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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106446/exacerbating-the-cosmological-constant-problem-with-interacting-dark-energy-models
#1
M C David Marsh
Future cosmological surveys will probe the expansion history of the Universe and constrain phenomenological models of dark energy. Such models do not address the fine-tuning problem of the vacuum energy, i.e., the cosmological constant problem (CCP), but can make it spectacularly worse. We show that this is the case for "interacting dark energy" models in which the masses of the dark matter states depend on the dark energy sector. If realized in nature, these models have far-reaching implications for proposed solutions to the CCP that require the number of vacua to exceed the fine-tuning of the vacuum energy density...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106438/relativistic-axions-from-collapsing-bose-stars
#2
D G Levkov, A G Panin, I I Tkachev
The substructures of light bosonic (axionlike) dark matter may condense into compact Bose stars. We study the collapse of critical-mass stars caused by attractive self-interaction of the axionlike particles and find that these processes proceed in an unexpected universal way. First, nonlinear self-similar evolution (called "wave collapse" in condensed matter physics) forces the particles to fall into the star center. Second, interactions in the dense center create an outgoing stream of mildly relativistic particles which carries away an essential part of the star mass...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098156/sixfold-improved-single-particle-measurement-of-the-magnetic-moment-of-the-antiproton
#3
H Nagahama, C Smorra, S Sellner, J Harrington, T Higuchi, M J Borchert, T Tanaka, M Besirli, A Mooser, G Schneider, K Blaum, Y Matsuda, C Ospelkaus, W Quint, J Walz, Y Yamazaki, S Ulmer
Our current understanding of the Universe comes, among others, from particle physics and cosmology. In particle physics an almost perfect symmetry between matter and antimatter exists. On cosmological scales, however, a striking matter/antimatter imbalance is observed. This contradiction inspires comparisons of the fundamental properties of particles and antiparticles with high precision. Here we report on a measurement of the g-factor of the antiproton with a fractional precision of 0.8 parts per million at 95% confidence level...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093751/the-emergence-of-the-ecological-mind-in-hua-yen-kegon-buddhism-and-jungian-psychology
#4
Joe Cambray
The complexity associated with deep interconnectedness in nature is beginning to be articulated and elaborated in the field of ecological studies. While some parallels to the psyche have been made and the field of Eco-psychology has been developing, Jung's explicit contribution by way of the image of rhizomes has not been considered in detail. Philosopher Gilles Deleuze acknowledges borrowing the term from Jung, though he disagreed with Jung's Empedoclean use of the term. The paper presents some fundamental properties of rhizomes along with contemporary scientific research on mycorrhizal (fungal) networks...
February 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071600/a-brief-history-of-the-multiverse
#5
Andrei Linde
The theory of the inflationary multiverse changes the way we think about our place in the world. According to its most popular version, our world may consist of infinitely many exponentially large parts, exhibiting different sets of low-energy laws of physics. Since these parts are extremely large, the interior of each of them behaves as if it were a separate universe, practically unaffected by the rest of the world. This picture, combined with the theory of eternal inflation and anthropic considerations, may help to solve many difficult problems of modern physics, including the cosmological constant problem...
February 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066154/measuring-the-2d-baryon-acoustic-oscillation-signal-of-galaxies-in-wigglez-cosmological-constraints
#6
Samuel R Hinton, Eyal Kazin, Tamara M Davis, Chris Blake, Sarah Brough, Matthew Colless, Warrick J Couch, Michael J Drinkwater, Karl Glazebrook, Russell J Jurek, David Parkinson, Kevin A Pimbblet, Gregory B Poole, Michael Pracy, David Woods
We present results from the 2D anisotropic baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal present in the final data set from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We analyse the WiggleZ data in two ways: first using the full shape of the 2D correlation function and secondly focusing only on the position of the BAO peak in the reconstructed data set. When fitting for the full shape of the 2D correlation function we use a multipole expansion to compare with theory. When we use the reconstructed data we marginalize over the shape and just measure the position of the BAO peak, analysing the data in wedges separating the signal along the line of sight from that parallel to the line of sight...
