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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430987/rab32-subfamily-small-gtpases-pleiotropic-rabs-in-endosomal-trafficking
#1
Norihiko Ohbayashi, Mitsunori Fukuda, Yasunori Kanaho
Rab small GTPases, well-known regulators of membrane trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, comprise approximately 60 different members in mammals. During the past decade, our understanding of the functions of mammalian Rab32 subfamily members (Rab32 and Rab38) have deepened, especially on the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, such as melanosomes, and the protection mechanisms against several pathogenic microbial infections. Endosome-mediated membrane trafficking by Rab32 subfamily members plays pivotal roles in these events...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428486/antioxidative-protection-of-squalene-adjuvant-and-rabies-vaccine-with-adjuvant
#2
Anna Ondrejková, Judit Süli, Jarmila Harvanová, Róbert Ondrejka, Marián Prokeš
The authors verified the possibility of antioxidative protection of squalene adjuvant emulsions by the antioxidants α-tocopherol and β-carotene. They determined the influence of β-carotene on the stability and antigenic effectiveness of adjuvant emulsion in combination with rabies vaccine.The composition of the adjuvant emulsions or vaccines was: 2.5% squalene; 6% detergents; 0.5% antioxidant; 91% water phase. The oxidative injury after UV-irradiation was followed by the detection of the peroxide value of the emulsions...
April 19, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426288/post-translational-modifications-of-rab-gtpases
#3
Swapnil Rohidas Shinde, Subbareddy Maddika
Rab GTPases, the highly conserved members of Ras GTPase superfamily are central players in the vesicular trafficking. They are critically involved in intracellular trafficking pathway, beginning from formation of vesicles on donor membranes, defining trafficking specificity to facilitating vesicle docking on target membranes. Given the dynamic roles of Rabs during different stages of vesicular trafficking, mechanisms for their spatial and temporal regulation are crucial for normal cellular function. Regulation of Rab GTPase activity, localization and function has always been focused in and around the association of GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI), Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEFs) and GTPase accelerating protein (GAP) to Rabs...
February 28, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424218/gop-1-promotes-apoptotic-cell-degradation-by-activating-the-small-gtpase-rab2-in-c-elegans
#4
Jianhua Yin, Yaling Huang, Pengfei Guo, Siqi Hu, Sawako Yoshina, Nan Xuan, Qiwen Gan, Shohei Mitani, Chonglin Yang, Xiaochen Wang
Apoptotic cells generated by programmed cell death are engulfed by phagocytes and enclosed within plasma membrane-derived phagosomes. Maturation of phagosomes involves a series of membrane-remodeling events that are governed by the sequential actions of Rab GTPases and lead to formation of phagolysosomes, where cell corpses are degraded. Here we identified gop-1 as a novel regulator of apoptotic cell clearance in Caenorhabditis elegans Loss of gop-1 affects phagosome maturation through the RAB-5-positive stage, causing defects in phagosome acidification and phagolysosome formation, phenotypes identical to and unaffected by loss of unc-108, the C...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418761/economic-evaluation-of-a-hospital-based-palliative-care-program
#5
Sarina R Isenberg, Chunhua Lu, John McQuade, Rab Razzak, Brian W Weir, Natasha Gill, Thomas J Smith, David R Holtgrave
PURPOSE: Establish costs of an inpatient palliative care unit (PCU) and conduct a threshold analysis to estimate the maximum possible costs for the PCU to be considered cost effective. METHODS: We used a hospital perspective to determine costs on the basis of claims from administrative data from Johns Hopkins PCU between March 2013 and March 2014. Using existing literature, we estimated the number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) that the PCU could generate...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416006/leishmania-major-large-rab-gtpase-is-highly-immunogenic-in-individuals-immune-to-cutaneous-and-visceral-leishmaniasis
#6
Rym Chamakh-Ayari, Mehdi Chenik, Ahmed Sahbi Chakroun, Narges Bahi-Jaber, Karim Aoun, Amel Meddeb-Garnaoui
BACKGROUND: We previously identified a Leishmania (L.) major large RAB GTPase (LmlRAB), a new atypical RAB GTPase protein. It is highly conserved in Leishmania species while displaying low level of homology with mammalian homologues. Leishmania small RAB GTPases proteins have been involved in regulation of exocytic and endocytic pathways whereas the role of large RAB GTPases proteins has not been characterized yet. We report here the immunogenicity of both recombinant rLmlRAB and rLmlRABC, in individuals with immunity against L...
