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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220665/mtorc1-activation-during-repeated-regeneration-impairs-somatic-stem-cell-maintenance
#1
Samantha Haller, Subir Kapuria, Rebeccah R Riley, Monique N O'Leary, Katherine H Schreiber, Julie K Andersen, Simon Melov, Jianwen Que, Thomas A Rando, Jason Rock, Brian K Kennedy, Joseph T Rodgers, Heinrich Jasper
The balance between self-renewal and differentiation ensures long-term maintenance of stem cell (SC) pools in regenerating epithelial tissues. This balance is challenged during periods of high regenerative pressure and is often compromised in aged animals. Here, we show that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a key regulator of SC loss during repeated regenerative episodes. In response to regenerative stimuli, SCs in the intestinal epithelium of the fly and in the tracheal epithelium of mice exhibit transient activation of TOR signaling...
December 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217688/sustained-mapk-erk-activation-in-adult-schwann-cells-impairs-nerve-repair
#2
Ilaria Cervellini, Jorge Galino, Ning Zhu, Shannen Allen, Carmen Birchmeier, David L Bennett
The MAPK/ERK pathway has a critical role in PNS development. It is required for Schwann cell (SC) differentiation and myelination; sustained embryonic MAPK/ERK activation in SCs enhances myelin growth overcoming signals that normally end myelination. Excess activation of this pathway can be maladaptive as in adulthood acute strong activation of MAPK/ERK has been shown to cause SC dedifferentiation and demyelination. We used a mouse model (including male and female animals) in which gain of function Mek1DD allele produces sustained MAPK/ERK activation in adult SCs and we determined the impact of such activation on nerve repair...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216547/seasonal-variations-of-c1-c4-alkyl-nitrates-at-a-coastal-site-in-hong-kong-influence-of-photochemical-formation-and-oceanic-emissions
#3
Junwei Song, Yingyi Zhang, Yu Huang, Kin Fai Ho, Zibing Yuan, Zhenhao Ling, Xiaojun Niu, Yuan Gao, Long Cui, Peter K K Louie, Shun-Cheng Lee, Senchao Lai
Five C1-C4 alkyl nitrates (RONO2) were measured at a coastal site in Hong Kong in four selected months of 2011 and 2012. The total mixing ratios of C1-C4 RONO2 (Σ5RONO2) ranged from 15.4 to 143.7 pptv with an average of 65.9 ± 33.0 pptv. C3-C4 RONO2 (2-butyl nitrate and 2-propyl nitrate) were the most abundant RONO2 during the entire sampling period. The mixing ratios of C3-C4 RONO2 were higher in winter than those in summer, while the ones of methyl nitrate (MeONO2) were higher in summer than those in winter...
November 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216010/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-role-in-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Albert M Chung
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that has an important anti-inflammatory role in the immune system. Research has shown that CGRP is an integral part in peripheral nerve regeneration by (1) suppressing tumor necrosis factor-α, (2) forming an initial nerve bridge by increasing fibroblast motility and extracellular matrix synthesis, (3) vascularizing the spinal cord injury site, and (4) inducing Schwann cell (SC) proliferation. In this treatise, the following hypotheses will be explored: (1) CGRP is induced by c-Jun to regulate SC dedifferentiation, (2) CGRP promotes the chemotaxic migration of SCs along the nerve bridge, and (3) CGRP induces myelinophagy by activating various signaling pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase...
December 7, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215941/the-role-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-the-transdifferentiation-from-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-to-schwann-cells
#5
Dapeng Liao, Xiaojie Li, Yan Dong, Gang Sun
This study was aimed to investigate the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the differentiation from periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to Schwann cells (SCs) and the possible mechanisms. FzB was applied to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of differentiated PDLSCs (dPDLSCs), and then immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Western blotting analysis were performed to detect SC marker genes and proteins such as S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and P75NTR...
December 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214405/spiritual-well-being-and-its-relationship-with-mindfulness-self-compassion-and-satisfaction-with-life-in-baccalaureate-nursing-students-a-correlation-study
#6
Monali D Mathad, S K Rajesh, Balaram Pradhan
The present study aimed to explore the correlates and predictors of spiritual well-being among nursing students. One hundred and forty-five BSc nursing students were recruited from three nursing colleges in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Data were collected using SHALOM, FMI, SCS-SF and SWLS questionnaires and analysed by the Pearson correlation test and multiple regression analysis. The results of our study revealed a significant correlation between variables, and a considerable amount of variance was explained by self-compassion, mindfulness and satisfaction with life on personal, communal, environmental and transcendental domains of spiritual well-being...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211293/oral-cancer-stem-cells-properties-and-consequences
#7
Camila Oliveira Rodini, Nathália Martins Lopes, Vanessa Soares Lara, Ian Campbell Mackenzie
Research on cancer stem cells (CSCs) has greatly increased in the field of medicine and pathology; however, some conceptual misunderstandings are still present among the public as well as within the general scientific community that is not yet familiar with the subject. The very first problem is the misinterpretation of CSCs as a synonym of their normal counterparts, the well-known stem cells (SCs). Particularly in Dentistry, another common mistake is the misinterpretation of oral CSCs as normal tooth-derived SCs...
