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chronic obstructive lung disease

Lan-Eng Tan, Razak A M, Chor-Shen Lim
Patients with lung cancer often have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the impact of COPD on postresection survival of patients with lung cancer is unclear. This study evaluated the impact of COPD on survival of patients with lung cancer following pulmonary resection. Databases searched included PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase until March 2016. Study outcomes were overall survival and pulmonary complication rate (pneumonia, bronchial fistula, and prolonged mechanical ventilation). 6 studies with a total of 3761 patients were included...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Christine M Freeman, Jeffrey L Curtis
Hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include innate inflammation and remodeling of small airways that begin in early disease and the development of lung lymphoid follicles (LLF), indicative of adaptive immunity, in more spirometrically-severe stages. Common to these processes in all stages is orchestration by dendritic cells (DC). Recently improved understanding of the analogous lung DC subsets in humans and mice has allowed for better integration and interpretation of the experimental and clinical pathological literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
J R Baker, C Vuppusetty, T Colley, Andriana I Papaioannou, P Fenwick, Louise Donnelly, K Ito, P J Barnes
Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and SIRT6, NAD(+)-dependent Class III protein deacetylases, are putative anti-aging enzymes, down-regulated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by the accelerated ageing of the lung and associated with increased oxidative stress. Here, we show that oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide) selectively elevates microRNA-34a (miR-34a) but not the related miR-34b/c, with concomitant reduction of SIRT1/-6 in bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS2B), which was also observed in peripheral lung samples from patients with COPD...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yoonki Hong, You-Sun Kim, Seok-Ho Hong, Yeon-Mok Oh
There is no therapy currently available that influences the natural history of disease progression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although stem cell therapy is considered a potential therapeutic option in COPD, there are no clinical trials proving definitive therapeutic effects in patients with COPD. Recently, it was reported that pioglitazone might potentiate the therapeutic effects of stem cells in patients with heart or liver disease. To test the capacity of pioglitazone pretreatment of stem cells for emphysema repair, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of pioglitazone-pretreated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) on elastase-induced or cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice...
October 21, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Jihe Li, Dongxia Tong, Juan Liu, Fuyang Chen, Yongbin Shen
Oroxylin A, a natural flavonoid isolated from the medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the effect of oroxylin A on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation remains unclear. In this study, the ability of oroxylin A to protect against CS-induced lung inflammation was detected in vivo and in vitro. Oroxylin A was administered intraperitoneally to mice 2h prior CS exposure every day for five consecutive days. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells and RAW264...
October 17, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Xingjian Liu, Shuren Ma, Gerard Turino, Jerome Cantor
INTRODUCTION: Desmosine and isodesmosine (DID) are unique elastin crosslinks that may serve as biomarkers for elastic fiber degradation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Previously, our laboratory found that the ratio of free to peptide-bound DID in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) showed a significant positive correlation with the extent of airspace enlargement in an elastase model of pulmonary emphysema. To further evaluate this hypothesis, our laboratory measured this ratio in a bleomycin (BLM) model of pulmonary fibrosis, which involved different microarchitectural changes than those associated with pulmonary emphysema...
