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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818849/egfr-and-the-risk-of-community-acquired-infections
#1
Hong Xu, Alessandro Gasparini, Junichi Ishigami, Khaled Mzayen, Guobin Su, Peter Barany, Johan Ärnlöv, Bengt Lindholm, Carl Gustaf Elinder, Kunihiro Matsushita, Juan Jesús Carrero
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired infections are common, contributing to adverse outcomes and increased health care costs. We hypothesized that, with lower eGFR, the incidence of community-acquired infections increases, whereas the pattern of site-specific infections varies. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Among 1,139,470 health care users (mean age =52±18 years old, 53% women) from the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements Project, we quantified the associations of eGFR with the risk of infections, overall and major types, over 12 months...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816002/maternal-body-mass-index-relation-with-infant-respiratory-symptoms-and-infections
#2
Ashley Rajappan, Anna Pearce, Hazel M Inskip, Janis Baird, Sarah R Crozier, Cyrus Cooper, Keith M Godfrey, Graham Roberts, Jane S A Lucas, Katharine C Pike
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is increasingly prevalent in many westernized countries. Many studies report associations between maternal obesity and childhood wheeze or asthma but few have considered maternal obesity in relation to respiratory infections or symptoms other than wheeze during infancy. This study assesses the relationship between maternal BMI and reported wheeze, cough and respiratory infections during the first year of life. METHODS: In 2799 mother-child pairs, we examined the relations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain and reported offspring wheeze, prolonged cough, lower respiratory tract infection, croup, and ear infection before age 1 year, along with reported diarrhea or vomiting...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813677/the-il-17f-il-17rc-axis-promotes-respiratory-allergy-in-the-proximal-airways
#3
Antonella De Luca, Marilena Pariano, Barbara Cellini, Claudio Costantini, Valeria Rachela Villella, Shyam Sushama Jose, Melissa Palmieri, Monica Borghi, Claudia Galosi, Giuseppe Paolicelli, Luigi Maiuri, Jan Fric, Teresa Zelante
The interleukin 17 (IL-17) cytokine and receptor family is central to antimicrobial resistance and inflammation in the lung. Mice lacking IL-17A, IL-17F, or the IL-17RA subunit were compared with wild-type mice for susceptibility to airway inflammation in models of infection and allergy. Signaling through IL-17RA was required for efficient microbial clearance and prevention of allergy; in the absence of IL-17RA, signaling through IL-17RC on epithelial cells, predominantly by IL-17F, significantly exacerbated lower airway Aspergillus or Pseudomonas infection and allergic airway inflammation...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813414/a-randomized-synbiotic-trial-to-prevent-sepsis-among-infants-in-rural-india
#4
Pinaki Panigrahi, Sailajanandan Parida, Nimai C Nanda, Radhanath Satpathy, Lingaraj Pradhan, Dinesh S Chandel, Lorena Baccaglini, Arjit Mohapatra, Subhranshu S Mohapatra, Pravas R Misra, Rama Chaudhry, Hegang H Chen, Judith A Johnson, J Glenn Morris, Nigel Paneth, Ira H Gewolb
Sepsis in early infancy results in one million annual deaths worldwide, most of them in developing countries. No efficient means of prevention is currently available. Here we report on a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an oral synbiotic preparation (Lactobacillus plantarum plus fructooligosaccharide) in rural Indian newborns. We enrolled 4,556 infants that were at least 2,000 g at birth, at least 35 weeks of gestation, and with no signs of sepsis or other morbidity, and monitored them for 60 days...
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810308/-the-management-of-infections-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-in-lower-respiratory-tract
#5
Y Shi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809995/efficacy-and-safety-of-apremilast-in-patients-with-moderate-plaque-psoriasis-with-lower-bsa-week-16-results-from-the-unveil-study
#6
Bruce Strober, Jerry Bagel, Mark Lebwohl, Linda Stein Gold, J Mark Jackson, Rongdean Chen, Joana Goncalves, Eugenia Levi, Kristina Callis Duffin
<p>INTRODUCTION: Many options are available for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Patients with moderate disease, however, are often undertreated and do not achieve satisfactory clearance. UNVEIL (NCT02425826) assessed efficacy and safety of apremilast in patients with chronic moderate plaque psoriasis.</p> <p>METHODS: Patients with psoriasis body surface area (BSA) 5% to 10% and static Physician's Global Assessment (sPGA) score of 3 (moderate) without prior exposure to systemics were randomized (2:1) to apremilast 30 mg twice daily or placebo for 16 weeks...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807095/simultaneous-detection-of-13-key-bacterial-respiratory-pathogens-by-combination-of-multiplex-pcr-and-capillary-electrophoresis
#7
Lu Xi Jiang, Hong Yu Ren, Hai Jian Zhou, Si Hong Zhao, Bo Yan Hou, Jian Ping Yan, Tian Qin, Yu Chen
OBJECTIVE: Lower respiratory tract infections continue to pose a significant threat to human health. It is important to accurately and rapidly detect respiratory bacteria. To compensate for the limits of current respiratory bacteria detection methods, we developed a combination of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary electrophoresis (MPCE) assay to detect thirteen bacterial pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella spp...