November 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210719/neuromodulatory-burst-therapy-for-agent-orange-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-a-case-report
#8
Roxanna Rasekhi, Danielle Babb, Chane Price
The prevalence of neuromuscular diseases and peripheral neuropathies in veterans exposed to Agent Orange (AO) is particularly high. Pharmacologic management has not been effective for these patients. Burst therapy spinal cord stimulation (SCS), recently approved for use in the United States, has had demonstrable success in both Europe and Australia. We present a patient with AO-induced peripheral neuropathy who was successfully treated with burst SCS. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of burst SCS for treatment of peripheral neuropathy related to AO exposure...
November 27, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207035/in-vitro-characterization-of-spheres-derived-from-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#9
Agata Olejniczak, Magdalena Szaryńska, Zbigniew Kmieć
Spherical cultures (SCs) can be regarded in cancer research as a link between in vitro investigations on cancer lines and in vivo studies of tumor development. SCs are believed to mimic tumor architecture and to be enriched in cancer stem cell-like cells (CSC-like cells). In the present study we characterized colonospheres derived from colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, and we confirmed the ability of HCT116 and HT29 cell lines to form spheres within serum-free medium, however, the detailed analysis presented the major differences concerning their characteristics including morphology, phenotype, proliferative potential, distribution in the cell cycle phases and spherogenicity...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205238/the-role-of-the-%C3%AF-holes-in-stability-of-non-bonded-chalcogenidebenzene-interactions-the-ground-and-excited-states
#10
Robert Sedlak, Saltuk M Eyrilmez, Pavel Hobza, Dana Nachtigallova
The stability of the T-shaped and stacked complexes of benzene with methanethial (CH2S) and methaneselone (CH2Se) and their difluoro-, dichloro-, dibromo-derivatives is investigated in their ground and first electronic excited states by means of the SCS-ADC2 method. The origin of the stabilization in the ground state is discussed based on the results of calculations performed using the DFT-SAPT method. Calculations show that the stability of the T-shaped conformers increases upon electronic excitation, while it decreases for most of the stacked conformers...
December 5, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204832/plasticity-of-the-muscle-stem-cell-microenvironment
#11
Ivana Dinulovic, Regula Furrer, Christoph Handschin
Satellite cells (SCs) are adult muscle stem cells capable of repairing damaged and creating new muscle tissue throughout life. Their functionality is tightly controlled by a microenvironment composed of a wide variety of factors, such as numerous secreted molecules and different cell types, including blood vessels, oxygen, hormones, motor neurons, immune cells, cytokines, fibroblasts, growth factors, myofibers, myofiber metabolism, the extracellular matrix and tissue stiffness. This complex niche controls SC biology-quiescence, activation, proliferation, differentiation or renewal and return to quiescence...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201002/a-comparison-of-different-slicing-planes-in-preservation-of-major-hippocampal-pathway-fibers-in-the-mouse
#12
Guoxiang Xiong, Hannah Metheny, Brian N Johnson, Akiva S Cohen
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory and higher cognitive functions, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various neuropathological disorders. Electrophysiological recording undertaken in live brain slices is one of the most powerful tools for investigating hippocampal cellular and network activities. The plane for cutting the slices determines which afferent and/or efferent connections are best preserved, and there are three commonly used slices: hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC), coronal and transverse...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199012/choroidal-changes-after-suprachoroidal-injection-of-triamcinolone-in-eyes-with-macular-edema-secondary-to-retinal-vein-occlusion
#13
Alex S Willoughby, Vivian S Vuong, David Cunefare, Sina Farsiu, Glenn Noronha, Ronald P Danis, Glenn Yiu
PURPOSE: To evaluate choroidal and suprachoroidal changes following suprachoroidal injection of triamcinolone acetonide injectable suspension (CLS-TA), in eyes with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study within a randomized, controlled phase 2 clinical trial. METHODS: Enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) images were analyzed from 38 eyes of 38 treatment naïve patients with macular edema due to RVO, enrolled in the prospective Suprachoroidal Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide with Intravitreal Aflibercept in Subjects with Macular Edema Due to Retinal Vein Occlusion (TANZANITE) study who received either a suprachoroidal injection of CLS-TA with an intravitreal injection of aflibercept (combination arm) or only an intravitreal injection of aflibercept (monotherapy arm) followed by monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections in both arms based on pro re nata (PRN) criteria...
