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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452030/comparative-phylogenetic-and-expression-analysis-of-small-gtpases-families-in-legume-and-non-legume-plants
#1
Ana Claudia Flores, Virginia Dalla Via, Virginia Savy, Ulises Mancini Villagra, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Blanco
BACKGROUND: Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair...
February 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445151/the-vesicle-trafficking-regulator-pn_scd1-is-demethylated-and-overexpressed-in-florets-of-apomictic-paspalum-notatum-genotypes
#2
Marika Bocchini, Giulio Galla, Fulvio Pupilli, Michele Bellucci, Gianni Barcaccia, Juan Pablo A Ortiz, Silvina C Pessino, Emidio Albertini
Apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) is considered a deviation of the sexual reproductive pathway leading to the development of clonal progenies genetically identical to the mother plant. Here we used the Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP) technique to characterize cytosine methylation patterns occurring in florets of sexual and aposporous Paspalum notatum genotypes, in order to identify epigenetically-controlled genes putatively involved in apomixis development. From twelve polymorphic MSAP-derived sequences, one (PN_6...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444302/rab-gtpases-in-the-basal-land-plant-marchantia-polymorpha
#3
Naoki Minamino, Takehiko Kanazawa, Atsuko Era, Kazuo Ebine, Akihiko Nakano, Takashi Ueda
The RAB GTPase is an evolutionarily conserved machinery component of membrane trafficking, which is the fundamental system for cell viability and higher-order biological functions. The composition of RAB GTPases in each organism is closely related to the complexity and organization of the membrane-trafficking pathway, which has been developed uniquely to realize the organism-specific membrane trafficking system. Comparative genomics has suggested that terrestrialization and/or multicellularization were associated with the expansion of membrane trafficking pathways in green plants, which has yet to be validated in basal land plant lineages...
February 10, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439717/dysregulated-phosphorylation-of-rab-gtpases-by-lrrk2-induces-neurodegeneration
#4
Ga Ram Jeong, Eun-Hae Jang, Jae Ryul Bae, Soyoung Jun, Ho Chul Kang, Chi-Hu Park, Joo-Ho Shin, Yukio Yamamoto, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Eun-Mi Hur, Byoung Dae Lee
BACKGROUND: Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Elevated kinase activity is associated with LRRK2 toxicity, but the substrates that mediate neurodegeneration remain poorly defined. Given the increasing evidence suggesting a role of LRRK2 in membrane and vesicle trafficking, here we systemically screened Rab GTPases, core regulators of vesicular dynamics, as potential substrates of LRRK2 and investigated the functional consequence of such phosphorylation in cells and in vivo...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438697/ezh2-and-runx1-mutations-collaborate-to-initiate-lympho-myeloid-leukemia-in-early-thymic-progenitors
#5
Christopher A G Booth, Nikolaos Barkas, Wen Hao Neo, Hanane Boukarabila, Elizabeth J Soilleux, George Giotopoulos, Noushin Farnoud, Alice Giustacchini, Neil Ashley, Joana Carrelha, Lauren Jamieson, Deborah Atkinson, Tiphaine Bouriez-Jones, Rab K Prinjha, Thomas A Milne, David T Teachey, Elli Papaemmanuil, Brian J P Huntly, Sten Eirik W Jacobsen, Adam J Mead