February 1, 2017: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036199/solving-the-hierarchy-problem-at-reheating-with-a-large-number-of-degrees-of-freedom
#7
Nima Arkani-Hamed, Timothy Cohen, Raffaele Tito D'Agnolo, Anson Hook, Hyung Do Kim, David Pinner
We present a new solution to the electroweak hierarchy problem. We introduce N copies of the standard model with varying values of the Higgs mass parameter. This generically yields a sector whose weak scale is parametrically removed from the cutoff by a factor of 1/sqrt[N]. Ensuring that reheating deposits a majority of the total energy density into this lightest sector requires a modification of the standard cosmological history, providing a powerful probe of the mechanism. Current and near-future experiments can explore much of the natural parameter space...
December 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009216/constraints-on-ultrahigh-energy-cosmic-ray-sources-from-a-search-for-neutrinos-above-10%C3%A2-pev-with-icecube
#8
M G Aartsen, K Abraham, M Ackermann, J Adams, J A Aguilar, M Ahlers, M Ahrens, D Altmann, K Andeen, T Anderson, I Ansseau, G Anton, M Archinger, C Argüelles, J Auffenberg, S Axani, X Bai, S W Barwick, V Baum, R Bay, J J Beatty, J Becker Tjus, K-H Becker, S BenZvi, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, A Bernhard, D Z Besson, G Binder, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, S Blot, C Bohm, M Börner, F Bos, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, J Braun, L Brayeur, H-P Bretz, A Burgman, T Carver, M Casier, E Cheung, D Chirkin, A Christov, K Clark, L Classen, S Coenders, G H Collin, J M Conrad, D F Cowen, R Cross, M Day, J P A M de André, C De Clercq, E Del Pino Rosendo, H Dembinski, S De Ridder, P Desiati, K D de Vries, G de Wasseige, M de With, T DeYoung, J C Díaz-Vélez, V di Lorenzo, H Dujmovic, J P Dumm, M Dunkman, B Eberhardt, T Ehrhardt, B Eichmann, P Eller, S Euler, P A Evenson, S Fahey, A R Fazely, J Feintzeig, J Felde, K Filimonov, C Finley, S Flis, C-C Fösig, A Franckowiak, E Friedman, T Fuchs, T K Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, K Ghorbani, W Giang, L Gladstone, M Glagla, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, G Golup, J G Gonzalez, D Grant, Z Griffith, C Haack, A Haj Ismail, A Hallgren, F Halzen, E Hansen, B Hansmann, T Hansmann, K Hanson, D Hebecker, D Heereman, K Helbing, R Hellauer, S Hickford, J Hignight, G C Hill, K D Hoffman, R Hoffmann, K Holzapfel, K Hoshina, F Huang, M Huber, K Hultqvist, S In, A Ishihara, E Jacobi, G S Japaridze, M Jeong, K Jero, B J P Jones, M Jurkovic, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, U Katz, M Kauer, A Keivani, J L Kelley, J Kemp, A Kheirandish, M Kim, T Kintscher, J Kiryluk, T Kittler, S R Klein, G Kohnen, R Koirala, H Kolanoski, R Konietz, L Köpke, C Kopper, S Kopper, D J Koskinen, M Kowalski, K Krings, M Kroll, G Krückl, C Krüger, J Kunnen, S Kunwar, N Kurahashi, T Kuwabara, M Labare, J L Lanfranchi, M J Larson, F Lauber, D Lennarz, M Lesiak-Bzdak, M Leuermann, J Leuner, L Lu, J Lünemann, J Madsen, G Maggi, K B M Mahn, S Mancina, M Mandelartz, R Maruyama, K Mase, R Maunu, F McNally, K Meagher, M Medici, M Meier, A Meli, T Menne, G Merino, T Meures, S Miarecki, L Mohrmann, T Montaruli, M Moulai, R Nahnhauer, U Naumann, G Neer, H Niederhausen, S C Nowicki, D R Nygren, A Obertacke Pollmann, A Olivas, A O'Murchadha, T Palczewski, H Pandya, D V Pankova, Ö Penek, J A Pepper, C Pérez de Los Heros, D Pieloth, E Pinat, P B Price, G T Przybylski, M Quinnan, C Raab, L Rädel, M Rameez, K Rawlins, R Reimann, B Relethford, M Relich, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Richman, B Riedel, S Robertson, M Rongen, C Rott, T Ruhe, D Ryckbosch, D Rysewyk, L Sabbatini, S E Sanchez Herrera, A Sandrock, J Sandroos, S Sarkar, K Satalecka, M Schimp, P Schlunder, T Schmidt, S Schoenen, S Schöneberg, L Schumacher, D Seckel, S Seunarine, D Soldin, M Song, G M Spiczak, C Spiering, M Stahlberg, T Stanev, A Stasik, A Steuer, T Stezelberger, R G Stokstad, A Stößl, R Ström, N L Strotjohann, G W Sullivan, M Sutherland, H Taavola, I Taboada, J Tatar, F Tenholt, S Ter-Antonyan, A Terliuk, G Tešić, S Tilav, P A Toale, M N Tobin, S Toscano, D Tosi, M Tselengidou, A Turcati, E Unger, M Usner, J Vandenbroucke, N van Eijndhoven, S Vanheule, M van Rossem, J van Santen, J Veenkamp, M Vehring, M Voge, M Vraeghe, C Walck, A Wallace, M Wallraff, N Wandkowsky, Ch Weaver, M J Weiss, C Wendt, S Westerhoff, B J Whelan, S Wickmann, K Wiebe, C H Wiebusch, L Wille, D R Williams, L Wills, M Wolf, T R Wood, E Woolsey, K Woschnagg, D L Xu, X W Xu, Y Xu, J P Yanez, G Yodh, S Yoshida, M Zoll
