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Felipe Faix Barby, Petr Ráb, Sébastien Lavoué, Tariq Ezaz, Luiz Antônio Carlos Bertollo, Andrzej Kilian, Sandra Regina Maruyama, Ezequiel Aguiar de Oliveira, Roberto Ferreira Artoni, Mateus Henrique Santos, Oladele Ilesanmi Jegede, Terumi Hatanaka, Alongklod Tanomtong, Thomas Liehr, Marcelo de Bello Cioffi
In addition to its wide geographical distribution, osteoglossiform fishes represent one of the most ancient freshwater teleost lineages; making it an important group for systematic and evolutionary studies. These fishes had a Gondwanan origin and their past distribution may have contributed to the diversity present in this group. However, cytogenetic and genomic data are still scarce, making it difficult to track evolutionary trajectories within this order. In addition, their wide distribution, with groups endemic to different continents, hinders an integrative study that allows a globalized view of its evolutionary process...
June 19, 2018: Genes
Jin Zhang, Yu Li, Bobin Liu, Lijuan Wang, Li Zhang, Jianjun Hu, Jun Chen, Huanquan Zheng, Mengzhu Lu
BACKGROUND: Rab proteins form the largest family of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins and regulate intracellular trafficking pathways. However, the function of the Rab proteins in woody species is still an open question. RESULTS: Here, a total of 67 PtRabs were identified in Populus trichocarpa and categorized into eight subfamilies (RabA-RabH). Based on their chromosomal distribution and duplication blocks in the Populus genome, a total of 27 PtRab paralogous pairs were identified and all of them were generated by whole-genome duplication events...
June 18, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh Le, Quang-Thai Ho, Yu-Yen Ou
Deep learning has been increasingly used to solve a number of problems with state-of-the-art performance in a wide variety of fields. In biology, deep learning can be applied to reduce feature extraction time and achieve high levels of performance. In our present work, we apply deep learning via two-dimensional convolutional neural networks and position-specific scoring matrices to classify Rab protein molecules, which are main regulators in membrane trafficking for transferring proteins and other macromolecules throughout the cell...
June 13, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Tamunonengiyeofori Lawson, Sean Mayes, Grantley W Lycett, Chiew Foan Chin
Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process that involves the synthesis and modification of the cell wall leading up to the formation of an edible fruit. During the period of fruit ripening, new cell wall polymers and enzymes are synthesized and trafficked to the apoplast. Vesicle trafficking has been shown to play a key role in facilitating the synthesis and modification of cell walls in fruits. Through reverse genetics and gene expression studies, the importance of Rab guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) as integral regulators of vesicle trafficking to the cell wall has been revealed...
June 14, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
Shabneez Hussain, Shahida Baloch, Azra Parvin, Akbar Najmuddin, Farhana Musheer, Mubashra Junaid, Rab Nawaz Memon, Fareeda Bhanbhro, Hayat Ullah, Bushra Moiz
Patient registry is a powerful tool for planning health care and setting groundwork for research. This survey reports a detailed registry of inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) and their management at a not-for-profit organization in a developing country to form the basis for planning development and research. We reviewed medical records of patients with IBD from 8 hemophilia treatment centers of Fatimid Foundation located in various cities. Information collected included sociodemographic data, diagnostic tests, severity of hemophilia A and B, number of bleeding episodes per year, site and frequency of hemarthrosis, and seropositivity for viral diseases...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Sobia Faisal, Azadar Abbas, Ghulam Haider, Khalid Farough
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of outreach chest camp intervention for detection of missed tuberculosis cases in Pakistan and to evaluate the demographic profile of those who are dependent on such doorstep healthcare services. METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out using data from the outreach chest camp intervention organised by Greenstar Social Marketing company from August 2015 till December 2016 in Lahore, Gujrat and Sheikhupura districts of Pakistan's Punjab province...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Se Yong Jang, Shung Chull Chae, Myung Hwan Bae, Jang Hoon Lee, Dong Heon Yang, Hun Sik Park, Yongkeun Cho, Hyun-Jai Cho, Hae-Young Lee, Byung-Hee Oh, Jin-Oh Choi, Eun-Seok Jeon, Min-Seok Kim, Sang Eun Lee, Jae-Joong Kim, Kyung-Kuk Hwang, Myeong-Chan Cho, Sang Hong Baek, Seok-Min Kang, Dong-Ju Choi, Byung-Su Yoo, Youngkeun Ahn, Kye Hun Kim, Hyun-Young Park
BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin system blockade (RAB) is the cornerstone in the management of patients with heart failure. However, the benefit of RAB in patients with accompanying severe renal impairment is not clear. We aimed to examine the effect of RAB and the differential effect of RAB depending on renal replacement (RR) in patients with severe renal insufficiency and acute heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 5625 patients from the Korean Acute Heart Failure registry, 673 in-hospital survivors (70...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Maaike Schillemans, Ellie Karampini, Bart van den Eshof, Anastasia Gangaev, Menno Hofman, Dorothee van Breevoort, Henriët Meems, Hans Janssen, Aat A Mulder, Carolina R Jost, Johanna C Escher, Rüdiger Adam, Tom Carter, Abraham J Koster, Maartje van den Biggelaar, Jan Voorberg, Ruben Bierings
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells store VWF (von Willebrand factor) in rod-shaped secretory organelles, called Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). WPB exocytosis is coordinated by a complex network of Rab GTPases, Rab effectors, and SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) proteins. We have previously identified STXBP1 as the link between the Rab27A-Slp4-a complex on WPBs and the SNARE proteins syntaxin-2 and -3. In this study, we investigate the function of syntaxin-3 in VWF secretion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) from healthy controls, endogenous syntaxin-3 immunolocalized to WPBs...
