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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728745/early-readmissions-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#1
Chun Shing Kwok, Chun Wai Wong, Hannah Shufflebotham, Luke Brindley, Tamseel Fatima, Adrian Shufflebotham, Diane Barker, Ashish Pawala, Grant Heatlie, Mamas A Mamas
This study aims to evaluate the rate, predictors, and causes of 30-day readmissions in a single tertiary hospital in the United Kingdom. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients admitted between 2012 and 2014 with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, who were in the Myocardial Infarction National Audit Project register. Data on patient demographics, comorbidities, care received, and in-hospital mortality were collected. Rates of 30-day readmission and causes of readmission were evaluated. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of all-cause, cardiac, and noncardiac readmission...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726613/human-metapneumovirus-and-other-respiratory-viral-infections-during-pregnancy-and-birth-nepal
#2
Jennifer L Lenahan, Janet A Englund, Joanne Katz, Jane Kuypers, Anna Wald, Amalia Magaret, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Stephen C LeClerq, Laxman Shrestha, Mark C Steinhoff, Helen Y Chu
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a respiratory virus that can cause severe lower respiratory tract disease and even death, primarily in young children. The incidence and characteristics of HMPV have not been well described in pregnant women. As part of a trial of maternal influenza immunization in rural southern Nepal, we conducted prospective, longitudinal, home-based active surveillance for febrile respiratory illness during pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. During 2011-2014, HMPV was detected in 55 of 3,693 women (16...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719504/severe-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-caused-by-human-bocavirus-1-in-an-infant
#3
Vesa Eskola, Man Xu, Maria Söderlund-Venermo
We report a case of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) bronchiolitis that led to life-threatening respiratory failure in a 9-month-old boy with no other pathogens detected. The virus-specific diagnosis was confirmed with the detection of HBoV1 DNA in respiratory samples and both DNA and immunoglobulins M and G to HBoV1 in serum samples.
July 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718488/infectious-disease-morbidity-and-growth-among-young-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-jamaica
#4
Russell B Pierre, Toni-Anne Fulford, Kaye Lewis, Paulette Palmer, Christine Walters, Celia D C Christie
Objective: There is a growing body of data that demonstrates increased infectious disease outcomes for HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants as compared to their HIV-unexposed (HU) counterparts. We hypothesized that these HIV-EU infants are at greater risk for infectious morbidity and mortality when compared to the general childhood population. We therefore aimed to characterize infections and growth outcomes among HIV-EU infants in Jamaica during their first two years of life. By identifying these outcomes, specific interventions could be implemented to mitigate this risk of morbidity and mortality...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718264/malignant-infantile-osteopetrosis
#5
Saima Gillani, Zaheer Abbas
Two main forms of osteopetrosis are recognized, a severe autosomal recessive form (MIM 259700) with an incidence of approximately 1 in 250,000 births and a mild autosomal dominant form (MIM166600) with an incidence of 1 in 20,000 births. Intrinsic disturbances of osteoclastic function due to mutations in genes encoding osteoclast-specific subunits of the vacuolar proton pump (TCIRG1, CLCN7) are found in most patients with recessive form. Mutations of CLCN7 are observed in dominant form of osteopetrosis .The recessive form of ostreopetrosis, i...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716451/multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#6
Trang D Trinh, Evan J Zasowski, Kimberly C Claeys, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Shravya Kidambi, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is a risk for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but factors specific to critically ill pneumonia patients are not fully characterized. Objective was to determine risk factors associated with MDR P. aeruginosa pneumonia among ICU patients. This was a retrospective case-control study of P. aeruginosa pneumonia in the ICU; cystic fibrosis and colonizers were excluded. Risk factors included comorbid conditions and prior healthcare exposure (anti-pseudomonal antibiotics, hospitalizations, nursing home, P...
June 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712673/extract-critical-factors-affecting-the-length-of-hospital-stay-of-pneumonia-patient-by-data-mining-case-study-an-iranian-hospital
#7
Naghmeh Khajehali, Somayeh Alizadeh
MOTIVATION: Pneumonia is a prevalent infection of lower respiratory tract caused by infected lungs. Length of stay (LOS) in hospital is one of the simplest and most important indicators in hospital activity that is used for different purposes. The aim of this study is to explore the important factors affecting the LOS of patients with pneumonia in hospitals. METHODS: The clinical data set for the study were collected from 387 patients in a specialized hospital in Iran between 2009 and 2015...
