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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433172/preparation-and-characterization-of-chitosan-derivatives-and-their-application-as-flame-retardants-in-thermoplastic-polyurethane
#1
Xiaodong Liu, Xiaoyu Gu, Jun Sun, Sheng Zhang
Our previous work has demonstrated that chitosan (CS) can be directly used as charring agents. In this paper, efforts were made to further improve the thermal stability and charring ability of CS by reacting with benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde and hydroxybenzaldehyde respectively to obtain different CS derivatives. CS derivatives in association with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) was then introduced into thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) to prepare flame retardant TPU composites. The sample containing 18.75% APP and 6...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429682/refractive-index-and-extinction-coefficient-of-nh2ch-nh2pbi3-perovskite-photovoltaic-material
#2
Ziang Xie, Shuren Sun, Yu Yan, Lili Zhang, Ruixiang Hou, Fuyang Tian, Guogang Qin
Very recently, the NH2CH=NH2PbI3 (FAPbI3) perovskite material has attracted much attention in fabricating solar cells (SCs). For a photovoltaic material, its refractive index and extinction coefficient, n(λ) and k(λ), as functions of λ, are important to study its optical properties and to estimate the power conversion efficiency potential for the SCs made of it. As far as we know, so far there is no reporting of n(λ) and k(λ) for the FAPbI3 material. In this article, with spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements, the n(λ) and k(λ), as well as Eg = 1...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424709/evolutionary-analysis-of-snf1-related-protein-kinase2-snrk2-and-calcium-sensor-scs-gene-lineages-and-dimerization-of-rice-homologs-suggest-deep-biochemical-conservation-across-angiosperms
#3
Lynn D Holappa, Pamela C Ronald, Elena M Kramer
Members of the sucrose non-fermenting related kinase Group2 (SnRK2) subclasses are implicated in both direct and indirect abscisic acid (ABA) response pathways. We have used phylogenetic, biochemical, and transient in vivo approaches to examine interactions between Triticum tauschii protein kinase 1 (TtPK1) and an interacting protein, Oryza sativa SnRK2-calcium sensor (OsSCS1). Given that TtPK1 has 100% identity with its rice ortholog, osmotic stress/ABA-activated protein kinase (OsSAPK2), we hypothesized that the SCS and TtPK1 interactions are present in both wheat and rice...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422795/trial-design-and-endpoint-evaluation-in-clinical-studies-addressing-chronic-back-pain
#4
Peter Staats
STUDY DESIGN: A review of the literature evaluating clinical trials of chronic back pain. OBJECTIVE: To assist physicians in assessing the quality of clinical trial data to make the most informed treatment decisions. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic pain is a tremendous public health issue, affecting close to 100 million adults in the United States, and costs the American people billions of dollars. One traditional treatment approach, the long-term use of opiate medications, has recently come under intense scrutiny for problems with complications, diversion, abuse, addiction and lack of efficacy...
April 18, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422349/effects-of-extrinsic-cardiac-nerve-stimulation-on-atrial-fibrillation-inducibility-the-regulatory-role-of-the-spinal-cord
#5
Zixuan Dai, Congxin Huang, Qingyan Zhao, Shujuan Zhang, Hongyi Zhao, Youjing Zhang, Yongsheng Qian, Yanhong Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the mutual regulation of the extrinsic cardiac nerves on atrial electrophysiology and atrial fibrillation (AF) vulnerability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fourteen dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups: spinal cord stimulation (SCS) group (n = 7) and spinal cord block (SCB) group (n = 7). SCS was performed with 90% of the threshold voltage stimulating the T1 -T2 spinal level, while SCB was performed by injecting 2% lidocaine into the epidural space at the T2-3 level...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422330/genetic-relationships-among-female-fertility-disorders-female-fertility-traits-and-productivity-of-holstein-dairy-cows-in-the-early-lactation-period
#6
E Gernand, S König
Fertility health disorders from the early lactation period including retained placenta (REPLA), metritis (MET), corpus luteum persistence (CLP), anoestria/acyclia (AOEAC) and ovarial cysts (OC), as well as overall disease categories (disorders during the postpartal period (DPP), ovary infertility (OINF), overall trait definition "fertility disorders" (FD)), were used to estimate genetic (co)variance components with female fertility and test-day traits. The disease data set comprised 25,142 Holstein cows from parities 1, 2 and 3 resulting in 43,584 lactations...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422182/carbon-nanotube-metal-sulfide-composite-flexible-electrodes-for-high-performance-quantum-dot-sensitized-solar-cells-and-supercapacitors
#7
Chandu V V Muralee Gopi, Seenu Ravi, S Srinivasa Rao, Araveeti Eswar Reddy, Hee-Je Kim
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and metal sulfides have attracted considerable attention owing to their outstanding properties and multiple application areas, such as electrochemical energy conversion and energy storage. Here we describes a cost-effective and facile solution approach to the preparation of metal sulfides (PbS, CuS, CoS, and NiS) grown directly on CNTs, such as CNT/PbS, CNT/CuS, CNT/CoS, and CNT/NiS flexible electrodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) and supercapacitors (SCs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the CNT network was covered with high-purity metal sulfide compounds...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419784/four-extremity-neurostimulation-using-two-cervical-octapolar-leads-and-high-frequency-of-10-khz
#8
Shervin Harandi, Leonardo Kapural
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: A few published reports describe successful clinical use of low-frequency spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the cervical spine resulting in bilateral upper and lower extremity pain relief. Major side-effect when using this modality of SCS is the uneven intensity of paresthesias which are frequently excessive in upper extremities while attempting to achieve optimal paresthesia coverage in all four extremities. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe a successful case of high frequency SCS at 10 kHz where profound control of neuropathic pain of all four extremities was achieved without the complication of paresthesias...