April 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415865/-placental-gene-activity-of-significant-angiogenetic-factors-in-the-background-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#7
Péter Kovács, Attila Rab, Imre Szentpéteri, József Gábor Joó, László Kornya
Placental vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene and endoglin gene are both overexpressed in placental samples obtained from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction compared to normal pregnancies. In the background of these changes a mechanism can be supposed, in which the increased endoglin activity in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to impaired placental circulation through an antioangiogenetic effect. This results in the development of placental vascular dysfunction and chronic fetal hypoxia...
April 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415719/endosomal-sorting-and-c-cbl-targeting-of-paxillin-to-autophagosomes-regulate-cell-matrix-adhesion-turnover-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#8
Chia-Hao Chang, Krikor Bijian, Dinghong Qiu, Jie Su, Amine Saad, Michael S Dahabieh, Wilson H Miller, Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali
Post-translational mechanisms regulating cell-matrix adhesion turnover during cell locomotion are not fully elucidated. In this study, we uncovered an essential role of Y118 site-specific tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin, an adapter protein of focal adhesion complexes, in paxillin recruitment to autophagosomes to trigger turnover of peripheral focal adhesions in human breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that the Rab-7 GTPase is a key upstream regulator of late endosomal sorting of tyrosine118-phosphorylated paxillin, which is subsequently recruited to autophagosomes via the cargo receptor c-Cbl...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409843/reproducibility-of-quantitative-high-throughput-bi-rads-features-extracted-from-ultrasound-images-of-breast-cancer
#9
Yuzhou Hu, Mengyun Qiao, Yi Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Jinhua Yu, Jiawei Li, Cai Chang
PURPOSE: Digital Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) features extracted from ultrasound images are essential in computer-aided diagnosis, prediction, and prognosis of breast cancer. This study focuses on the reproducibility of quantitative high-throughput BI-RADS features in the presence of variations due to different segmentation results, various ultrasound machine models, and multiple ultrasound machine settings. METHODS: Data set 1 consists of 399 patients with invasive breast cancer and is used as the training set to measure the reproducibility of features, while data set 2 consists of 138 other patients and is a validation set used to evaluate the diagnosis performances of the final reproducible features...
April 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409271/unique-presentation-of-cutis-laxa-with-leigh-like-syndrome-due-to-echs1-deficiency
#10
S Balasubramaniam, L G Riley, D Bratkovic, D Ketteridge, N Manton, M J Cowley, V Gayevskiy, T Roscioli, M Mohamed, T Gardeitchik, E Morava, J Christodoulou
Clinical finding of cutis laxa, characterized by wrinkled, redundant, sagging, nonelastic skin, is of growing significance due to its occurrence in several different inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Metabolic cutis laxa results from Menkes syndrome, caused by a defect in the ATPase copper transporting alpha (ATP7A) gene; congenital disorders of glycosylation due to mutations in subunit 7 of the component of oligomeric Golgi (COG7)-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) complex; combined disorder of N- and O-linked glycosylation, due to mutations in ATPase H+ transporting V0 subunit a2 (ATP6VOA2) gene; pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 deficiency; pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase deficiency; macrocephaly, alopecia, cutis laxa, and scoliosis (MACS) syndrome, due to Ras and Rab interactor 2 (RIN2) mutations; transaldolase deficiency caused by mutations in the transaldolase 1 (TALDO1) gene; Gerodermia osteodysplastica due to mutations in the golgin, RAB6-interacting (GORAB or SCYL1BP1) gene; and mitogen-activated pathway (MAP) kinase defects, caused by mutations in several genes [protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor-type 11 (PTPN11), RAF, NF, HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase (HRAS), B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF), MEK1/2, KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (KRAS), SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (SOS2), leucine rich repeat scaffold protein (SHOC2), NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (NRAS), and Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (RAF1)], which regulate the Ras-MAPK cascade...