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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922692/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jimmy Chong, Bonnie Leung, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921655/fast-dynamic-ventilation-mri-of-hyperpolarized-129-xe-using-spiral-imaging
#2
Ozkan Doganay, Tahreema N Matin, Anthony Mcintyre, Brian Burns, Rolf F Schulte, Fergus V Gleeson, Daniel Bulte
PURPOSE: To develop and optimize a rapid dynamic hyperpolarized (129) Xe ventilation (DXeV) MRI protocol and investigate the feasibility of capturing pulmonary signal-time curves in human lungs. THEORY AND METHODS: Spiral k-space trajectories were designed with the number of interleaves Nint  = 1, 2, 4, and 8 corresponding to voxel sizes of 8 mm, 5 mm, 4 mm, and 2.5 mm, respectively, for field of view = 15 cm. DXeV images were acquired from a gas-flow phantom to investigate the ability of Nint  = 1, 2, 4, and 8 to capture signal-time curves...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919731/sensitization-to-aspergillus-fumigatus-as-a-risk-factor-for-bronchiectasis-in-copd
#3
Stephanie Everaerts, Katrien Lagrou, Adriana Dubbeldam, Natalie Lorent, Kristina Vermeersch, Erna Van Hoeyveld, Xavier Bossuyt, Lieven J Dupont, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim Janssens
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap presents a possible clinical phenotype of COPD, but it is unclear why it develops in a subset of patients. We hypothesized that sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus (A fum) is associated with bronchiectasis in COPD and occurs more frequently in vitamin D-deficient patients. METHODS: This observational study investigated sensitization to A fum in an outpatient clinical cohort of 300 COPD patients and 50 (ex-) smoking controls...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919143/long-term-safety-of-glycopyrrolate-eflow-%C3%A2-cs-in-moderate-to-very-severe-copd-results-from-the-glycopyrrolate-for-obstructive-lung-disease-via-electronic-nebulizer-golden-5-randomized-study
#4
Gary T Ferguson, Thomas Goodin, Robert Tosiello, Alistair Wheeler, Edward Kerwin
BACKGROUND: The use of long-acting bronchodilators is an essential component of the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The GOLDEN 5 Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of a nebulized glycopyrrolate formulation (SUN-101) delivered via the investigational eFlow(®) Closed System (eFlow(®) CS) nebulizer in subjects with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. METHODS: Subjects were randomized in a 4:3 ratio to nebulized glycopyrrolate 50 μg twice daily (BID) or tiotropium 18 μg once daily (OD) and treated for 48 weeks...
August 24, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916790/association-between-homa-ir-and-lung-function-in-korean-young-adults-based-on-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#5
Young Bok Lee, Young Soo Kim, Dong-Hee Lee, Hee Yeon Kim, Jae-Im Lee, Hyo-Suk Ahn, Tae Seo Sohn, Tae-Kyu Lee, Jae Yen Song, Chang Dong Yeo, Mihee Hong, Kyungdo Han, Seong Cheol Jeong, Hiun Suk Chae
Metabolic syndrome, including obesity and insulin resistance, has been reported to lower lung function in elderly subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive lung disease. This study aimed to find the association between lung function and insulin resistance in Korean young adults. This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2013, which is a representative sample of the Korean population. A total of 1,922 young adults aged 19 to 40 were included in the analysis...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915968/magnesium-to-counteract-elastin-degradation-and-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Rob Janssen
Accelerated elastin degradation is an important pathogenic mechanism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leading to irreversible lung function loss and cardiovascular comorbidities. The rate of elastin breakdown is a predictor of mortality in patients with COPD. Decelerating elastinolysis might be an attractive therapeutic target in this debilitating condition. Vascular calcification starts in the elastin network of the arterial wall and is enhanced in patients with COPD. Elastin calcification is accompanied by an upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression and consequently a shift in the elastase/anti-elastase balance towards degradation...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915625/long-term-cigarette-smoke-exposure-inhibits-histone-deacetylase-2-expression-and-enhances-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#7
Dongmei Huang, Zhiying Ma, Yili He, Ying Xiao, Honglin Luo, Qiuli Liang, Xiaoning Zhong, Jing Bai, Zhiyi He
Long-term cigarette smoke induces lung inflammatory injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with skeletal muscle inflammation. This study aimed at investigating how cigarette smoke promotes skeletal muscle inflammation and its molecular pathogenesis. Mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 12 or 24 weeks, and C2C12 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The mass and function, myotube formation, inflammatory cytokine production, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression were detected in the gastrocnemius muscles of mice and C2C12 cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914424/new-perspectives-in-nanotherapeutics-for-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#8
Adriana Lopes da Silva, Fernanda Ferreira Cruz, Patricia Rieken Macedo Roccco, Marcelo Marcos Morales
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hundreds of millions of people of all ages and in all countries suffer from chronic respiratory diseases, with particular negative consequences such as poor health-related quality of life, impaired work productivity, and limitations in the activities of daily living. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, occupational lung diseases (such as silicosis), cystic fibrosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the most common of these diseases, and none of them are curable with current therapies...
