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Bitter taste receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916586/selaginella-uncinata-flavonoids-ameliorated-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-asthma
#1
Bing Yu, Wei Cai, Huan-Huan Zhang, Yu-Sen Zhong, Jie Fang, Wen-You Zhang, Li Mo, Lu-Chen Wang, Chen-Huan Yu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Selaginella uncinata (Desv.) Spring, known as "Cuiyuncao" is a perennial herb widely distributed in the Southeast Asian countries. In the folk medicine, the local minority commonly use it to treat cough and asthma for centuries. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was carried out to investigate the protective mechanisms of total flavonoids from S. uncinata (SUF) on airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokine release and bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) signaling with emphasis on inflammatory responses in a rat model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873143/regulation-of-rac1-gtpase-activity-by-quinine-through-g-protein-and-bitter-taste-receptor-t2r4
#2
Crystal Sidhu, Appalaraju Jaggupilli, Prashen Chelikani, Rajinder P Bhullar
Rac1 belongs to the Rho family of small GTPases and regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization. T2R4 is a bitter taste receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family of proteins. In addition to mediating bitter taste perception from the tongue, T2R4s are found in extra-oral tissues, e.g., nasal epithelium, airways, brain, testis suggesting a much broader physiological function for these receptors. Anti-malarial drug and a bitter tasting compound, quinine, is a known agonist for T2R4, whereas BCML (Nα,Nα-Bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine) acts as an inverse agonist...
November 22, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870442/contributory-role-of-sex-differences-in-the-variations-of-gustatory-function
#3
REVIEW
Louis J Martin, Suzanne I Sollars
Remarkable variability between males and females occurs for an array of taste-guided behaviors in both rodents and humans. Sex differences have been noted for taste preference, detection thresholds, and reactivity to taste stimuli. Manipulating sex hormones during early postnatal development or altering the amount of circulating estrogen in adulthood can dramatically alter the pattern of these behaviors. Receptors for sex hormones appear to be prominent in several nuclei associated with central gustatory pathways, indicating that steroid hormones may modulate central taste processing...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866985/identification-of-functional-bitter-taste-receptors-and-their-antagonist-in-chickens
#4
Bapon Dey, Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Yuta Yoshida, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Elucidation of the taste sense of chickens is important not only for the development of chicken feedstuffs for the chicken industry but also to help clarify the evolution of the taste sense among animals. There are three putative chicken bitter taste receptors, chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), cT2R2 and cT2R7, which were identified using genome information and cell-based assays. Previously, we have shown that cT2R1 is a functional bitter taste receptor through both cell-based assays and behavioral tests. In this study, therefore, we focused on the sensitivities of the other two bitter receptors, cT2R2 and cT2R7, by using their agonists in behavioral tests...
November 17, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863958/the-expression-of-bitter-taste-receptors-in-mesenteric-cerebral-and-omental-arteries
#5
Jing-Guo Chen, Na-Na Ping, Dong Liang, Meng-Yi Li, Yan-Ni Mi, Sen Li, Lei Cao, Yan Cai, Yong-Xiao Cao
AIM: Bitter taste is sensed by the bitter taste receptor (TAS2R), which is mainly expressed in the tongue as well as in extra-oral organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, brain, heart and testis. This study aimed to investigate whether TAS2R is expressed in the mesenteric, cerebral and omental arteries. MAIN METHODS: The expression levels of TAS2R mRNA and protein were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively...