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400718/rab-gtpases-the-key-players-in-the-molecular-pathway-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Meng-Meng Shi, Chang-He Shi, Yu-Ming Xu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder with multiple non-motor symptoms. Although family genetic mutations only account for a small proportion of the cases, these mutations have provided several lines of evidence for the pathogenesis of PD, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, protein misfolding and aggregation, and the impaired autophagy-lysosome system. Recently, vesicle trafficking defect has emerged as a potential pathogenesis underlying this disease. Rab GTPases, serving as the core regulators of cellular membrane dynamics, may play an important role in the molecular pathway of PD through the complex interplay with numerous factors and PD-related genes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396820/a-plasmid-library-of-full-length-zebrafish-rab-proteins-for-in-vivo-cell-biology
#12
REVIEW
Thomas E Hall, Nick Martel, Harriet P Lo, Zherui Xiong, Robert G Parton
The zebrafish is an emerging model for highly sophisticated medium-throughput experiments such as genetic and chemical screens. However, studies of entire protein families within this context are often hampered by poor genetic resources such as clone libraries. Here we describe a complete collection of 76 full-length open reading frame clones for the zebrafish rab protein family. While the mouse genome contains 60 rab genes and the human genome 63, we find that 18 zebrafish rab genes have 2, and in the case of rab38, 3 paralogues...
2017: Cellular Logistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396666/dynamic-changes-in-the-intracellular-association-of-selected-rab-small-gtpases-with-mhc-class-ii-and-dm-during-dendritic-cell-maturation
#13
Gibrán Pérez-Montesinos, Orestes López-Ortega, Jessica Piedra-Reyes, Laura C Bonifaz, José Moreno
Antigen processing for presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules requires the latter to travel through the endocytic pathway together with its chaperons: the invariant chain (Ii) and DM. Nevertheless, the nature of the compartments where MHCII molecules travel to acquire peptides lacks definition regarding molecules involved in intracellular vesicular trafficking, such as Rab small GTPases. We aimed to define which Rab proteins are present during the intracellular transport of MHCII, DM, and Ii through the endocytic pathway on their route to the cell surface during dendritic cell (DC) maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394692/exploring-the-iceberg-prospects-of-coordinated-myosin-v-and-actin-assembly-functions-in-transport-processes
#14
Tobias Welz, Eugen Kerkhoff
Spir actin nucleators and myosin V motor proteins were recently discovered to coexist in a protein complex. The direct interaction allows the coordinated activation of actin motor proteins and actin filament track generation at vesicle membranes. By now the cooperation of myosin V (MyoV) motors and Spir actin nucleation function has only been shown in the exocytic transport of Rab11 vesicles in metaphase mouse oocytes. Next to Rab11, myosin V motors however interact with a variety of Rab GTPases including Rab3, Rab8 and Rab10...
April 10, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390930/targeting-rabs-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-cancer-therapy
#15
Xiaoyu Qin, Jiongyi Wang, Xinxin Wang, Feng Liu, Bin Jiang, Yanjie Zhang
Rab GTPases constitute the largest family of small GTPases. Rabs regulate not only membrane trafficking but also cell signaling, growth and survival, and development. Increasingly, Rabs and their effectors are shown to be overexpressed or subject to loss-of-function mutations in a variety of disease settings, including cancer progression. This review provides an overview of dysregulated Rab proteins in cancer, and highlights the signaling and secretory pathways in which they operate, with the aim of identifying potential avenues for therapeutic intervention...