July 13, 2017: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712517/comparison-of-oropharyngeal-and-nasopharyngeal-swab-specimens-for-the-detection-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-children-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#8
Fujio Kakuya, Takahiro Kinebuchi, Hitoshi Okubo, Kumihiro Matsuo
The oropharyngeal swab specimen was superior to the nasopharyngeal swab specimen for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with lower respiratory tract infection. The oropharyngeal loop-mediated isothermal amplification had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with polymerase chain reaction testing, whereas the oropharyngeal rapid antigen detection test using immunochromatographic assay had relatively low sensitivity (66%) and reasonable specificity (90.7%).
July 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711959/a-multicentre-study-on-the-efficacy-safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-iqymune%C3%A2-a-highly-purified-10-liquid-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-patients-with-primary-immune-deficiency
#9
Gergely Krivan, Ludmila Chernyshova, Larysa Kostyuchenko, Andrzej Lange, Zoltan Nyul, Beata Derfalvi, Jacek Musial, Anne Bellon, Martin Kappler, Alain Sadoun, Ewa Bernatowska
This multicentre, open-label, prospective, single-arm study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety of IqYmune®, a highly purified 10% polyvalent immunoglobulin preparation for intravenous administration in patients with primary immunodeficiency. IqYmune® was administered to 62 patients (aged 2-61 years) with X-linked agammaglobulinemia or common variable immune deficiency at a dose from 0.22 to 0.97 g/kg every 3 to 4 weeks for 12 months with an infusion rate up to 8 mL/kg/h...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710699/examining-early-childhood-health-outcomes-of-children-born-late-preterm-in-urban-manitoba
#10
Leah K Crockett, Marni D Brownell, Maureen I Heaman, Chelsea A Ruth, Heather J Prior
Objective The late preterm population [34-36 weeks gestational age (GA)] is known to incur increased morbidity in the infancy stage compared to the population born at term (39-41 weeks GA). This study aimed to examine the health of these children during their early childhood years, with specific attention to the role of socioeconomic status. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, including all live-born children born at 34-36 and 39-41 weeks GA in urban Manitoba between 2000 and 2005 (n = 28,100)...
July 14, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709160/effectiveness-of-palivizumab-in-high-risk-infants-and-children-a-propensity-score-weighted-regression-analysis
#11
Evan J Anderson, Phyllis Carosone-Link, Ram Yogev, Jumi Yi, Eric A F Simões
BACKGROUND: Infants with premature birth ≤35 weeks gestational age, chronic lung disease of prematurity and congenital heart disease are at an increased risk for lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalization from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which has been shown in randomized trials to be prevented by palivizumab. However, palivizumab effectiveness (PE) has not been studied in a large clinical setting. METHODS: A multicenter study among high-risk US and Canadian children younger than 24 months hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection and whose nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and RSV were the subjects of the trial...
August 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708872/nasopharyngeal-microbiota-in-infants-and-changes-during-viral-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-and-acute-otitis-media
#12
Tasnee Chonmaitree, Kristofer Jennings, Georgiy Golovko, Kamil Khanipov, Maria Pimenova, Janak A Patel, David P McCormick, Michael J Loeffelholz, Yuriy Fofanov
BACKGROUND: Interferences between pathogenic bacteria and specific commensals are known. We determined the interactions between nasopharyngeal microbial pathogens and commensals during viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and acute otitis media (AOM) in infants. METHODS: We analyzed 971 specimens collected monthly and during URI and AOM episodes from 139 infants. The 16S rRNA V4 gene regions were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. RESULTS: Among the high abundant genus-level nasopharyngeal microbiota were Moraxella, Haemophilus, and Streptococcus (3 otopathogen genera), Corynebacterium, Dolosigranulum, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bifidobacterium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708843/prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-among-adults-by-season-age-respiratory-tract-region-and-type-of-medical-unit-in-paris-france-from-2011-to-2016
#13
Benoit Visseaux, Charles Burdet, Guillaume Voiriot, François-Xavier Lescure, Taous Chougar, Olivier Brugière, Bruno Crestani, Enrique Casalino, Charlotte Charpentier, Diane Descamps, Jean-François Timsit, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Nadhira Houhou-Fidouh
BACKGROUND: Multiplex PCR tests have improved our understanding of respiratory viruses' epidemiology by allowing their wide range detection. We describe here the burden of these viruses in hospital settings over a five-year period. METHODS: All respiratory samples from adult patients (>20 years old) tested by multiplex-PCR at the request of physicians, from May 1 2011 to April 30 2016, were included retrospectively. Viral findings are reported by season, patient age group, respiratory tract region (upper or lower) and type of clinical unit (intensive care unit, pneumology unit, lung transplantation unit and other medical units)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708417/association-of-antibiotics-airway-microbiome-and-inflammation-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Jessica E Pittman, Kristine M Wylie, Kathryn Akers, Gregory A Storch, Joseph Hatch, Jane Quante, Katherine B Frayman, Nadeene Clarke, Miriam Davis, Stephen M Stick, Graham L Hall, Gregory Montgomery, Sarath Ranganathan, Stephanie D Davis, Thomas W Ferkol
RATIONALE: The underlying defect in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway leads to defective mucociliary clearance and impaired bacterial killing, resulting in endobronchial infection and inflammation that contributes to progressive lung disease. Little is known about the respiratory microbiota in the early CF airway and its relationship to inflammation. OBJECTIVES: To examine the bacterial microbiota and inflammatory profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and oropharyngeal secretions in infants with CF...