November 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860472/-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-of-bitter-compounds-recent-knowledge-and-perspective
#6
Milan Nagy, Pavel Mučaji
This overview paper describes in its introductory part bitter-tasting herbal drugs in the context of their traditional use in the loss of appetite and digestive disorders. Then, it mentions current knowledge on signals origin in bitter taste receptors leading to different, unexpected physiological processes. Newly observed biological effects of bitter tastants are correlated with modern trends of their complex study with an aim to develop new drugs primarily acting on bitter taste receptors.Key words: T2R bitter taste receptors GPCR bitters glucose homeostasis asthma ghrelin GLP-1 solitary chemosensory cells...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846263/nicotine-induced-effects-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachrs-ca2-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-stc-1-cells
#7
Jie Qian, Shobha K Mummalaneni, Reem M Alkahtani, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S Murthy, John R Grider, Vijay Lyall
In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846033/brush-cells-the-newly-identified-gatekeepers-of-the-urinary-tract
#8
Wolfgang Kummer, Klaus Deckmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A specialized epithelial cell with chemosensory properties of taste cells known from the mouth has been newly identified in the urethra and linked to pathogen recognition. We here describe its properties and its link to defence mechanisms, showing parallels to similar sentinel cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. RECENT FINDINGS: In the urethra, slender epithelial cells with apical microvilli ('brush cells') express bitter and umami taste receptors and the downstream signalling cascade known from oropharyngeal gustation, utilizing it to monitor for bacterial products and bacterial growth facilitating conditions...
November 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829482/microencapsulated-bitter-compounds-from-gentiana-lutea-reduce-daily-energy-intakes-in-humans
#9
Ilario Mennella, Vincenzo Fogliano, Rosalia Ferracane, Marco Arlorio, Franco Pattarino, Paola Vitaglione
Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter ingredient (EBI) with a core of bitter Gentiana lutea root extract and a coating of ethylcellulose-stearate was developed and included in a vanilla microencapsulated bitter ingredient-enriched pudding (EBIP). The coating masked bitterness in the mouth, allowing the release of bitter secoiridoids in the gastrointestinal tract...
November 10, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829423/relationship-between-traditional-chinese-medicine-constitutional-types-with-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-an-observational-study
#10
Yi Liu, Ting Pan, Wenjing Zou, Ye Sun, Yun Cai, Rui Wang, Pingping Han, Zhe Zhang, Qunying He, Feng Ye
BACKGROUND: The theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitution involves genetic characteristics, psychological factors, organ functions, and many other aspects. Studies have shown that TCM constitution is associated with HLA polymorphisms and has a genetic basis. A large number of Chinese studies have suggested that the clinical evolution of breast cancer may differ among patients with different TCM constitutions. In addition, patients with breast cancer and different TCM constitutions may have different degrees of myelosuppression after chemotherapy...
November 9, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819057/taste-receptors-regulators-of-sinonasal-innate-immunity
#11
Ryan M Carey, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
Taste receptors in the oral cavity guide our preferences for foods, preventing toxic ingestions and encouraging proper nutrient consumption. More recently, expression of taste receptors has been demonstrated in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and brain. The extent and specific roles of "extraoral" taste receptors are largely unknown, but a growing body of evidence suggests that taste receptors in the airway serve a critical role in sensing bacteria and regulating innate immunity...
August 2016: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781093/gut-chemosensing-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760794/evolutionary-insights-into-taste-perception-of-the-invasive-pest-drosophila-suzukii
#13
Cristina M Crava, Sukania Ramasamy, Lino Ometto, Gianfranco Anfora, Omar Rota-Stabelli
Chemosensory perception allows insects to interact with the environment by perceiving odorant or tastant molecules; genes encoding chemoreceptors are the molecular interface between the environment and the insect, and play a central role in mediating its chemosensory behavior. Here we explore how the evolution of these genes in the emerging pest Drosophila suzukii correlates with the peculiar ecology of this species. We annotated approximately 130 genes coding for gustatory receptors (GRs) and divergent ionotropic receptors (dIRs) in D...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757593/differences-in-food-intake-and-genetic-variability-in-taste-receptors-between-czech-pregnant-women-with-and-without-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Vendula Bartáková, Katarína Kuricová, Filip Zlámal, Jana Bělobrádková, Katetřina Kaňková
PURPOSE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents the most frequent metabolic disorder in pregnancy. Since dietary intake plays an important role in obesity and type 2 diabetes development, it is likely to be for the susceptibility to GDM too. Food preferences, driving partly the diet composition, are changing during pregnancy. Taste and genetic variability in taste receptors is an important factor in determining food preferences. Aims of our study were (1) to characterize dietary habits of pregnant women and to find possible differences in food preferences between healthy pregnant women and those with GDM and (2) to ascertain possible association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in taste receptor (TR) genes with GDM...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733116/variation-in-ligand-responses-of-the-bitter-taste-receptors-tas2r1-and-tas2r4-among-new-world-monkeys
#15
Kei Tsutsui, Masahiro Otoh, Kodama Sakurai, Nami Suzuki-Hashido, Takashi Hayakawa, Takumi Misaka, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Filippo Aureli, Amanda D Melin, Shoji Kawamura, Hiroo Imai
BACKGROUND: New World monkeys (NWMs) are unique in that they exhibit remarkable interspecific variation in color vision and feeding behavior, making them an excellent model for studying sensory ecology. However, it is largely unknown whether non-visual senses co-vary with feeding ecology, especially gustation, which is expected to be indispensable in food selection. Bitter taste, which is mediated by bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in the tongue, helps organisms avoid ingesting potentially toxic substances in food...
