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Cardiovascular health policy

Rae Woong Park
Big data indicates the large and ever-increasing volumes of data adhere to the following 4Vs: volume (ever-increasing amount), velocity (quickly generated), variety (many different types), veracity (from trustable sources). The last decade has seen huge advances in the amount of data we routinely generate and collect in pretty much everything we do, as well as our ability to use technology to analyze and understand it. The routine operation of modern health care systems also produces an abundance of electronically stored data on an ongoing basis as a byproduct of clinical practice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Norm Campbell
Hypertension is the second leading global risk for death and disability after unhealthy diets. Amongst dietary risks, excess dietary salt (sodium) is the leading risk. As dietary sodium increases, blood pressure increases linearly. In meta-analyses of higher quality cohort studies and in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, higher dietary sodium is linearly associated with increased cardiovascular disease. There are an estimated xxxx deaths and xxx DALYs in 2013 from excess dietary sodium. The World Health Organization has a recommended sodium (salt) intake of less than 2000 mg (5 g)/day with the World Health Assembly setting a voluntary target of a 30% reduction by 2025...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Francesco Cappuccio
The evidence. Salt (i.e. sodium chloride) is causally related to blood pressure (BP). The higher the salt intake, the higher the BP, an effect seen since birth. A small and sustained reduction in salt intake causes a fall in BP. The evidence from controlled studies, small and large, short and long, all agree on the following: (1) salt intake is one of the major determinants of BP in populations and individuals; (2) a reduction in salt intake causes a dose-dependent reduction in BP - the lower the salt the lower the BP; (3) the effect is seen in both sexes, in people of all ages and ethnic groups, and with all starting BPs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Francesco Cappuccio
Current salt consumption in human societies is now much greater than needed for survival. Furthermore, high salt intake substantially increases blood pressure (BP) in both animals and humans. Conversely, a reduction in salt intake causes a dose-dependent reduction in BP in men and women of all ages and ethnic groups, and in patients already on medication. The risk of strokes and heart attacks rises with increasing BP, but can be decreased by anti-hypertensive drugs. However, the majority of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occur in the numerous individuals with 'normal' BP levels below the 'clinically hypertensive' level which might trigger drug therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rafael Castillo
: Similar to the trend worldwide, hypertension (HTN) is also the single most attributable cause for mortality in South-East Asia (SEA). But while in developed regions, the prevalence of HTN appears to be stabilizing or decreasing, the rates in SEA continue to rise. Around a third of the adult population in SEA have elevated blood pressure (BP) with nearly 1.5 million deaths (9.4% of total deaths) attributable to HTN annually.In several countries in SEA, awareness level of HTN is less than 50% but in the more affluent countries in the region, awareness ranges from 56% to 70%...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Axel C Mühlbacher, Susanne Bethge, Anika Kaczynski
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the most common causes of death worldwide, with many individuals having experienced acute coronary syndrome (ACS). How patients with a history of ACS value aspects of their medical treatment have been evaluated rarely. The aim of this study was to determine patient priorities for long-term drug therapy after experiencing ACS. METHODS: To identify patient-relevant treatment characteristics, a systematic literature review and qualitative patient interviews were conducted...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Qaisar Raza, Mary Nicolaou, Henriëtte Dijkshoorn, Jacob C Seidell
OBJECTIVE: South Asians living in Western countries have shown higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and related non-communicable diseases as compared to the local populations. The aim of this study was to compare the general health status and prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes, high blood pressure, overweight, obesity, and fruit and vegetable intake between Pakistani immigrants in the Netherlands and local Amsterdam population. DESIGN: A health survey was conducted in 2012-2013 among Pakistanis in the Netherlands...
October 17, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Shahram Rafieifar, Hamed Pouraram, Abolghassem Djazayery, Fereydoun Siassi, Zahra Abdollahi, Ahmad Reza Dorosty, Mitra Abtahi, Hossein Kazemeini, Farshad Farzadfar
In Iran, as in most countries, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death (highest mortality rate), but rank third in terms of disease burden. On the other hand, the relationship between high salt intake, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease has been proven. Food consumption pattern in Iran shows that consumption of salt, pickled foods and salty snacks is common. Regarding the World Health Organization (WHO) target for salt intake (about 5 g per day), the evidence indicates that Iranian people consume 2-3 times more than the recommended amount of salt...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
George A Mensah
The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) has been highly successful in investigating the prevalence, characteristics, and progression of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a multiethnic American cohort of adult men and women free of CVD at baseline. MESA has also championed the use of novel biomarkers and emerging imaging techniques for the assessment of subclinical CVD and has created an extensive set of data that continues to fuel dozens of ongoing analyses. Insights from MESA include the first demonstration of ethnic differences in coronary artery calcification and its association with subclinical disease progression and incident CVD...
September 2016: Global Heart
Ana V Diez Roux, Mahasin S Mujahid, Jana A Hirsch, Kari Moore, Latetia V Moore
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death and a major source of health disparities in the Unites States and globally. Efforts to reduce CVD risk and eliminate cardiovascular health disparities have increasingly emphasized the importance of the social determinants of health. Neighborhood environments have emerged as a possible target for prevention and policy efforts. Hence there is a need to better understand the role of neighborhood environments in shaping cardiovascular risk...
