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Bitter taste receptors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530573/identification-of-a-key-umami-active-fraction-in-modernized-korean-soy-sauce-and-the-impact-thereof-on-bitter-masking
#1
Yiseul Kim, Eun-Young Kim, Hee Jin Son, Jai-Jung Lee, Yong-Ho Choi, Mee-Ra Rhyu
Food protein hydrolysates created by natural fermentation have been used for centuries as food flavorings. The aim of this study was to define the key umami-active fraction of modernized Korean soy sauce (mJGN) and the impact thereof on bitter-masking of human sensory and bitter-taste receptor-expressing cells. We found strong correlations between taste profiles of mJGN and a contained fraction (F05). The latter contained compounds of less than 500Da, and elicits a distinct umami taste. Both free amino acids and Glu-enriched oligopeptides are suggested to be crucial in terms of the effects of F05 on taste...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525714/characterization-of-bitter-compounds-via-modulation-of-proton-secretion-in-human-gastric-parietal-cells-in-culture
#2
Kathrin I Liszt, Joachim Hans, Jakob P Ley, Elke Köck, Veronika Somoza
Humans perceive bitterness via around 25 different bitter receptors. Therefore, the identification of antagonists remains a complex challenge. We previously demonstrated several bitter tasting compounds such as caffeine to induce acid secretion in the stomach and in a human gastric tumor cell line (HGT-1). Here, the results of a fluorescent-based in vitro assay using HGT-1 cells and a human sensory panel testing nine selected potential bitter modulators with or without the bitter compounds caffeine or theobromine, were compared...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513558/from-cell-to-beak-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-chicken-bitter-taste-thresholds
#3
Shira Cheled-Shoval, Maik Behrens, Ayelet Korb, Antonella Di Pizio, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Zehava Uni, Masha Y Niv
Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors-ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems) and in-vivo (behavioral) detection thresholds...
May 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467517/anti-cancer-stemness-and-anti-invasive-activity-of-bitter-taste-receptors-tas2r8-and-tas2r10-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#4
Yoona Seo, Yoo-Sun Kim, Kyung Eun Lee, Tai Hyun Park, Yuri Kim
Neuroblastoma (NB) originates from immature neuronal cells and currently has a poor clinical outcome. NB cells possess cancer stem cells (CSCs) characteristics that facilitate the initiation of a tumor, as well as its metastasis. Human bitter taste receptors, referred to as TAS2Rs, are one of five types of basic taste receptors and they belong to a family of G-protein coupled receptors. The recent finding that taste receptors are expressed in non-gustatory tissues suggest that they mediate additional functions distinct from taste perception...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452704/nitric-oxide-production-is-stimulated-by-bitter-taste-receptors-ubiquitously-expressed-in-the-sinonasal-cavity
#5
Carol H Yan, Samuel Hahn, Derek McMahon, David Bonislawski, David W Kennedy, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, Peihua Jiang, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Bitter taste receptors (T2R) have recently been demonstrated to contribute to sinonasal innate immunity. One T2R, T2R38, regulates mucosal defense against gram-negative organisms through nitric oxide (NO) production, which enhances mucociliary clearance and directly kills bacteria. To determine whether additional T2Rs contribute to this innate defense, we evaluated two other sinonasal T2Rs (T2R4 and T2R16) for regulation of NO production and expression within the human sinonasal cavity...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450286/bitter-taste-receptor-agonists-alter-mitochondrial-function-and-induce-autophagy-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
Shi Pan, Pawan Sharma, Sushrut D Shah, Deepak A Deshpande
Airway remodeling including increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is a hallmark feature of asthma and COPD. We previously identified the expression of bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) on human ASM cells, and demonstrated that known TAS2R agonists could promote ASM relaxation and bronchodilation, and inhibit mitogen-induced ASM growth. In this study we explored cellular mechanisms mediating the anti-mitogenic effect of TAS2R agonists on human ASM cells. Pre-treatment of ASM cells with TAS2R agonists, chloroquine and quinine, resulted in inhibition of cell survival, which was largely reversed by bafilomycin A1, an autophagy inhibitor...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423504/variations-in-the-bitterness-perception-related-genes-tas2r38-and-ca6-modify-the-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-in-koreans
#7
Jeong-Hwa Choi, Jeonghee Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Hee Jin Chang, Dae Kyung Sohn, Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim
Bitterness perception is known to be an important factor in individuals' dietary behaviors and is also associated with the sensing of nutritious/noxious molecules for subsequent metabolic responses in multiple organs. Therefore, the genetic variation in bitterness sensing may be associated with diet-related diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the influence of variations in the bitterness-sensing genes taste receptor type 2 member 38 (TAS2R38) and carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) on the consumption of food, tobacco and alcohol and the risk of CRC in Koreans...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417226/the-repertoire-of-bitter-taste-receptor-genes-in-canids
#8
REVIEW
Shuai Shang, Xiaoyang Wu, Jun Chen, Huanxin Zhang, Huaming Zhong, Qinguo Wei, Jiakuo Yan, Haotian Li, Guangshuai Liu, Weilai Sha, Honghai Zhang
Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) play important roles in mammalian defense mechanisms by helping animals detect and avoid toxins in food. Although Tas2r genes have been widely studied in several mammals, minimal research has been performed in canids. To analyze the genetic basis of Tas2r genes in canids, we first identified Tas2r genes in the wolf, maned wolf, red fox, corsac fox, Tibetan fox, fennec fox, dhole and African hunting dog. A total of 183 Tas2r genes, consisting of 118 intact genes, 6 partial genes and 59 pseudogenes, were detected...