We report constraints on the sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 10^{9}  GeV, based on an analysis of seven years of IceCube data. This analysis efficiently selects very high- energy neutrino-induced events which have deposited energies from 5×10^{5}  GeV to above 10^{11}  GeV. Two neutrino-induced events with an estimated deposited energy of (2.6±0.3)×10^{6}  GeV, the highest neutrino energy observed so far, and (7.7±2.0)×10^{5}  GeV were detected. The atmospheric background-only hypothesis of detecting these events is rejected at 3...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992419/static-three-dimensional-topological-solitons-in-fluid-chiral-ferromagnets-and-colloids
#9
Paul J Ackerman, Ivan I Smalyukh
Three-dimensional (3D) topological solitons are continuous but topologically nontrivial field configurations localized in 3D space and embedded in a uniform far-field background, that behave like particles and cannot be transformed to a uniform state through smooth deformations. Many topologically nontrivial 3D solitonic fields have been proposed. Yet, according to the Hobart-Derrick theorem, physical systems cannot host them, except for nonlinear theories with higher-order derivatives such as the Skyrme-Faddeev model...
December 19, 2016: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927243/traditional-mapuche-ecological-knowledge-in-patagonia-argentina-fishes-and-other-living-beings-inhabiting-continental-waters-as-a-reflection-of-processes-of-change
#10
Juana Aigo, Ana Ladio
BACKGROUND: Understanding how people interpret environmental change and develop practices in response to such change is essential to comprehend human resource use. In the cosmology of the American indigenous peoples, as among the Mapuche people, freshwater systems are considered a living entity, where animals have an enormous role to play in the universe of meaning. However, human adaptive responses to freshwater system dynamics are scarcely examined. In this work a survey is carried out in three Mapuche communities of Argentine Patagonia to assess their traditional knowledge of the fishes and other non-human living beings that inhabit lakes and rivers...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925743/subhalo-abundance-matching-in-f-r-gravity
#11
Jian-Hua He, Baojiu Li, Carlton M Baugh
Using the liminality N-body simulations of Shi et al., we present the first predictions for galaxy clustering in f(R) gravity using subhalo abundance matching. We find that, for a given galaxy density, even for an f(R) model with f_{R0}=-10^{-6}, for which the cold dark matter clustering is very similar to the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM), the predicted clustering of galaxies in the f(R) model is very different from ΛCDM. The deviation can be as large as 40% for samples with mean densities close to that of L_{*} galaxies...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917070/noether-symmetries-in-gauss-bonnet-teleparallel-cosmology
#12
Salvatore Capozziello, Mariafelicia De Laurentis, Konstantinos F Dialektopoulos
A generalized teleparallel cosmological model, [Formula: see text], containing the torsion scalar T and the teleparallel counterpart of the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant [Formula: see text], is studied in the framework of the Noether symmetry approach. As [Formula: see text] gravity, where [Formula: see text] is the Gauss-Bonnet topological invariant and R is the Ricci curvature scalar, exhausts all the curvature information that one can construct from the Riemann tensor, in the same way, [Formula: see text] contains all the possible information directly related to the torsion tensor...
