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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283063/systemic-human-ilc-precursors-provide-a-substrate-for-tissue-ilc-differentiation
#1
Ai Ing Lim, Yan Li, Silvia Lopez-Lastra, Ralph Stadhouders, Franziska Paul, Armanda Casrouge, Nicolas Serafini, Anne Puel, Jacinta Bustamante, Laura Surace, Guillemette Masse-Ranson, Eyal David, Helene Strick-Marchand, Lionel Le Bourhis, Roberto Cocchi, Davide Topazio, Paolo Graziano, Lucia Anna Muscarella, Lars Rogge, Xavier Norel, Jean-Michel Sallenave, Matthieu Allez, Thomas Graf, Rudi W Hendriks, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Ido Amit, Hans Yssel, James P Di Santo
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent innate versions of T helper and cytotoxic T cells that differentiate from committed ILC precursors (ILCPs). How ILCPs give rise to mature tissue-resident ILCs remains unclear. Here, we identify circulating and tissue ILCPs in humans that fail to express the transcription factors and cytokine outputs of mature ILCs but have these signature loci in an epigenetically poised configuration. Human ILCPs robustly generate all ILC subsets in vitro and in vivo. While human ILCPs express low levels of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-related orphan receptor C (RORC) transcripts, these cells are found in RORC-deficient patients and retain potential for EOMES(+) natural killer (NK) cells, interferon gamma-positive (IFN-γ(+)) ILC1s, interleukin (IL)-13(+) ILC2s, and for IL-22(+), but not for IL-17A(+) ILC3s...
March 9, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279492/group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-recruited-to-the-nasal-mucosa-in-patients-with-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#2
Jacqueline J Eastman, Kellen J Cavagnero, Adam S Deconde, Alex S Kim, Maya R Karta, David H Broide, Bruce L Zuraw, Andrew A White, Sandra C Christiansen, Taylor A Doherty
BACKGROUND: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by tissue eosinophilia and mast cell activation, including abundant production of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which promote tissue eosinophilia and mast cell responses, undergo chemotaxis and cytokine production in response to PGD2, but it is unknown whether ILC2s are active in patients with AERD. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether ILC2 numbers change in peripheral blood and the nasal mucosa during COX-1 inhibitor-induced reactions in patients with AERD...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275135/nk-cells-alleviate-lung-inflammation-by-negatively-regulating-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#3
Jiacheng Bi, Lulu Cui, Guang Yu, Xiaolu Yang, Youhai Chen, Xiaochun Wan
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play an important role in orchestrating type II immune responses. However, the cellular mechanisms of group 2 innate lymphoid cell regulation remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that activated NK cells inhibited the proliferation of, as well as IL-5 and IL-13 production by, ILC2s in vitro via IFN-γ. In addition, in a murine model of ILC2 expansion in the liver, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, an NK cell-activating agent, inhibited ILC2 proliferation, IL-5 and IL-13 production, and eosinophil recruitment...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264908/differences-in-the-importance-of-mast-cells-basophils-ige-and-igg-versus-cd4-t-cells-and-ilc2-cells-in-primary-and-secondary-immunity-to-strongyloides-venezuelensis
#4
Kaori Mukai, Hajime Karasuyama, Kenji Kabashima, Masato Kubo, Stephen J Galli
There is evidence that mast cells, basophils and IgE can contribute to immune responses to parasites, however, the relative importance of these effector elements in parasite immunity is not fully understood. Previous work in Il3-deficient and c-kit mutant Kit(W/W-v) mice indicated that interleukin-3 and c-Kit contribute to expulsion of the intestinal nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis (S.v.) during primary infection. Our findings in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice and two types of mast cell-deficient mice that have normal c-kit: "Hello Kitty" and MasTRECK mice, confirmed prior work in Kit(W/W-v) mice suggesting that mast cells play an important role in S...
