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Bitter taste receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133786/heterogeneity-in-the-drosophila-gustatory-receptor-complexes-that-detect-aversive-compounds
#1
Ha Yeon Sung, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Yeon Lim, Hyeyon Kim, Soo Min Oh, Sun Wook Hwang, Jae Young Kwon, Seok Jun Moon
Animals must detect aversive compounds to survive. Bitter taste neurons express heterogeneous combinations of bitter receptors that diversify their response profiles, but this remains poorly understood. Here we describe groups of taste neurons in Drosophila that detect the same bitter compounds using unique combinations of gustatory receptors (GRs). These distinct complexes also confer responsiveness to non-overlapping sets of additional compounds. While either GR32a/GR59c/GR66a or GR22e/GR32a/GR66a heteromultimers are sufficient for lobeline, berberine, and denatonium detection, only GR22e/GR32a/GR66a responds to strychnine...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130618/the-taste-of-toxicity-a-quantitative-analysis-of-bitter-and-toxic-molecules
#2
Ido Nissim, Ayana Dagan-Wiener, Masha Y Niv
The role of bitter taste-one of the few basic taste modalities-is commonly assumed to signal toxicity and alert animals against consuming harmful compounds. However, it is known that some toxic compounds are not bitter and that many bitter compounds have negligible toxicity while having important health benefits. Here we apply a quantitative analysis of the chemical space to shed light on the bitterness-toxicity relationship. Using the BitterDB dataset of bitter molecules, The BitterPredict prediction tool, and datasets of toxic compounds, we quantify the identity and similarity between bitter and toxic compounds...
November 11, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113930/bitter-taste-responses-of-gustducin-positive-taste-cells-in-mouse-fungiform-and-circumvallate-papillae
#3
Ryusuke Yoshida, Shingo Takai, Keisuke Sanematsu, Robert F Margolskee, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya
Bitter taste serves as an important signal for potentially poisonous compounds in foods to avoid their ingestion. Thousands of compounds are estimated to taste bitter and presumed to activate taste receptor cells expressing bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) and coupled transduction components including gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2) and transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5). Indeed, some gustducin-positive taste cells have been shown to respond to bitter compounds. However, there has been no systematic characterization of their response properties to multiple bitter compounds and the role of transduction molecules in these cells...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053947/a-bitter-tale-of-sweet-synergy
#4
Steven D Munger
Some sweeteners show a synergistic enhancement of perceived sweetness when they are tasted as binary mixtures. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Behrens et al. (2017) find that a surprising explanation for this classic observation may lie in their reciprocal inhibition of bitter taste receptors.
October 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964331/characterization-of-gpcrs-in-extracellular-vesicle-ev
#5
Manoj R Medapati, Anula Singh, Ranjit R Korupally, Dana Henderson, Thomas Klonisch, Sasidhar V Manda, Prashen Chelikani
Extracellular vesicle (EV) are tiny membranous vesicles usually <500nm in size that recently emerged as a new paradigm in human intercellular signaling. EVs have shown a promising role in development of diagnostic markers in many pathophysiological disorders. The presence of chemosensory and therapeutically relevant G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on EV membranes is poorly characterized. Here, we compare different methods including ultracentrifugation and polymer-charge-based separation to isolate EVs from cell culture media and human saliva...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939897/identification-of-a-specific-agonist-of-human-tas2r14-from-radix-bupleuri-through-virtual-screening-functional-evaluation-and-binding-studies
#6
Yuxin Zhang, Xing Wang, Xi Li, Sha Peng, Shifeng Wang, Christopher Z Huang, Corine Z Huang, Qiao Zhang, Dai Li, Jun Jiang, Qin Ouyang, Yanling Zhang, Shiyou Li, Yanjiang Qiao
Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) have attracted a great deal of interest because of their recently described bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to identify natural direct TAS2R14 agonists from Radix Bupleuri that can inhibit mast cell degranulation. A ligand-based virtual screening was conducted on a library of chemicals contained in compositions of Radix Bupleuri, and these analyses were followed by cell-based functional validation through a HEK293-TAS2R14-G16gust44 cell line and IgE-induced mast cell degranulation assays, respectively...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932739/agonist-binding-to-chemosensory-receptors-a-systematic-bioinformatics-analysis
#7
Fabrizio Fierro, Eda Suku, Mercedes Alfonso-Prieto, Alejandro Giorgetti, Sven Cichon, Paolo Carloni