July 14, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708049/identification-of-two-novel-functional-trna-derived-fragments-induced-in-response-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#15
Jiehua Zhou, Shenxuan Liu, Yu Chen, Yu Fu, Alexander J Silver, Mark S Hill, Inhan Lee, Yong Sun Lee, Xiaoyong Bao
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children from infancy up to early childhood. Recently, we demonstrated that RSV infection alters cellular small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) expression, most notably the tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs). However, the functions of the tRFs in virus-host interaction are largely unknown. Herein, we examined the role of three RSV-induced tRFs derived from the 5-end of mature tRNAs decoding GlyCCC, LysCTT and CysGCA (named tRF5-GlyCCC, tRF5-LysCTT and tRF5-CysGCA, respectively) in controlling RSV replication...
July 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705666/in-vitro-activity-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-recovered-from-hospitalized-patients-in-germany
#16
Harald Seifert, Barbara Körber-Irrgang, Michael Kresken
To evaluate the activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam in comparison with other broad-spectrum antimicrobials against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae, 497 non-duplicate P. aeruginosa and 802 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates were consecutively collected during the period from September 2014 to April 2015 from patients in Germany with bloodstream, lower respiratory tract, intraabdominal or urinary tract infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution. Results were interpreted according to EUCAST criteria...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705174/extensive-colorectal-lymphomatous-polyposis-complicated-by-acute-intestinal-obstruction-a-case-report
#17
Jaques Waisberg, Amanda do Val Anderi, Pedro Augusto Soffner Cardoso, José Henrique Miranda Borducchi, Demetrius Eduardo Germini, Maria Isete Fares Franco, Cidia Vasconcellos
BACKGROUND: Multiple lymphomatous polyposis is a rare type of gastrointestinal lymphoma that extensively infiltrates the intestine. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis originates from the mantle zone of the lymphoma follicle and is considered to be a mantle cell lymphoma, which is a relatively aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report an unusual case of a patient with multiple lymphomatous polyposis with extensive colorectal involvement and acute intestinal obstruction, an atypical complication of this rare disease...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702311/the-evidence-for-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-as-a-causative-agent-of-childhood-pneumonia
#18
EDITORIAL
Mary P E Slack
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was a major cause of bacterial pneumonia in children prior to the introduction of Hib-conjugate vaccines. The widespread use of Hib-conjugate vaccines has resulted in a significant decline in the number of cases of invasive Hib disease, including bacteraemic pneumonia, in areas where the vaccine has been implemented. In many countries, non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHI) is now the most common cause of invasive haemophilus infection in all ages. NTHI are a recognized cause of bacteraemic and non-bacteraemic pneumonia in children and in adults...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701524/nanoparticles-increase-human-bronchial-epithelial-cell-susceptibility-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-via-nerve-growth-factor-induced-autophagy
#19
Sreeparna Chakraborty, Vincent Castranova, Miriam K Perez, Giovanni Piedimonte
Cytotoxic and neuroinflammatory effects of TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) in human airways are mediated by nerve growth factor (NGF), which is also implicated in the pathophysiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to TiO2-NP results in increased susceptibility to RSV infection and exacerbation of airway inflammation via NGF-mediated induction of autophagy in lower respiratory tract cells. Human primary bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to TiO2-NP for 24 h prior to infection with recombinant red RSV (rrRSV)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700964/clinical-and-laboratory-predictors-of-infectious-complications-in-patients-after-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#20
Josef Kroupa, Jiri Knot, Jaroslav Ulman, Frantisek Bednar, Alena Dohnalova, Zuzana Motovska
PURPOSE: Identification of clinical and laboratory predictors related to Infectious Complications (ICs) in patients after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA). METHODS: Patients, aged >18, after an OHCA between 9/2013 and 11/2015, surviving >24h, were studied. RESULTS: Study group consisted of 42 patients (mean age 63.4years, 88.1% men). Forty percent of patients had IC; lower respiratory tract infections were most common (87.5% of cases)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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