March 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258196/downregulation-of-e-protein-activity-augments-an-ilc2-differentiation-program-in-the-thymus
#5
Hong-Cheng Wang, Liangyue Qian, Ying Zhao, Joni Mengarelli, Indra Adrianto, Courtney G Montgomery, Joseph F Urban, Kar-Ming Fung, Xiao-Hong Sun
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important regulators in various immune responses. The current paradigm states that all newly made ILCs originate from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Id2, an inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, is indispensable for ILC differentiation. Unexpectedly, we found that ectopically expressing Id1 or deleting two E protein genes in the thymus drastically increased ILC2 counts in the thymus and other organs where ILC2 normally reside. Further evidence suggests a thymic origin of these mutant ILC2s...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244040/isolation-of-immune-cells-from-adipose-tissue-for-flow-cytometry
#6
Jonathan R Brestoff
Beige and brown adipocytes are thermogenic cells essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis within white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively. Emerging studies indicate that various immune cell types such as alternatively activated macrophages (AAMacs), eosinophils, and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) critically regulate beige and/or brown adipocyte development and activation to protect against obesity and maintain core body temperature. These findings suggest that studies of beige and brown adipose tissue may benefit from traditional immunologic approaches such as flow cytometry of immune cells residing within WAT and BAT...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231307/differential-regulation-of-c5a-receptor-1-in-innate-immune-cells-during-the-allergic-asthma-effector-phase
#7
Fanny Ender, Anna V Wiese, Inken Schmudde, Jing Sun, Tillman Vollbrandt, Peter König, Yves Laumonnier, Jörg Köhl
C5a drives airway constriction and inflammation during the effector phase of allergic asthma, mainly through the activation of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1). Yet, C5aR1 expression on myeloid and lymphoid cells during the allergic effector phase is ill-defined. Recently, we generated and characterized a floxed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-C5aR1 knock-in mouse. Here, we used this reporter strain to monitor C5aR1 expression in airway, pulmonary and lymph node cells during the effector phase of OVA-driven allergic asthma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228256/first-breath-induced-type-2-pathways-shape-the-lung-immune-environment
#8
Simona Saluzzo, Anna-Dorothea Gorki, Batika M J Rana, Rui Martins, Seth Scanlon, Philipp Starkl, Karin Lakovits, Anastasiya Hladik, Ana Korosec, Omar Sharif, Joanna M Warszawska, Helen Jolin, Ildiko Mesteri, Andrew N J McKenzie, Sylvia Knapp
From birth onward, the lungs are exposed to the external environment and therefore harbor a complex immunological milieu to protect this organ from damage and infection. We investigated the homeostatic role of the epithelium-derived alarmin interleukin-33 (IL-33) in newborn mice and discovered the immediate upregulation of IL-33 from the first day of life, closely followed by a wave of IL-13-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which coincided with the appearance of alveolar macrophages (AMs) and their early polarization to an IL-13-dependent anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226398/dysregulation-of-interleukin-5-expression-in-familial-eosinophilia
#9
Senbagavalli Prakash Babu, Yun-Yun K Chen, Sandra Bonne-Annee, Jun Yang, Irina Maric, Timothy G Myers, Thomas B Nutman, Amy D Klion
BACKGROUND: Familial eosinophilia (FE) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by the presence of lifelong peripheral eosinophilia (>1500/μL). Mapped to chromosome 5q31-q33, the genetic cause of FE is unknown, and prior studies have failed to demonstrate a primary abnormality in the eosinophil lineage. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify the cells driving the eosinophilia in FE. METHODS: Microarray analysis and real-time PCR were used to examine transcriptional differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and in purified cell subsets from affected and unaffected family members belonging to a single large kindred...
February 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219179/-function-and-modulation-of-type-%C3%A2-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-their-role-in-chronic-upper-airway-inflammatory-diseases
#10
Y Liu, Z Liu
Type Ⅱ innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) is a family of innate immune lymphocytes, which provide effective immune responses to cytokines. ILC2 are regulated by the nuclear transcription factor ROR alpha and GATA3, secreting cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, etc. Animal models have shown that ILC2 are involved in allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, and also play a very important role in the metabolic balance. In addition, recent reports suggest that ILC2 not only play a role in the initial stages of the disease, but also can lead to chronic pathological changes in the disease, such as fibrosis, and may have an effect on acquired immunity...
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216436/group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-activation-in-the-neonatal-lung-drives-type-2-immunity-and-allergen-sensitization
#11
Catherine A Steer, Itziar Martinez-Gonzalez, Maryam Ghaedi, Patricia Allinger, Laura Mathä, Fumio Takei
Neonatal lung immunity is unique due to allergen-independent endogenous IL-33 mediated activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that promote Th2 cell responses, making neonates prone to allergen sensitization and allergic lung diseases.
February 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199345/impact-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-on-severe-asthma-patients
#12
Ta-Jen Lee, Chia-Hsiang Fu, Chun-Hua Wang, Chi-Che Huang, Chien-Chia Huang, Po-Hung Chang, Yi-Wei Chen, Chia-Chen Wu, Ching-Lung Wu, Han-Pin Kuo
Coexistence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with asthma appears to impair asthma control. Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) respond to the cytokines of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin (IL)-25 and IL-33, thus contributing to airway diseases such as CRS and asthma. We investigate whether the augmented Th2-cytokines in CRS might be related to sinonasal tract ILC2s corresponding to enhanced IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP release in severe asthmatics, and be involved in asthma control. Twenty-eight asthmatics (12 non-severe and 16 severe) with CRS receiving nasal surgery were enrolled...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185161/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-i-immune-components-and-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Anna R Smith, George Knaysi, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Defects in skin barrier function in infancy set the stage for the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergy. Both genetic and environmental factors can contribute to damage of the stratum corneum (SC), with activation of specific protease enzymes under high pH conditions playing a key role. Immune cells and mediators in the dermis and epidermis impair SC repair mechanisms and support allergy development...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160290/regulatory-t-cells-and-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-dependent-asthma
#14
REVIEW
J L Aron, O Akbari
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a recently identified group of cells with the potent capability to produce Th2-type cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13. Several studies suggest that ILC2s play an important role in the development of allergic diseases and asthma. Activation of pulmonary ILC2s in murine models lacking T and B cells induces eosinophilia and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR), which are cardinal features of asthma. More importantly, numerous recent studies have highlighted the role of ILC2s in asthma persistence and exacerbation among human subjects, and thus, regulation of pulmonary ILC2s is a major area of investigation aimed at curbing allergic lung inflammation and exacerbation...