April 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403157/effects-of-age-and-nutritional-state-on-the-expression-of-gustatory-receptors-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#9
Nicola K Simcock, Luisa A Wakeling, Dianne Ford, Geraldine A Wright
Gustatory receptors (Grs) expressed in insect taste neurons signal the presence of carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, CO2, bitter compounds and oviposition stimulants. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has one of the smallest Gr gene sets (12 Gr genes) of any insect whose genome has been sequenced. Honeybees live in eusocial colonies with a division of labour and perform age-dependent behavioural tasks, primarily food collection. Here, we used RT-qPCR to quantify Gr mRNA in honeybees at two ages (newly-emerged and foraging-age adults) to examine the relationship between age-related physiology and expression of Gr genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397820/bitter-taste-receptor-agonists-mitigate-features-of-allergic-asthma-in-mice
#10
Pawan Sharma, Roslyn Yi, Ajay P Nayak, Nadan Wang, Francesca Tang, Morgan J Knight, Shi Pan, Brian Oliver, Deepak A Deshpande
Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, mucus secretion, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Recent research has established the bronchodilatory effect of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists in various models. Comprehensive pre-clinical studies aimed at establishing effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in disease models are lacking. Here we aimed to determine the effect of TAS2R agonists on features of asthma. Further, we elucidated a mechanism by which TAS2R agonists mitigate features of asthma...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393162/human-cell-based-taste-perception-a-bittersweet-job-for-industry
#11
K Riedel, D Sombroek, B Fiedler, K Siems, M Krohn
Covering: 2000 to 2016On the molecular level humans sense food by a variety of specialized tissues which express sensory receptors to handle nutritive value. In general, this means the interplay of gustatory, olfactory, trigeminal and haptic sensation is translated into perception and leads, in terms of taste, to descriptions like sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami. Further perceptions include astringent, cool, hot, prickle, lingering, kokumi and fatty to name predominant characterizations. It is still not fully understood how this plethora of impressions can be perceived by quite a limited number of receptors obviously being the initial compilers to judge palatability...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373278/flavones-modulate-respiratory-epithelial-innate-immunity-anti-inflammatory-effects-and-activation-of-t2r14
#12
Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Jenna R Freund, Corrine J Mansfield, Laurel J Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Danielle R Reed, Peihua Jiang, Robert J Lee
Chronic rhinosinusitis has a significant impact on patient quality of life, creates billions of dollars of annual healthcare costs, and accounts for ~20% of adult antibiotic prescriptions in the US. Due to the rise of resistant microorganisms, there is a critical need to better understand how to stimulate and/or enhance innate immune responses as a therapeutic modality to treat respiratory infections. We recently identified bitter taste receptors (taste family type 2 receptors, or T2Rs) as important regulators of sinonasal immune responses and potential important therapeutic targets...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366770/a-bio-cultural-approach-to-the-study-of-food-choice-the-contribution-of-taste-genetics-population-and-culture
#13
Davide S Risso, Cristina Giuliani, Marco Antinucci, Gabriella Morini, Paolo Garagnani, Sergio Tofanelli, Donata Luiselli
The study of food choice, one of the most complex human traits, requires an integrated approach that takes into account environmental, socio-cultural and biological diversity. We recruited 183 volunteers from four geo-linguistic groups and highly diversified in terms of both genetic background and food habits from whom we collected genotypes and phenotypes tightly linked to taste perception. We confirmed previous genetic associations, in particular with stevioside perception, and noted significant differences in food consumption: in particular, broccoli, mustard and beer consumption scores were significantly higher (Adjusted P = 0...