August 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804860/temperature-drop-and-the-risk-of-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Xiaowei Cong, Xijin Xu, Yuling Zhang, Qihua Wang, Long Xu, Xia Huo
The relationship between asthma and temperature changes remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between temperature changes and the risk of asthma. A total of 26 studies (combined total number of subjects N > 26 million), covering 13 countries and Costa Rica, were identified by using a series of keywords in different combinations and searching the papers in PubMed, EMBSEA, Web of Science, MEDLINE, AIM, LILACS, and WPRIM before February 2016. Most of the papers were published in English...
August 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803931/explicit-definitions-of-potentially-inappropriate-prescriptions-of-antibiotics-in-older-patients-a-compilation-derived-from-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Nicolas Baclet, Grégoire Ficheur, Serge Alfandari, Laurie Ferret, Eric Senneville, Emmanuel Chazard, Jean-Baptiste Beuscart
CONTEXT: Potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs) of antibiotics (antibiotic-PIPs) are generally detected by applying implicit definitions based on expert opinion. Explicit definitions are less frequently used, even though this approach would enable the automated detection of antibiotic-PIPs in electronic health records. Here, we systematically reviewed explicit definitions of antibiotic-PIPs used in studies of older adults. METHOD: We searched the MEDLINE(®), Scopus(®) and Web of Science(TM) core collection databases with a combination of three terms and their synonyms: "potentially inappropriate prescription" AND "antibiotic treatment" AND "older patients"...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803551/hospitalisation-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children-in-the-province-of-quebec-canada-before-and-during-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#10
G Anderson, G Deceuninck, Z Zhou, F D Boucher, Y Bonnier Viger, R Gilca, P DE Wals
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may reduce this burden. This study's goal was to analyse trends in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) hospitalisations before and during a routine vaccination programme targeting all newborns with PCV was started in the province of Quebec, Canada in December 2004. The study population included hospital admissions with a main diagnosis of LRTI among 6-59 month-old Quebec residents from April 2000 to December 2014...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800119/new-insights-contributing-to-the-development-of-effective-vaccines-and-therapies-to-reduce-the-pathology-caused-by-hrsv
#11
REVIEW
Nicolás M S Gálvez, Jorge A Soto, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) worldwide, leading to significant levels of immunocompromisation as well as morbidity and mortality in infants. Its main target of infection is the ciliated epithelium of the lungs and the host immune responses elicited is ineffective at achieving viral clearance. It is thought that the lack of effective immunity against hRSV is due in part to the activity of several viral proteins that modulate the host immune response, enhancing a Th2-like pro-inflammatory state, with the secretion of cytokines that promote the infiltration of immune cells to the lungs, with consequent damage...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799307/guiding-principles-for-the-use-of-fluroquinolones-in-out-patient-community-settings-of-india-panel-consensus
#12
Agam Vora, K Krishnaprasad
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections have been an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide that is looming large especially in context of antibiotic resistance that is confronted both by a pulmonologist as well as a general practitioner. A reflection to this trend has been the rising phenomenon of MICs as shown the respiratory pathogens towards conventional antibiotics including macrolides or β lactam/β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Respiratory fluoroquinolones offer broad yet potent cover of respiratory pathogens leading to their obvious choice for empirical therapy for clinical persisters or high risk cases with prior history of antibiotics not-withstanding the clinical concerns in tropical countries...
