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Lynda M Stuart, Adam Lacy-Hulbert
Phagosomes form during engulfment of large particles and become increasingly acidic and proteolytic, ultimately fusing with lysosomes, in a process termed "phagosome maturation." In this issue, Yin et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. identify GOP-1 as essential for the maturation of phagosomes containing apoptotic cells, through recruitment of the Rab GTPase UNC108.
May 24, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Bonnie D Rab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nursing
Manish Patel, Saira Rab, Aley G Kalapila, Alison Kyle, Ike Solomon Okosun, Lesley Miller
BACKGROUND: The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) created a major paradigm shift in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Currently, there is little "real-world" data regarding hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment outcomes in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined HCV treatment outcomes of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients at a large, urban, Ryan White-funded clinic caring for an underserved population...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Binoy Rajan, Guro Løkka, Erling Olaf Koppang, Lars Austbø
The fast growth and potential of global aquaculture has necessitated the adoption of sustainable and welfare-oriented therapeutics and prophylactic strategies. Knowledge gathered from studies about maternal passive immunity in fish and fish-to-fish passive immunization experiments supports the concept of using therapeutic Abs (of piscine and other vertebrate origin) in aquaculture. Traditional Ab formats (IgG, IgM) are expensive and laborious to produce; however, the introduction of new rAb fragments and single-domain Abs have reinvigorated the concept of passive immunization...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Pilar Rivero-Ríos, Belén Fernández, Jesús Madero-Pérez, María Romo Lozano, Sabine Hilfiker
Two-pore channels are endolysosomal Ca(2+) release channels involved in proper trafficking to and from those organelles. They are the likely targets for the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger NAADP, and are further regulated by a variety of mechanisms including phosphoinositide levels and Rab proteins. As discussed here, recent studies highlight a role for these channels in the pathomechanism(s) underlying Parkinson's disease, with important implications for possible alternative treatment strategies.
June 1, 2016: Messenger
Akechai Kongprajug, Sakol Panyim, Chalermporn Ongvarrasopone
Yellow head virus (YHV) is one of the most serious pathogens that causes worldwide shrimp production loss. It enters the cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and utilizes small GTPase Rab proteins such as PmRab5 and PmRab7 for intracellular trafficking. In this study, molecular cloning and functional analysis of Rab11 during YHV infection were investigated. PmRab11 cDNA was cloned by Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs). It contained two forms of sizes 1200 and 1050 bp distinct at the 5' UTR. The coding region of PmRab11 was 645 bp, encoding 214 amino acids...
May 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Lei Wang, Changwei Shao, Wenteng Xu, Qian Zhou, Na Wang, Songlin Chen
The liver is an important organ for bacterial pathogen attack in fish. The differential proteomic response of the Japanese flounder liver to Edwardsiella tarda infection was examined using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 3290 proteins were identified and classified into categories related to biological process (51.4%), molecular function (63.6%), and cellular component (57.7%). KEGG enrichment analysis indicated the complement and coagulation cascade pathways and the mineral absorption pathway were significantly enriched...
May 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Franziska Wild, Muzamil Majid Khan, Rüdiger Rudolf
Vertebrate skeletal muscle contraction is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (CHRN). Endocytosis and recycling of CHRN regulate their proper abundance at nerve-muscle synapses, i.e. neuromuscular junctions. Recent work showed that RAB5 is essential for CHRN endocytosis. Here, using in vivo-imaging of endocytosed CHRN and RAB-GFP fusion proteins, we deliver evidence for differential effects of RAB5-GFP, RAB4-GFP, and RAB11-GFP on CHRN endocytosis. Furthermore, while newly endocytosed CHRN colocalized with RAB5-GFP over large stretches of muscle fibers, RAB4-GFP and RAB11-GFP colocalized with endocytosed CHRN almost exclusively at neuromuscular junctions...