Lympho-myeloid restricted early thymic progenitors (ETPs) are postulated to be the cell of origin for ETP leukemias, a therapy-resistant leukemia associated with frequent co-occurrence of EZH2 and RUNX1 inactivating mutations, and constitutively activating signaling pathway mutations. In a mouse model, we demonstrate that Ezh2 and Runx1 inactivation targeted to early lymphoid progenitors causes a marked expansion of pre-leukemic ETPs, showing transcriptional signatures characteristic of ETP leukemia. Addition of a RAS-signaling pathway mutation (Flt3-ITD) results in an aggressive leukemia co-expressing myeloid and lymphoid genes, which can be established and propagated in vivo by the expanded ETPs...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436656/early-quantitative-profiling-of-differential-retinal-protein-expression-in-lens-induced-myopia-in-guinea-pig-using-fluorescence-difference-two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis
#6
Yi Wu, Carly Siu-Yin Lam, Dennis Yan-Yin Tse, Chi Ho To, Quan Liu, Sally A McFadden, Rachel Ka-Man Chun, King Kit Li, Jianfang Bian, Chuen Lam
The current study aimed to investigate the differential protein expression in guinea pig retinas in response to lens-induced myopia (LIM) before fully compensated eye growth. Four days old guinea pigs (n=5) were subjected to ‑4D LIM for 8 days. Refractive errors were measured before and at the end of the lens wear period. Ocular dimensions were also recorded using high‑frequency A‑scan ultrasonography. After the LIM treatment, retinas of both eyes were harvested and soluble proteins were extracted. Paired retinal protein expressions in each animal were profiled and compared using a sensitive fluorescence difference two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435013/enhancement-of-cisplatin-cytotoxicity-by-retigeric-acid-b-involves-blocking-dna-repair-and-activating-dr5-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#7
Yongqing Liu, Chunwen Yue, Juan Li, Jing Wu, Shikang Wang, Deqing Sun, Yanxia Guo, Zhaomin Lin, Denglu Zhang, Rongmei Wang
Retigeric acid B (RAB), a natural compound isolated from lichen, has been demonstrated to inhibit cell growth and promote apoptosis in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. The present study evaluated the function of RAB combined with clinical chemotherapeutic drugs in PCa cell lines by MTT assay, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, and identified that RAB at low doses produced significant synergistic cytotoxicity in combination with cisplatin (CDDP); however, no marked synergism between RAB and the other chemotherapeutics was observed...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433439/legionella-effector-ankx-interacts-with-host-nuclear-protein-plekhn1
#8
Xiaobo Yu, Rebecca R Noll, Barbara P Romero Dueñas, Samual C Allgood, Kristi Barker, Jeffrey L Caplan, Matthias P Machner, Joshua LaBaer, Ji Qiu, M Ramona Neunuebel
BACKGROUND: The intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila proliferates in human alveolar macrophages, resulting in a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. Throughout the course of infection, L. pneumophila remains enclosed in a specialized membrane compartment that evades fusion with lysosomes. The pathogen delivers over 300 effector proteins into the host cell, altering host pathways in a manner that sets the stage for efficient pathogen replication. The L. pneumophila effector protein AnkX targets host Rab GTPases and functions in preventing fusion of the Legionella-containing vacuole with lysosomes...
January 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427758/screen-for-slit-robo-signaling-in-trunk-neural-cells-reveals-new-players
#9
Darwin Martinez, Nora Zuhdi, Michelle Reyes, Blanca Ortega, Dion Giovannone, Vivian Lee, Maria Elena de Bellard
Slits ligands and their Robo receptors are involved in quite disparate cell signaling pathways that include axon guidance, cell proliferation, cell motility and angiogenesis. Neural crest cells emerge by delamination from neural cells in the dorsal neural tube, and give rise to various components of the peripheral nervous system in vertebrates. It is well established that these cells change from a non-migratory to a highly migratory state allowing them to reach distant regions before they differentiate. However, but the mechanism controlling this delamination and subsequent migration are still not fully understood...