October 12, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723827/evaluation-of-mucociliary-clearance-by-three-dimension-micro-ct-spect-in-guinea-pig-role-of-bitter-taste-agonists
#16
Jose Luis Ortiz, Amparo Ortiz, Javier Milara, Miguel Armengot, Celia Sanz, Desamparados Compañ, Esteban Morcillo, Julio Cortijo
Different image techniques have been used to analyze mucociliary clearance (MCC) in humans, but current small animal MCC analysis using in vivo imaging has not been well defined. Bitter taste receptor (T2R) agonists increase ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and cause bronchodilation but their effects in vivo are not well understood. This work analyzes in vivo nasal and bronchial MCC in guinea pig animals using three dimension (3D) micro-CT-SPECT images and evaluates the effect of T2R agonists. Intranasal macroaggreggates of albumin-Technetium 99 metastable (MAA-Tc99m) and lung nebulized Tc99m albumin nanocolloids were used to analyze the effect of T2R agonists on nasal and bronchial MCC respectively, using 3D micro-CT-SPECT in guinea pig...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711175/genetic-variation-in-the-tas2r38-bitter-taste-receptor-and-smoking-behaviors
#17
Davide S Risso, Julia Kozlitina, Eduardo Sainz, Joanne Gutierrez, Stephen Wooding, Betelihem Getachew, Donata Luiselli, Carla J Berg, Dennis Drayna
Common TAS2R38 taste receptor gene variants specify the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and structurally related compounds. Tobacco smoke contains a complex mixture of chemical substances of varying structure and functionality, some of which activate different taste receptors. Accordingly, it has been suggested that non-taster individuals may be more likely to smoke because of their inability to taste bitter compounds present in tobacco smoke, but results to date have been conflicting...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684591/taste-preference-assay-for-adult-drosophila
#18
Andrew P Bantel, Charles R Tessier
Olfactory and gustatory perception of the environment is vital for animal survival. The most obvious application of these chemosenses is to be able to distinguish good food sources from potentially dangerous food sources. Gustation requires physical contact with a chemical compound which is able to signal through taste receptors that are expressed on the surface of neurons. In insects, these gustatory neurons can be located across the animal's body allowing taste to play an important role in many different behaviors...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680547/chemosensory-epithelial-cells-in-the-urethra-sentinels-of-the-urinary-tract
#19
Klaus Deckmann, Wolfgang Kummer
A peculiar cell type of the respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia, originally termed "brush cell" or "tuft cell" by electron microscopists because of its apical tuft of microvilli, utilizes the canonical bitter taste transduction cascade known from oropharyngeal taste buds to detect potential hazardous compounds, e.g. bacterial products. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes and local inflammatory responses through release of acetylcholine and chemokines. Guided by the understanding of these cells as sentinels, they have been newly discovered at previously unrecognized anatomical locations, including the urethra...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667568/inundation-of-asthma-target-research-untangling-asthma-riddles
#20
Jatinder Singh, Ramanpreet Shah, Dhandeep Singh
Asthma is inveterate inflammatory disorder, delineated by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway wall remodeling. Although, asthma is a vague term, and is recognized as heterogenous entity encompassing different phenotypes. Targeting single mediator or receptor did not prove much clinical significant, as asthma is complex disease involving myriad inflammatory mediators. Asthma may probably involve a large number of different types of molecular and cellular components interacting through complex pathophysiological pathways...
September 22, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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