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Cardiovascular health policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086813/information-exchange-networks-of-health-care-providers-and-evidence-based-cardiovascular-risk-management-an-observational-study
#1
Naomi Heijmans, Jan van Lieshout, Michel Wensing
BACKGROUND: Although a wide range of preventive and clinical interventions has targeted cardiovascular risk management (CVRM), outcomes remain suboptimal. Therefore, the question is what additional determinants of CVRM and outcomes can be identified and addressed to optimize CVRM. In this study, we aimed to identify new perspectives for improving healthcare delivery and explored associations between information exchange networks of health care providers and evidence-based CVRM. METHODS: This observational study was performed parallel to a randomized clinical trial which aimed to improve professional performance of practice nurses in the Netherlands...
January 13, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077473/a-joint-ers-ats-policy-statement-what-constitutes-an-adverse-health-effect-of-air-pollution-an-analytical-framework
#2
George D Thurston, Howard Kipen, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, John Balmes, Robert D Brook, Kevin Cromar, Sara De Matteis, Francesco Forastiere, Bertil Forsberg, Mark W Frampton, Jonathan Grigg, Dick Heederik, Frank J Kelly, Nino Kuenzli, Robert Laumbach, Annette Peters, Sanjay T Rajagopalan, David Rich, Beate Ritz, Jonathan M Samet, Thomas Sandstrom, Torben Sigsgaard, Jordi Sunyer, Bert Brunekreef
The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073749/cost-effectiveness-of-a-government-supported-policy-strategy-to-decrease-sodium-intake-global-analysis-across-183-nations
#3
Michael Webb, Saman Fahimi, Gitanjali M Singh, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Renata Micha, John Powles, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVE:  To quantify the cost effectiveness of a government policy combining targeted industry agreements and public education to reduce sodium intake in 183 countries worldwide. DESIGN:  Global modeling study. SETTING:  183 countries. POPULATION:  Full adult population in each country. INTERVENTION:  A "soft regulation" national policy that combines targeted industry agreements, government monitoring, and public education to reduce population sodium intake, modeled on the recent successful UK program...
January 10, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067964/cardiovascular-consequences-of-binge-drinking-an-integrative-review-with-implications-for-advocacy-policy-and-research
#4
Mariann R Piano, Adriana Mazzuco, Minkyung Kang, Shane A Phillips
Worldwide, binge drinking is a major public health problem. The popularized health risks associated with binge drinking include physical injury and motor vehicle crashes; less attention has been given to the negative effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. The primary aims of this review were to provide a summary of the adverse effects of binge drinking on the risk and development of CV disease and to review potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Using specific inclusion criteria, an integrative review was conducted that included data from human experimental, prospective cross-sectional, and cohort epidemiological studies that examined the association between binge drinking and CV conditions such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and arrhythmias...
January 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065543/mitigating-dietary-arsenic-exposure-current-status-in-the-united-states-and-recommendations-for-an-improved-path-forward
#5
Keeve E Nachman, Gary L Ginsberg, Mark D Miller, Carolyn J Murray, Anne E Nigra, Claire B Pendergrast
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a well-characterized carcinogen, and recent epidemiologic studies have linked chronic exposures to non-cancer health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, skin lesions and respiratory disorders. Greater vulnerability has been demonstrated with early life exposure for health effects including lung and bladder cancer, immunotoxicity and neurodevelopment. Despite its well-known toxicity, there are important gaps in the regulatory oversight of iAs in food and in risk communication...
January 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057024/behavior-change-interventions-and-policies-influencing-primary-healthcare-professionals-practice-an-overview-of-reviews
#6
REVIEW
Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Maya Jeyaraman, Amrinder Singh Mann, Justin Lys, Becky Skidmore, Kathryn M Sibley, Ahmed Abou-Setta, Ryan Zarychanksi
BACKGROUND: There is a plethora of interventions and policies aimed at changing practice habits of primary healthcare professionals, but it is unclear which are the most appropriate, sustainable, and effective. We aimed to evaluate the evidence on behavior change interventions and policies directed at healthcare professionals working in primary healthcare centers. METHODS: Study design: overview of reviews. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), The Cochrane Library (Wiley), CINAHL (EbscoHost), and grey literature (January 2005 to July 2015)...
