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lower respiratory tract infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446669/salivary-blockade-protects-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-mice-from-lethal-influenza
#1
Karen Ivinson, Georgia Deliyannis, Leanne McNabb, Lara Grollo, Brad Gilbertson, David Jackson, Lorena E Brown
It is possible to model progression of influenza virus from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract in the mouse using viral inoculum delivered in a restricted manner to the nose. In this model, infection with the A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn) strain of virus results ultimately in high viral titres in both the trachea and lungs. In contrast, the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) strain causes an infection that is almost entirely limited to the nasal passages. The factors that govern the progression of virus down the respiratory tract are not well understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446666/mouse-saliva-inhibits-transit-of-influenza-virus-to-the-lower-respiratory-tract-by-efficiently-blocking-influenza-neuraminidase-activity
#2
Brad Gilbertson, Wy Ching Ng, Simon Crawford, Jenny L McKimm-Breschkin, Lorena E Brown
We have previously identified a novel inhibitor of influenza virus in mouse saliva that halts the progression of susceptible viruses from the upper to the lower respiratory tract of mice in vivo and neutralizes viral infectivity in MDCK cells. Here, we investigated the viral target of the salivary inhibitor by using reverse genetics to create hybrid viruses with some surface proteins derived from an inhibitor-sensitive strain and others from an inhibitor-resistant strain. These viruses demonstrated that the origin of the viral neuraminidase (NA), but not the hemagglutinin or matrix proteins, was the determinant of susceptibility to the inhibitor...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442897/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-oral-versus-intravenous-drip-infusion-of-levofloxacin-in-the-treatment-of-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chinese-elderly-patients
#3
Libin Zhang, Ping Hu
AIM: Pharmacoeconomic cost-effectiveness analysis of two different dosage regimens of levofloxacin in the treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infection in elderly patients. METHODS: A total of 108 elderly patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection who visited by our hospital between September 2013 and September 2014 were randomly divided into Group A and Group B, with 54 patients in each group. In Group A, levofloxacin injection was given for continuous intravenous infusion treatment, whereas in Group B, levofloxacin injection and levofloxacin capsule were given as sequential therapy (ST)...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440855/accuracy-of-current-diagnostic-criteria-for-acute-bacterial-infection-in-older-adults-in-the-emergency-department
#4
Jeffrey M Caterino, Robert Leininger, David M Kline, Lauren T Southerland, Salman Khaliqdina, Christopher W Baugh, Daniel J Pallin, Kurt B Stevenson
OBJECTIVES: To compare the accuracy of the Loeb criteria, emergency department (ED) physicians' diagnoses, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for acute bacterial infection in older adults with a criterion standard expert review. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Urban, tertiary-care ED. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older in the ED, excluding those who were incarcerated, underwent a trauma, did not speak English, or were unable to consent...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440108/microbiology-of-the-upper-and-lower-airways-in-pediatric-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#5
Lindsay Sobin, Kosuke Kawai, Alexandria L Irace, Ozgul Gergin, Michael Cunningham, Gregory S Sawicki, Eelam A Adil
Objective To evaluate the microbiology of the upper and lower airways in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients who underwent sinus surgery. Study Design Retrospective case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care children's hospital. Subjects and Methods A total of 201 paired sinus and pulmonary cultures from 105 CF patients were identified between 1996 and 2014. Demographics and culture results were analyzed. Results The mean age of patients was 11.2 ± 5.4 years (range, 1-27 years), and approximately one-half were female...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438507/cardiothoracic-transplant-recipient-mycoplasma-hominis-an-uncommon-infection-with-probable-donor-transmission
#6
Rahul Sampath, Robin Patel, Scott A Cunningham, Sana Arif, Richard C Daly, Andrew D Badley, Mark E Wylam
The role of infection with Mycoplasma hominis following cardiothoracic organ transplantation and its source of transmission have not been well-defined. Here, we identify and describe infection with M. hominis in patients following cardiothoracic organ transplantation after reviewing all cardiothoracic transplantations performed at our center between 1998 and July 2015. We found seven previously unreported cases of M. hominis culture positive infection all of whom presented with pleuritis, surgical site infection, and/or mediastinitis...