May 10, 2017: Small GTPases
Chi-Ping Cheng
Viruses move intracellularly to their replication compartments, and the newly synthesized viral complexes are transported to neighboring cells through hijacking of the host endomembrane systems. During these processes, numerous interactions occur among viral proteins, host proteins, and the cytoskeleton system. This review mainly focuses on the plant endomembrane network, which may be utilized by Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) to move to its replication compartment, and summarizes the host factors that may be directly involved in delivering BaMV cargoes during intracellular movement...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Myounghui Lee, Yun-Joo Yoo, Dae Heon Kim, Nguyen Hong Hanh, Yun Kwon, Inhwan Hwang
Prenylated Rab acceptor 1 (PRA1) functions in the recruitment of prenylated Rab proteins to their cognate organelles. Arabidopsis contains a large number of proteins belonging to the AtPRA1 family. However, their physiological roles remain largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the physiological role of AtPRA1.F4, a member of the AtPRA1 family. A T-DNA insertion knock-down mutant of AtPRA1.F4, atpra1.f4, was smaller in stature than parent plants and possessed shorter roots, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing HA:AtPRA1...
May 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
Yingjie Zhang, Jiechao Yin, Tianhe Li, Bing Zhou, Pengfei Xu, Ruixiang Che, Yunye Liu, Hongxue Cao, Xianlong Ye, Yongbi Yang, Xiaole Qi, Shimin Zheng, Guojie Ding, Guiping Ren, Hanchun Yang, Xiaomei Wang, Deshan Li
A stable cell-line was established that expressed the recombinant avian antibody (rAb) against the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). rAb exhibited neutralization activity to IBDV-B87 strain in DF1 cells. The minimum rAb concentration required for inhibition of the cytopathic effect (CPE) was 1.563μg/mL. To test the efficacy of rAb, a 168-h cohabitation challenge experiment was performed to transmit the disease from the chickens challenged with vvIBDV (HLJ0504 strain) to three test groups of chickens, i...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Tanveer Rab, Imad Sheiban, Yves Louvard, Fadi J Sawaya, Jun Jie Zhang, Shao Liang Chen
Contemporary clinical trials, registries, and meta-analyses, supported by recent results from the EXCEL (Everolimus-Eluting Stents or Bypass Surgery for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease) and NOBLE (Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Treatment of Unprotected Left Main Stenosis) trials, have established percutaneous coronary intervention of left main coronary stenosis as a safe alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with low and intermediate SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) scores...
May 8, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Jin Zhang, Ranran Kong, Liangzhang Sun
Rab3D is a member of the ras-related GTP-binding protein Rab family and was found up-regulated in several types of cancer. However, little is known about the role of Rab3D in carcinogenesis and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Thus, in this study, we investigated the expression patterns and functional roles of Rab3D in human ESCC. We demonstrated that Rab3D was highly expressed in human ESCC cell lines. In addition, knockdown of Rab3D significantly inhibited the proliferation of ESCC cells and reduced the tumorigenesis in vivo...
May 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Paulius Gibieža, Rytis Prekeris
Cytokinesis is a complex cellular process that leads to a physical separation of two daughter cells. The key to a successful cytokinesis is a coordinated reorganization of cellular cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking pathways. Consequently, Rab GTPases recently emerged as major regulators of cellular division. Rabs belong to a superfamily of small monomeric GTPases that regulate a diverse array of cellular functions. Rabs in particular are well-established regulators of membrane transport and have been shown to mediate several membrane transport steps including vesicle formation, molecular motor-dependent vesicle transport and targeting of transport vesicles and organelles to their correct destinations...
