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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449938/molecular-characteristics-and-successful-management-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreak-among-pediatric-patients-with-hemato-oncological-disease
#1
Claas Baier, Sibylle Haid, Andreas Beilken, Astrid Behnert, Martin Wetzke, Richard J P Brown, Corinna Schmitt, Ella Ebadi, Gesine Hansen, Thomas F Schulz, Thomas Pietschmann, Franz-Christoph Bange
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infection in adults and children. Especially immunocompromised patients are at high risk for a severe course of infection, and mortality is increased. Moreover RSV can spread in healthcare settings and can cause outbreaks. Herein we demonstrate the successful control and characteristics of a RSV outbreak that included 8 patients in our Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology. Methods: We performed an epidemiologic investigation and a molecular analysis of the outbreak strains...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447989/aetiology-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-adults-in-primary-care-a-prospective-study-in-11-european-countries
#2
Margareta Ieven, Samuel Coenen, Katherine Loens, Christine Lammens, Frank Coenjaerts, Anouk Vanderstraeten, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Derrick Crook, Kris Huygen, Chris C Butler, Theo Jm Verheij, Paul Little, Kalina Zlateva, Anton van Loon, Eric Cj Claas, Herman Goossens
OBJECTIVES: To describe the role of bacteria (including bacterial resistance), viruses (including those recently described), and mixed bacterial-viral infections in adults presenting to primary care with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS: We enrolled 3104 adults with LRTI, 141 (4.5%) of whom had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and 2985 matched controls in a prospective study in 16 primary care networks in Europe, and followed patients up at 28-35 days...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447395/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-coronavirus-infection-in-children-the-role-of-viral-factors-and-an-immunocompromised-state
#3
Chikara Ogimi, Janet A Englund, Miranda C Bradford, Xuan Qin, Michael Boeckh, Alpana Waghmare
Background: Immunocompromised children might be predisposed to serious infections from human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including strains OC43, NL63, HKU1, and 229E; however, the virologic and clinical features of HCoV infection in immunocompromised children have not been compared to those in nonimmunocompromised children. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of children who presented to Seattle Children's Hospital and in whom HCoV was detected by a multiplex respiratory polymerase chain reaction assay of a nasal sample between October 2012 and March 2016...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447199/short-term-repeated-hrv-16-exposure-results-in-an-attenuated-immune-response-in-vivo-in-humans
#4
Rebecca M Koch, Matthijs Kox, Corné van den Kieboom, Gerben Ferwerda, Jelle Gerretsen, Sandra Ten Bruggencate, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Marien I de Jonge, Peter Pickkers
INTRODUCTION: Naturally, development of adaptive immunity following HRV infection affects the immune response. However, it is currently unclear whether or not HRV re-exposure within a short time frame leads to an altered innate immune response. The "experimental cold model" is used to investigate the pathogenesis of HRV infection and allows us to investigate the effects of repeated exposure on both local and systemic innate immunity. METHODS: 40 healthy male and female (1:1) subjects were nasally inoculated with HRV-16 or placebo...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445124/efficacy-of-mucosal-polyanhydride-nanovaccine-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-the-neonatal-calf
#5
Jodi L McGill, Sean M Kelly, Pankaj Kumar, Savannah Speckhart, Shannon L Haughney, Jamie Henningson, Balaji Narasimhan, Randy E Sacco
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is closely related to HRSV and a significant cause of morbidity in young cattle. BRSV infection in calves displays many similarities to RSV infection in humans, including similar age dependency and disease pathogenesis. Polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) have shown promise as adjuvants and vaccine delivery vehicles due to their ability to promote enhanced immunogenicity through the route of administration, provide sustained antigen exposure, and induce both antibody- and cell-mediated immunity...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444701/a-case-series-on-common-cold-to-severe-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-children-following-human-metapneumovirus-infection-in-sri-lanka
#6
J A A S Jayaweera, F Noordeen, S Kothalaweala, F N N Pitchai, M L M Rayes
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of hMPV infections in Sri Lanka has not been reported and here we report a case series of hMPV infection in children less than 5 years. Patients with ARTI were included from Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura from March 2013 to August 2014. Indirect fluorescence assay was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates for the identification of respiratory viruses [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B and hMPV]. Moreover, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was done to further confirm the hMPV infection...