September 2016: Global Heart
Amitava Banerjee, Shweta Khandelwal, Lavanya Nambiar, Malvika Saxena, Victoria Peck, Mohammed Moniruzzaman, Jose Rocha Faria Neto, Katherine Curi Quinto, Andrew Smyth, Darryl Leong, José Pablo Werba
BACKGROUND: Secondary prevention is cost-effective for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but uptake is suboptimal. Understanding barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention for CVD at multiple health system levels may inform policy. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to adherence/persistence to secondary CVD prevention medications at health system level. METHODS: Included studies reported effects of health system level factors on adherence/persistence to secondary prevention medications for CVD (coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease)...
2016: Open Heart
Sue Kildea, Sally Tracy, Juanita Sherwood, Fleur Magick-Dennis, Lesley Barclay
The well established disparities in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include a significant and concerning higher incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight and newborn mortality. Chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease) that are prevalent in Indigenous Australian adults have their genesis in utero and in early life. Applying interventions during pregnancy and early life that aim to improve maternal and infant health is likely to have long lasting consequences, as recognised by Australia's National Maternity Services Plan (NMSP), which set out a 5-year vision for 2010-2015 that was endorsed by all governments (federal and state and territory)...
October 17, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Mohammad Y Yakoob, Renata Micha, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Gitanjali M Singh, Peilin Shi, Habibul Ahsan, Nagalla Balakrishna, Ginnela N V Brahmam, Yu Chen, Ashkan Afshin, Saman Fahimi, Goodarz Danaei, John W Powles, Majid Ezzati, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To quantify cardiovascular disease and diabetes deaths attributable to dietary and metabolic risks by country, age, sex, and time in South Asian countries. METHODS: We used the 2010 Global Burden of Disease national surveys to characterize risk factor levels by age and sex. We derived etiological effects of risk factors-disease endpoints, by age, from meta-analyses. We defined optimal levels. We combined these inputs with cause-specific mortality rates to compute population-attributable fractions as a percentage of total cardiometabolic deaths...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Sharrelle Barber, DeMarc A Hickson, Xu Wang, Mario Sims, Cheryl Nelson, Ana V Diez-Roux
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of neighborhood conditions resulting from racial residential segregation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a socioeconomically diverse African American sample. METHODS: The study included 4096 African American women (n = 2652) and men (n = 1444) aged 21 to 93 years from the Jackson Heart Study (Jackson, Mississippi; 2000-2011). We assessed neighborhood disadvantage with a composite measure of 8 indicators from the 2000 US Census...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Ying Zheng, Feng Pan, Sonja Sorensen
As the number of interventions available in a therapeutic area increases, the relevant decision questions in health technology assessment (HTA) expand to compare treatment sequences instead of discrete treatments and identify optimal sequences or position for a particular treatment in a sequence. The objective of this work was to review approaches used to model treatment sequences and provide practical guidance on conceptualizing whether and how to model sequences in health economic models. Economic models including treatment sequencing assessed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence were reviewed, as these assessments generally provide both policy relevance and comprehensive model detail...
October 8, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Allison J Carroll, Darwin R Labarthe, Mark D Huffman, Brian Hitsman
The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of tobacco prevention and control in cardiovascular health (CVH) promotion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, including the importance of these endpoints for measuring the full impact of tobacco-related policies, programs, and practices. In this review, we describe an overview of tobacco control interventions that have led to substantial declines in tobacco use and the relationship between these declines with CVH and CVD. We review interventions that have had success in high-income countries (HICs) as well as those that are gaining traction in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
October 4, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Jinsung Park, Beomseok Suh, Dong Wook Shin, Jun Hyuk Hong, Hanjong Ahn
Despite rapid increase in incidence of prostate cancer (PC) and PC survivors, there are few studies regarding competing causes of death and time trends in Asian population. We conducted a cohort study of 2% nationwide random sample of Korean National Health Insurance employees. A total of 873 patients who had received active treatments, including surgery, radiation therapy (RT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), for newly diagnosed PC between 2003 and 2010 were included. The cause of death was categorized as PC, other cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other causes...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Carolyn A McClerking, Felecia Wood
America's military has experienced great changes in the demographic makeup of its veterans over the past few decades. In fact, the fastest growing group in the U.S. military is women. This demographic trend has also brought new challenges in dealing with gender issues, something that the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has only recently begun to acknowledge. The VHA has responded in several ways to gender issues in health care and health outcomes. And, although the VHA is dealing with multiple gender matters, this article will focus on initiatives to combat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women veterans...
October 4, 2016: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
Lisa J Trump, Tai J Mendenhall
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for both men and women. Its potential ramifications on all aspects of life, for patients and partners, are just beginning to be understood. Although research has focused on the individual who has received the diagnosis, relatively little is known about how couples manage CVD. This article presents a systematic review of literature that focuses on how couples cope with one partner's CVD diagnosis. A systematic review is warranted to orient practitioners, policy makers, and researchers to the state of existing knowledge and its gaps and to identify what still needs to be done...
September 29, 2016: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
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