May 4, 2017: Small GTPases
Qianze Dong, Lin Fu, Yue Zhao, Yaming Du, Qingchang Li, Xueshan Qiu, Enhua Wang
Rab11a, an evolutionarily conserved Rab GTPases, plays important roles in intracellular transport and has been implicated in cancer progression. However, its role in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been explored yet. In this study, we discovered that Rab11a protein was upregulated in 57/122 NSCLC tissues. Rab11a overexpression associated with advanced TNM stage, positive nodal status and poor patient prognosis. Rab11a overexpression promoted proliferation, colony formation, invasion and migration with upregulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and downregulation of p27 in NSCLC cell lines...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
Carlos M Farinha, Paulo Matos
The amount of ion channels and transporters present at the plasma membrane is a crucial component of the overall regulation of ion transport. The number of channels present result from an intricate network of proteins that controls the late events of channel trafficking, such as endocytosis, recycling and targeting to lysosomal degradation. Small GTPases of the Rab family are key players in these processes thus contributing to regulation of fluid secretion and ion homeostasis. In epithelia, this involves mainly the balance between the chloride channel CFTR and the sodium channel ENaC, whose misfunction is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis - the commonest recessive disorder in Caucasians...
May 2, 2017: Small GTPases
Päivi Ylä-Anttila, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved degradation pathway for cells to maintain homeostasis, produce energy, degrade misfolded proteins and damaged organelles, and fight against intracellular pathogens. The process of autophagy entails the isolation of cytoplasmic cargo into double membrane bound autophagosomes that undergo maturation by fusion with endosomes and lysosomes in order to obtain degradation capacity. RAB proteins regulate intracellular vesicle trafficking events including autophagy. RAB24 is an atypical RAB protein that is required for the clearance of late autophagic vacuoles under basal conditions...
May 2, 2017: Small GTPases
Sui-Ji Li, Zhen Ge, Jing Kan, Jun-Jie Zhang, Fei Ye, Tak W Kwan, Teguh Santoso, Song Yang, Imad Sheiban, Xue-Song Qian, Nai-Liang Tian, Tanveer S Rab, Ling Tao, Shao-Liang Chen
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the cutoff of post-drug-eluting stent (DES) fractional flow reserve (FFR) for prediction of 1- to 3-year target vessel failure (TVF). BACKGROUND: FFR immediately after a DES implantation correlates with clinical events. However, the cutoff of post-DES FFR for predicting long-term clinical events remains understudied. METHODS: Between May 2012 and September 2013, a total of 1,476 patients who had FFR <0...
April 22, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Fiona Law, Jung Hwa Seo, Ziqing Wang, Jennifer L DeLeon, Yousstina Bolis, Ashley Brown, Wei-Xing Zong, Guangwei Du, Christian E Rocheleau
The Rab5 GTPase and phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate (PI(3)P) coordinately regulate endosome trafficking. Rab5 recruits Vps34, the class III PI3-kinase (PI3K), to generate PI(3)P and recruit PI(3)P binding proteins. Loss of Rab5 and loss of Vps34 have opposite effects on endosome size suggesting that our understanding of how Rab5 and PI(3)P cooperate is incomplete. Here we report a novel regulatory loop, whereby C. elegans VPS-34 inactivates RAB-5 via recruitment of the TBC-2 Rab GTPase Activating Protein. We found that loss of VPS-34 caused a large late endosome phenotype like that of loss of TBC-2, and that Rab5 activity is increased in Vps34 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Xuelin Zhou, Wing-Sum Siu, Cheng Zhang, Cheuk-Lun Liu, Ling Cheng, Hin-Fai Kwok, Chak-Hei Fung, Jacqueline Chor-Wing Tam, Ching-Po Lau, Clara Bik-San Lau, Ping-Chung Leung, Leung-Kim Hung, Chun-Hay Ko
Although Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (RAB) and Radix Cyathulae (RC) are from two different medicinal plants, they are both used as 'Niu-Xi', a widely used traditional Chinese medicine that is believed to stimulate menstruation and affect bone injury. Angiogenesis is actively involved in treating these illnesses. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the whole extracts of RAB and RC possess pro-angiogenic effects. In order to examine this idea whole extracts of RAB and RC were extracted with boiling water followed by ethanol, respectively...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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