February 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439020/impact-of-immunosuppression-on-incidence-aetiology-and-outcome-of-ventilator-associated-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#7
Anne-Sophie Moreau, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Pedro Povoa, Jorge Salluh, Alejandro Rodriguez, Arnaud W Thille, Emilio Diaz Santos, Elisa Vedes, Suzana Margareth Lobo, Bruno Mégarbane, Esperanza Molero Silvero, Luis Coelho, Laurent Argaud, Rafael Sanchez Iniesta, Julien Labreuche, Anahita Rouzé, Saad Nseir
The aim of this planned analysis of the prospective multinational TAVeM database was to determine the incidence, aetiology and impact on outcome of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI) in immunocompromised patients.All patients receiving mechanical ventilation for >48 h were included. Immunocompromised patients (n=663) were compared with non-immunocompromised patients (n=2297).The incidence of VA-LRTI was significantly lower in immunocompromised than in non-immunocompromised patients (16...
February 8, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438547/effectiveness-of-general-practitioner-online-training-and-an-information-booklet-for-parents-on-antibiotic-prescribing-for-children-with-respiratory-tract-infection-in-primary-care-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Anne R J Dekker, Theo J M Verheij, Berna D L Broekhuizen, Christopher C Butler, Jochen W L Cals, Nick A Francis, Paul Little, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Lucy Yardley, Nicolaas P A Zuithoff, Alike W van der Velden
Objectives: Antibiotics are too often prescribed in childhood respiratory tract infection (RTI), despite limited effectiveness, potential side effects and bacterial resistance. We aimed to reduce antibiotic prescribing for children with RTI by online training for general practitioners (GPs) and information for parents. Methods: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in primary care. The intervention consisted of online training for GPs and an information booklet for parents...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430198/acute-kidney-injury-and-infections-in-patients-taking-antihypertensive-drugs-a-self-controlled-case-series-analysis
#9
Kathryn E Mansfield, Ian J Douglas, Dorothea Nitsch, Sara L Thomas, Liam Smeeth, Laurie A Tomlinson
Background: The relative risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) following different infections, and whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) modify the risk, is unclear. We aimed to determine the risks of hospital admission with AKI following infections (urinary tract infection [UTI], lower respiratory tract infection [LRTI], and gastroenteritis) among users of antihypertensive drugs. Methods: We used UK electronic health records from practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics database...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428226/intravenous-plus-inhaled-versus-intravenous-colistin-monotherapy-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Andreas D Mavroudis, Maria Georgiou, Matthew E Falagas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether IV plus inhaled combination (IV/INHCC) compared to IV monotherapy (IVCM) was associated with patient outcomes and identify factors influencing study outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched till November 2016. Studies were included if they evaluated adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections due to MDR/XDR Gram-negative bacteria and reported comparative mortality data (adjusted and unadjusted) for patients receiving IV/INHCC versus IVCM...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427984/controlling-the-risk-domain-in-pediatric-asthma-through-personalized-care
#11
William C Anderson, Stanley J Szefler
Strategies to control the risk domain of NHLBI EPR-3 (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Expert Panel Report-3) asthma guidelines, which includes exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids, reduction in lung growth, and progressive loss of lung function, and treatment-related adverse effects, are evolving in children and adolescents. Increasing evidence demonstrates that children and adolescents with asthma are at risk of a reduction in lung growth, leading to lower lung function and potentially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as adults...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427907/human-coronavirus-circulation-in-the-united-states-2014-2017
#12
Marie E Killerby, Holly M Biggs, Amber Haynes, Rebecca M Dahl, Desiree Mustaquim, Susan I Gerber, John T Watson
BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) -OC43, -229E, -NL63 and -HKU1 cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections. HCoVs are globally distributed and the predominant species may vary by region or year. Prior studies have shown seasonal patterns of HCoV species and annual variation in species prevalence but national circulation patterns in the US have not yet been described. OBJECTIVES: To describe circulation patterns of HCoVs -OC43, -229E, -NL63 and -HKU1 in the US...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424065/trend-and-outcome-of-sepsis-in-children-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#13
Chia-Hung Yo, Tzu-Chun Hsu, Meng-Tse Gabriel Lee, Lorenzo Porta, Po-Yang Tsou, Yu-Hsun Wang, Wan-Chien Lee, Szu-Ta Chen, Chien-Chang Lee
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of incidence and outcome of paediatric sepsis in a population-based database. METHODS: Children with sepsis were identified from the 23 million nationwide health insurance claims database of Taiwan. Sepsis was defined by the presence of single ICD-9 code for severe sepsis or septic shock or a combination of ICD-9 codes for infection and organ dysfunction. We analysed the trend of incidence, mortality and source of infection in three age groups: infant (28 days to 1 year), child (1-9 years) and adolescent (10-18 years)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416364/the-preventive-effect-on-respiratory-tract-infections-of-oscillococcinum%C3%A2-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#14
