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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350820/antibiotic-prescribing-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-lrti-guideline-adherence-in-the-german-primary-care-setting-an-analysis-of-routine-data
#1
Eva Maria Kraus, Steffen Pelzl, Joachim Szecsenyi, Gunter Laux
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic overprescribing in primary care has major impacts on the development of antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to provide insight in antibiotics prescriptions for patients suffering from cough, acute bronchitis or community acquired pneumonia in primary care. METHODS: Data from 2009 to 2013 of electronic health records of 12,880 patients in Germany were obtained from a research database. The prescription of antibiotics for acute lower respiratory tract infections was compared to the national S3 guideline cough from the German Society of General Practitioners and Family Medicine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339756/molecular-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-dogs
#2
Patrizia Danesi, Silvia Ravagnan, Lynelle R Johnson, Tommaso Furlanello, Adelaide Milani, Patricia Martin, Susan Boyd, Matthew Best, Bradley Galgut, Peter Irwin, Paul J Canfield, Mark B Krockenberger, Catriona Halliday, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening fungal disease that can occur in dogs. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary genetic characterisation of Pneumocystis carinii f.sp.'canis' (P. canis) in dogs and thereby develop a reliable molecular protocol to definitively diagnose canine PCP. We investigated P. canis in a variety of lung specimens from dogs with confirmed or strongly suspected PCP (Group 1, n = 16), dogs with non-PCP lower respiratory tract problems (Group 2, n = 65) and dogs not suspected of having PCP or other lower respiratory diseases (Group 3, n = 11)...
February 23, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337541/tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-therapy-induced-changes-in-humoral-immunity-in-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#3
Hanna L M Rajala, Mohamed El Missiry, Anniina Ruusila, Perttu Koskenvesa, Tim H Brümmendorf, Bjorn T Gjertsen, Jeroen Janssen, Kourosh Lotfi, Berit Markevärn, Ulla Olsson-Strömberg, Leif Stenke, Jesper Stentoft, Johan Richter, Henrik Hjorth-Hansen, Anna Kreutzman, Satu Mustjoki
PURPOSE: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have well-characterized immunomodulatory effects on T and NK cells, but the effects on the humoral immunity are less well known. In this project, we studied TKI-induced changes in B cell-mediated immunity. METHODS: We collected peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients before and during first-line imatinib (n = 20), dasatinib (n = 16), nilotinib (n = 8), and bosutinib (n = 12) treatment...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337189/elizabethkingia-anophelis-isolated-from-patients-with-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-and-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-report-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#4
Shaohua Hu, Tao Jiang, Xia Zhang, Yajun Zhou, Zhengjun Yi, Youxi Wang, Sishou Zhao, Mingxi Wang, Desong Ming, Shicheng Chen
Elizabethkingia anophelis, originally discovered from Anopheles mosquito gut, is an emerging pathogen, especially in immunocompromised patients. We isolated two strains of E. anophelis from two separate patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and lower respiratory tract infection. In this paper, we reviewed the status of E. anophelis infection and its antibiotics resistance from reported cases.
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337076/nebulized-gentamicin-as-an-alternative-to-nebulized-tobramycin-for-tracheitis-in-pediatric-patients
#5
Justin K Chen, Brittany L Martin-McNew, Lisa M Lubsch
OBJECTIVES: Tracheitis is an infection of the lower respiratory tract and is defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) based on signs and symptoms with no radiographic evidence of pneumonia. One method of treatment involves the use of tobramycin given by nebulizer. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of nebulized gentamicin with nebulized tobramycin. METHODS: This study was conducted in patients under 21 years of age who received greater than or equal to 1 day of gentamicin, 80 mg, or tobramycin, 300 mg, given twice a day by nebulization within the 14-month study period...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335547/genomic-loads-and-genotypes-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-viral-factors-during-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chilean-hospitalized-infants
#6
Yazmín Espinosa, Camila San Martín, Alejandro A Torres, Mauricio J Farfán, Juan P Torres, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Pedro A Piedra, Lorena I Tapia
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334949/mycoplasma-hominis-ureaplasma-urealyticum-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-respiratory-colonization-in-malaysian-preterm-infants
#7
Khuen Foong Ng, Kah Kee Tan, Mi-Chelle Chok, Nurul Zamil Mohd Muzzamil, Pauline Choo, Umathevi Paramasivam, Marlindawati Mohd Ali, Jun Yan Goh, Wan Ying Gan
This prospective observational study aims to determine the incidence, predictors and clinical features of Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) respiratory colonization in infants <37 weeks of gestation. A total of 200 preterm newborns admitted to a tertiary center in Malaysia between 2013 and 2015 for increased breathing effort had their respiratory secretions tested for these bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Fifteen of the 200 (7.5%) infants were detected to have these organisms in their respiratory tracts...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333409/missed-opportunities-for-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-pre-school-children-admitted-to-hospital-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#8
Tony Walls, Erika Stark, Philip Pattemore, Lance Jennings
