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Cardiovascular health policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643861/challenges-in-the-development-of-novel-cardiovascular-therapies
#1
T J Hwang, A S Kesselheim
Cardiovascular disease accounts for nearly one in three deaths globally, but few novel therapies have reached patients and clinicians in recent years. This translational report reviews trends in the development and approval of cardiovascular drugs and evaluates recent innovation in the field of cardiovascular disease therapeutics. New policies are needed to better support the development of safe and effective therapies with the greatest potential to improve patient health outcomes.
June 23, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641056/the-odd-couple-using-biomedical-and-intersectional-approaches-to-address-health-inequities
#2
Olena Hankivsky, Lesley Doyal, Gillian Einstein, Ursula Kelly, Janet Shim, Lynn Weber, Robin Repta
BACKGROUND: Better understanding and addressing health inequities is a growing global priority. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we contribute to the literature examining complex relationships between biological and social dimensions in the field of health inequalities. Specifically, we explore the potential of intersectionality to advance current approaches to socio-biological entwinements. DESIGN: We provide a brief overview of current approaches to combining both biological and social factors in a single study, and then investigate the contributions of an intersectional framework to such work...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639971/effective-approaches-to-address-the-global-cardiovascular-disease-burden
#3
Pablo M Lamelas, Salim Yusuf, J D Schwalm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), highlight barriers to evidence-based care and propose effective interventions based on identified barriers. RECENT FINDINGS: The global burden of CVD is increasing worldwide. This trend is steeper in lower income countries, where CVD incidence and fatality remains high. Risk factor control, around the world, remains poor, especially in lower and middle-income countries. Barriers at the patient, healthcare provider and health system have been identified...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638599/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#4
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset CKD. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing CKD in the long term...
February 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631259/preventive-healthcare-and-health-promotion-in-local-governments-based-on-the-example-of-health-policy-programmes-concerned-with-cardiovascular-diseases-implemented-in-poland-in-2009-2014
#5
Anna Augustynowicz, Aleksandra Czerw, Mariola Kowalska, Krzysztof Bobiński, Adam Fronczak
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the cause of over 4.3 million deaths in the World Health Organisation European Region and around 1.9 million deaths in the European Union member states alone. They are also the number-one cause of death in Poland. In 2010 CVDs accounted for 46% of all deaths, and in 2013 - 45.8%. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the tasks of local government units in the area of preventive healthcare and health promotion on the basis of health policy programmes concerning CVD...
2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628583/improving-hypertension-control-population-wide-in-minnesota
#6
Kathryn Foti, John Auerbach, Sanne Magnan
CONTEXT: Hypertension is a common and costly risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but just over half of all adults with hypertension have their blood pressure controlled nationally. In Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota, the rate of hypertension control is approximately 70% despite a rate of hypertension control similar to the national average as recently as the first half of the 1990s. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to identify factors in Minneapolis-St Paul and state-level policies and programs in Minnesota that may have contributed to the more rapid increase in blood pressure control there than that in the rest of the nation and to identify factors that can potentially be replicated in other jurisdictions...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624760/how-do-smoking-cessation-medicines-compare-with-respect-to-their-neuropsychiatric-safety-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-network-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#7
Kyla H Thomas, Deborah Caldwell, Michael N Dalili, David Gunnell, Marcus R Munafò, Matt Stevenson, Nicky J Welton
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of early death in the UK and worldwide. Public health guidance recommends the use of varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) as smoking cessation aids in the UK. Additionally, the first electronic cigarette has been licensed for use as a smoking cessation medicine. However, there are ongoing concerns about the safety of these medicines. We present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine how these smoking cessation medicines compare to each other with respect to their neuropsychiatric safety in adult smokers...
