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Cardiovascular health policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214961/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#1
EDITORIAL
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also for Chronic Kidney Disease. A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset Chronic Kidney Disease. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing Chronic Kidney Disease in the long-term...
February 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208759/acute-effects-of-particulate-air-pollution-on-ischemic-heart-disease-hospitalizations-in-shanghai-china
#2
Anyang Xu, Zhe Mu, Bo Jiang, Wei Wang, Han Yu, Lijuan Zhang, Jue Li
Background: Air pollution has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases worldwide. This study examines the relationship between the exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) and patient hospitalizations as a result of ischemic heart disease (IHD) during 2013-2014 in Shanghai, China. Methods: Daily IHD hospitalization data were acquired from the Shanghai Health Insurance Bureau (SHIB) from 1 January 2013 to 21 December 2014. Daily average concentrations of air pollution as well as meteorological data were obtained from the database of Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center (SEMC) during the same time period, and all data were analyzed using standard epidemiological methodology...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205394/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#3
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also for Chronic Kidney Disease. A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset Chronic Kidney Disease. In individuals affected by obesity, a series of complex pathophysiologic changes occur that lead to the development of Chronic Kidney Disease. These include on the one hand effects mediated by the downstream consequences of obesity (such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension), but also direct effects of adipose tissue, via humoral factors such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin)...
March 2017: Journal of Renal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196511/antiretroviral-therapy-related-adverse-effects-can-sub-saharan-africa-cope-with-the-new-test-and-treat-policy-of-the-world-health-organization
#4
Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? MAIN BODY: The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future...
February 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194159/role-of-ucp1-gene-variants-in-interethnic-differences-in-the-development-of-cardio-metabolic-diseases
#5
Andreas D Flouris, Yulii V Shidlovskii, Alexander V Shaposhnikov, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Liliya Nadolnik, Lidia Karabon, Anna Kowalska, Andres E Carrillo, George S Metsios, Paraskevi Sakellariou
Cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) comprise a cluster of risk factors that contribute to chronic pathological conditions with adverse consequences for cardiovascular function and metabolic processes. A wide range of CMD prevalence rates among different ethnic groups has been documented. In view of accumulated evidence, there is a trend toward increasing CMD prevalence rates in Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Numerous studies have revealed an association between uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene variants and CMDs...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192044/an-early-look-at-the-association-between-state-medicaid-expansion-and-disparities-in-cardiovascular-diseases-a-comprehensive-population-health-management-approach
#6
Christopher K Rogers, Ning Jackie Zhang
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases nationally and disproportionately affects low-income individuals. There are substantial disparities on CVD outcomes that stem from the lack of health insurance among low-income populations. The Affordable Care Act expands Medicaid health insurance to low-income populations, and aims to increase the utilization of health, social, and economic preventive services to reduce health disparities and prevent chronic diseases. The authors analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to understand the potential impact of Medicaid expansion on disparities in CVD among low-income populations...
February 13, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186442/clinical-determinants-and-treatment-gaps-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-data-from-a-multi-ethnic-regional-health-service
#7
Barak Zafrir, Ayman Jubran, Gil Lavie, David A Halon, Moshe Y Flugelman, Chen Shapira
Background Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by markedly increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk for premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Models of care vary and reflect differing health policies and resources. The availability of electronic databases may enable better identification and assessment of familial hypercholesterolemia in the community. Methods A regional healthcare database was utilized to identify patients with a high probability of familial hypercholesterolemia, clinically defined by age-dependent-peak low-density lipoprotein cholesterol cutoffs and exclusion of secondary causes of severe hypercholesterolemia...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178697/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#8
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and also for chronic kidney disease. A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset chronic kidney disease. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the long-term...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176186/ethnic-inequalities-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-hospitalization-rates-among-young-and-middle-aged-adults-in-northern-italy-high-risk-for-south-asians
#9
Ugo Fedeli, Laura Cestari, Eliana Ferroni, Francesco Avossa, Mario Saugo, Pietro Amedeo Modesti
The knowledge of ethnic-specific health needs is now essential to design effective health services and population-based prevention strategies. However, data on migrant populations living in Southern Europe are limited. The study is designed to investigate ethnic inequalities in hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Veneto region (Italy). Hospital admissions for AMI in Veneto for the whole resident population aged 20-59 years during 2008-2013 were studied. Age and gender-specific AMI hospitalization rates for immigrant groups (classified by country of origin according to the United Nations geoscheme) and Italians were calculated...
February 7, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171864/obesity-and-kidney-disease-hidden-consequences-of-the-epidemic
#10
Csaba P Kovesdy, Susan L Furth, Carmine Zoccali
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and also for chronic kidney disease. A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset chronic kidney disease. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the long-term...
February 8, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167710/workplace-programs-policies-and-environmental-supports-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Ron Z Goetzel, Rachel Mosher Henke, Michael A Head, Richele Benevent, Chris Calitz
Using a novel approach, we provide a preliminary "snapshot" of how the comprehensiveness of workplace cardiovascular health initiatives is related to measures of employees' health risks, disease prevalence, and medical expenditures. We linked scores for the twenty large organizations that voluntarily completed the American Heart Association's newly launched Worksite Health Achievement Index (WHAI) for 2015 to individual-level MarketScan® data for 373,478 of their workers with employer benefits that year. Higher aggregate WHAI scores were associated with lower values for four of seven modifiable indicators of cardiovascular risk and a higher value for one...