AIM: To describe the usage of multiplex polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples in pre-school children presenting with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) at Christchurch Hospital, and its impact on the use of antibiotics empirically and at discharge. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 237 children, ages 3 months to 5 years, admitted to hospital during the winter months of 2012-2015 with a diagnosis of community-acquired LRTI...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331122/an-autopsy-case-report-of-adult-t-cell-leukemia-accompanied-by-rheumatoid-arthritis-mimicking-diffuse-panbronchiolitis
#9
Tomoko Shiraishi, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Kentaro Akata, Toshinori Kawanami, Kazuhiro Yatera, Hiroshi Mukae
A 50-year-old female with a history of chronic sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis visited our department with repetitive lower respiratory tract infections of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Her chest CT showed diffuse panbronchiolitis-like pulmonary lesions, her blood examination revealed atypical lymphocytes, and she was serologically positive for anti-human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibody. Her rheumatoid arthritis had been well-controlled after biological agent treatment followed by anti-inflammatory analgesic treatment...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331093/structural-characterization-of-hcov-nl63-n-protein
#10
Bozena Szelazek, Wojciech Kabala, Krzysztof Kus, Michal Zdzalik, Aleksandra Twarda-Clapa, Przemyslaw Golik, Michal Burmistrz, Dominik Florek, Benedykt Wladyka, Krzysztof Pyrc, Grzegorz Dubin
Coronaviruses are responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. It is estimated that 1-10% of the population suffers annually from cold-like symptoms related to infection with HCoV-NL63, an alphacoronavirus. The nucleocapsid (N) protein, the major structural component of the capsid, facilitates RNA packing, links the capsid to the envelope and is also involved in multiple other processes including viral replication and evasion of the immune system. Although the role of N protein in viral replication is relatively well described, no structural data are currently available regarding the N proteins of alphacoronaviruses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325579/burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-china-results-of-the-2015-point-prevalence-survey-in-dong-guan-city
#11
J Wang, J Hu, S Harbarth, D Pittet, M Zhou, W Zingg
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are a major health threat. There are few data about HCAI and antibiotic use in the People's Republic of China in the English literature. AIM: To describe and discuss the prevalence of HCAI and antibiotic use from the 2015 point prevalence survey (PPS) in Dong Guan City. METHODS: In 2015, the Dong Guan (City) Nosocomial Infection Control and Quality Improvement Centre organized its yearly PPS in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals of Dong Guan City...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303845/diagnostic-value-of-nasopharyngeal-aspirates-in-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#12
Ai-Zhen Lu, Peng Shi, Li-Bo Wang, Li-Ling Qian, Xiao-Bo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) specimens in detecting lower respiratory pathogens remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of aspirates (NPAs) specimen in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children. METHODS: The prospective study was designed to collect the data of paired NPAs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from children with acute LRTIs from January 2013 to December 2015...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302661/severe-co-trimoxazole-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-a-patient-with-microscopic-polyangiitis
#13
Thomas Edward Conley, Atif Mohiuddin, Noshaba Naz
A 69-year-old man presented to the emergency department with lower respiratory tract infection and febrile neutropaenia. He was recently discharged following a 50-day hospital stay with newly diagnosed microscopic polyangiitis, complicated by pulmonary haemorrhage and severe renal dysfunction requiring renal replacement therapy, plasma exchange and immunosuppression (cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone). High risk of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) led to an escalation in treatment from prophylactic to therapeutic oral co-trimoxazole, alongside broad-spectrum antibiotics...
March 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302206/-relationship-between-viral-load-of-human-bocavirus-and-clinical-characteristics-in-children-with-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#14
Xiao-Fang Ding, Bing Zhang, Li-Li Zhong, Le-Yun Xie, Ni-Guang Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of human bocavirus (HBoV) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection and to explore the relationship between the viral load of HBoV and the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. METHODS: A total of 1 554 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children who were hospitalized due to acute lower respiratory tract infection between March 2011 and March 2014 were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect 12 RNA and 2 DNA viruses, adenovirus (ADV) and HBoV, and to measure the viral load of HBoV in HBoV-positive children...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302089/leukoaraiosis-is-associated-with-pneumonia-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#15
Ki-Woong Nam, Hyung-Min Kwon, Jae-Sung Lim, Yong-Seok Lee
BACKGROUND: Stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is common in patients with acute ischemic stroke, and several risk factors have been reported. However, the relationship between underlying leukoaraiosis (LA) and SAP has not been addressed. METHODS: We collected consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke within 24 h of symptom onset. SAP was defined as the lower respiratory tract infection within the first 7 days after stroke onset, according to the modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria...
