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voltage sensor

Fan Zhao, Wei Jin, Lin Ma, Jian-Ye Zhang, Jin-Long Wang, Jing-Hai Zhang, Yong-Bo Song
Voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels play a pivotal role for the changes in membrane potential and belong to large membrane proteins that compose four voltage sensor domains (VSD1-4). In this study we describe the binding mode and selectivity of one of the aryl sulfonamide sodium channel inhibitors, PF-04856264, for the VSD4s in Na v 1.4, Na v 1.5 and Na v 1.7, respectively, through molecular dynamics simulation and enhanced post-dynamics analyses. Our results show that there are three binding site regions (BSR1-3) in the combination of the ligand and receptors, of which BSR1 and BSR3 contribute to the selectivity and affinity of the ligand to the receptor...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Sung Yong Kim, Se Hoon Park, Baek Gyu Choi, In Hyuk Kang, Sang Wook Park, Jeong Woo Shin, Jin Ho Kim, Woon Kyung Baek, Kwon Taek Lim, Young-Ju Kim, Jae-Bok Song, Inpil Kang
This study reports a hub-spoke type joint torque sensor involving strain gauges made of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). We developed the novel joint torque sensor for robots by means of MWCNT/epoxy strain sensors (0.8 wt%, gauge factor 2) to overcome the limits of conventional foil strain gauges. Solution mixing process was hired to fabricate a liquid strain sensor that can easily be installed on any complicated surfaces. We painted the MWCNT/epoxy mixing liquid on the hub-spoke type joint torque sensor to form the piezoresistive strain gauges...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Piyush Kanti Sarkar, Subrata Maji, Somobrata Acharya
We report on a flexible triboelectric nanogenerator (FTENG) designed using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and aluminium (Al) combinations to convert ambient mechanical energy into electrical outputs. An open-circuit output voltage of ~40 V and short-circuit current density of ~63.6 mA m-2 with power density 0.62 W m-2 was easily obtained from the FTENG. The harvested mechanical energy is used for lighting ~100 light emitting diodes and to operate seven segment display enabling prospects for carbon-emission free environment friendly source for powering portable electronic devices...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Antoine Bader, Scott Lee Cockroft
A fundamental principle of digital computer operation is Boolean logic, where inputs and outputs are described by binary integer voltages. Similarly, inputs and outputs may be processed on the molecular level as exemplified by synthetic circuits that exploit the programmability of DNA base-pairing. Unlike modern computers, which execute large numbers of logic gates in parallel, most implementations of molecular logic have been limited to single computing tasks, or sensing applications. Here we report three G-quadruplex-based logic gates that operate simultaneously in a single reaction vessel...
February 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Mingji Zhang, Siu Wing Or
A novel gradient-type magnetoelectric (ME) current sensor operating in magnetic field gradient (MFG) detection and conversion mode is developed based on a pair of ME composites that have a back-to-back capacitor configuration under a baseline separation and a magnetic biasing in an electrically-shielded and mechanically-enclosed housing. The physics behind the current sensing process is the product effect of the current-induced MFG effect associated with vortex magnetic fields of current-carrying cables (i...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Huixuan Liu, Damao Xun
We fabricated an H3PO4-incorporated chitosan proton conductor film that exhibited the electric double layer effect and showed a high specific capacitance of 4.42 μF/cm2. Transparent indium tin oxide thin-film transistors gated by H3PO4-incorporated chitosan films were fabricated by sputtering through a shadow mask. The operating voltage was as low as 1.2 V because of the high specific capacitance of the H3PO4-incorporated chitosan dielectrics. The junctionless transparent indium tin oxide thin film transistors exhibited good performance, including an estimated current on/off ratio and field-effect mobility of 1...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Luca Nela, Jianshi Tang, Qing Cao, George S Tulevski, Shu-Jen Han
Artificial "electronic skin" is of great interest for mimicking the functionality of human skin, such as tactile pressure sensing. Several important performance metrics include mechanical flexibility, operation voltage, sensitivity and accuracy, as well as response speed. In this paper, we demonstrate a large-area high-performance flexible pressure sensor built on an active matrix of 16×16 carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (CNT TFTs). Made from highly-purified solution tubes, the active matrix exhibits superior flexible TFT performance with high mobility and large current density, along with a high device yield of nearly 99% over 4-inch sample area...