September 15, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911970/mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-oxidative-stress-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-airways
#9
Xiang Li, Charalambos Michaeloudes, Yuelin Zhang, Coen H Wiegman, Ian M Adcock, Qizhou Lian, Judith C W Mak, Pankaj K Bhavsar, Kian Fan Chung
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to inflammation and remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect against lung damage in animal models of COPD. It is unknown whether these effects occur through attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction in airway cells. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iPSC-MSCs) on oxidative stress-induce mitochondrial dysfunction in human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in vitro and in mouse lungs in vivo...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910509/the-experience-of-palliative-care-service-provision-for-people-with-non-malignant-respiratory-disease-and-their-family-carers-an-all-ireland-qualitative-study
#10
Clare Mc Veigh, Joanne Reid, Philip Larkin, Sam Porter, Peter Hudson
AIM: To explore specialist and generalist palliative care provision for people with non-malignant respiratory disease, in rural and urban areas in the North and Republic of Ireland. BACKGROUND: Globally, palliative care is recommended as an appropriate healthcare option for people with advanced non- malignant lung disease. Yet, there is limited evidence regarding the integration of palliative care for this client group. DESIGN: Qualitative study...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906034/small-airway-disease-a-different-phenotype-of-early-stage-copd-associated-with-biomass-smoke-exposure
#11
Dongxing Zhao, Yumin Zhou, Changbin Jiang, Zhuxiang Zhao, Fang He, Pixin Ran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic exposure to biomass smoke (BS) can significantly compromise pulmonary function and lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether BS exposure induces a unique phenotype of COPD from an early stage, with different physiopathological features compared with COPD associated with smoking (cigarette-smoke (CS) COPD), we assessed the physiopathology of early COPD associated with BS exposure (BS COPD) by incorporating spirometry, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging, bronchoscopy and pathological examinations...
September 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905537/the-relationship-between-airway-inflammation-and-exacerbation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
REVIEW
Diahn Warng Perng, Pei Ku Chen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with abnormal inflammatory response and airflow limitation. Acute exacerbation involves increased inflammatory burden leading to worsening respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea and sputum production. Some COPD patients have frequent exacerbations (two or more exacerbations per year). A substantial proportion of COPD patients may remain stable without exacerbation. Bacterial and viral infections are the most common causative factors that breach airway stability and lead to exacerbation...
September 4, 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905534/larger-testicular-volume-is-independently-associated-with-favorable-indices-of-lung-function
#13
Tae Beom Kim, I Nae Park
BACKGROUND: Men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, have reduced endogenous testosterone levels, but the relationship between pulmonary function and endogenous testosterone levels, is inconsistent. Testicular volume is a known indicator of endogenous testosterone levels, male fertility, and male potency. In the present study, the authors investigated the relationship, between testicular volume and lung function. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-one South Korean men age 40-70, hospitalized for urological surgery, were retrospectively enrolled, irrespective of the presence of respiratory disease...
September 1, 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905464/urinary-desmosine-is-associated-with-emphysema-severity-and-frequent-exacerbation-in-patients-with-copd
#14
Changhwan Kim, Yousang Ko, Su Hee Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Jae Seung Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Jin Hwa Lee, Ji-Hyun Lee, Tae-Hyung Kim, Seong Yong Lim, Kwang Ha Yoo, Joon Beom Seo, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Yong Bum Park
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Matrix degradation is a key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Desmosine and isodesmosine (desmosines) are excreted in urine following matrix degradation. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the association between computed tomography (CT) emphysema indices and urinary desmosines in patients with COPD. METHODS: A total of 152 subjects were selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. Their urine samples were assayed for desmosines using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods...
