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Zhimin Chai, Cihan Yilmaz, Ahmed Busnaina, Charles A Lissandrello, David J D Carter
Printing nano and microscale three-dimensional (3D) structures using directed assembly of nanoparticles has many potential applications in electronics, photonics and biotechnology. This paper presents a reproducible and scalable 3D dielectrophoresis assembly process for printing homogeneous silica and hybrid silica/gold nanorods from silica and gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are assembled into patterned vias under a dielectrophoretic force generated by an alternating current (AC) field, and then completely fused in situ to form nanorods...
October 13, 2017: Nanotechnology
Yu Zhou, Huanghe Yang, Jianmin Cui, Christopher J Lingle
For those interested in the machinery of ion channel gating, the Ca(2+) and voltage-activated BK K(+) channel provides a compelling topic for investigation, by virtue of its dual allosteric regulation by both voltage and intracellular Ca(2+) and because its large-single channel conductance facilitates detailed kinetic analysis. Over the years, biophysical analyses have illuminated details of the allosteric regulation of BK channels and revealed insights into the mechanism of BK gating, e.g., inner cavity size and accessibility and voltage sensor-pore coupling...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
Yao Zhang, Rui Ma, Xue Zhen, Yogish Kudva, Philippe Buhlmann, Steven J Koester
A novel graphene-based variable capacitor (varactor) that senses glucose based on the quantum capacitance effect was successfully developed. The sensor utilizes a metal-oxide-graphene varactor device structure that is inherently compatible with passive wireless sensing, a key advantage for in vivo glucose sensing. The graphene varactors were functionalized with pyrene-1-boronic acid (PBA) by self-assembly driven by π-π interactions. Successful surface functionalization was confirmed by both Raman spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage characterization of the devices...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuman Zhou, Jianxin He, Hongbo Wang, Kun Qi, Nan Nan, Xiaolu You, Weili Shao, Lidan Wang, Bin Ding, Shizhong Cui
The wearable electronic skin with high sensitivity and self-power has shown increasing prospects for applications such as human health monitoring, robotic skin, and intelligent electronic products. In this work, we introduced and demonstrated a design of highly sensitive, self-powered, and wearable electronic skin based on a pressure-sensitive nanofiber woven fabric sensor fabricated by weaving PVDF electrospun yarns of nanofibers coated with PEDOT. Particularly, the nanofiber woven fabric sensor with multi-leveled hierarchical structure, which significantly induced the change in contact area under ultra-low load, showed combined superiority of high sensitivity (18...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Juan Ferreira Gregorio, Germán Pequera, Carlo Manno, Eduardo Ríos, Gustavo Brum
In skeletal muscle, the four-helix voltage-sensing modules (VSMs) of CaV1.1 calcium channels simultaneously gate two Ca(2+) pathways: the CaV1.1 pore itself and the RyR1 calcium release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Here, to gain insight into the mechanism by which VSMs gate RyR1, we quantify intramembrane charge movement associated with VSM activation (sensing current) and gated Ca(2+) release flux in single muscle cells of mice and rats. As found for most four-helix VSMs, upon sustained depolarization, rodent VSMs lose the ability to activate Ca(2+) release channels opening; their properties change from a functionally capable mode, in which the mobile sensor charge is called charge 1, to an inactivated mode, charge 2, with a voltage dependence shifted toward more negative voltages...
October 11, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
Marscha Hirschi, Mark A Herzik, Jinhong Wie, Yang Suo, William F Borschel, Dejian Ren, Gabriel C Lander, Seok-Yong Lee
The modulation of ion channel activity by lipids is increasingly recognized as a fundamental component of cellular signalling. The transient receptor potential mucolipin (TRPML) channel family belongs to the TRP superfamily and is composed of three members: TRPML1-TRPML3. TRPMLs are the major Ca(2+)-permeable channels on late endosomes and lysosomes (LEL). They regulate the release of Ca(2+) from organelles, which is important for various physiological processes, including organelle trafficking and fusion. Loss-of-function mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which encodes TRPML1, cause the neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder mucolipidosis type IV, and a gain-of-function mutation (Ala419Pro) in TRPML3 gives rise to the varitint-waddler (Va) mouse phenotype...