February 4, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154198/il-33-mediated-expansion-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-protects-from-progressive-glomerulosclerosis
#15
Jan-Hendrik Riedel, Martina Becker, Kerstin Kopp, Mathis Düster, Silke R Brix, Catherine Meyer-Schwesinger, Luis A Kluth, Ann-Christin Gnirck, Madena Attar, Sonja Krohn, Boris Fehse, Rolf A K Stahl, Ulf Panzer, Jan-Eric Turner
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have an important role in the immune system's response to different forms of infectious and noninfectious pathologies. In particular, IL-5- and IL-13-producing type 2 ILCs (ILC2s) have been implicated in repair mechanisms that restore tissue integrity after injury. However, the presence of renal ILCs in humans has not been reported. In this study, we show that ILC populations are present in the healthy human kidney. A detailed characterization of kidney-residing ILC populations revealed that IL-33 receptor-positive ILC2s are a major ILC subtype in the kidney of humans and mice...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137851/a-mechanism-for-the-induction-of-type-2-immune-responses-by-a-protease-allergen-in-the-genital-tract
#16
Ji Eun Oh, Dong Sun Oh, Hi Eun Jung, Heung Kyu Lee
The genital mucosa is a barrier that is constantly exposed to a variety of pathogens, allergens, and external stimuli. Although both allergen exposure and parasite infections frequently occur in the genital area, the mechanism by which immune responses-particularly type 2 immunity-are induced has rarely been studied in the genital mucosa. Here, we demonstrate the induction of T helper type 2 (Th2) immunity in the genital mucosa in response to a model allergen, the protease papain. Intravaginal papain immunization induced type 2 immunity in a manner that was dependent on protease activity and the estrous phase of the mice...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115527/cutting-edge-notch-signaling-promotes-the-plasticity-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#17
Kangning Zhang, Xingyuan Xu, Muhammad Asghar Pasha, Christian W Siebel, Angelica Costello, Angela Haczku, Katherine MacNamara, Tingbo Liang, Jinfang Zhu, Avinash Bhandoola, Ivan Maillard, Qi Yang
The mechanisms underlying lymphocyte lineage stability and plasticity remain elusive. Recent work indicates that innate lymphoid cells (ILC) possess substantial plasticity. Whereas natural ILC2 (nILC2) produce type-2 cytokines, plastic inflammatory ILC2 (iILC2) can coproduce both type-2 cytokines and the ILC3-characteristic cytokine, IL-17. Mechanisms that elicit this lineage plasticity, and the importance in health and disease, remain unclear. In this study we show that iILC2 are potent inducers of airway inflammation in response to acute house dust mite challenge...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115217/cysteinyl-leukotriene-e4-activates-human-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-enhances-the-effect-of-prostaglandin-d2-and-epithelial-cytokines
#18
Maryam Salimi, Linda Stöger, Wei Liu, Simei Go, Ian Pavord, Paul Klenerman, Graham Ogg, Luzheng Xue
BACKGROUND: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a potential innate source of type 2 cytokines in the pathogenesis of allergic conditions. Epithelial cytokines (IL-33, IL-25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP]) and mast cell mediators (prostaglandin D2 [PGD2]) are critical activators of ILC2s. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), including leukotriene (LT) C4, LTD4, and LTE4, are metabolites of arachidonic acid and mediate inflammatory responses. Their role in human ILC2s is still poorly understood...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106273/the-immunoglobulin-superfamily-member-cd200r-identifies-cells-involved-in-type-2-immune-responses
#19
Lars H Blom, Britta C Martel, Lau F Larsen, Camilla V Hansen, Malene P Christensen, Nanna Juel-Berg, Thomas Litman, Lars K Poulsen
BACKGROUND: The pathology of allergic diseases involves type 2 immune cells, such as Th2, ILC2, and basophils exerting their effect by production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. However, surface receptors that are specifically expressed on type 2 immune cells are less well documented. The aim of this investigation was to identify surface markers associated with type 2 inflammation. METHODS: Naïve human CD4(+) T-cells were short-term activated in the presence or absence of IL-4, and analysed for expression of >300 cell-surface proteins...
January 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097500/update-on-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#20
REVIEW
Katharine M Woessner
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an acquired disease characterized by chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation with underlying dysregulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments in our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology including the role of eosinophils, mast cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), and platelets. Clinical features such as respiratory reactions induced by alcohol, aggressive nasal polyposis, and anosmia will allow for earlier recognition of these patients in clinical practice...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
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