February 14, 2018: Nano Letters
Chongxing Zhang, Ming Dong, Ming Ren, Wenguang Huang, Jierui Zhou, Xuze Gao, Ricardo Albarracín
Metal-enclosed switchgear, which are widely used in the distribution of electrical energy, play an important role in power distribution networks. Their safe operation is directly related to the reliability of power system as well as the power quality on the consumer side. Partial discharge detection is an effective way to identify potential faults and can be utilized for insulation diagnosis of metal-enclosed switchgear. The transient earth voltage method, an effective non-intrusive method, has substantial engineering application value for estimating the insulation condition of switchgear...
February 11, 2018: Sensors
Juan A Delgado-Notario, Jesus E Velazquez-Perez, Yahya M Meziani, Kristel Fobelets
Plasma waves in gated 2-D systems can be used to efficiently detect THz electromagnetic radiation. Solid-state plasma wave-based sensors can be used as detectors in THz imaging systems. An experimental study of the sub-THz response of II-gate strained-Si Schottky-gated MODFETs (Modulation-doped Field-Effect Transistor) was performed. The response of the strained-Si MODFET has been characterized at two frequencies: 150 and 300 GHz: The DC drain-to-source voltage transducing the THz radiation (photovoltaic mode) of 250-nm gate length transistors exhibited a non-resonant response that agrees with theoretical models and physics-based simulations of the electrical response of the transistor...
February 10, 2018: Sensors
Akira Takakado, Yusuke Nakasone, Masahide Terazima
EL222 is a blue light sensor protein, which consists of a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain as a light sensor and a LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding domain. The reaction dynamics of the protein-DNA binding were observed for the first time using the time-resolved transient grating method. The reaction scheme was determined, showing that photoexcited EL222 first binds DNA and the ground state EL222 monomer is subsequently associated with the complex. Rate constants on the millisecond scale were determined for these processes...
February 12, 2018: Biochemistry
Elisa Alina Hemmig, Clare Fitzgerald, Christopher Maffeo, Lisa Hecker, Sarah Elisabeth Ochmann, Aleksei Aksimentiev, Philip Tinnefeld, Ulrich F Keyser
We explore the potential of DNA nanotechnology for developing novel optical voltage sensing nano-devices that convert a local change of electric potential into optical signals. As a proof-of-concept of the sensing mechanism, we assembled voltage responsive DNA origami structures labelled with a single pair of FRET dyes. The DNA structures were reversibly immobilised on a nanocapillary tip and underwent controlled structural changes upon application of an electric field. The applied field was monitored through a change in FRET efficiency...
February 12, 2018: Nano Letters
Aram Chang, Fayal Abderemane-Ali, Greg L Hura, Nathan D Rossen, Rachel E Gate, Daniel L Minor
Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-gated potassium channels control excitability in the brain, heart, and ear. Calmodulin (CaM) is crucial for Kv7 function, but how this calcium sensor affects activity has remained unclear. Here, we present X-ray crystallographic analysis of CaM:Kv7.4 and CaM:Kv7.5 AB domain complexes that reveal an Apo/CaM clamp conformation and calcium binding preferences. These structures, combined with small-angle X-ray scattering, biochemical, and functional studies, establish a regulatory mechanism for Kv7 CaM modulation based on a common architecture in which a CaM C-lobe calcium-dependent switch releases a shared Apo/CaM clamp conformation...
February 6, 2018: Neuron
Jerome Cartailler, Taekyung Kwon, Rafael Yuste, David Holcman
Most synaptic excitatory connections are made on dendritic spines. But how the voltage in spines is modulated by its geometry remains unclear. To investigate the electrical properties of spines, we combine voltage imaging data with electro-diffusion modeling. We first present a temporal deconvolution procedure for the genetically encoded voltage sensor expressed in hippocampal cultured neurons and then use electro-diffusion theory to compute the electric field and the current-voltage conversion. We extract a range for the neck resistances of 〈R〉=100±35MΩ...