Human G-protein coupled receptors (hGPCRs) constitute a large and highly pharmaceutically relevant membrane receptor superfamily. About half of the hGPCRs' family members are chemosensory receptors, involved in bitter taste and olfaction, along with a variety of other physiological processes. Hence these receptors constitute promising targets for pharmaceutical intervention. Molecular modeling has been so far the most important tool to get insights on agonist binding and receptor activation. Here we investigate both aspects by bioinformatics-based predictions across all bitter taste and odorant receptors for which site-directed mutagenesis data are available...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931063/plant-flavones-enhance-antimicrobial-activity-of-respiratory-epithelial-cell-secretions-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee
Flavones are a class of natural plant secondary metabolites that have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. Some flavones also activate the T2R14 bitter taste receptor, which is expressed in motile cilia of the sinonasal epithelium and activates innate immune nitric oxide (NO) production. Flavones may thus be potential therapeutics for respiratory infections. Our objective was to examine the anti-microbial effects of flavones on the common sinonasal pathogens Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, evaluating both planktonic and biofilm growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923290/use-of-adult-sensory-panel-to-study-individual-differences-in-the-palatability-of-a-pediatric-hiv-treatment-drug
#9
Julie A Mennella, Phoebe S Mathew, Elizabeth D Lowenthal
PURPOSE: The recommended first-line treatment for young children infected with HIV includes the liquid formulation of the co-formulated protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra(®) [Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Illinois]). Clinical reports indicate that some children readily accept the taste of Kaletra, whereas others strongly reject it, which can deter therapeutic adherence and outcomes. METHODS: As a proof-of-concept approach, a sensory panel of genotyped adults was used to document the range of individual differences in the taste and palatability (hedonics) of the liquid formulation of Kaletra and other taste stimuli, including common excipients...
October 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919036/blends-of-non-caloric-sweeteners-saccharin-and-cyclamate-show-reduced-off-taste-due-to-tas2r-bitter-receptor-inhibition
#10
Maik Behrens, Kristina Blank, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Non-caloric sweeteners are widely used for the formulation of calorie-reduced beverages for health-conscious consumers. However, disadvantages such as undesired off-tastes limit the use of non-nutritive sweeteners. Therefore, the food industry is constantly searching for novel sweeteners and frequently resorts to using blends combining non-caloric sweeteners in a single formulation. The earliest blend allowing higher sweetness levels with reduced bitter off-taste combined saccharin with cyclamate. However, the mechanism by which sweetener blends become superior to single compounds remained obscure...
October 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915899/association-between-polymorphisms-of-tas2r16-and-susceptibility-to-colorectal-cancer
#11
Jonathan Barontini, Marco Antinucci, Sergio Tofanelli, Maurizio Cammalleri, Massimo Dal Monte, Federica Gemignani, Pavel Vodicka, Roberto Marangoni, Ludmila Vodickova, Juozas Kupcinskas, Veronika Vymetalkova, Asta Forsti, Federico Canzian, Angelika Stein, Victor Moreno, Nicola Mastrodonato, Francesca Tavano, Anna Panza, Roberto Barale, Stefano Landi, Daniele Campa
BACKGROUND: Genetics plays an important role in the susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the last 10 years genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 independent low penetrance polymorphic variants. However, these loci only explain around 1‑4% of CRC heritability, highlighting the dire need of identifying novel risk loci. In this study, we focused our attention on the genetic variability of the TAS2R16 gene, encoding for one of the bitter taste receptors that selectively binds to salicin, a natural antipyretic that resembles aspirin...
September 15, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910546/could-hop-derived-bitter-compounds-improve-glucose-homeostasis-by-stimulating-the-secretion-of-glp-1
#12
Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Angela Arnone, Gian Carlo Tenore, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) is by far the greatest contributors to the bitter property of beer. Over the past years, a large body of evidence demonstrated the presence of taste receptors in different locations of the oral cavity. In addition to the taste buds of the tongue, cells expressing these receptors have been identified in olfactory bulbs, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. In the gut, the attention was mainly directed to sweet Taste Receptor (T1R) and bitter Taste Receptor (T2R) receptors. In particular, T2R has shown to modulate secretion of different gut hormones, mainly Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), which are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the control of gut motility, thereby increasing the sense of satiety...