October 11, 2017: Nature
O Krupkova, J Zvick, K Wuertz-Kozak
Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are cation selective transmembrane receptors with diverse structures, activation mechanisms and physiological functions. TRP channels act as cellular sensors for a plethora of stimuli, including temperature, membrane voltage, oxidative stress, mechanical stimuli, pH and endogenous, as well as, exogenous ligands, thereby illustrating their versatility. As such, TRP channels regulate various functions in both excitable and non-excitable cells, mainly by mediating Ca2+ homeostasis...
October 10, 2017: European Cells & Materials
Yukihiro Shintani, Hiroshi Kawarada
A polycrystalline diamond electrolyte-solution-gate field-effect transistor (BDD-SGFET) was successfully applied to the analysis of water content in ethanol. Due to the use of a no-gate-insulator FET, the developed sensor showed a four-times-faster response than the conventional Si-FET, and a ten-times-faster response than a glass electrode. The output voltage showed good linearity with respect to the water content. This result is of practical importance because the traditional water content measurement methods are impractical due to their slow response...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Roustem Khazipov
The membrane potential is an essential parameter of a living cell. However, measurements of the membrane potential using conventional techniques are associated with a number of artifacts. Cell-attached recordings of the currents through NMDA receptor channels enable noninvasive measurements of the neuronal membrane potential. This approach overcomes the problem of a leak conductance introduced during intracellular sharp electrode recordings and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Here, we describe the procedures of using cell-attached recordings of NMDA receptor channels to measure the true membrane potential...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sun Geun Yoon, Byoung Joon Park, Suk Tai Chang
A new class of simple and highly sensitive piezocapacitive sensors that are capable of detecting static and dynamic pressure changes is reported. The pressure sensor structure is formed by vertically sandwiching a sandpaper-molded carbon nanotube/poly(dimethylsiloxane) composite (CPC) dielectric layer between two ion-gel thin film electrodes. Such a capacitive sensor system enables the distinguishable detection of directional movement of applied pressure as well as static pressure variation by modulating ion distribution in the ion-gel thin films...
October 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
William Taube Navaraj, Carlos García Núñez, Dhayalan Shakthivel, Vincenzo Vinciguerra, Fabrice Labeau, Duncan H Gregory, Ravinder Dahiya
This paper presents novel Neural Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (υ-NWFETs) based hardware-implementable neural network (HNN) approach for tactile data processing in electronic skin (e-skin). The viability of Si nanowires (NWs) as the active material for υ-NWFETs in HNN is explored through modeling and demonstrated by fabricating the first device. Using υ-NWFETs to realize HNNs is an interesting approach as by printing NWs on large area flexible substrates it will be possible to develop a bendable tactile skin with distributed neural elements (for local data processing, as in biological skin) in the backplane...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Venkateswaran Vivekananthan, Nagamalleswara Rao Alluri, Yuvasree Purusothaman, Arunkumar Chandrasekhar, Sang-Jae Kim
Flexible, planar composite piezoelectric nanogenerators (C-PNGs) were developed to harness waste mechanical energy using cost-effective composite films (CFs) prepared via a probe-sonication technique. CFs, made up of highly crystalline, randomly oriented lead free piezoelectric nanoparticles (1 - x)K0.5Na0.5NbO3-xBaTiO3, where x = 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, or 0.08 [designated as KNN-xBTO], were impregnated in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix. The KNN piezoelectric properties were tuned via the substitution of BTO nanoparticles, without altering the orthorhombic phase...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale
Jean Chemin, Valentina Taiakina, Arnaud Monteil, Michael Piazza, Wendy Guan, Robert F Stephens, Ashraf Kitmitto, Zhiping P Pang, Annette C Dolphin, Edward Perez-Reyes, Thorsten Dieckmann, Joseph Guy Guillemette, J David Spafford
Calcium (Cav1 and Cav2) and sodium channels possess homologous CaM-binding motifs, known as IQ motifs in their C-termini, which associate with calmodulin (CaM), a universal calcium sensor. Cav3 T-type channels, which serve as pacemakers of the mammalian brain and heart, lack a C-terminal IQ motif. We illustrate that T-type channels associate with CaM using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and single particle cryo-electron microscopy. We demonstrate that protostome invertebrate (LCav3) and human Cav3.1, Cav3...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zhiguo Zhao, Hongen Tu, Eric Gr Kim, Bonnie F Sloane, Yong Xu
In the effort of developing micro-electrochemical sensors, the miniaturization of reference electrodes has been a challenging task. In this paper, a flexible micro reference electrode with an internal electrolyte reservoir is reported. This new device is based on a unique microfabricated parylene tube structure, which is filled with Cl(-) rich electrolyte, into which a 50 μm diameter silver (Ag) wire covered with a 7.4 μm thick silver chloride (AgCl) layer is inserted. The distal end of the tube is filled with potassium chloride (KCl) saturated agarose gel...
