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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226668/specific-dopamine-sensing-based-on-short-term-plasticity-behavior-of-a-whole-organic-artificial-synapse
#1
Martina Giordani, Marcello Berto, Michele Di Lauro, Carlo Augusto Bortolotti, Michele Zoli, Fabio Biscarini
In this work, we demonstrate the ultra-sensitive and selec-tive detection of dopamine by means of a neuro-inspired device platform without the need of a specific recognition moiety. The sensor is a whole organic device featuring two electrodes made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate - PEDOT:PSS - patterned on a polydymethylsiloxane - PDMS - flexible substrate. One electrode is pulsed with a train of voltage square waves, to mimic the pre-synaptic neuron behavior, while the other is used to record the displacement current, mimicking the post-synaptic neuron...
December 11, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#2
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218452/inhibition-of-the-k-conductance-and-cole-moore-shift-of-the-oncogenic-kv10-1-channel-by-amiodarone
#3
C Barriga-Montoya, A Huanosta-Gutiérrez, A Reyes-Vaca, A Hernández-Cruz, A Picones, F Gómez-Lagunas
The ectopic overexpression of the voltage-dependent Eag1 (Kv10.1) K+ channel is associated with the cancerous phenotype in about 70% of human cancers and tumor cell lines. Recent reports showed that, compared with the canonical Shaker-related Kv family, Kv10.1 presents unique structural and functional properties. Herein, we report the interaction of the class III anti-arrhythmic compound amiodarone with Kv10.1. Using whole-cell patch clamp, we found that amiodarone inhibits Kv10.1 channel conductance with nanomolar affinity...
December 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217583/structure-of-the-cold-and-menthol-sensing-ion-channel-trpm8
#4
Ying Yin, Mengyu Wu, Lejla Zubcevic, William F Borschel, Gabriel C Lander, Seok-Yong Lee
Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) cation channels are polymodal sensors that are involved in a variety of physiological processes. Within the TRPM family, member 8 (TRPM8) is the primary cold- and menthol-sensor in humans. We determined the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the full-length TRPM8 from the collared flycatcher at an overall resolution of ~4.1 Å. Our TRPM8 structure reveals a three-layered architecture. The amino-terminal domain with a fold distinct among known TRP structures, together with the carboxyl-terminal region, forms a large two-layered cytosolic ring that extensively interacts with the transmembrane channel layer...
December 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215582/recent-enhancements-to-interline-and-electron-multiplying-ccd-image-sensors
#5
Eric G Stevens, Jeffrey A Clayhold, Hung Doan, Robert P Fabinski, Jaroslav Hynecek, Stephen L Kosman, Christopher Parks
This paper describes recent process modifications made to enhance the performance of interline and electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) image sensors. By use of MeV ion implantation, quantum efficiency in the NIR region of the spectrum was increased by 2×, and image smear was reduced by 6 dB. By reducing the depth of the shallow photodiode (PD) implants, the photodiode-to-vertical-charge-coupled-device (VCCD) transfer gate voltage required for no-lag operation was reduced by 3 V, and the electronic shutter voltage was reduced by 9 V...
December 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207488/a-wideband-magnetoresistive-sensor-for-monitoring-dynamic-fault-slip-in-laboratory-fault-friction-experiments
#6
Brian D Kilgore
A non-contact, wideband method of sensing dynamic fault slip in laboratory geophysical experiments employs an inexpensive magnetoresistive sensor, a small neodymium rare earth magnet, and user built application-specific wideband signal conditioning. The magnetoresistive sensor generates a voltage proportional to the changing angles of magnetic flux lines, generated by differential motion or rotation of the near-by magnet, through the sensor. The performance of an array of these sensors compares favorably to other conventional position sensing methods employed at multiple locations along a 2 m long × 0...
December 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206162/a-45-nm-stacked-cmos-image-sensor-process-technology-for-submicron-pixel
#7
Seiji Takahashi, Yi-Min Huang, Jhy-Jyi Sze, Tung-Ting Wu, Fu-Sheng Guo, Wei-Cheng Hsu, Tung-Hsiung Tseng, King Liao, Chin-Chia Kuo, Tzu-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Chieh Chiang, Chun-Hao Chuang, Keng-Yu Chou, Chi-Hsien Chung, Kuo-Yu Chou, Chien-Hsien Tseng, Chuan-Joung Wang, Dun-Nien Yaung
A submicron pixel's light and dark performance were studied by experiment and simulation. An advanced node technology incorporated with a stacked CMOS image sensor (CIS) is promising in that it may enhance performance. In this work, we demonstrated a low dark current of 3.2 e-/s at 60 °C, an ultra-low read noise of 0.90 e-·rms, a high full well capacity (FWC) of 4100 e-, and blooming of 0.5% in 0.9 μm pixels with a pixel supply voltage of 2.8 V. In addition, the simulation study result of 0.8 μm pixels is discussed...