Giorgio L Colombo, Sergio Di Matteo, Chiara Martinotti, Martina Oselin, Giacomo M Bruno, Gianfranco M Beghi
Background: Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K (Oscillococcinum®) is used to treat and prevent seasonal colds and airway inflammatory affections, improve symptom control, and reduce the frequency of respiratory tract infection (RTI) episodes. The objective of this controlled observational study is to investigate, from the Italian National Health Service (NHS) point of view, the role of Anas barbariae hepatis et cordis extractum 200K in preventing RTIs and estimate the annual average cost per patient due to visits and medicines in a real-world setting, investigating whether this method of treatment can bring savings for the NHS...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415501/peptide-based-membrane-fusion-inhibitors-targeting-hcov-229e-spike-protein-hr1-and-hr2-domains
#15
Shuai Xia, Wei Xu, Qian Wang, Cong Wang, Chen Hua, Weihua Li, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) infection in infants, elderly people, and immunocompromised patients can cause severe disease, thus calling for the development of effective and safe therapeutics to treat it. Here we reported the design, synthesis and characterization of two peptide-based membrane fusion inhibitors targeting HCoV-229E spike protein heptad repeat 1 (HR1) and heptad repeat 2 (HR2) domains, 229E-HR1P and 229E-HR2P, respectively. We found that 229E-HR1P and 229E-HR2P could interact to form a stable six-helix bundle and inhibit HCoV-229E spike protein-mediated cell-cell fusion with IC50 of 5...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412463/the-drug-drug-interaction-profile-of-presatovir
#16
Yan Xin, Winnie Weng, Bernard P Murray, Eugene J Eisenberg, Jason W Chien, John Ling, Jeffrey A Silverman
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. Presatovir (previously GS-5806) is a novel, orally administered RSV fusion inhibitor with a favorable safety profile and proven antiviral efficacy in preclinical and clinical studies. In vitro, presatovir is a substrate of the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and hepatic uptake transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 and is slowly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP3A5...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411775/respiratory-syncytial-virus-activates-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-to-suppress-interferon-regulatory-factor-1-dependent-interferon-lambda-and-antiviral-defense-in-airway-epithelium
#17
A Kalinowski, B T Galen, I F Ueki, Y Sun, A Mulenos, A Osafo-Addo, B Clark, J Joerns, W Liu, J A Nadel, C S Dela Cruz, J L Koff
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) persists as a significant human pathogen that continues to contribute to morbidity and mortality. In children, RSV is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections, and in adults RSV causes pneumonia and contributes to exacerbations of chronic lung diseases. RSV induces airway epithelial inflammation by activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a tyrosine kinase receptor. Recently, EGFR inhibition was shown to decrease RSV infection, but the mechanism(s) for this effect are not known...
February 7, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409569/seasonality-and-geographical-spread-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-epidemics-in-15-european-countries-2010-to-2016
#18
Eeva K Broberg, Matti Waris, Kari Johansen, René Snacken, Pasi Penttinen, European Influenza Surveillance Network
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is considered the most common pathogen causing severe lower respiratory tract infections among infants and young children. We describe the seasonality and geographical spread of RSV infection in 15 countries of the European Union and European Economic Area. We performed a retrospective descriptive study of weekly laboratory-confirmed RSV detections between weeks 40/2010 and 20/2016, in patients investigated for influenza-like illness, acute respiratory infection or following the clinician's judgment...
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408951/malaria-coinfections-in-febrile-pediatric-inpatients-a-hospital-based-study-from-ghana
#19
Benedikt Hogan, Daniel Eibach, Ralf Krumkamp, Nimako Sarpong, Denise Dekker, Benno Kreuels, Oumou Maiga-Ascofaré, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Charity Wiafe Akenten, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May
Background: The epidemiology of pediatric febrile illness is shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, but malaria remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The present study describes causes of febrile illness in hospitalized children in Ghana and aims to determine the burden of malaria coinfections and their association with parasite densities. Methods: In a prospective study, children (aged ≥30 days and ≤15 years) with fever ≥38.0°C were recruited after admission to the pediatric ward of a primary hospital in Ghana...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408400/bariatric-surgery-prior-to-elective-posterior-lumbar-fusion-is-associated-with-reduced-medical-complications-and-infection
#20
Deeptee Jain, Sigurd Berven, John Carter, Alan L Zhang, Vedat Deviren
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Severely obese patients with operative spinal pathology present a challenge to the spine surgeon, given the increased complication risk. PURPOSE: Determine the impact of bariatric surgery on perioperative complications of posterior lumbar fusion. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion surgery in the State Inpatient Databases (SID) of New York, Florida, North Carolina, Nebraska, Utah, and California...
February 2, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
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