April 18, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419783/high-occurrence-of-bathyarchaeota-mcg-in-the-deep-sea-sediments-of-south-china-sea-quantified-using-newly-designed-pcr-primers
#9
Tiantian Yu, Qianyong Liang, Mingyang Niu, Fengping Wang
The archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota, which is composed of a large number of diverse lineages, is widespread and abundant in marine sediments. Environmental factors that control the distribution, abundance, and evolution of this largely diversified archaeal phylum are currently unclear. In this study, a new pair of specific primers that target the major marine subgroups of bathyarchaeotal 16S rRNA genes was designed and evaluated to investigate the distribution and abundance of Bathyarchaeota in marine sediments...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417542/vertically-oriented-graphene-nanoribbon-fibers-for-high-volumetric-energy-density-all-solid-state-asymmetric-supercapacitors
#10
Lizhi Sheng, Tong Wei, Yuan Liang, Lili Jiang, Liangti Qu, Zhuangjun Fan
Graphene fiber based micro-supercapacitors (GF micro-SCs) have attracted great attention for their potential applications in portable and wearable electronics. However, due to strong π-π stacking of nanosheets for graphene fibers, the limited ion accessible surface area and slow ion diffusion rate leads to low specific capacitance and poor rate performance. Here, the authors report a strategy for the synthesis of a vertically oriented graphene nanoribbon fiber with highly exposed surface area through confined-hydrothermal treatment of interconnected graphene oxide nanoribbons and consequent laser irradiation process...
April 18, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413783/two-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-sites-in-%C3%AE-1-at-gene-and-their-association-with-somatic-cell-score-in-chinese-holstein-cows
#11
Xiao-Fei Guo, Wen-Ping Hu, Xian-Zheng Lang, Qiu-Ling Li, Xiang-Yu Wang, Ran Di, Qiu-Yue Liu, Xiao-Lin Liu, Yong-Fu An, Ming-Xing Chu
BACKGROUND: Alpha 1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) may affect the susceptibility of mastitis in dairy cattle for its possible role in the protection of lactoferrin from proteolytic degradation in the mammary. Milk somatic cell score (SCS) is a logarithmic transformation of the milk somatic cell count widely used as an index to evaluate mastitis. To study the relationships of α1-AT gene and SCS in Chinese Holstein cows, methods of PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and CRS-PCR technologies were used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms sites in α1-AT gene...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413068/epithelial-mesenchymal-micro-niches-govern-stem-cell-lineage-choices
#12
Hanseul Yang, Rene C Adam, Yejing Ge, Zhong L Hua, Elaine Fuchs
Adult tissue stem cells (SCs) reside in niches, which, through intercellular contacts and signaling, influence SC behavior. Once activated, SCs typically give rise to short-lived transit-amplifying cells (TACs), which then progress to differentiate into their lineages. Here, using single-cell RNA-seq, we unearth unexpected heterogeneity among SCs and TACs of hair follicles. We trace the roots of this heterogeneity to micro-niches along epithelial-mesenchymal interfaces, where progenitors display molecular signatures reflective of spatially distinct local signals and intercellular interactions...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412554/prompt-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-induced-by-a-hierarchically-aligned-fibrin-nanofiber-hydrogel
#13
Jinrong Du, Jianheng Liu, Shenglian Yao, Haiquan Mao, Jiang Peng, Xun Sun, Zheng Cao, Yongdong Yang, Bo Xiao, Yiguo Wang, Peifu Tang, Xiumei Wang
Fibrin plays a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration, which could occur spontaneously in the format of longitudinally oriented fibrin cables during the initial stage of nerve regeneration. This fibrin cable can direct migration and proliferation of Schwann cells and axonal regrowth, which is very important to nerve regeneration. In the present study, we prepared a three-dimensional hierarchically aligned fibrin nanofiber hydrogel (AFG) through electrospinning and molecular self-assembly to resemble the architecture and biological function of the native fibrin cable...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410114/multilayer-optimization-of-heterogeneous-networks-using-grammatical-genetic-programming
#14
Michael Fenton, David Lynch, Stepan Kucera, Holger Claussen, Michael O'Neill
Heterogeneous cellular networks are composed of macro cells (MCs) and small cells (SCs) in which all cells occupy the same bandwidth. Provision has been made under the third generation partnership project-long term evolution framework for enhanced intercell interference coordination (eICIC) between cell tiers. Expanding on previous works, this paper instruments grammatical genetic programming to evolve control heuristics for heterogeneous networks. Three aspects of the eICIC framework are addressed including setting SC powers and selection biases, MC duty cycles, and scheduling of user equipments (UEs) at SCs...
