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Luca Amendola, Stephen Appleby, Anastasios Avgoustidis, David Bacon, Tessa Baker, Marco Baldi, Nicola Bartolo, Alain Blanchard, Camille Bonvin, Stefano Borgani, Enzo Branchini, Clare Burrage, Stefano Camera, Carmelita Carbone, Luciano Casarini, Mark Cropper, Claudia de Rham, Jörg P Dietrich, Cinzia Di Porto, Ruth Durrer, Anne Ealet, Pedro G Ferreira, Fabio Finelli, Juan García-Bellido, Tommaso Giannantonio, Luigi Guzzo, Alan Heavens, Lavinia Heisenberg, Catherine Heymans, Henk Hoekstra, Lukas Hollenstein, Rory Holmes, Zhiqi Hwang, Knud Jahnke, Thomas D Kitching, Tomi Koivisto, Martin Kunz, Giuseppe La Vacca, Eric Linder, Marisa March, Valerio Marra, Carlos Martins, Elisabetta Majerotto, Dida Markovic, David Marsh, Federico Marulli, Richard Massey, Yannick Mellier, Francesco Montanari, David F Mota, Nelson J Nunes, Will Percival, Valeria Pettorino, Cristiano Porciani, Claudia Quercellini, Justin Read, Massimiliano Rinaldi, Domenico Sapone, Ignacy Sawicki, Roberto Scaramella, Constantinos Skordis, Fergus Simpson, Andy Taylor, Shaun Thomas, Roberto Trotta, Licia Verde, Filippo Vernizzi, Adrian Vollmer, Yun Wang, Jochen Weller, Tom Zlosnik
Euclid is a European Space Agency medium-class mission selected for launch in 2020 within the cosmic vision 2015-2025 program. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and red-shifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research...
2018: Living Reviews in Relativity
B W Stappers, E F Keane, M Kramer, A Possenti, I H Stairs
Pulsars are highly magnetized and rapidly rotating neutron stars. As they spin, the lighthouse-like beam of radio emission from their magnetic poles sweeps across the Earth with a regularity approaching that of the most precise clocks known. This precision combined with the extreme environments in which they are found, often in compact orbits with other neutron stars and white dwarfs, makes them excellent tools for studying gravity. Present and near-future pulsar surveys, especially those using the new generation of telescopes, will find more extreme binary systems and pulsars that are more precise 'clocks'...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Branwyn Poleykett
What were the dead to colonial epidemiologists? Doctors and colonial scientists involved in the response to epidemics of plague in Madagascar in the first half of the twentieth century speculated about the role of Malagasy mortuary ritual in the spread of plague, and sought to bring Malagasy ritual into line with Pasteurian hygienic norms. I examine confrontations over death and the management of the dead in Madagascar, tracing the textured form of epidemiological knowledge that arose from the confrontation between Malagasy cosmology and Pasteurian counter epidemic technique...
April 12, 2018: Medical Anthropology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature
Ryley Hill, Kiyoshi W Masui, Douglas Scott
Cosmic background (CB) radiation, encompassing the sum of emission from all sources outside our own Milky Way galaxy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, is a fundamental phenomenon in observational cosmology. Many experiments have been conceived to measure it (or its constituents) since the extragalactic Universe was first discovered; in addition to estimating the bulk (cosmic monopole) spectrum, directional variations have also been detected over a wide range of wavelengths. Here we gather the most recent of these measurements and discuss the current status of our understanding of the CB from radio to γ-ray energies...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Christian G Böhmer, Piyabut Burikham, Tiberiu Harko, Matthew J Lake
We derive upper and lower limits for the mass-radius ratio of spin-fluid spheres in Einstein-Cartan theory, with matter satisfying a linear barotropic equation of state, and in the presence of a cosmological constant. Adopting a spherically symmetric interior geometry, we obtain the generalized continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for a Weyssenhoff spin fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium, expressed in terms of the effective mass, density and pressure, all of which contain additional contributions from the spin...
2018: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Ruth Lazkoz, María Ortiz-Baños, Vincenzo Salzano
It is a very well established matter nowadays that many modified gravity models can offer a sound alternative to General Relativity for the description of the accelerated expansion of the universe. But it is also equally well known that no clear and sharp discrimination between any alternative theory and the classical one has been found so far. In this work, we attempt at formulating a different approach starting from the general class of f ( R ) theories as test probes: we try to reformulate f ( R ) Lagrangian terms as explicit functions of the redshift, i...
2018: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Aaron Parkhurst
In light of increasingly high rates of diabetes, heart disease, and obesity among citizens of the Arabian Gulf, popular health discourse in the region has emphasised the emergent Arab genome as the primary etiological basis of major health conditions. However, after many years of public dissemination of genomic knowledge in the region, and widespread acceptance of this knowledge among Gulf Arab citizens, the rates of chronic illness continue to increase. This paper briefly explores the clash between indigenous Islamic knowledge systems and biomedical knowledge systems imported into the United Arab Emirates...
April 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
Duncan A Forbes, Nate Bastian, Mark Gieles, Robert A Crain, J M Diederik Kruijssen, Søren S Larsen, Sylvia Ploeckinger, Oscar Agertz, Michele Trenti, Annette M N Ferguson, Joel Pfeffer, Oleg Y Gnedin
We discuss some of the key open questions regarding the formation and evolution of globular clusters (GCs) during galaxy formation and assembly within a cosmological framework. The current state of the art for both observations and simulations is described, and we briefly mention directions for future research. The oldest GCs have ages greater than or equal to 12.5 Gyr and formed around the time of reionization. Resolved colour-magnitude diagrams of Milky Way GCs and direct imaging of lensed proto-GCs at z ∼6 with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) promise further insight...