2016: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873402/cosmologies-of-selection-lessons-from-the-faculty-biscuit-tin
#13
Maggie Bartlett, Flora Bartlett
We conducted an ethnography of the faculty biscuit tin as we were interested in the lived experience of the biscuits contained within it. We used a constructivist epistemology, a social constructionist interpretive framework and a phenomenological methodology that included analysis from the perspectives of deixis and cosmology. The biscuits perceived that they were important to a selecting force and that the characteristics of one particular group had a specific value to the selector. Some enduring benefits may derive from the selection of this group, although its attractions were less immediately obvious than those of others...
December 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867830/niche-construction-social-cognition-and-language-hypothesizing-the-human-as-the-production-of-place
#14
Oliver Davies
New data is emerging from evolutionary anthropology and the neuroscience of social cognition on our species-specific hyper-cooperation (HC). This paper attempts an integration of third-person archaeological and second-person, neuroscientific perspectives on the structure of HC, through a post-Ricoeurian development in hermeneutical phenomenology. We argue for the relatively late evolution of advanced linguistic consciousness (ALC) (Hiscock in Biological Theory 9:27-41, 2014), as a reflexive system based on the 'in-between' or 'cognitive system' as reported by Vogeley et al...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856844/the-magnetic-field-and-turbulence-of-the-cosmic-web-measured-using-a-brilliant-fast-radio-burst
#15
V Ravi, R M Shannon, M Bailes, K Bannister, S Bhandari, N D R Bhat, S Burke-Spolaor, M Caleb, C Flynn, A Jameson, S Johnston, E F Keane, M Kerr, C Tiburzi, A V Tuntsov, H K Vedantham
Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration events thought to originate beyond the Milky Way galaxy. Uncertainty surrounding the burst sources, and their propagation through intervening plasma, has limited their use as cosmological probes. We report on a mildly dispersed (dispersion measure 266.5 ± 0.1 parsecs per cubic centimeter), exceptionally intense (120 ± 30 janskys), linearly polarized, scintillating burst (FRB 150807) that we directly localize to 9 square arc minutes. On the basis of a low Faraday rotation (12...
December 9, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824442/new-target-for-cosmic-axion-searches
#16
Daniel Baumann, Daniel Green, Benjamin Wallisch
Future cosmic microwave background experiments have the potential to probe the density of relativistic species at the subpercent level. This sensitivity allows light thermal relics to be detected up to arbitrarily high decoupling temperatures. Conversely, the absence of a detection would require extra light species never to have been in equilibrium with the Standard Model. In this Letter, we exploit this feature to demonstrate the sensitivity of future cosmological observations to the couplings of axions to photons, gluons, and charged fermions...
October 21, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819249/numerical-relativity-beyond-astrophysics
#17
David Garfinkle
Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology...
January 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811272/universal-space-time-scaling-symmetry-in-the-dynamics-of-bosons-across-a-quantum-phase-transition
#18
Logan W Clark, Lei Feng, Cheng Chin
The dynamics of many-body systems spanning condensed matter, cosmology, and beyond are hypothesized to be universal when the systems cross continuous phase transitions. The universal dynamics are expected to satisfy a scaling symmetry of space and time with the crossing rate, inspired by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. We test this symmetry based on Bose condensates in a shaken optical lattice. Shaking the lattice drives condensates across an effectively ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. After crossing the critical point, the condensates manifest delayed growth of spin fluctuations and develop antiferromagnetic spatial correlations resulting from the sub-Poisson distribution of the spacing between topological defects...