September 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902853/the-human-bitter-taste-receptor-t2r38-is-broadly-tuned-for-bacterial-compounds
#13
Christophe Verbeurgt, Alex Veithen, Sébastien Carlot, Maxime Tarabichi, Jacques E Dumont, Sergio Hassid, Pierre Chatelain
T2R38 has been shown to be a specific bacterial detector implicated in innate immune defense mechanism of human upper airway. Several clinical studies have demonstrated that this receptor is associated with the development of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). T2R38 was previously reported to bind to homoserine lactones (HSL), quorum sensing molecules specific of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and other gram negative species. Nevertheless, these bacteria are not the major pathogens found in CRS. Here we report on the identification of bacterial metabolites acting as new agonists of T2R38 based on a single cell calcium imaging study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889974/ionotropic-receptors-mediate-drosophila-oviposition-preference-through-sour-gustatory-receptor-neurons
#14
Yan Chen, Hubert Amrein
Carboxylic acids are present in many foods, being especially abundant in fruits. Yet, relatively little is known about how acids are detected by gustatory systems and whether they have a potential role in nutrition or provide other health benefits. Here we identify sour gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in tarsal taste sensilla of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that most tarsal sensilla harbor a sour GRN that is specifically activated by carboxylic and mineral acids but does not respond to sweet- and bitter-tasting chemicals or salt...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888429/taste-receptors-in-the-gut-a-new-target-for-health-promoting-properties-in-diet
#15
REVIEW
Bo Ekstrand, Jette Feveile Young, Martin Krøyer Rasmussen
In this review we describe a new target for food functionality, the taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. These receptors are involved in an intricate signalling network for monitoring of taste and nutrient intake, homeostasis and energy metabolism, and they are also an early warning system for toxic substances in our diet. Especially the receptors for bitter taste provide a new possibility to activate a number of health related signalling pathways, already at low concentrations of the active substance, without requiring uptake into the body and transport via the circulation...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874606/bacterial-d-amino-acids-suppress-sinonasal-innate-immunity-through-sweet-taste-receptors-in-solitary-chemosensory-cells
#16
Robert J Lee, Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Laurel Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Peihua Jiang, Robert F Margolskee, Noam A Cohen
In the upper respiratory epithelium, bitter and sweet taste receptors present in solitary chemosensory cells influence antimicrobial innate immune defense responses. Whereas activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) stimulates surrounding epithelial cells to release antimicrobial peptides, activation of the sweet taste receptor (T1R) in the same cells inhibits this response. This mechanism is thought to control the magnitude of antimicrobial peptide release based on the sugar content of airway surface liquid...
September 5, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846687/%C3%AE-catenin-is-required-for-taste-bud-cell-renewal-and-behavioral-taste-perception-in-adult-mice
#17
Dany Gaillard, Spencer G Bowles, Ernesto Salcedo, Mingang Xu, Sarah E Millar, Linda A Barlow
Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835712/association-between-taste-receptor-tas-genes-and-the-perception-of-wine-characteristics
#18
Maura Carrai, Daniele Campa, Pavel Vodicka, Riccardo Flamini, Irene Martelli, Jana Slyskova, Katerina Jiraskova, Alexandra Rejhova, Sona Vodenkova, Federico Canzian, Alberto Bertelli, Antonio Dalla Vedova, Luigi Bavaresco, Ludmila Vodickova, Roberto Barale
Several studies have suggested a possible relationship between polymorphic variants of the taste receptors genes and the acceptance, liking and intake of food and beverages. In the last decade investigators have attempted to link the individual ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and the sensations, such as astringency and bitterness, elicited by wine or its components, but with contradictory results. We have used the genotype instead of the phenotype (responsiveness to PROP or other tastants), to test the possible relation between genetic variability and the perception of wine characteristic in 528 subjects from Italy and the Czech Republic...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834122/bitter-substances-from-plants-used-in-traditional-chinese-medicine-exert-biased-activation-of-human-bitter-taste-receptors
#19
Maik Behrens, Ming Gu, Shengjie Fan, Cheng Huang, Wolfgang Meyerhof
The number and variety of bitter compounds originating from plants is vast. Whereas some bitter chemicals are toxic and should not be ingested, other compounds exhibit health beneficial effects, which is manifest in the cross-cultural believe that the bitterness of medicine is correlated with the desired medicinal activity. The bitter taste receptors in the oral cavity serve as sensors for bitter compounds and, since they are expressed in numerous extraoral tissues throughout the body, may also be responsible for some physiological effects exerted by bitter compounds...
August 21, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833098/caffeine-may-reduce-perceived-sweet-taste-in-humans-supporting-evidence-that-adenosine-receptors-modulate-taste
#20
Ezen Choo, Benjamin Picket, Robin Dando
Multiple recent reports have detailed the presence of adenosine receptors in sweet sensitive taste cells of mice. These receptors are activated by endogenous adenosine in the plasma to enhance sweet signals within the taste bud, before reporting to the primary afferent. As we commonly consume caffeine, a powerful antagonist for such receptors, in our daily lives, an intriguing question we sought to answer was whether the caffeine we habitually consume in coffee can inhibit the perception of sweet taste in humans...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Food Science
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