February 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Stephanie Buck
Astrology was a lifelong interest for C.G. Jung and an important aid in his formulation of psyche and psychic process. Archetypally configured, astrology provided Jung an objective means to a fuller understanding of the analysand's true nature and unique individuation journey. Jung credits astrology with helping to unlock the mystery of alchemy and in so doing providing the symbol language necessary for deciphering the historically remote cosmology of Gnosticism. Astrology also aided Jung's work on synchronicity...
April 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Rennan Barkana
The cosmic radio-frequency spectrum is expected to show a strong absorption signal corresponding to the 21-centimetre-wavelength transition of atomic hydrogen around redshift 20, which arises from Lyman-α radiation from some of the earliest stars. By observing this 21-centimetre signal-either its sky-averaged spectrum or maps of its fluctuations, obtained using radio interferometers-we can obtain information about cosmic dawn, the era when the first astrophysical sources of light were formed. The recent detection of the global 21-centimetre spectrum reveals a stronger absorption than the maximum predicted by existing models, at a confidence level of 3...
February 28, 2018: Nature
Judd D Bowman, Alan E E Rogers, Raul A Monsalve, Thomas J Mozdzen, Nivedita Mahesh
After stars formed in the early Universe, their ultraviolet light is expected, eventually, to have penetrated the primordial hydrogen gas and altered the excitation state of its 21-centimetre hyperfine line. This alteration would cause the gas to absorb photons from the cosmic microwave background, producing a spectral distortion that should be observable today at radio frequencies of less than 200 megahertz. Here we report the detection of a flattened absorption profile in the sky-averaged radio spectrum, which is centred at a frequency of 78 megahertz and has a best-fitting full-width at half-maximum of 19 megahertz and an amplitude of 0...
February 28, 2018: Nature
Tebaber Workneh, Guday Emirie, Mirgissa Kaba, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Helmut Kloos
BACKGROUND: Cross-cultural studies indicate that every culture has its own particular explanations for health and illness and its own healing strategies. The Konso people have always practiced indigenous medicine and have multifaceted accounts or multiple dimensions of illness perceptions and health-care beliefs and practices. This paper describes how perceptions of health and illness are instrumental in health and treatment outcomes among the Konso people in southwestern Ethiopia. Results may provide an understanding of the perceptions of health and illness in relation to the local cosmology, religion, and environment...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Raúl Carballo-Rubio
The phenomenon of quantum vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational field is well understood and is expected to have a physical reality, but studies of its backreaction on the dynamics of spacetime are practically nonexistent outside of the specific context of homogeneous cosmologies. Building on previous results of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, in this Letter we first derive the semiclassical equations of stellar equilibrium in the s-wave Polyakov approximation. It is highlighted that incorporating the polarization of the quantum vacuum leads to a generalization of the classical Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Nissim Kanekar, Tapasi Ghosh, Jayaram N Chengalur
We have used the Arecibo Telescope to carry out one of the deepest-ever integrations in radio astronomy, targeting the redshifted conjugate satellite OH 18 cm lines at z≈0.247 towards PKS 1413+135. The satellite OH 1720 and 1612 MHz lines are, respectively, in emission and absorption, with exactly the same line shapes due to population inversion in the OH ground state levels. Since the 1720 and 1612 MHz line rest frequencies have different dependences on the fine structure constant α and the proton-electron mass ratio μ, a comparison between their measured redshifts allows one to probe changes in α and μ with cosmological time...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Robert Peter Gale, Guillermo J Ruiz-Argüelles
According to current cosmological theory, the universe will continue to expand indefinitely. If so, it should cool eventually reaching temperatures too cold to sustain life. This theory is commonly referred to as heat-death or the big freeze. Putting aside this potentially unpleasant scenario, unlikely in the lifetime of current readers (about 10 × E + 2500 years from now), freezing, in contrast, has played an important role in hematopoietic cell autotransplants for disease such as plasma cell myeloma and lymphomas...
February 23, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Hu Zhan, J Anthony Tyson
The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a high etendue imaging facility that is being constructed atop Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. It is scheduled to begin science operations in 2022. With an 8.4m (6.5m effective) aperture, a novel three-mirror design achieving a seeing-limited 9.6deg^2 field of view, and a 3.2 Gigapixel camera, the LSST has the deep-wide-fast imaging capability necessary to carry out an 18,000deg^2 survey in six passbands (ugrizy) to a coadded depth of r~27.5 over 10 years using 90% of its observational time...
February 23, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
M W Vegter
Precision Medicine has become a common label for data-intensive and patient-driven biomedical research. Its intended future is reflected in endeavours such as the Precision Medicine Initiative in the USA. This article addresses the question whether it is possible to discern a new 'medical cosmology' in Precision Medicine, a concept that was developed by Nicholas Jewson to describe comprehensive transformations involving various dimensions of biomedical knowledge and practice, such as vocabularies, the roles of patients and physicians and the conceptualisation of disease...
February 10, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Oliver Müller, Marcel S Pawlowski, Helmut Jerjen, Federico Lelli
The Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies are each surrounded by a thin plane of satellite dwarf galaxies that may be corotating. Cosmological simulations predict that most satellite galaxy systems are close to isotropic with random motions, so those two well-studied systems are often interpreted as rare statistical outliers. We test this assumption using the kinematics of satellite galaxies around the Centaurus A galaxy. Our statistical analysis reveals evidence for corotation in a narrow plane: Of the 16 Centaurus A satellites with kinematic data, 14 follow a coherent velocity pattern aligned with the long axis of their spatial distribution...
February 2, 2018: Science
Michael Boylan-Kolchin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Science
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