November 30, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196756/magnetic-stratigraphic-dating-of-marine-hydrogenetic-ferromanganese-crusts
#14
Wei Yuan, Huaiyang Zhou, Xixi Zhao, Zhenyu Yang, Qunhui Yang, Benduo Zhu
Deep-sea hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts are both potential polymetallic resources and records of long-term environmental changes. For palaeoceanographic studies, it is important to construct a detailed and reliable chronological framework. Here, we report the results of a detailed magnetostratigraphic and rock magnetic study of four hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts from the Pacific Ocean (PO-01), South China Sea (SCS-01, SCS-02) and Indian Ocean (IO-01). Two groups of characteristic remanent magnetization directions were defined with nearly antipodal normal and reversed polarities for samples PO-01, SCS-01 and SCS-02, indicating a primary record of the Earth's magnetic field...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195055/neuromuscular-junction-formation-aging-and-disorders
#15
Lei Li, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Synapses, the fundamental unit in neuronal circuits, are critical for learning and memory, perception, thinking, and reaction. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse formed between motoneurons and skeletal muscle fibers that is wrapped by Schwann cells (SCs). It is essential for controlling muscle contraction. NMJ formation requires intimate interactions among motoneurons, muscles, and SCs. Deficits in NMJ formation and maintenance cause neuromuscular disorders, including congenital myasthenic syndrome and myasthenia gravis...
December 1, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195026/effects-of-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-system-on-testicular-differentiation-and-function-a-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
R Cannarella, R A Condorelli, S La Vignera, A E Calogero
We recently described the occurrence of cryptorchidism, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, and genital abnormalities in patients with distal 15q chromosome structural abnormalities. This observation brought us to hypothesize that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R), mapping on the 15q 26.3 chromosomal band, may be involved in testicular function. To further evaluate this topic, we reviewed in vitro and in vivo studies exploring the role of the IGF system [IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, insulin receptor substrates (IRS)] at the testicular level both in animals and in humans...
December 1, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194599/teens-and-spice-a-review-of-adolescent-fatalities-associated-with-synthetic-cannabinoid-use
#17
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Saeideh Amini, Abraham Ebenezer Paul
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are commonly abused by adolescents with reported past year (2013) use in high school students between 3 and 10%. Standard adolescent postmortem toxicology does not include routine SC analysis, and thus, the true burden of fatalities related to SCs is unknown. A retrospective case review of two cases included scene investigation, interviews, autopsy, and toxicology. SCs were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Review of the eight adolescent SC-associated fatalities in the literature revealed five of eight cases had no other discernible cause of death on autopsy...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192201/mechanism-in-external-field-mediated-trapping-of-bacteria-sensitive-to-nanoscale-surface-chemical-structure
#18
Shiho Tokonami, Emi Shimizu, Mamoru Tamura, Takuya Iida
Molecular imprinting technique enables the selective binding of nanoscale target molecules to a polymer film, within which their chemical structure is transcribed. Here, we report the successful production of mixed bacterial imprinted film (BIF) from several food poisoning bacteria by the simultaneous imprinting of their nanoscale surface chemical structures (SCS), and provide highly selective trapping of original micron-scale bacteria used in the production process of mixed BIF even for multiple kinds of bacteria in real samples...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190268/synthetic-cannabinoid-and-mitragynine-exposure-of-law-enforcement-agents-during-the-raid-of-an-illegal-laboratory-nevada-2014
#19
Loren Tapp, Jessica G Ramsey, Anita Wen, Roy Gerona
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188832/the-aromatic-character-of-10-annulenes-and-dicupra-10-annulenes-from-current-density-calculations
#20
Maria Dimitrova, Dage Sundholm
We have investigated the aromatic properties of seven low-lying isomers of [10]annulene and of the recently synthesized dicupra[10]annulene compounds that were crystallised with two or four lithium counterions (Wei et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 60-63). The molecular structures of the [10]annulene conformers and the dicupra[10]annulenes with bulky trimethylsilyl (TMS) and phenyl groups, as well as the corresponding unsubstituted dicupra[10]annulenes were optimised using density functional theory, employing a semi-empirical dispersion correction to consider van der Waals interactions...
November 30, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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