March 16, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302021/cytokines-induced-during-influenza-virus-infection
#16
Tatiana Betáková, Anna Kostrabova, Veronika Lachova, Lucia Turianova
Influenza A virus is one of the major human pathogens. The influenza infection can pass out without any subclinical symptoms or infestation can appear in upper respiratory tract as well as in lower respiratory tract where it can result in lethal outcome. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are activated shortly after infection providing protection against infection. Many activities of the cells of innate and adaptive immunity are coordinated by cytokines. However, inordinate or disbalanced immune response may result in overproduction of cytokines as well as chemokines what can lead to severe inflammation, including excessive recruitment of neutrophils and mononuclear cells at the site of infection...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301570/human-metapnuemovirus-infections-in-hospitalized-children-and-comparison-with-other-respiratory-viruses-2005-2014-prospective-study
#17
María Luz García-García, Cristina Calvo, Cristina Rey, Beatriz Díaz, Maria Del Mar Molinero, Francisco Pozo, Inmaculada Casas
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. Our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of HMPV to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of HMPV single and multiple infections, and to compare HMPV infections with respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), rhinovirus (HRV), adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298903/apoptosis-toll-like-rig-i-like-and-nod-like-receptors-are-pathways-jointly-induced-by-diverse-respiratory-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens
#18
Isidoro Martínez, Juan C Oliveros, Isabel Cuesta, Jorge de la Barrera, Vicente Ausina, Cristina Casals, Alba de Lorenzo, Ernesto García, Belén García-Fojeda, Junkal Garmendia, Mar González-Nicolau, Alicia Lacoma, Margarita Menéndez, David Moranta, Amelia Nieto, Juan Ortín, Alicia Pérez-González, Cristina Prat, Elisa Ramos-Sevillano, Verónica Regueiro, Ariel Rodriguez-Frandsen, Dolores Solís, José Yuste, José A Bengoechea, José A Melero
Lower respiratory tract infections are among the top five leading causes of human death. Fighting these infections is therefore a world health priority. Searching for induced alterations in host gene expression shared by several relevant respiratory pathogens represents an alternative to identify new targets for wide-range host-oriented therapeutics. With this aim, alveolar macrophages were independently infected with three unrelated bacterial (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus) and two dissimilar viral (respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus) respiratory pathogens, all of them highly relevant for human health...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298602/a-single-dose-recombinant-piv5-expressing-respiratory-syncytial-virus-f-and-g-proteins-protected-cotton-rats-and-african-green-monkeys-from-rsv-challenge
#19
Dai Wang, Shannon Phan, Daniel J DiStefano, Michael P Citron, Cheryl L Callahan, Lani Indrawati, Sheri A Dubey, Gwendolyn J Heidecker, Dhanasekaran Govindarajan, Xiaoping Liang, Biao He, Amy S Espeseth
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of severe respiratory disease among infants, immunocompromised individuals and the elderly. No licensed vaccine is currently available. In this study, we evaluated two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored vaccines expressing RSV F (PIV5/F) or G (PIV5/G) proteins in the cotton rat and African green monkey models for their replication, immunogenicity and efficacy of protection against RSV challenge. Following a single intranasal inoculation, both animal species shed the vaccine viruses for a limited time but without noticeable clinical symptoms...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298366/antibiotics-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-a-mixed-methods-study-of-patient-experiences-of-non-medical-prescriber-management
#20
Molly Courtenay, Samantha Rowbotham, Rosemary Lim, Rhian Deslandes, Karen Hodson, Katie MacLure, Sarah Peters, Derek Stewart
OBJECTIVE: To (1) explore patients' expectations and experiences of nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescriber-led management of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (2) examine whether patient expectations for antibiotics affect the likelihood of receiving them and (3) understand factors influencing patient satisfaction with RTI consultations. DESIGN: Mixed methods. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Questionnaires from 120 patients and follow-up interviews with 22 patients and 16 nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescribers (NMPs)...
March 15, 2017: BMJ Open
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