April 19, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437435/infective-respiratory-syncytial-virus-is-present-in-human-cord-blood-samples-and-most-prevalent-during-winter-months
#7
Angela Mary Fonceca, Abha Chopra, Avram Levy, Paul Stanton Noakes, Matthew Wee-Peng Poh, Natasha Leanne Bear, Susan Prescott, Mark Lloyd Everard
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease amongst infants, and continues to cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease every winter worldwide. Demonstrating placental transmission of viable RSV in human samples is a major paradigm shift in respiratory routes considered likely for RSV transmission. METHODS: Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to identify RSV present in cord blood mononucleocytes (CBM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430397/respiratory-virus-detection-during-hospitalisation-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children-under-2-years-in-south-auckland-new-zealand
#8
Adrian A Trenholme, Emma J Best, Alison M Vogel, Joanna M Stewart, Charissa J Miller, Diana R Lennon
AIM: To describe respiratory virus detection in children under 2 years of age in a population admitted with lower respiratory infection and to assess correlation with measures of severity. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates from infants admitted with lower respiratory tract infection (n = 1645) over a 3-year time period were tested by polymerase chain reaction. We collected epidemiological and clinical data on all children. We assessed the correlation of presence of virus with length of hospital stay, intensive care admission and consolidation on chest X-ray...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425828/compliance-to-guidelines-for-the-prescribing-of-antibiotics-in-acute-infections-at-namibia-s-national-referral-hospital-a-pilot-study-and-the-implications
#9
S Nakwatumbah, D Kibuule, B Godman, V Haakuria, F Kalemeera, A Baker, M Mwangana
BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal antibiotic prescribing remains a public health concern in Namibia. The objective is to determine the level and predictors of compliance to guidelines in the prescribing of antibiotics in acute infections at a national referral hospital in Namibia to improve future prescribing. METHODS: Descriptive observational cross-sectional study. The clinical records of patients receiving care were reviewed. Prescribing practices were assessed using a self- administered questionnaire with reference to Namibia Standard Treatment Guidelines (NSTG)...
April 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420071/pleuropulmonary-involvement-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-from-a-latin-american-inception-cohort-gladel
#10
M J Haye Salinas, F Caeiro, V Saurit, A Alvarellos, D Wojdyla, H R Scherbarth, A C de O E Silva, J C Tavares Brenol, L T Lavras Costallat, O J Neira, A Iglesias Gamarra, G Vásquez, G A Reyes Llerena, L A Barile-Fabris, L H Silveira, M J Sauza Del Pozo, E M Acevedo Vásquez, J L Alfaro Lozano, M H Esteva Spinetti, G S Alarcón, B A Pons-Estel
Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine the demographic and clinical features associated with the occurrence of pleuropulmonary manifestations, the predictive factors of their occurrence and their impact on mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Materials and methods The association of pleuropulmonary manifestations with demographic and clinical features, the predictive factors of their occurrence and their impact on mortality were examined in GLADEL patients by appropriate univariable and multivariable analyses...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417451/prophylactic-anti-staphylococcal-antibiotics-for-cystic-fibrosis
#11
REVIEW
Alan R Smyth, Margaret Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested these hypotheses...
April 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414698/the-feasibility-of-thoracoscopic-resection-in-bronchiectasis
#12
Volkan Baysungur, Talha Dogruyol, Ilhan Ocakcioglu, Aysun Misirlioglu, Serdar Evman, Serda Kanbur, Levent Alpay, Cagatay Tezel
INTRODUCTION: Minimally invasive surgery is the treatment of choice in early-stage lung cancer. However, experience in infectious lung disease, primarily bronchiectasis, is limited probably because of the presence of dense pleural adhesions, multiple lymph nodes, and spiral bronchial arteries. The present study shows our experience of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy and segmentectomy in the treatment of bronchiectasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent VATS lobectomy or segmentectomy in our clinic between April 2008 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated...
April 14, 2017: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413462/identification-of-mirna-biomarkers-of-pneumonia-using-rna-sequencing-and-bioinformatics-analysis
#13
Sai Huang, Cong Feng, Yong-Zhi Zhai, Xuan Zhou, Bei Li, Li-Li Wang, Wei Chen, Fa-Qin Lv, Tan-Shi Li
Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection that causes dramatic mortality worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of pneumonia and identify microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers as candidates for targeted therapy. RNA from the peripheral blood plasma of participants with pneumonia (severe, n=9; non-severe, n=9) and controls (n=9) was isolated and paired-end sequencing was performed on an Illumina HiSeq4000 system. Following the processing of raw reads, the sequences were aligned against the Genome Reference Consortium human genome assembly 38 reference genome using Bowtie2 software...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410812/cd4-t-cells-support-establishment-of-rsv-specific-igg-and-iga-antibody-secreting-cells-in-the-upper-and-lower-murine-respiratory-tract-following-rsv-infection
#14
Robert E Sealy, Sherri L Surman, Julia L Hurwitz
The RSV vaccine field suffered a major set-back when children were vaccinated with a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV). Unexpectedly, the vaccinated children fared worse than unvaccinated children when they were naturally infected with RSV. Mouse models were then developed that implicated the CD4(+) T helper cell population as a contributor to adverse events. Today, the T cell is viewed with much caution in the RSV field, and its induction by vaccination is sometimes discouraged. Here we re-emphasize the beneficial role of the CD4(+) T cell...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410390/accessory-gene-regulator-agr-functionality-in-staphylococcus-aureus-derived-from-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#15
Meissiner Gomes-Fernandes, Maisem Laabei, Natalia Pagan, Jessica Hidalgo, Sònia Molinos, Raquel Villar Hernandez, Dídac Domínguez-Villanueva, A Toby A Jenkins, Alicia Lacoma, Cristina Prat
OBJECTIVE: Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates derived from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), and correlation between the functionality of the accessory gene regulator (Agr) and genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, clinical variables and clinical outcome. METHODS: S aureus isolates derived from LRTIs and control groups (nasal carriage and bacteraemia) were genotyped using StaphyType DNA microarray. Agr activity was evaluated using the CAMP synergistic haemolysis assay and the Vesicle Lysis Test (VLT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404092/tenofovir-alafenamide-versus-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-3-non-inferiority-trial
#16
Maria Buti, Edward Gane, Wai Kay Seto, Henry L Y Chan, Wan-Long Chuang, Tatjana Stepanova, Aric-Josun Hui, Young-Suk Lim, Rajiv Mehta, Harry L A Janssen, Subrat K Acharya, John F Flaherty, Benedetta Massetto, Andrea L Cathcart, Kyungpil Kim, Anuj Gaggar, G Mani Subramanian, John G McHutchison, Calvin Q Pan, Maurizia Brunetto, Namiki Izumi, Patrick Marcellin
BACKGROUND: The novel prodrug tenofovir alafenamide delivers the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir to target cells more efficiently at a lower dose than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, thereby reducing systemic exposure. We compared the efficacy and safety of the two drugs in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a non-inferiority study. METHODS: In this ongoing randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority study in 105 centres in 17 countries, patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV were randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block size six), stratified by plasma HBV DNA concentration and previous treatment status, to receive once-daily oral doses of tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg, each with matching placebo...