January 5, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056897/a-programme-of-lifestyle-intervention-in-families-for-cardiovascular-risk-reduction-prolific-study-design-and-rationale-of-a-family-based-randomized-controlled-trial-in-individuals-with-family-history-of-premature-coronary-heart-disease
#7
Panniyammakal Jeemon, S Harikrishnan, G Sanjay, Sivasankaran Sivasubramonian, T R Lekha, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Nikhil Tandon, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
BACKGROUND: Recognizing patterns of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in families helps to identify and target individuals who may have the most to gain from preventive interventions. The overall goal of the study is to test the effectiveness and sustainability of an integrated care model for managing cardiovascular risk in high risk families. The proposed care model targets the structural and environmental conditions that predispose high risk families to development of CHD through the following interventions: 1) screening for cardiovascular risk factors, 2) providing lifestyle interventions 3) providing a framework for linkage to appropriate primary health care facility, and 4) active follow-up of intervention adherence...
January 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049752/behavioral-intervention-in-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-implications-for-mexico
#8
Elissa Jelalian, E Whitney Evans
Pediatric obesity is a worldwide health epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Mexico ranks second to the United States in rates of pediatric obesity. Obesity among youth has immediate and long-term consequences on physical and psychosocial development, including cardiovascular, respiratory, and health-related quality of life. Eventual amelioration of this epidemic will require change at the level of the family and community, along with policy initiatives to support healthier eating and activity habits...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049751/an-intervention-to-promote-physical-activity-in-mexican-elementary-school-students-building-public-policy-to-prevent-noncommunicable-diseases
#9
Ernestina Polo-Oteyza, Mónica Ancira-Moreno, Cecilia Rosel-Pech, María Teresa Sánchez-Mendoza, Vicente Salinas-Martínez, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega
Physical activity is an important component of strategies for health promotion and prevention of noncommunicable diseases. It is also associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese adults and children. This article addresses the initial description of a physical activity intervention for children attending public elementary schools in Mexico. The objective was to develop a replicable model based on a strategic public, private, academic, and social partnership that would have a short-term impact on the metabolic health of children and be useful for building effective public policy...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042727/new-evidence-for-cardiac-benefit-of-postmenopausal-hormone-therapy
#10
T S Mikkola, H Savolainen-Peltonen, M Venetkoski, O Ylikorkala
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is still the most common killer of western women. Coronary arteries, expressing estrogen receptors, are a target for estrogen action. Prior to the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) was widely advocated for primary prevention of CAD, but such use was criticized after the WHI publication. However, new data accumulated in the USA and in Europe indicate that the use of estradiol-based HT regimens does not endanger the heart, but rather, it significantly reduces the incidence of CAD events and mortality...
January 2, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035296/projections-of-demand-for-cardiovascular-surgery-and-supply-of-surgeons
#11
Jung Jeung Lee, Nam Hee Park, Kun Sei Lee, Hyun Keun Chee, Sung Bo Sim, Myo Jeong Kim, Ji Suk Choi, Myunghwa Kim, Choon Seon Park
BACKGROUND: While demand for cardiovascular surgery is expected to increase gradually along with the rapid increase in cardiovascular diseases with respect to the aging population, the supply of thoracic and cardiovascular surgeons has been continuously decreasing over the past 10 years. Consequently, this study aims to achieve guidance in establishing health care policy by analyzing the supply and demand for cardiovascular surgeries in the medical service area of Korea. METHODS: After investigating the actual number of cardiovascular surgeries performed using the National Health Insurance claim data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, as well as drawing from national statistics concerning the elderly population aged 65 and over, this study estimated the number of future cardiovascular surgeries by using a cell-based model...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035294/the-association-between-treatment-frequency-and-treatment-outcome-for-cardiovascular-surgeries
#12
Ji Suk Choi, Choon Seon Park, Myunghwa Kim, Myo Jeong Kim, Kun Sei Lee, Sung Bo Sim, Hyun Keun Chee, Nam Hee Park, Sung Min Park
BACKGROUND: This study analyzed the association between the volume of heart surgeries and treatment outcomes for hospitals in the last five years. METHODS: Hospitals that perform heart surgeries were chosen throughout Korea as subjects using from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The treatment outcome of the heart surgeries was defined as the mortality within 30 postoperative days, while the annual volume of the surgeries was categorized. Logistic regression was used as the statistical analysis method, and the impacts of the variables on the heart surgery treatment outcomes were then analyzed...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035292/the-longitudinal-trend-of-cardiac-surgery-in-korea-from-2003-to-2013
#13
Kyeong Soo Lee, Chang Suk Kim, Jong Heon Park, Tae Yoon Hwang, Sang Won Kim, Sung Bo Sim, Kun Sei Lee
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate longitudinal changes of the utilization of operational and surgical medical care inside and outside a metropolitan area over 10 years, analyzing the residential areas of patients and the locations of medical facilities for major cardiovascular surgery. METHODS: Data analysis was conducted by classifying the addresses of patients and the locations of medical care facilities of metropolitan cities and provinces, using data from the National Health Insurance Corporation from January 2003 to December 2013...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033090/community-health-workers-as-allies-in-hypertension-self-management-and-medication-adherence-in-the-united-states-2014
#14
Caitlin G Allen, J Nell Brownstein, Anamika Satsangi, Cam Escoffery
INTRODUCTION: Rates of hypertension control remain low among underserved populations in the United States; moreover, disparities in hypertension-related cardiovascular disease death are increasing. Community health workers (CHWs) can address barriers to hypertension control among underrepresented and diverse populations. We identify unique roles CHWs play in hypertension self-management and medication adherence. METHODS: In 2014, we conducted a mixed methods study with an online survey of 265 CHWs and 23 telephone interviews...