April 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408307/mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-disorganization-in-parkinson-s-disease-relevant-pink1-and-dj1-mutants
#15
Irene Lopez-Fabuel, Lucia Martin-Martin, Monica Resch-Beusher, Garikoitz Azkona, Rosario Sanchez-Pernaute, Juan P Bolaños
Brain mitochondrial complex I (CI) damage is associated with the loss of the dopaminergic neurons of the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients. However, whether CI inhibition is associated with any alteration of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) organization in PD patients is unknown. To address this issue, here we analyzed the MRC by blue native gel electrophoresis (BNGE) followed by western blotting, in mitochondria purified from fibroblasts of patients harboring PD-relevant Pink1 mutations...
April 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405930/single-cell-sequencing-and-tumorigenesis-improved-understanding-of-tumor-evolution-and-metastasis
#16
REVIEW
Darrell L Ellsworth, Heather L Blackburn, Craig D Shriver, Shahrooz Rabizadeh, Patrick Soon-Shiong, Rachel E Ellsworth
Extensive genomic and transcriptomic heterogeneity in human cancer often negatively impacts treatment efficacy and survival, thus posing a significant ongoing challenge for modern treatment regimens. State-of-the-art DNA- and RNA-sequencing methods now provide high-resolution genomic and gene expression portraits of individual cells, facilitating the study of complex molecular heterogeneity in cancer. Important developments in single-cell sequencing (SCS) technologies over the past 5 years provide numerous advantages over traditional sequencing methods for understanding the complexity of carcinogenesis, but significant hurdles must be overcome before SCS can be clinically useful...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403128/an-oxygenated-and-transportable-machine-perfusion-system-fully-rescues-liver-grafts-exposed-to-lethal-ischemic-damage-in-a-pig-model-of-dcd-liver-transplantation
#17
Philippe Compagnon, Eric Levesque, Hassen Hentati, Mara Disabato, Julien Calderaro, Cyrille Feray, Anne Corlu, José Laurent Cohen, Ismail Ben Mosbah, Daniel Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Control of warm ischemia (WI) lesions that occur with donation after circulatory death (DCD) would significantly increase the donor pool for liver transplantation. We aimed to determine whether a novel, oxygenated and hypothermic machine perfusion device (HMP Airdrive system) improves the quality of livers derived from DCDs using a large animal model. METHODS: Cardiac arrest was induced in female large white pigs by IV injection of potassium chloride...
April 11, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402854/in%C3%A2-vivo-interplay-between-p27-kip1-gata3-atoh1-and-pou4f3-converts-non-sensory-cells-to-hair-cells-in-adult-mice
#18
Bradley J Walters, Emily Coak, Jennifer Dearman, Grace Bailey, Tetsuji Yamashita, Bryan Kuo, Jian Zuo
Hearing loss is widespread and persistent because mature mammalian auditory hair cells (HCs) are nonregenerative. In mice, the ability to regenerate HCs from surrounding supporting cells (SCs) declines abruptly after postnatal maturation. We find that combining p27(Kip1) deletion with ectopic ATOH1 expression surmounts this age-related decline, leading to conversion of SCs to HCs in mature mouse cochleae and after noise damage. p27(Kip1) deletion, independent of canonical effects on Rb-family proteins, upregulated GATA3, a co-factor for ATOH1 that is lost from SCs with age...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400726/review-of-epidural-spinal-cord-stimulation-for-augmenting-cough-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
REVIEW
Jan T Hachmann, Jonathan S Calvert, Peter J Grahn, Dina I Drubach, Kendall H Lee, Igor A Lavrov
Spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a debilitating condition for which there is no cure. In addition to loss of somatic sensorimotor functions, SCI is also commonly associated with impairment of autonomic function. Importantly, cough dysfunction due to paralysis of expiratory muscles in combination with respiratory insufficiency can render affected individuals vulnerable to respiratory morbidity. Failure to clear sputum can aggravate both risk for and severity of respiratory infections, accounting for frequent hospitalizations and even mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400720/superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-mediated-forces-enhance-the-migration-of-schwann-cells-across-the-astrocyte-schwann-cell-boundary-in-vitro
#20
Liangliang Huang, Bing Xia, Zhongyang Liu, Quanliang Cao, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
Schwann cells (SCs) are one of the most promising cellular candidates for the treatment of spinal cord injury. However, SCs show poor migratory ability within the astrocyte-rich central nervous system (CNS) environment and exhibit only limited integration with host astrocytes. Our strategy for improving the therapeutic potential of SCs was to magnetically drive SCs to migrate across the astrocyte-SC boundary to intermingle with astrocytes. SCs were firstly magnetized with poly-L-lysine-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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