December 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198756/cav2-2-gates-calcium-independent-but-voltage-dependent-secretion-in-mammalian-sensory-neurons
#8
Zuying Chai, Changhe Wang, Rong Huang, Yuan Wang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qihui Wu, Yeshi Wang, Xi Wu, Lianghong Zheng, Chen Zhang, Wei Guo, Wei Xiong, Jiuping Ding, Feipeng Zhu, Zhuan Zhou
Action potential induces membrane depolarization and triggers intracellular free Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+)-dependent secretion (CDS) via Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. We report a new type of somatic exocytosis triggered by the action potential per se-Ca2+-independent but voltage-dependent secretion (CiVDS)-in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Here we uncovered the molecular mechanism of CiVDS, comprising a voltage sensor, fusion machinery, and their linker. Specifically, the voltage-gated N-type Ca2+ channel (CaV2...
November 23, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195299/noise-activated-bistable-sensor-based-on-chaotic-system-with-output-defined-by-temporal-coding-and-firing-rate
#9
Wojciech Korneta, Iacyel Gomes
Traditional bistable sensors use external bias signal to drive its response between states and their detection strategy is based on the output power spectral density or the residence time difference (RTD) in two sensor states. Recently, the noise activated nonlinear dynamic sensors driven only by noise based on RTD technique have been proposed. Here, we present experimental results of dc voltage measurements by noise-driven bistable sensor based on electronic Chua's circuit operating in a chaotic regime where two single scroll attractors coexist...
November 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193480/rhabdomyolysis-and-fluctuating-asymptomatic-hyperckemia-associated-with-cacna1s-variant
#10
Charenya Anandan, Mark A Cipriani, Ruple S Laughlin, Zhiyv Niu, Margherita Milone
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CACNA1S encodes Cav 1.1, a voltage sensor for muscle excitation-contraction coupling, which activates the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) leading to calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. CACNA1S mutations cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis, malignant hyperthermia and congenital myopathy. RYR1 mutations result in congenital myopathy, malignant hyperthermia and rhabdomyolysis. METHODS: To describe a novel phenotype associated with a CACNA1S variant at a site previously linked to hypokalemic periodic paralysis...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193176/using-voltage-sensor-toxins-and-their-molecular-targets-to-investigate-nav-1-8-gating
#11
John Gilchrist, Frank Bosmans
Voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channel gating is a complex phenomenon which involves a distinct contribution of four integral voltage-sensing domains (VSDI, VSDII, VSDIII, and VSDIV). Utilizing accrued pharmacological and structural insights, we build on an established chimera approach to introduce animal toxin sensitivity in each VSD of an acceptor channel by transferring in portable S3b-S4 motifs from the four VSDs of a toxin-susceptible donor channel (NaV 1.2). By doing so, we observe that in NaV 1.8, a relatively unexplored channel subtype with distinctly slow gating kinetics, VSDI-III participate in channel opening whereas VSDIV can regulate opening as well as fast inactivation...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192277/graphene-edge-dielectrophoretic-tweezers-for-trapping-of-biomolecules
#12
Avijit Barik, Yao Zhang, Roberto Grassi, Binoy Paulose Nadappuram, Joshua B Edel, Tony Low, Steven J Koester, Sang-Hyun Oh
The many unique properties of graphene, such as the tunable optical, electrical, and plasmonic response make it ideally suited for applications such as biosensing. As with other surface-based biosensors, however, the performance is limited by the diffusive transport of target molecules to the surface. Here we show that atomically sharp edges of monolayer graphene can generate singular electrical field gradients for trapping biomolecules via dielectrophoresis. Graphene-edge dielectrophoresis pushes the physical limit of gradient-force-based trapping by creating atomically sharp tweezers...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183797/increase-in-ca2-current-by-sustained-camp-levels-enhances-proliferation-rate-in-gh3-cells
#13
Andréia Laura Rodrigues, Marcella Brescia, Andreas Kolshinski, Thaís Helena Moreira, Ryan Cameron, George Bailley, Paulo S L Beirão, Manuela Zaccollo, Jader S Cruz
AIMS: Ca2+ and cAMP are important intracellular modulators. In order to generate intracellular signals with various amplitudes, as well as different temporal and spatial properties, a tightly and precise control of these modulators in intracellular compartments is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of elevated and sustained cAMP levels on voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents and proliferation in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. MAIN METHODS: Effect of long-term exposure to forskolin and dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) on Ca2+ current density and cell proliferation rate were determined by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and real time cell monitoring system...