September 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904224/targeted-inhibition-of-gq-signaling-induces-airway-relaxation-in-mouse-models-of-asthma
#15
Michaela Matthey, Richard Roberts, Alexander Seidinger, Annika Simon, Ralf Schröder, Markus Kuschak, Suvi Annala, Gabriele M König, Christa E Müller, Ian P Hall, Evi Kostenis, Bernd K Fleischmann, Daniela Wenzel
Obstructive lung diseases are common causes of disability and death worldwide. A hallmark feature is aberrant activation of Gq protein-dependent signaling cascades. Currently, drugs targeting single G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are used to reduce airway tone. However, therapeutic efficacy is often limited, because various GPCRs contribute to bronchoconstriction, and chronic exposure to receptor-activating medications results in desensitization. We therefore hypothesized that pharmacological Gq inhibition could serve as a central mechanism to achieve efficient therapeutic bronchorelaxation...
September 13, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903761/protective-effects-of-grape-seed-and-skin-extract-against-high-fat-diet-induced-lipotoxicity-in-rat-lung
#16
Mohamed El Ayed, Safwen Kadri, Selima Smine, Salem Elkahoui, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a public health problem characterized by increased fat accumulation in different tissues. Obesity is directly linked to breathing problems and medical complications with lung, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma….In the present work, we aimed to investigate the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on lung lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, fatty acid composition and proportions in lung and implication in asthma development...
September 13, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902960/the-prognostic-significance-of-lung-function-in-stable-heart-failure-outpatients
#17
Louis Lind Plesner, Morten Dalsgaard, Morten Schou, Lars Køber, Jørgen Vestbo, Erik Kjøller, Kasper Iversen
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the impact on all-cause mortality of airflow limitation indicative of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or restrictive spirometry pattern (RSP) in a stable systolic heart failure population. HYPOTHESIS: Decreased lung function indicates poor survival in heart failure. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: NYHA class II-IV and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 45%. Prognosis was assessed with multivariate Cox proportional hazards models...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900078/-polymorphic-variants-of-glutamate-receptor-grik5-grin2b-and-serotonin-receptor-htr2a-genes-are-associated-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
G F Korytina, L Z Akhmadishina, O V Kochetova, Y G Aznabaeva, Sh Z Zagidullin, T V Victorova
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory system that affects primarily distal respiratory pathways and lung parenchyma. Smoking tobacco is a major risk factor for COPD. The relationship of HTR4 (rs3995090), HTR2A (rs6313), GRIK5 (rs8099939), GRIN2B (rs2268132), and CHRNB4 (rs1948) gene polymorphisms and COPD, as well as the contribution of these polymorphisms to the variations in quantitative characteristics that describe respiratory function, smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence was assessed in an ethnically homogeneous Tatar population...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899937/treating-breathlessness-via-the-brain-changes-in-brain-activity-over-a-course-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation
#19
Mari Herigstad, Olivia K Faull, Anja Hayen, Eleanor Evans, F Maxine Hardinge, Katja Wiech, Kyle T S Pattinson
Breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often discordant with airway pathophysiology ("over-perception"). Pulmonary rehabilitation profoundly affects breathlessness, without influencing lung function. Learned associations influence brain mechanisms of sensory perception. We hypothesised that improvements in breathlessness with pulmonary rehabilitation may be explained by changing neural representations of learned associations.In 31 patients with COPD, we tested how pulmonary rehabilitation altered the relationship between brain activity during a breathlessness-related word-cue task (using functional magnetic resonance imaging), and clinical and psychological measures of breathlessness...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898345/-endoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-in-advanced-pulmonary-emphysema-initial-experience-in-chile
#20
Sebastián Fernández-Bussy, Gonzalo Labarca, Iván Caviedes, Hiren J Mehta, Michael Jantz, Adnan Majid
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has no curative treatment, and in moderate to advanced stages, functional parameters and quality of life are affected. Lung volume reduction improves respiratory parameters and quality of life of these patients. Endoscopic lung volume reduction is a minimally invasive procedure that uses endobronchial valves or coils. Valves are unidirectional, blocking the air from entering the target lobe during inspiration, allowing the exit of air and secretions during expiration...
May 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
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