February 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167640/when-blue-collars-feel-blue-depression-and-low-occupational-grade-as-synergistic-predictors-of-incident-cardiac-events-in-middle-aged-working-individuals
#12
Cédric Lemogne, Pierre Meneton, Emmanuel Wiernik, Ariane Quesnot, Silla M Consoli, Pierre Ducimetière, Hermann Nabi, Jean-Philippe Empana, Nicolas Hoertel, Frédéric Limosin, Marcel Goldberg, Marie Zins
BACKGROUND: The association of psychological variables with cardiovascular health might depend on socioeconomic status. We examined the moderating effect of occupational grade on the association between depression and incident cardiac events among middle-aged workers from the GAZEL cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 10 541 participants (7855 men, mean age: 47.8±3.5 years) free of cardiovascular diseases completed the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale in 1993...
February 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166065/estimation-of-causes-of-death-in-suburban-nepal-using-verbal-autopsy
#13
N Ide, A L Fitzpatrick, A D Flaxman, R Koju, D Tamrakar, B Hernandez
Background Nepal is in the midst of a disease transition, including a rapid increase of noncommunicable diseases. In order for health policy makers and planners to make informed programmatic and funding decisions, they need up to date and accurate data regarding cause of death throughout the country. Methods of improving cause of death reporting in Nepal are urgently required. Objective We sought to validate SmartVA-Analyze, an application which computer certifies verbal autopsies, to evaluate it as a method for collecting mortality data in Nepal...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164815/climate-change-and-underserved-communities
#14
REVIEW
Carol Ziegler, Vincent Morelli, Omotayo Fawibe
Climate change is the greatest global health threat of the twenty-first century, yet it is not widely understood as a health hazard by primary care providers in the United States. Aside from increasing displacement of populations and acute trauma resulting from increasing frequency of natural disasters, the impact of climate change on temperature stress, vector-borne illnesses, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, and mental health is significant, with disproportionate impact on underserved and marginalized populations...
March 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164014/cardiovascular-burden-and-percutaneous-interventions-in-russian-federation-systematic-epidemiological-update
#15
REVIEW
Alexander N Kharlamov
The situation with cardiovascular (CV) burden in Russian population is alerting, and becomes of interest due to high CV mortality, and shorter lifespan if compare with the Western society amid the absence of the established monitoring or screening system for major CV risk factors. The purpose of this systematic epidemiological update was to explore CV burden in Russia. The study represents pooled results with a systematic epidemiological review of the national mass screening, selected randomized clinical trials and statistical datasets of the national public health CV institutions exploring the trends of the CV burden in all 83 regions of Russia...
February 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159089/sleep-health-and-society
#16
REVIEW
Michael A Grandner
Biological needs for sleep are met by engaging in behaviors that are largely influenced by the environment, social norms and demands, and societal influences and pressures. Insufficient sleep duration and sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea are highly prevalent in the US population. This article outlines some of these downstream factors, including cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk, neurocognitive dysfunction, and mortality, as well as societal factors such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomics...
March 2017: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154338/overwork-related-disorders-in-japan-recent-trends-and-development-of-a-national-policy-to-promote-preventive-measures
#17
Takashi Yamauchi, Toru Yoshikawa, Masahiro Takamoto, Takeshi Sasaki, Shun Matsumoto, Kotaro Kayashima, Tadashi Takeshima, Masaya Takahashi
Overwork-related disorders, such as cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork, are a major occupational and public health issue worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. This report discusses the recent trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan from the perspective of workers' compensated occupational diseases, as well as the development of a national policy for preventive measures against overwork-related disorders in Japan. Recently, the number of claimed and compensated cases of occupational mental disorders has increased substantially, particularly among young workers, as compared to those of occupational CCVD...
January 31, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152422/street-level-diplomacy-communicative-and-adaptive-work-at-the-front-line-of-implementing-public-health-policies-in-primary-care
#18
Nicola Gale, George Dowswell, Sheila Greenfield, Tom Marshall
Public services are increasingly operating through network governance, requiring those at all levels of the system to build collaborations and adapt their practice. Agent-focused implementation theories, such as 'street-level bureaucracy', tend to focus on decision-making and the potential of actors to subvert national policy at a local level. While it is acknowledged that network leaders need to be adaptable and to build trust, much less consideration has been given to the requirement for skills of 'diplomacy' needed by those at the front line of delivering public services...
January 24, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151532/-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-versus-aortic-valve-replacement-cost-analysis-from-the-regional-health-service-and-hospital-perspectives
#19
Elena Berti, Daniela Fortuna, Simona Bartoli, Cristina Ciuca, Anna Orlando, Salvatore Scondotto, Nera Agabiti, Stefano Salizzoni, Tiziana Claudia Aranzulla, Caterina Gandolfo, Rossana De Palma, Francesco Saia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, together with the cost of the first-year hospitalizations following the index ones, in 4 Italian regions where diffusion level of TAVI and coverage decisions are different. METHODS: The cost analysis was performed evaluating 372 patients enrolled consecutively from December 1, 2012 to September 30, 2015...
December 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137729/community-based-cardiovascular-health-promotion-in-argentina-a-systematic-review
#20
Ariel Esteban Bardach, Natalia Elorriaga, Andrea Olga Alcaraz, Adolfo Luis Rubinstein, Julio Marcelo Tavella
In Argentina, cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 30% of deaths and more than 600 000 disability-adjusted life years. However, no reviews describing local studies on interventions to address CVD risk factors have been identified. The purpose of this study is to characterize those population-based interventions and public policies implemented in Argentina to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease with an adequate evaluation of their impact on population health. We conducted a systematic review of studies that assessed interventions in health promotion and/or primary prevention conducted in adult populations of Argentina, addressing specific CVD factors, from 1999 to 2016...
January 30, 2017: Health Promotion International
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