June 7, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
De Yun Wang, Sang-Heon Cho, Horng-Chyuan Lin, Aloke Gopal Ghoshal, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul Muttalif, Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Kaan Tunceli, Eduardo Urdaneta, Dongmu Zhang, Rab Faruqi
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are common and little studied in the Asia-Pacific region. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate real-world practice patterns for these respiratory diseases in India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study enrolled adults (age ≥18 years) presenting to general practitioners (GP) or specialists for physician-diagnosed AR, asthma, COPD, or rhinosinusitis...
June 6, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Agila Somasundaram, Justin Taraska
Calcium triggered exocytosis is key to many physiological processes, including neurotransmitter and hormone release by neurons and endocrine cells. Dozens of proteins regulate exocytosis, yet the temporal and spatial dynamics of these factors during vesicle fusion remain unclear. Here we use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to visualize local protein dynamics at single sites of exocytosis of small synaptic-like microvesicles in live cultured neuroendocrine PC12 cells. We employ two-color imaging to simultaneously observe membrane fusion (using vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) tagged to pHluorin) and the dynamics of associated proteins at the moments surrounding exocytosis...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Hiroyuki Oshikane, Masahiko Watabe, Kazue Kikuchi-Utsumi, Toshio Nakaki
The PRA1-superfamily member PRAF3 plays pivotal roles in membrane traffic as a GDI displacement factor via physical interaction with a variety of Rab proteins, as well as in the modulation of antioxidant glutathione through its interaction with EAAC1 (SLC1A1). Overproduction of PRAF3 is known to be toxic to the host cells, although the factors capable of cancelling the toxicity remained unknown. We here show that Rab1a can rescue the cytotoxicity caused by PRAF3 possibly by "positively" regulating ER-Golgi trafficking, cancelling the "negative" modulation by PRAF3...
July 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Leehyeon Kim, Do Hoon Kwon, Bong Heon Kim, Jiyeon Kim, Mi Rae Park, Zee-Yong Park, Hyun Kyu Song
Conventional ubiquitylation occurs through an ATP-dependent three-enzyme cascade (E1, E2, and E3) that mediates the covalent conjugation of the C-terminus of ubiquitin to a lysine on the substrate. SdeA, which belongs to the SidE effector family of Legionella pneumophila, can transfer ubiquitin to endoplasmic reticulum-associated Rab-family GTPases in a manner independent of E1 and E2 enzymes. The novel ubiquitin-modifying enzyme SdeA utilizes NAD+ as a cofactor to attach ubiquitin to a serine residue of the substrate...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Ayelén González Montoro, Kathrin Auffarth, Carina Hönscher, Maria Bohnert, Thomas Becker, Bettina Warscheid, Fulvio Reggiori, Martin van der Laan, Florian Fröhlich, Christian Ungermann
The extensive subcellular network of membrane contact sites plays central roles in organelle biogenesis and communication, yet the precise contributions of the involved machineries remain largely enigmatic. The yeast vacuole forms a membrane contact site with mitochondria, called vacuolar and mitochondrial patch (vCLAMP). Formation of vCLAMPs involves the vacuolar Rab GTPase Ypt7 and the Ypt7-interacting Vps39 subunit of the HOPS tethering complex. Here, we uncover the general preprotein translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) subunit Tom40 as the direct binding partner of Vps39 on mitochondria...