April 5, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390678/effect-of-renin-angiotensin-blockers-on-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-severe-aortic-stenosis
#16
Serene Si-Ning Goh, Ching-Hui Sia, Nicholas Jinghao Ngiam, Benjamin Yong-Qiang Tan, Poay Sian Lee, Edgar Lik-Wui Tay, William Kok-Fai Kong, Tiong Cheng Yeo, Kian-Keong Poh
Studies have shown that medical therapy with renin-angiotensin blockers (RABs) may benefit patients with aortic stenosis (AS). However, its use and efficacy remains controversial, including in patients with low flow (LF) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We examined the effects of RAB use on LV remodeling in patients with severe AS with preserved LVEF, analyzing the differential effects in patients with LF compared with normal flow (NF). This is a retrospective study of 428 consecutive subjects from 2005 to 2014 with echocardiographic diagnosis of severe AS and preserved LVEF...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386020/evolution-of-the-endomembrane-systems-of-trypanosomatids-conservation-and-specialisation
#17
Divya Venkatesh, Cordula Boehm, Lael D Barlow, Nerissa N Nankissoor, Amanda O'Reilly, Steven Kelly, Joel B Dacks, Mark C Field
Parasite surfaces support multiple functions required for survival within their hosts, and maintenance and functionality of the surface depends on membrane trafficking. To understand the evolutionary history of trypanosomatid trafficking, where multiple lifestyles and mechanisms of host interactions are known, we examined protein families central to defining intracellular compartments and mediating transport, namely Rabs, SNAREs and RabGAPs, across all available Euglenozoa genomes. Bodonids possess a large trafficking repertoire, which is mainly retained by the Trypanosoma cruzi group, with extensive losses in other lineages, particularly African trypanosomes and phytomonads...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384198/tbc1d12-is-a-novel-rab11-binding-protein-that-modulates-neurite-outgrowth-of-pc12-cells
#18
Mai E Oguchi, Kenta Noguchi, Mitsunori Fukuda
Recycling endosomes are generally thought to play a central role in endocytic recycling, but recent evidence has indicated that they also participate in other cellular events, including cytokinesis, autophagy, and neurite outgrowth. Rab small GTPases are key regulators in membrane trafficking, and although several Rab isoforms, e.g., Rab11, have been shown to regulate recycling endosomal trafficking, the precise mechanism by which these Rabs regulate recycling endosomes is not fully understood. In this study, we focused on a Rab-GTPase-activating protein (Rab-GAP), one of the key regulators of Rabs, and comprehensively screened 43 mammalian Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC)/Rab-GAP-domain-containing proteins (TBC proteins) for proteins that specifically localize on recycling endosomes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378891/disruption-of-actin-motor-function-due-to-momyo5-mutation-impairs-host-penetration-and-pathogenicity-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#19
Wei Tang, Chuyun Gao, Jingzhen Wang, Ziyi Yin, Jinlong Zhang, Jun Ji, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang, Ping Wang
Actin motor myosin proteins are driving forces behind active transport of vesicles, and more than 20 classes of myosin were found to contribute to a wide range of cellular processes, including endocytosis and exocytosis, autophagy, cytokinesis, and actin cytoskeleton. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, class V myosin Myo2 (ScMyo2p) is important for the transport of distinct sets of cargo to regions of the cell along the cytoskeleton for polarized growth. To study whether myosins play a role in the infectious structure appressorium formation or function of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we identified MoMyo5 as an ortholog of ScMyo2p and characterized its function...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377289/golgi-trafficking-defects-in-postnatal-microcephaly-the-evidence-for-golgipathies
#20
REVIEW
Sandrine Passemard, Franck Perez, Emilie Colin-Lemesre, Sowmyalakshmi Rasika, Pierre Gressens, Vincent El Ghouzzi
The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in cell homeostasis, not only in processing and maturing newly synthesized proteins and lipids but also in orchestrating their sorting, packing, routing and recycling on the way to their final destination. These multiple secretory pathways require a complex ballet of vesicular and tubular carriers that continuously bud off from donor membranes and fuse to acceptor membranes. Membrane trafficking is particularly prominent in axons, where cargo molecules have a long way to travel before they reach the synapse, and in oligodendrocytes, which require an immense increase in membrane surface in order to sheathe axons in myelin...
April 1, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
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