February 7, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425100/the-rab-effector-protein-rabep2-regulates-endosomal-trafficking-to-mediate-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-2-vegfr2-dependent-signaling
#10
Natalie Kofler, Federico Corti, Felix Rivera-Molina, Yong Deng, Derek Toomre, Michael Simons
As a master regulator of endothelial cell function, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) activates multiple downstream signaling pathways that are critical for vascular development and normal vessel function. VEGFR2 trafficking through various endosomal compartments modulates its signaling output. Accordingly, proteins that regulate the speed and direction by which VEGFR2 traffics through endosomes have been demonstrated to be particularly important for arteriogenesis. However, little is known about how these proteins control VEGFR2 trafficking and about the implications of this control for endothelial cell function...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423895/molecular-insights-into-the-roles-of-rab-proteins-in-intracellular-dynamics-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Shobi Veleri, Pradeep Punnakkal, Gary L Dunbar, Panchanan Maiti
In eukaryotes, the cellular functions are segregated to membrane-bound organelles. This inherently requires sorting of metabolites to membrane-limited locations. Sorting the metabolites from ribosomes to various organelles along the intracellular trafficking pathways involves several integral cellular processes, including an energy-dependent step, in which the sorting of metabolites between organelles is catalyzed by membrane-anchoring protein Rab-GTPases (Rab). They contribute to relaying the switching of the secretory proteins between hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments...
February 8, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423269/tuft1-interacts-with-rabgap1-and-regulates-mtorc1-signaling
#12
Natsumi Kawasaki, Kazunobu Isogaya, Shingo Dan, Takao Yamori, Hiroshi Takano, Ryoji Yao, Yasuyuki Morishita, Luna Taguchi, Masato Morikawa, Carl-Henrik Heldin, Tetsuo Noda, Shogo Ehata, Kohei Miyazono, Daizo Koinuma
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is commonly activated in human cancers. The activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is supported by the intracellular positioning of cellular compartments and vesicle trafficking, regulated by Rab GTPases. Here we showed that tuftelin 1 (TUFT1) was involved in the activation of mTORC1 through modulating the Rab GTPase-regulated process. TUFT1 promoted tumor growth and metastasis. Consistently, the expression of TUFT1 correlated with poor prognosis in lung, breast and gastric cancers...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420702/rab23-regulates-radial-migration-of-projection-neurons-via-n-cadherin
#13
Catherine H H Hor, Eyleen L K Goh
Radial migration of cortical projection neurons is a prerequisite for shaping a distinct multilayered cerebral cortex during mammalian corticogenesis. Members of Rab GTPases family were reported to regulate radial migration. Here, in vivo conditional knockout or in utero knockdown (KD) of Rab23 in mice neocortex causes aberrant polarity and halted migration of cortical projection neurons. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism reveals down-regulation of N-cadherin in the Rab23-deficient neurons, which is a cell adhesion protein previously known to modulate radial migration...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419372/snare-encoding-genes-vdsec22-and-vdsso1-mediate-protein-secretion-required-for-full-virulence-in-verticillium-dahliae
#14
Jie Wang, Li Tian, Dandan Zhang, Dylan P G Short, Lei Zhou, Shuangshuang Song, Yan Liu, Dan Wang, Zhiqiang Kong, Weiye Cui, Xuefeng Ma, Steven J Klosterman, Krishna Subbarao, Jie-Yin Chen, Xiaofeng Dai
Proteins that mediate cellular and subcellular membrane fusion are key factors in vesicular trafficking in all eukaryotic cells, including the secretion and transport of plant pathogen virulence factors. In this study, we identified vesicle fusion components that included 22 soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), 4 Sec1/Munc18 (SM) family proteins, and 10 Rab GTPases encoded in the genome of the vascular wilt pathogen, Verticillium dahliae strain Vd991. Targeted deletion of two SNARE-encoding genes in V...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414605/use-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-models-to-probe-the-pathogenesis-of-choroideremia-and-to-develop-a-potential-treatment
#15
Thu T Duong, Vidyullatha Vasireddy, Pavitra Ramachandran, Pamela S Herrera, Lanfranco Leo, Carrie Merkel, Jean Bennett, Jason A Mills
Choroideremia (CHM) is a rare monogenic, X-linked recessive inherited retinal degeneration resulting from mutations in the Rab Escort Protein-1 (REP1) encoding CHM gene. The primary retinal cell type leading to CHM is unknown. In this study, we explored the utility of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models of retinal pigmented epithelium (iPSC-RPE) to study disease pathogenesis and a potential gene-based intervention in four different genetically distinct forms of CHM. A number of abnormal cell biologic, biochemical, and physiologic functions were identified in the CHM mutant cells...