August 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
Sung Soo Kwak, Han Kim, Wanchul Seung, Jihye Kim, Ronan Hinchet, Sang-Woo Kim
Harvesting human-motion energy for power-integrated wearable electronics could be a promising way to extend the battery-operation time of small low-power-consumption electronics such as various sensors. For this purpose, a fully stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) that has been fabricated with knitted fabrics and has been integrated with the directly available materials and techniques of the textile industry is introduced. This device has been adapted to cloth movement and can generate electricity under compression and stretching...
October 2, 2017: ACS Nano
J R Groome, A Moreau, L Delemotte
Voltage-gated sodium channels belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated cation channels. Their structure is based on domains comprising a voltage sensor domain (S1-S4 segments) and a pore domain (S5-S6 segments). Mutations in positively charged residues of the S4 segments may allow protons or cations to pass directly through the gating pore constriction of the voltage sensor domain; these anomalous currents are referred to as gating pore or omega (ω) currents. In the skeletal muscle disorder hypokalemic periodic paralysis, and in arrhythmic dilated cardiomyopathy, inherited mutations of S4 arginine residues promote omega currents that have been shown to be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of these sodium channel disorders...
October 1, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Tuoyu Zhou, Huawen Han, Pu Liu, Jian Xiong, Fake Tian, Xiangkai Li
With the unprecedented deterioration of environmental quality, rapid recognition of toxic compounds is paramount for performing in situ real-time monitoring. Although several analytical techniques based on electrochemistry or biosensors have been developed for the detection of toxic compounds, most of them are time-consuming, inaccurate, or cumbersome for practical applications. More recently, microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensors have drawn increasing interest due to their sustainability and cost-effectiveness, with applications ranging from the monitoring of anaerobic digestion process parameters (VFA) to water quality detection (e...
September 28, 2017: Sensors
Biruk B Seyoum, Maurizio Rossi, Davide Brunelli
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are now capable of powering the abundant low power electronics from very small (just a few degrees Celsius) temperature gradients. This factor along with the continuously lowering cost and size of TEGs, has contributed to the growing number of miniaturized battery-free sensor modules powered by TEGs. In this article, we present the design of an ambient-powered wireless bolt for high-end electro-mechanical systems. The bolt is equipped with a temperature sensor and a low power RF chip powered from a TEG...
September 26, 2017: Sensors
Suchol Savagatrup, Vera Schroeder, Xin He, Sibo Lin, Maggie He, Omar Yassine, Khaled N Salama, Xi-Xiang Zhang, Timothy M Swager
Carbon monoxide (CO) outcompetes oxygen when binding to the iron center of hemeproteins, leading to a reduction in blood oxygen level and acute poisoning. Harvesting the strong specific interaction between CO and the iron porphyrin provides a highly selective and customizable sensor. We report the development of chemiresistive sensors with voltage-activated sensitivity for the detection of CO comprising iron porphyrin and functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (F-SWCNTs). Modulation of the gate voltage offers a predicted extra dimension for sensing...
September 26, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Xiaoyu Zhao, Jiahong Wen, Bo Yang, Huachen Zhu, Qingqi Cao, Dunhui Wang, Zhenghong Qian, Youwei Du
In the current information society, the realization of a magnetic storage technique with energy-efficient design and high storage density is greatly desirable. Here, we demonstrate that, without bias magnetic field, different values of remanent magnetization (Mr) can be obtained in a FePt/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) heterostructure by applying a unipolar electric field across the substrate. These multilevel magnetic signals can serve as writing data bits in a storage device, which remarkably increases the storage density...
October 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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