June 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606184/multicomponent-intervention-versus-usual-care-for-management-of-hypertension-in-rural-bangladesh-pakistan-and-sri-lanka-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Tazeen H Jafar, Imtiaz Jehan, H Asita de Silva, Aliya Naheed, Mihir Gandhi, Pryseley Assam, Eric A Finkelstein, Helena Legido Quigley, Marcel Bilger, Aamir Hameed Khan, John David Clemens, Shah Ebrahim, Elizabeth L Turner, Anuradhani Kasturiratne
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is the leading attributable risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In rural South Asia, hypertension continues to be a significant public health issue with sub-optimal BP control rates. The goal of the trial is to compare a multicomponent intervention (MCI) to usual care to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the MCI for lowering BP among adults with hypertension in rural communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a stratified, cluster randomized controlled trial with a qualitative component for evaluation of processes and stakeholder feedback...
June 12, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597853/depression-and-physical-noncommunicable-diseases-the-need-for-an-integrated-approach
#9
Nazneen Anwar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
Depression is globally the third-leading cause of disability in terms of disability-adjusted life-years. Depression in patients with diseases such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, stroke or cardiovascular disease is 2-4-fold more prevalent than in people who do not have physical noncommunicable diseases, and may have a more prolonged course. The significant burden due to depression that is comorbid with chronic physical disease, coupled with limited resources, makes it a major public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries...
April 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586351/reducing-us-cardiovascular-disease-burden-and-disparities-through-national-and-targeted-dietary-policies-a-modelling-study
#10
Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Piotr Bandosz, Colin D Rehm, Jose Penalvo, Laurie Whitsel, Tom Gaziano, Zach Conrad, Parke Wilde, Renata Micha, Ffion Lloyd-Williams, Simon Capewell, Dariush Mozaffarian, Martin O'Flaherty
BACKGROUND: Large socio-economic disparities exist in US dietary habits and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. While economic incentives have demonstrated success in improving dietary choices, the quantitative impact of different dietary policies on CVD disparities is not well established. We aimed to quantify and compare the potential effects on total CVD mortality and disparities of specific dietary policies to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in the US...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585333/prospective-cohort-study-cinacalcet-mediated-lowering-of-pth-level-and-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-younger-korean-patients-with-stage-5-ckd-at-a-korean-secondary-hospital
#11
H Y Sin
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Cinacalcet may reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, previous studies of the clinical responses to cinacalcet have exhibited discrepancies due to highly variable baseline levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), kidney function and age. Little is known about the true effect of cinacalcet on stage 5 CKD. The objective of the current observational study was to evaluate whether cinacalcet-mediated lowering of PTH levels improves all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in younger stage 5 CKD patients (mean age <55 years)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584028/here-comes-trouble-a-career-as-a-tobacco-control-activist
#12
Stanton A Glantz, John D Rutherford
Dr Glantz is Professor of Medicine in the Division of Cardiology, the Truth Initiative Distinguished Professor of Tobacco Control, and Director of the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine. He obtained a BSc in aerospace engineering from the University of Cincinnati in 1969 and an MSc and PhD in applied mechanics from Stanford University. He is the author of 4 books, including The Cigarette Papers and Primer of Biostatistics He is also a member of the University of California, San Francisco Cardiovascular Research Institute and Institute for Health Policy Studies and Co-leader of the University of California, San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center Tobacco Program...