November 25, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171067/towards-scintillator-high-gain-avalanche-rushing-photoconductor-active-matrix-flat-panel-imager-sharp-amfpi-initial-fabrication-and-characterization
#14
James R Scheuermann, Adrian Howansky, Marc Hansroul, Sébastien Léveillé, Kenkichi Tanioka, Wei Zhao
PURPOSE: We present the first prototype Scintillator High Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor Active Matrix Flat Panel Imager (SHARP-AMFPI). This detector includes a layer of avalanche amorphous Selenium (a-Se) (HARP) as the photoconductor in an indirect detector to amplify the signal and reduce the effects of electronic noise to obtain quantum noise limited images for low dose applications. It is the first time avalanche a-Se has been used in a solid-state imaging device and poses as a possible solution to eliminate the effects of electronic noise, which is crucial for low-dose imaging performance of AMFPI...
November 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167462/inactivation-of-kcnq1-potassium-channels-reveals-dynamic-coupling-between-voltage-sensing-and-pore-opening
#15
Panpan Hou, Jodene Eldstrom, Jingyi Shi, Ling Zhong, Kelli McFarland, Yuan Gao, David Fedida, Jianmin Cui
In voltage-activated ion channels, voltage sensor (VSD) activation induces pore opening via VSD-pore coupling. Previous studies show that the pore in KCNQ1 channels opens when the VSD activates to both intermediate and fully activated states, resulting in the intermediate open (IO) and activated open (AO) states, respectively. It is also well known that accompanying KCNQ1 channel opening, the ionic current is suppressed by a rapid process called inactivation. Here we show that inactivation of KCNQ1 channels derives from the different mechanisms of the VSD-pore coupling that lead to the IO and AO states, respectively...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160691/bioinspired-tribotronic-resistive-switching-memory-for-self-powered-memorizing-mechanical-stimuli
#16
Yihui Sun, Xin Zheng, Xiaoqin Yan, Qingliang Liao, Shuo Liu, Guangjie Zhang, Yong Li, Yue Zhang
Haptic memory, from the interaction of skin and brain, can not only perceive external stimuli but also memorize it after removing the external stimuli. For the mimicry of human sensory memory, a self-powered artificial tactile memorizing system were developed by coupling bionic electronic skin and nonvolatile RRAM. The tribotronic nanogenerator is utilized as electronic skin to transform the touching signal into electric pulse, which will be programmed into the artificial brain: RRAM. Owing to the advanced structural designs and accurately parameter matching, including the output voltages and the resistances in different resistive states, the artificial brain can be operated at self-powered mode to memorize the touch stimuli with the responsivity up to 2000%...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158540/calcium-binding-and-voltage-gating-in-cx46-hemichannels
#17
Bernardo I Pinto, Amaury Pupo, Isaac E García, Karel Mena-Ulecia, Agustín D Martínez, Ramón Latorre, Carlos Gonzalez
The opening of connexin (Cx) hemichannels in the membrane is tightly regulated by calcium (Ca(2+)) and membrane voltage. Electrophysiological and atomic force microscopy experiments indicate that Ca(2+) stabilizes the hemichannel closed state. However, structural data show that Ca(2+) binding induces an electrostatic seal preventing ion transport without significant structural rearrangements. In agreement with the closed-state stabilization hypothesis, we found that the apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity is increased as the voltage is made more negative...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149085/the-design-and-characterization-of-a-prototype-wideband-voltage-sensor-based-on-a-resistive-divider
#18
Fernando Garnacho, Abderrahim Khamlichi, Jorge Rovira
The most important advantage of voltage dividers over traditional voltage transformers is that voltage dividers do not have an iron core with non-linear hysteresis characteristics. The voltage dividers have a linear behavior with respect to over-voltages and a flat frequency response larger frequency range. The weak point of a voltage divider is the influence of external high-voltage (HV) and earth parts in its vicinity. Electrical fields arising from high voltages in neighboring phases and from ground conductors and structures are one of their main sources for systematic measurement errors...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149059/a-high-performance-portable-transient-electro-magnetic-sensor-for-unexploded-ordnance-detection
#19
Haofeng Wang, Shudong Chen, Shuang Zhang, Zhiwen Yuan, Haiyang Zhang, Dong Fang, Jun Zhu
Portable transient electromagnetic (TEM) systems can be well adapted to various terrains, including mountainous, woodland, and other complex terrains. They are widely used for the detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO). As the core component of the portable TEM system, the sensor is constructed with a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. Based on the primary field of the transmitting coil and internal noise of the receiving coil, the design and testing of such a sensor is described in detail. Results indicate that the primary field of the transmitting coil depends on the diameter, mass, and power of the coil...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149035/wearete-a-scalable-wearable-e-textile-triboelectric-energy-harvesting-system-for-human-motion-scavenging
#20
Xian Li, Ye Sun
In this paper, we report the design, experimental validation and application of a scalable, wearable e-textile triboelectric energy harvesting (WearETE) system for scavenging energy from activities of daily living. The WearETE system features ultra-low-cost material and manufacturing methods, high accessibility, and high feasibility for powering wearable sensors and electronics. The foam and e-textile are used as the two active tribomaterials for energy harvester design with the consideration of flexibility and wearability...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
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