January 27, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413888/membrane-trafficking-in-autophagy
#16
Kristiane Søreng, Thomas P Neufeld, Anne Simonsen
Macroautophagy is an intracellular pathway used for targeting of cellular components to the lysosome for their degradation and involves sequestration of cytoplasmic material into autophagosomes formed from a double membrane structure called the phagophore. The nucleation and elongation of the phagophore is tightly regulated by several autophagy-related (ATG) proteins, but also involves vesicular trafficking from different subcellular compartments to the forming autophagosome. Such trafficking must be tightly regulated by various intra- and extracellular signals to respond to different cellular stressors and metabolic states, as well as the nature of the cargo to become degraded...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407617/marine-actinomycetes-as-bioremediators-in-penaeus-monodon-rearing-system
#17
Divya T Babu, K Archana, Bhavya Kachiprath, Solly Solomon, G Jayanath, I S Bright Singh, Rosamma Philip
Actinomycetes (277Nos) isolated from marine environments and shrimp culture pond sediments were tested for hydrolytic enzyme production and biogranulation property. Potential isolates were screened for their efficacy in bioremediation of shrimp culture system. Based on the BOD reduction efficiency and water quality parameters, five actinomycete isolates viz., Streptomyces coelicoflavus (A6), Streptomyces diastaticus (A 44), Nocardiopsis alba (A 55), Streptomyces parvus (A 56) and Streptomyces champavatii (R 32) were subjected for tertiary screening in Penaeus monodon larval rearing system and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)...
January 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381133/gabapentin-for-cough-in-cancer
#18
Rab Razzak, Julie M Waldfogel, Danielle J Doberman, Josephine L Feliciano, Thomas J Smith
Cough is a common problem among cancer patients, especially lung cancer patients. Gabapentin has been shown to be effective in reducing cough number and severity in patients with idiopathic refractory cough. The authors report here the successful use of gabapentin at usual doses to treat cough in cancer patients, including two with lung cancer, with minimal side effects. Gabapentin may be a useful addition to the symptom management toolbox for palliation of cancer symptoms.
September 2017: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377137/rab-10-a-traffic-controller-in-multiple-cellular-pathways-and-locations
#19
REVIEW
Christelle En Lin Chua, Bor Luen Tang
Rab GTPases are key regulators of eukaryotic membrane traffic, and their functions and activities are limited to particular intracellular transport steps and their membrane localization is by and large restricted. Some Rabs do participate in more than one transport steps, but broadly speaking, there is a clear demarcation between exocytic and endocytic Rabs. One Rab protein, Rab10, however, appears to be anomalous in this regard and has a diverse array of functions and subcellular localizations. Rab10 has been implicated in a myriad of activities ranging from polarized exocytosis and endosomal sorting in polarized cells, insulin-dependent Glut4 transport in adipocytes, axonal growth in neurons, and endo-phagocytic processes in macrophages...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374787/rab27a-facilitates-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-growth-by-promoting-cell-surface-transport-of-envelope-proteins
#20
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Machiko Nishio
Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) proteins and genomes newly synthesized in the cytoplasm need to be transported to the plasma membrane where budding occurs. This mechanism, where Rab proteins regulate intracellular traffic by switching between GTP-bound active form and GDP-bound inactive form, is not fully understood. mRNA and protein expression levels of Rab8a, Rab11a, and Rab27a are not altered by hPIV-2 infection. hPIV-2 growth is affected by depletion of Rab27a but not Rab8a and Rab11a. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of Rab27a Q78L promotes the cell surface levels of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins in hPIV-2-infected cells without affecting viral mRNA levels...
January 27, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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