March 31, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363856/bitterness-prediction-in-silico-a-step-towards-better-drugs
#14
Malkeet Singh Bahia, Ido Nissim, Masha Niv
Bitter taste is innately aversive and thought to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter taste receptors (Tas2Rs) are G-protein coupled receptors, expressed both orally and extra-orally and proposed as novel targets for several indications, including asthma. Many clinical drugs elicit bitter taste, suggesting the possibility of drugs re-purposing. On the other hand, the bitter taste of medicine presents a major compliance problem for pediatric drugs. Thus, efficient tools for predicting, measuring and masking bitterness of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are required by the pharmaceutical industry...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361903/steviol-glycosides-enhance-pancreatic-beta-cell-function-and-taste-sensation-by-potentiation-of-trpm5-channel-activity
#15
Koenraad Philippaert, Andy Pironet, Margot Mesuere, William Sones, Laura Vermeiren, Sara Kerselaers, Sílvia Pinto, Andrei Segal, Nancy Antoine, Conny Gysemans, Jos Laureys, Katleen Lemaire, Patrick Gilon, Eva Cuypers, Jan Tytgat, Chantal Mathieu, Frans Schuit, Patrik Rorsman, Karel Talavera, Thomas Voets, Rudi Vennekens
Steviol glycosides (SGs), such as stevioside and rebaudioside A, are natural, non-caloric sweet-tasting organic molecules, present in extracts of the scrub plant Stevia rebaudiana, which are widely used as sweeteners in consumer foods and beverages. TRPM5 is a Ca(2+)-activated cation channel expressed in type II taste receptor cells and pancreatic β-cells. Here we show that stevioside, rebaudioside A and their aglycon steviol potentiate the activity of TRPM5. We find that SGs potentiate perception of bitter, sweet and umami taste, and enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion in a Trpm5-dependent manner...
March 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339990/detecting-thresholds-for-bitter-umami-and-sweet-tastants-in-broiler-chicken-using-a-2-choice-test-method
#16
Shira L Cheled-Shoval, Naama Reicher, Masha Y Niv, Zehava Uni
The sense of taste has a key role in nutrient sensing and food intake in animals. A standardized and simple method for determination of tastant-detection thresholds is required for chemosensory research in poultry. We established a 24-h, 2-alternative, forced-choice solution-consumption method and applied it to measure detection thresholds for 3 G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated taste modalities-bitter, sweet, and umami-in chicken. Four parameters were used to determine a significant response: 1) tastant-solution consumption; 2) water (tasteless) consumption; 3) total consumption (tastant and water together); 4) ratio of tastant consumption to total consumption...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334404/calcium-homeostasis-modulator-1-like-currents-in-rat-fungiform-taste-cells-expressing-amiloride-sensitive-sodium-currents
#17
Albertino Bigiani
Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334158/the-impact-of-pregnancy-on-taste-function
#18
Ezen Choo, Robin Dando
It is common for women to report a change in taste (for instance an increased bitter or decreased sweet response) during pregnancy, however specifics of any variation in taste with pregnancy remain elusive. Here we review studies of taste in pregnancy, and discuss how physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may influence taste signaling. We aim to consolidate studies of human pregnancy and "taste function" (studies of taste thresholds, discrimination, and intensity perception, rather than hedonic response or self-report), discussing differences in methodology and findings...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333344/probing-the-evolutionary-history-of-human-bitter-taste-receptor-pseudogenes-by-restoring-their-function
#19
Davide Risso, Maik Behrens, Eduardo Sainz, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Dennis Drayna
Lineage-specific gene losses can be driven by selection or environmental adaptations. However, a lack of studies on the original function of species-specific pseudogenes leaves a gap in our understanding of their role in evolutionary histories. Pseudogenes are of particular relevance for taste perception genes, which encode for receptors that confer the ability to both identify nutritionally valuable substances and avoid potentially harmful substances. To explore the role of bitter taste pseudogenization events in human origins, we restored the open reading frames of the three human-specific pseudogenes and synthesized the reconstructed functional hTAS2R2, hTAS2R62 and hTAS2R64 receptors...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294983/on-the-emerging-role-of-the-taste-receptor-type-1-t1r-family-of-nutrient-sensors-in-the-musculoskeletal-system
#20
REVIEW
Shoichiro Kokabu, Jonathan W Lowery, Takashi Toyono, Tsuyoshi Sato, Tetsuya Yoda
The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R) family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R) family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose...
March 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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