August 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799279/oesophageal-replacement-with-stomach-a-personal-series-and-review-of-published-experience
#13
Karim Awad, Bruce Jaffray
AIM: To describe the outcomes of oesophageal replacement using stomach in children. METHODS: All children undergoing oesophageal replacement in a regional centre were prospectively recorded in a customised database and subjected to continual follow up. Complications within 30 days were classified as early, and all other complications were classified as late. Outcomes were related to a comprehensive analysis of published experience where studies were classified as having long-term follow up if the median duration exceeded 5 years...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783656/resident-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-the-upper-respiratory-tract-prevent-pulmonary-influenza-virus-infection
#14
Angela Pizzolla, Thi H O Nguyen, Jeffrey M Smith, Andrew G Brooks, Katherine Kedzieska, William R Heath, Patrick C Reading, Linda M Wakim
Nasal epithelial tissue of the upper respiratory tract is the first site of contact by inhaled pathogens such as influenza virus. We show that this region is key to limiting viral spread to the lower respiratory tract and associated disease pathology. Immunization of the upper respiratory tract leads to the formation of local tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells (Trm cells). Unlike Trm cells in the lung, these cells develop independently of local cognate antigen recognition and transforming growth factor-β signaling and persist with minimal decay, representing a long-term protective population...
June 2, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780505/local-dornase-alfa-treatment-reduces-nets-induced-airway-obstruction-during-severe-rsv-infection
#15
Bart Cortjens, Rineke de Jong, Judith G Bonsing, Job B M van Woensel, Adriaan F G Antonis, Reinout A Bem
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is characterised by airway obstruction with mucus plugs, containing DNA networks in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). We investigated the effect of dornase alfa on histopathological NETs-induced airway obstruction and viral load in an age-relevant calf model of severe bovine RSV disease. As compared with the control animals, dornase alfa treatment resulted in a strong reduction of NETs-induced airway obstruction. Viral load in the lower respiratory tract was not different between the two groups...
August 5, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774885/prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharides-mitigate-the-adverse-effects-of-iron-fortification-on-the-gut-microbiome-a-randomised-controlled-study-in-kenyan-infants
#16
Daniela Paganini, Mary A Uyoga, Guus A M Kortman, Colin I Cercamondi, Diego Moretti, Tanja Barth-Jaeggi, Clarissa Schwab, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Christophe Lacroix, Simon Karanja, Michael B Zimmermann
OBJECTIVE: Iron-containing micronutrient powders (MNPs) reduce anaemia in African infants, but the current high iron dose (12.5 mg/day) may decrease gut Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae, and increase enteropathogens, diarrhoea and respiratory tract infections (RTIs). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new MNP formula with prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) combined with a low dose (5 mg/day) of highly bioavailable iron. DESIGN: In a 4-month, controlled, double-blind trial, we randomised Kenyan infants aged 6...
August 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768695/%C3%A2-strontium-ranelate-discontinued
#17
(no author information available yet)
▼ Strontium ranelate discontinued ● Limited treatment options for molluscum contagiosum ● Finasteride drug safety alert ● Does doxycycline delay the next COPD exacerbation? ● Support for WHO standards on reporting clinical trial results ● Delayed antibiotic prescription for lower respiratory tract infections ● Nystatin dose change - much ado about nothing?
August 2, 2017: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768694/delayed-antibiotic-prescription-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765656/-comparison-of-clinical-features-and-diagnosis-between-the-a-and-b-subgroups-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#19
N Viguria Sánchez, L Moreno-Galarraga, A Navascués Ortega, C Ezpeleta Baquedano, A González-Benavides, M Mendizabal Diez, E Bernaola Iturbe, J Castilla Catalán
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent cause of admission in children under 2 years old. The RSV subgroups A and B may circulate simultaneously. We aimed to determine whether clinical differences exist between RSV subgroups A and B. Additionally, we tested the sensitivity of the rapid antigen detection test (RADT) based on immunochromatography in diagnosing subgroups A and B, taking the polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) as reference...
July 28, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765137/childhood-respiratory-illness-presentation-and-service-utilisation-in-primary-care-a-six-year-cohort-study-in-wellington-new-zealand-using-natural-language-processing-nlp-software
#20
Anthony Dowell, Ben Darlow, Jayden Macrae, Maria Stubbe, Nikki Turner, Lynn McBain
OBJECTIVES: To identify childhood respiratory tract-related illness presentation rates and service utilisation in primary care by interrogating free text and coded data from electronic medical records. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Data interrogation used a natural language processing software inference algorithm. SETTING: 36 primary care practices in New Zealand. Data analysed from January 2008 to December 2013. PARTICIPANTS: The records from 77 582 children enrolled were reviewed over a 6-year period to estimate the presentation of childhood respiratory illness and service utilisation...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Open
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