December 29, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025256/commentary-mendelian-randomization-inspired-causal-inference-in-the-absence-of-genetic-data
#15
Luisa Zuccolo, Michael V Holmes
Studying the long-term causal effects of alcohol drinking is notoriously difficult. Epidemiological studies that use conventional analytical approaches are likely to be confounded and affected by reporting/recall bias and reverse causality, specifically in the form of the sick quitter effect (individuals quitting or never starting to consume alcohol due to underlying ill health).(1) Decades of observational data showing J-shaped relationships of alcohol with risk of disease and in particular cardiovascular disease,(2) fuelled by confirmation bias, have resulted in alcohol policies such that individuals are recommended to drink in moderation, due to putative cardioprotective effects...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994921/the-burden-of-premature-mortality-in-turkey-in-2001-and-2008
#16
Burcu Tokuç, Serap Ayhan, Gamze Varol Saraçoğlu
BACKGROUND: Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) is a measure that is used to evaluate losses due to premature deaths. AIMS: The present study provides an analysis of premature mortality in Turkey for the years 2001 and 2008 and supplies evidence for making policies and setting health agendas over the long term. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study calculated SEYLL by gender, age group and causes of death in Turkey in 2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977393/impact-of-hypertension-on-cognitive-function-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#17
Costantino Iadecola, Kristine Yaffe, José Biller, Lisa C Bratzke, Frank M Faraci, Philip B Gorelick, Martha Gulati, Hooman Kamel, David S Knopman, Lenore J Launer, Jane S Saczynski, Sudha Seshadri, Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri
BACKGROUND: Age-related dementia, most commonly caused by Alzheimer disease or cerebrovascular factors (vascular dementia), is a major public health threat. Chronic arterial hypertension is a well-established risk factor for both types of dementia, but the link between hypertension and its treatment and cognition remains poorly understood. In this scientific statement, a multidisciplinary team of experts examines the impact of hypertension on cognition to assess the state of the knowledge, to identify gaps, and to provide future directions...
December 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959626/the-pathogenesis-of-ebola-virus-disease
#18
Laura Baseler, Daniel S Chertow, Karl M Johnson, Heinz Feldmann, David M Morens
For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control...
December 7, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957699/metabolic-surgery-in-the-treatment-algorithm-for-type-2-diabetes-a-joint-statement-by-international-diabetes-organizations
#19
Francesco Rubino, David M Nathan, Robert H Eckel, Philip R Schauer, K George M M Alberti, Paul Z Zimmet, Stefano Del Prato, Linong Ji, Shaukat M Sadikot, William H Herman, Stephanie A Amiel, Lee M Kaplan, Gaspar Taroncher-Oldenburg, David E Cummings
BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence that bariatric/metabolic surgery powerfully improves type 2 diabetes (T2D), existing diabetes treatment algorithms do not include surgical options. AIM: The 2nd Diabetes Surgery Summit (DSS-II), an international consensus conference, was convened in collaboration with leading diabetes organizations to develop global guidelines to inform clinicians and policymakers about benefits and limitations of metabolic surgery for T2D. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group of 48 international clinicians/scholars (75% nonsurgeons), including representatives of leading diabetes organizations, participated in DSS-II...
January 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942348/estimated-economic-benefit-of-increasing-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-of-canadians-to-or-above-100%C3%A2-nmol-l
#20
REVIEW
William B Grant, Susan J Whiting, Gerry K Schwalfenberg, Stephen J Genuis, Samantha M Kimball
Mounting evidence from observational and clinical trials indicates that optimal vitamin D reduces the risk of many diseases. We used observational studies and recent data on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations of Canadians from Cycle 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey to estimate the reduction in disease incidence, mortality rates, and the total economic burden (direct plus indirect) of disease if 25(OH)D concentrations of all Canadians were raised to or above 100 nmol/L. Recently, the mean 25(OH)D concentration of Canadians varied depending on age and season (51-69 nmol/L), with an overall mean of 61 nmol/L...
January 2016: Dermato-endocrinology
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