October 19, 2016: Lung
Sharon L I Wong, Maria B Sukkar
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein which regulates interactions between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), and thus governs fundamental cellular functions such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. SPARC also regulates the expression and activity of numerous growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases essential for ECM degradation and turnover. Studies in SPARC-null mice have revealed a critical role for SPARC in tissue development, injury and repair, and in the regulation of the immune response...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Martina Doubková, Michal Karpíšek, Jiri Mazoch, Jana Skřičková, Michael Doubek
BACKGROUND: Identification of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers may facilitate diagnosis and prognostication in various lung disorders. OBJECTIVE: Serum and BALF levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A), surfactant protein D (SP-D), Clara cell protein 16 (CC16), S100 protein, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and prostatic secretory protein 94 (PSP94) were evaluated in 94 consecutive patients (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n=18), sarcoidosis (n=25), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=51)), and in 155 healthy controls...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Almotasembellah Aljaafareh, Jose Ruben Valle, Yu-Li Lin, Yong-Fang Kuo, Gulshan Sharma
OBJECTIVES: Long-acting bronchodilators are mainstay treatment for moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A growing body of evidence indicates an increased risk of cardiovascular events upon initiation of these medications. We hypothesize that this risk is higher in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who had a preexisting cardiovascular disease regardless of receipt of any cardiovascular medication. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on two outpatient visits or one inpatient visit for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification codes 491...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
Francesca de Blasio, Francesco de Blasio, Giulia Miracco Berlingieri, Andrea Bianco, Marta La Greca, Frits M E Franssen, Luca Scalfi
BACKGROUND: Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. OBJECTIVES: To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
RyeonJin Cho, You-Sun Kim, Ji-Young Kim, Yeon-Mok Oh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Emphysema, a pathologic component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, causes irreversible destruction. Many researchers have reported that mesenchymal stem cells can regenerate lung tissue after emphysema. METHODS: We evaluated if spheroid human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) showed greater regenerative effects than dissociated ASCs in elastase-induced emphysema mice. ASCs were administered via an intrapleural route. RESULTS: Mice injected with spheroid ASCs showed improved regeneration of lung tissue, increased expression of growth factors such as FGF2 and HGF, and a reduction in proteases with an induction of protease inhibitors when compared with mice injected with dissociated ASCs...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
Suzanne Miller, Amanda P Henry, Emily Hodge, Alexander K Kheirallah, Charlotte K Billington, Tracy L Rimington, Sangita K Bhaker, Ma'en Obeidat, Erik Melén, Simon K Merid, Caroline Swan, Catherine Gowland, Carl P Nelson, Ceri E Stewart, Charlotte E Bolton, Iain Kilty, Anders Malarstig, Stuart G Parker, Miriam F Moffatt, Andrew J Wardlaw, Ian P Hall, Ian Sayers
INTRODUCTION: Genome-Wide Association Studies have identified associations between lung function measures and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and chromosome region 6p21 containing the gene for the Advanced Glycation End Product Receptor (AGER, encoding RAGE). We aimed to (i) characterise RAGE expression in the lung, (ii) identify AGER transcripts, (iii) ascertain if SNP rs2070600 (Gly82Ser C/T) is associated with lung function and serum sRAGE levels and (iv) identify whether the Gly82Ser variant is functionally important in altering sRAGE levels in an airway epithelial cell model...
2016: PloS One
Nan Yu, Xia Wei, Yan Li, Lei Deng, Chen-Wang Jin, Youmin Guo
The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular alteration of the whole lung and individual lobes in patients with COPD, and assess the association between pulmonary vessels and the extent and distribution of emphysema as well as pulmonary function by a 3-dimensional automated approach.A total of 83 computed tomography images from COPD patients were analyzed. Automated computerized approach was used to measure the total number of vessels at the fifth generation. The extent of emphysema (%LAA-950) in the whole lung and individual lobes were also calculated automatically...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Crystal N Marconett, Beiyun Zhou, Mitsuhiro Sunohara, Tiffany M Pouldar, HongJun Wang, Yixin Liu, Megan E Rieger, Evelyn Tran, Per Flodby, Kimberly D Siegmund, Edward D Crandall, Ite A Laird-Offringa, Zea Borok
Diseases involving the distal lung alveolar epithelium include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and lung adenocarcinoma. Accurate labeling of specific cell types is critical for determining the contribution of each to pathogenesis of these diseases. The distal lung alveolar epithelium is comprised of two cell types, alveolar epithelial type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) cells. While cell type-specific markers, most prominently surfactant protein C (SFTPC), have allowed detailed lineage tracing studies of AT2 cell differentiation and their roles in disease, studies of AT1 cells have been hampered by lack of genes with expression unique to AT1 cells...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Yuan Ma, Jia-Xiang Zhang, Ya-Nan Liu, Ai Ge, Hao Gu, Wang-Jian Zha, Xiao-Ning Zeng, Mao Huang
In the pathophysiology of asthma, structural cell dysfunction and concomitant microenvironment changes in airways are crucial to pathological progression, which involves oxidative stress. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active anti-oxidative component obtained from propolis, and has been shown to have beneficial effects on several respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the impact of CAPE on asthma is not well understood. Therefore, this study investigated the advantages of using CAPE to treat asthma and demonstrated the roles of CAPE in the regulation of airway microenvironments...
