAS2R), which is mainly expressed in the tongue as well as in extra-oral organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, brain, heart and testis. This study aimed to investigate whether TAS2R is expressed in the mesenteric, cerebral and omental arteries. MAIN METHODS: The expression levels of TAS2R mRNA and protein were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively...
November 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860472/-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-of-bitter-compounds-recent-knowledge-and-perspective
#18
Milan Nagy, Pavel Mučaji
This overview paper describes in its introductory part bitter-tasting herbal drugs in the context of their traditional use in the loss of appetite and digestive disorders. Then, it mentions current knowledge on signals origin in bitter taste receptors leading to different, unexpected physiological processes. Newly observed biological effects of bitter tastants are correlated with modern trends of their complex study with an aim to develop new drugs primarily acting on bitter taste receptors.Key words: T2R bitter taste receptors GPCR bitters glucose homeostasis asthma ghrelin GLP-1 solitary chemosensory cells...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846263/nicotine-induced-effects-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachrs-ca2-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-stc-1-cells
#19
Jie Qian, Shobha K Mummalaneni, Reem M Alkahtani, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S Murthy, John R Grider, Vijay Lyall
In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846033/brush-cells-the-newly-identified-gatekeepers-of-the-urinary-tract
#20
Wolfgang Kummer, Klaus Deckmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A specialized epithelial cell with chemosensory properties of taste cells known from the mouth has been newly identified in the urethra and linked to pathogen recognition. We here describe its properties and its link to defence mechanisms, showing parallels to similar sentinel cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. RECENT FINDINGS: In the urethra, slender epithelial cells with apical microvilli ('brush cells') express bitter and umami taste receptors and the downstream signalling cascade known from oropharyngeal gustation, utilizing it to monitor for bacterial products and bacterial growth facilitating conditions...
November 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
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