November 4, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808190/calculation-of-the-axion-mass-based-on-high-temperature-lattice-quantum-chromodynamics
#19
S Borsanyi, Z Fodor, J Guenther, K-H Kampert, S D Katz, T Kawanai, T G Kovacs, S W Mages, A Pasztor, F Pittler, J Redondo, A Ringwald, K K Szabo
Unlike the electroweak sector of the standard model of particle physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is surprisingly symmetric under time reversal. As there is no obvious reason for QCD being so symmetric, this phenomenon poses a theoretical problem, often referred to as the strong CP problem. The most attractive solution for this requires the existence of a new particle, the axion-a promising dark-matter candidate. Here we determine the axion mass using lattice QCD, assuming that these particles are the dominant component of dark matter...
3, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768364/-7-be-n-%C3%AE-4-he-reaction-and-the-cosmological-lithium-problem-measurement-of-the-cross-section-in-a-wide-energy-range-at-n_tof-at-cern
#20
M Barbagallo, A Musumarra, L Cosentino, E Maugeri, S Heinitz, A Mengoni, R Dressler, D Schumann, F Käppeler, N Colonna, P Finocchiaro, M Ayranov, L Damone, N Kivel, O Aberle, S Altstadt, J Andrzejewski, L Audouin, M Bacak, J Balibrea-Correa, S Barros, V Bécares, F Bečvář, C Beinrucker, E Berthoumieux, J Billowes, D Bosnar, M Brugger, M Caamaño, M Calviani, F Calviño, D Cano-Ott, R Cardella, A Casanovas, D M Castelluccio, F Cerutti, Y H Chen, E Chiaveri, G Cortés, M A Cortés-Giraldo, S Cristallo, M Diakaki, C Domingo-Pardo, E Dupont, I Duran, B Fernandez-Dominguez, A Ferrari, P Ferreira, W Furman, S Ganesan, A García-Rios, A Gawlik, T Glodariu, K Göbel, I F Gonçalves, E González-Romero, E Griesmayer, C Guerrero, F Gunsing, H Harada, T Heftrich, J Heyse, D G Jenkins, E Jericha, T Katabuchi, P Kavrigin, A Kimura, M Kokkoris, M Krtička, E Leal-Cidoncha, J Lerendegui, C Lederer, H Leeb, S Lo Meo, S J Lonsdale, R Losito, D Macina, J Marganiec, T Martínez, C Massimi, P Mastinu, M Mastromarco, A Mazzone, E Mendoza, P M Milazzo, F Mingrone, M Mirea, S Montesano, R Nolte, A Oprea, A Pappalardo, N Patronis, A Pavlik, J Perkowski, M Piscopo, A Plompen, I Porras, J Praena, J Quesada, K Rajeev, T Rauscher, R Reifarth, A Riego-Perez, P Rout, C Rubbia, J Ryan, M Sabate-Gilarte, A Saxena, P Schillebeeckx, S Schmidt, P Sedyshev, A G Smith, A Stamatopoulos, G Tagliente, J L Tain, A Tarifeño-Saldivia, L Tassan-Got, A Tsinganis, S Valenta, G Vannini, V Variale, P Vaz, A Ventura, V Vlachoudis, R Vlastou, J Vollaire, A Wallner, S Warren, M Weigand, C Weiß, C Wolf, P J Woods, T Wright, P Žugec
The energy-dependent cross section of the ^{7}Be(n,α)^{4}He reaction, of interest for the so-called cosmological lithium problem in big bang nucleosynthesis, has been measured for the first time from 10 meV to 10 keV neutron energy. The challenges posed by the short half-life of ^{7}Be and by the low reaction cross section have been overcome at n_TOF thanks to an unprecedented combination of the extremely high luminosity and good resolution of the neutron beam in the new experimental area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility at CERN, the availability of a sufficient amount of chemically pure ^{7}Be, and a specifically designed experimental setup...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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