February 5, 2018: Neuron
Ke Pei, Xiaochen Ren, Zhiwen Zhou, Zhichao Zhang, Xudong Ji, Paddy Kwok Leung Chan
Organic optical memory devices keep attracting intensive interests for diverse optoelectronic applications including optical sensors and memories. Here, flexible nonvolatile optical memory devices are developed based on the bis[1]benzothieno[2,3-d;2',3'-d']naphtho[2,3-b;6,7-b']dithiophene (BBTNDT) organic field-effect transistors with charge trapping centers induced by the inhomogeneity (nanosprouts) of the organic thin film. The devices exhibit average mobility as high as 7.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 , photoresponsivity of 433 A W-1 , and long retention time for more than 6 h with a current ratio larger than 106 ...
February 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Charles Mackin, Elaine McVay, Tomás Palacios
This work develops the first frequency-dependent small-signal model for graphene electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors (EGFETs). Graphene EGFETs are microfabricated to measure intrinsic voltage gain, frequency response, and to develop a frequency-dependent small-signal model. The transfer function of the graphene EGFET small-signal model is found to contain a unique pole due to a resistive element, which stems from electrolyte gating. Intrinsic voltage gain, cutoff frequency, and transition frequency for the microfabricated graphene EGFETs are approximately 3...
February 7, 2018: Sensors
Ali Farzbod, Hyejin Moon
This paper presents the demonstration of on-chip fabrication of a potassium-selective sensor array enabled by electrowetting on dielectric digital microfluidics for the first time. This demonstration proves the concept that electrochemical sensors can be seamlessly integrated with sample preparation units in a digital microfluidic platform. More significantly, the successful on-chip fabrication of a sensor array indicates that sensors become reconfigurable and have longer lifetime in a digital microfluidic platform...
January 31, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Han Xiong, Ying-Bo Wu, Ji Dong, Ming-Chun Tang, Yan-Nan Jiang, Xiao-Ping Zeng
A broadband tunable metamaterial graphene absorber is investigated in this paper. The unit cell of the proposed metamaterial graphene absorber is composed of four patch resonators. By tuning the chemical potential of graphene and the geometric size of each patch, the simulated total reflectivity is less than -10 dB from 22.02 to 36.61 THz and with the total thickness of 0.76 um (only 0.09λ at the lowest frequency). The analysis of the surface current, magnetic field and power flow distributions has been performed to better understand the absorption mechanism...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Sucheta Sharma, Peter Eiswirt, Jürgen Petter
A prototype multi-wavelength interferometric, phase shifting distance sensor based on linear electro optic effect has been demonstrated in this work to improve the measurement speed of a commercial four-wavelength interferometer. Experimental results revealed the phase modulation ability of the sensor, preserving equivalent efficiency for nanometer-scale absolute distance measurement similar to present piezoelectricity driven mechanical phase modulation. The electro optic sensor working under free beam propagation can significantly overcome the limitations experienced by mechanical phase modulation technique such as the restricted value for the modulating frequency and as well the high driving voltage requirement...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Hyung Gon Shin, Hyong Seo Yoon, Jin Sung Kim, Minju Kim, June Yeong Lim, Sanghyuck Yu, Ji Hoon Park, Yeonjin Yi, Taekyeong Kim, Seong Chan Jun, Seongil Im
Van der Waals (vdW) Schottky junction between two dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is introduced here for both vertical and in-plane current devices: Schottky diodes and metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs). The Schottky barrier between conducting NbS2 and semiconducting n-MoS2 appeared as large as ~0.5 eV due to their work function difference. While Schottky diode shows an ideality factor of 1.8~4.0 with ON/OFF current ratio of 103~105, Schottky effect MESFET displays little gate hysteresis and ideal subthreshold swing of 60~80 mV/dec due to low density traps at the vdW interface...
February 5, 2018: Nano Letters
Wei Xia, Chuncheng Li, Hui Hao, Yiping Wang, Xiaoqi Ni, Dongmei Guo, Ming Wang
A novel position-sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was constructed with direct phase modulation by a built-in electro-optic modulator. Pure sinusoidal phase modulation of the light was produced, and the first harmonic of the interference signal was extracted to dynamically maintain the interferometer phase to the most sensitive point of the interferogram. Therefore, the minute vibration of the object was coded on the variation of the interference signal and could be directly retrieved by the output voltage of a photodetector...
February 1, 2018: Applied Optics
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