June 6, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570650/cardiovascular-health-status-between-standard-and-nonstandard-workers-in-korea
#13
Jong Ju Seon, Yu Jin Lim, Hae Won Lee, Jae Moon Yoon, Sang June Kim, Seulggie Choi, Ichiro Kawachi, Sang Min Park
OBJECTIVES: The effect of employment insecurity on employee health is an important public health issue due to the recent effects of neoliberalism and the global financial crisis (2007-2008) on labor markets. This study aims to evaluate the differences in cardiovascular health status and the use of preventive screening services between standard and nonstandard workers. METHODS: Waged employees (N = 5,338) between the ages of 20 and 64 were grouped into standard (full-time, permanent) and nonstandard (part-time, temporary, or daily) employees...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560727/choosing-the-optimal-method-of-blood-pressure-measurement-for-limited-resource-rural-communities-in-the-community-health-assessment-program-philippines
#14
REVIEW
Dale Guenter, Ricardo Angeles, Janusz Kaczorowski, Gina Agarwal, Fortunato L Cristobal, Rosemarie Arciaga, John F Smith, Pattapong Kessomboon, Faical Jarraya, Rodelin Agbulos, Floro Dave Arnuco, Jerome Barrera, Susan Dimitry, Elgie Gregorio, Servando Halili, Norvie T Jalani, Nusaraporn Kessomboon, Maita Ladeza, Lisa Dolovich
The Community Health Assessment Program-Philippines (CHAP-P) is an international collaboration of investigators whose aim is to adapt a previously proven Canadian community-based cardiovascular awareness and prevention intervention to the Philippines and other low-middle-income countries. Choosing a method of blood pressure measurement for the research program presents a challenge. There is increasing consensus globally that blood pressure measurement with automated devices is preferred. Recommendations from low-middle-income countries, including the Philippines, are less supportive of automated blood pressure devices...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559652/mini-review-of-the-chin-shan-community-cardiovascular-cohort-study-in-population-health-research-in-taiwan
#15
REVIEW
Kuo-Liong Chien
Preventing and controlling non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is a growing global public health concern, and evidence-based data from population-based health studies are needed in order to develop appropriate public health policies for controlling NCDs. The Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC) study is a prospective cohort consisting of participants from one community in China in 1990-1991, and has provided substantial evidence-based data on domestic and global health issues in preventive cardiology fields...
May 2017: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551091/prevalence-awareness-treatment-and-control-of-hypertension-in-older-people-in-central-africa-the-epidemca-study
#16
Sophie Pilleron, Victor Aboyans, Pascal Mbelesso, Bébène Ndamba-Bandzouzi, Ileana Desormais, Philippe Lacroix, Pierre-Marie Preux, Maëlenn Guerchet
Hypertension represents a major global health burden. While older individuals of African descent are at higher risk of hypertension in western countries, epidemiologic data on hypertension in older native Africans are scarce. We assessed the prevalence and the level of awareness and control of hypertension among older adults in Central Africa. A total of 1990 individuals aged 65 years and older from the Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic participated into a cross-sectional population-based survey...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548184/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#17
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also for Chronic kidney disease. A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset Chronic kidney disease. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing Chronic kidney disease in the long-term...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542317/systematic-review-of-dietary-salt-reduction-policies-evidence-for-an-effectiveness-hierarchy
#18
Lirije Hyseni, Alex Elliot-Green, Ffion Lloyd-Williams, Chris Kypridemos, Martin O'Flaherty, Rory McGill, Lois Orton, Helen Bromley, Francesco P Cappuccio, Simon Capewell
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention strategies now prioritise four major risk factors: food, tobacco, alcohol and physical activity. Dietary salt intake remains much higher than recommended, increasing blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and stomach cancer. Substantial reductions in salt intake are therefore urgently needed. However, the debate continues about the most effective approaches. To inform future prevention programmes, we systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of possible salt reduction interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540059/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#19
EDITORIAL
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and also for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset CKD. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing CKD in the long term...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515188/trends-in-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-five-major-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-korean-population-a-cross-sectional-study-using-data-from-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2001-2014
#20
Yoon Jung Kim, Ji Sung Lee, Juri Park, Dong Seop Choi, Doo Man Kim, Kee-Hyoung Lee, Ho Yeon Kim, Sin Gon Kim, Juneyoung Lee
OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in socioeconomic inequalities in major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the Korean population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: A nationally representative population survey database. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 42 725 Koreans, aged 25-64 years, who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) II (2001) to VI (2013-2014). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in five major CVD risk factors (smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia)...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
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