November 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404091/tenofovir-alafenamide-versus-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-the-treatment-of-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-3-non-inferiority-trial
#17
Henry L Y Chan, Scott Fung, Wai Kay Seto, Wan-Long Chuang, Chi-Yi Chen, Hyung Joon Kim, Aric Josun Hui, Harry L A Janssen, Abhijit Chowdhury, Tak Yin Owen Tsang, Rajiv Mehta, Edward Gane, John F Flaherty, Benedetta Massetto, Anuj Gaggar, Kathryn M Kitrinos, Lanjia Lin, G Mani Subramanian, John G McHutchison, Young-Suk Lim, Subrat K Acharya, Kosh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir alafenamide is a novel prodrug formulated to deliver the active metabolite to target cells more efficiently than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate at a lower dose, thereby reducing systemic exposure. In patients with HIV, tenofovir alafenamide was as efficacious as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, with reduced bone and renal toxic effects. We compared the efficacy and safety of the two drugs in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a non-inferiority study...
November 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403845/hemosiderin-in-sputum-macrophages-may-predict-infective-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-retrospective-observational-study
#18
Sindu Mohan, Terence Ho, Melanie Kjarsgaard, Katherine Radford, A S M Borhan, Lehana Thabane, Parameswaran Nair
BACKGROUND: Infective exacerbations of COPD are common and are accompanied by neutrophilic bronchitis in sputum. Increased respiratory iron content has been associated with respiratory tract infection, though it is unclear if this represents a predisposing factor for infection or the sequelae of inflammation. Iron overload, as assessed in the airways, may be an important biomarker for recurrent infective exacerbations of COPD. The purpose of our study was to determine if hemosiderin in sputum macrophages is related to infective exacerbations of COPD...
April 12, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401532/gram-positive-pneumonia-augments-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-metastasis-via-host-toll-like-receptor-2-activation
#19
Stephen D Gowing, Simon C Chow, Jonathan J Cools-Lartigue, Crystal B Chen, Sara Najmeh, Henry Y Jiang, France Bourdeau, Annie Beauchamp, Ugo Mancini, Isabelle Angers, Betty Giannias, Jonathan D Spicer, Simon Rousseau, Salman T Qureshi, Lorenzo E Ferri
Surgical resection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is necessary for cure. However, rates of post-operative bacterial pneumonias remain high and may confer an increased risk for metastasis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate the inflammatory cascade by recognizing microbial products at the surface of numerous cell types in the lung; however, little is known about how host TLRs influence NSCLC metastasis. TLR2 recognizes gram-positive bacterial cell wall components activating innate immunity...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400591/pathogenicity-and-transmission-of-a-swine-influenza-a-h6n6-virus
#20
Hailiang Sun, Bryan S Kaplan, Minhui Guan, Guihong Zhang, Jianqiang Ye, Li-Ping Long, Sherry Blackmon, Chun-Kai Yang, Meng-Jung Chiang, Hang Xie, Nan Zhao, Jim Cooley, David F Smith, Ming Liao, Carol Cardona, Lei Li, George Peng Wang, Richard Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Subtype H6 influenza A viruses (IAVs) are commonly detected in wild birds and domestic poultry and can infect humans. In 2010, a H6N6 virus emerged in southern China, and since then, it has caused sporadic infections among swine. We show that this virus binds to α2,6-linked and α2,3-linked sialic acids. Mutations at residues 222 (alanine to valine) and 228 (glycine to serine) of the virus hemagglutinin (HA) affected its receptor-binding properties. Experiments showed that the virus has limited transmissibility between ferrets through direct contact or through inhalation of infectious aerosolized droplets...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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