October 13, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Caroline Anne Mitchell, Alice Pitt, Joe Hulin, Rod Lawson, Fleur Ashby, Ivan Appelqvist, Brigitte Delaney
OBJECTIVES: Increased rates of illicit drug inhalation are thought to expose opiate misusers (OMUs) to an enhanced risk of respiratory health problems. This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of undertaking respiratory screening of OMUs in a community clinic. SETTING: Single-centre UK community substance misuse clinic. PARTICIPANTS: All clinic attendees receiving treatment for opiate misuse were eligible to participate. 36 participants (mean age=37) were recruited over a 5-week period...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Steven Maltby, Peter G Gibson, Heather Powell, Vanessa M McDonald
BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common airway diseases. Individuals with overlapping asthma and COPD experience increased health impairment and severe disease exacerbations. Efficacious treatment options are required for this population. Omalizumab (anti-IgE) therapy is effective in patients with severe, persistent asthma, but limited data are available on efficacy in populations with overlapping asthma and COPD. METHODS: Data from the Australian Xolair Registry (AXR) was used to compare treatment responses in individuals with asthma-COPD overlap to severe asthma alone...
October 11, 2016: Chest
Hung-Yu Huang, Pai-Chien Chou, Wen-Ching Joa, Li-Fei Chen, Te-Fang Sheng, Horng-Chyuan Lin, Lan-Yan Yang, Yu-Bin Pan, Fu-Tsai Chung, Chun-Hua Wang, Han-Pin Kuo
Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) brings benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Negative pressure ventilation (NPV) increases ventilation and decreases hyperinflation as well as breathing work in COPD. We evaluated the long-term effects of a hospital-based PR program coupled with NPV support in patients with COPD on clinical outcomes.One hundred twenty-nine patients with COPD were followed up for more than 5 years, with the NPV group (n = 63) receiving the support of NPV (20-30 cm H2O delivery pressure for 60 min) and unsupervised home exercise program of 20 to 30 min daily walk, while the control group (n = 6) only received unsupervised home exercise program...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Eitan Halper-Stromberg, Michael H Cho, Carla Wilson, Dipti Nevrekar, James D Crapo, George Washko, Raúl San José Estépar, David A Lynch, Edwin K Silverman, Sonia Leach, Peter J Castaldi
RATIONALE: Automated analysis of computed tomographic (CT) lung images for epidemiologic nand genetic association studies is increasingly common, but little is known about the utility of visual versus semi-automated emphysema and airway assessments for genetic association studies. OBJECTIVES: Assess the relative utility of visual versus semi-automated emphysema and airway assessments for genetic association studies. METHODS: A standardized inspection protocol was used to visually assess chest CTs for 1540 non-Hispanic white subjects within the COPDGene Study for the presence and severity of radiographic features representing airway wall thickness and emphysema...
October 14, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Praful Schroff, Jason Hitchcock, Christopher Schumann, J Michael Wells, Mark T Dransfield, Surya P Bhatt
Rationale Current practice guidelines recommend pulmonary rehabilitation as an adjunct to standard pharmacologic therapy for individuals with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether pulmonary rehabilitation benefits all subjects with COPD independent of baseline disease burden is not known. Objective To test whether pulmonary rehabilitation benefits patients with COPD independent of baseline exercise capacity, dyspnea and lung function. Methods Data from a prospectively maintained database of participants with COPD enrolled in pulmonary rehabilitation at the University of Alabama at Birmingham from 1996 to 2013 was retrospectively analyzed...
October 14, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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