June 4, 2018: Developmental Cell
Rob J Fredericksen, Kenneth H Mayer, Laura E Gibbons, Todd C Edwards, Frances M Yang, Melonie Walcott, Sharon Brown, Lydia Dant, Stephanie Loo, Cristina Gutierrez, Edgar Paez, Emma Fitzsimmons, Albert W Wu, Michael J Mugavero, William C Mathews, William B Lober, Mari M Kitahata, Donald L Patrick, Paul K Crane, Heidi M Crane
BACKGROUND: Patient-provider sexual risk behavior discussions occur infrequently but may be facilitated by high-quality sexual risk screening tools. OBJECTIVE: To develop the Sexual Risk Behavior Inventory (SRBI), a brief computer-administered patient-reported measure. DESIGN: Qualitative item development/quantitative instrument validation. PARTICIPANTS: We developed SRBI items based on patient interviews (n = 128) at four geographically diverse US primary care clinics...
May 29, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Mohammed S Abusamaan, John Martin Quillin, Oluwafemi Owodunni, Oluwabunmi Emidio, In Guk Kang, Brandon Yu, Brittany Ma, Lauryn Bailey, Rab Razzak, Thomas J Smith, Joann N Bodurtha
BACKGROUND: Hereditary cancer assessment and communication about family history risks can be critical for surviving relatives. Palliative care (PC) is often the last set of providers before death. METHODS: We replicated a prior study of the prevalence of hereditary cancer risk among patients with cancer receiving PC consultations, assessed the history in the electronic medical record (EMR), and explored patients' attitudes toward discussions about family history...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Azure Yarbrough, Katherine Maringer, Entsar J Saheb, Sanaa Jawed, John Bush
Rab GTPases are essential regulators of many cellular processes and play an important role in downstream signaling vital to proper cell function. We sought to elucidate the role of novel D. discoideum GTPase RabS. Cell lines over-expressing DdRabS and expressing DdRabS N137I (dominant negative (DN)) proteins were generated, and it was determined that DdRabS localized to endosomes, ER-Golgi membranes, and the contractile vacuole system. It appeared to function in vesicular trafficking, and the secretion of lysosomal enzymes...
May 28, 2018: Biology
Panuvat Chutichetpong, Nopchulee Cheeveewattanagul, Prapaporn Srilohasin, Patsamon Rijiravanich, Angkana Chaiprasert, Werasak Surareungchai
Drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis currently faces multiple challenges, including lengthy ineffective standard methods, the expensive cost of molecular tests, and large bulky diagnostic machines. In this work, a disposable MPT64 sensor was developed to rapidly determine drug susceptibility (DS-TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using an electrochemical sandwich-immunosensor for the detection of MPT64 as an indicator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. Anti-MPT64 (as capture antibody; cAb) was immobilised on screen printed carbon electrodes to specifically bind with MPT64 target protein...
September 26, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Dan Dan Xu, Chong Bing Xu, Hon Ming Lam, Fuk-Ling Wong, Albert Wing Nang Leung, Merrin Man Long Leong, William Chi Shing Cho, Robin Hoeven, Lv Qing Tao, Rong Rong
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that pheophorbide a (PhA), excited by 630 nm light, significantly inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells. In this study, we employed whole-cell proteomics to investigate photodynamic treatment (PDT)-related proteins. METHODS: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was employed to reveal the proteins involved in PhA-mediated PDT in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cells. RESULTS: After PhA-PDT treatment, decreased expression of translationally-controlled tumor protein (TCTP) was found in both PC-3 and LNCaP whole-cell proteomes...
May 22, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Keith Ireton, Hoan Van Ngo, Manmeet Bhalla
Many microbial pathogens co-opt or pertub host membrane trafficking pathways. This review covers recent examples in which microbes interact with host exocytosis, the fusion of intracellular vesicles with the plasma membrane. The bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus subvert recycling endosomal pathways of exocytosis in order to induce their entry into human cells. By contrast, entry of the protozoan pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi or the virus adenovirus into host cells involves exploitation of lysosomal exocytosis...
May 24, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Mushan Xie, Yuxian Xia, Yueqing Cao
GTPase activation protein (GAP) for Rab GTPases can accelerate GTP hydrolysis to alter the activity of Rab GTPases. To explore the function of GAP in entomopathogenic fungi, we constructed a deletion mutant of Gyp2 gene, a member of the Gyp (GAP for Ypt/Rab proteins) family in the locust-specific fungal pathogen, Metarhizium acridum. Results showed that the ∆MaGyp2 mutant had dramatically decreased tolerance to ultraviolet irradiation compared to wild type strain. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that UV irradiation repair related genes Uve1 and WC1 were downregulated in ∆MaGyp2 mutant...
May 23, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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