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BCAA metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764289/divergent-induction-of-branched-chain-aminotransferases-and-phosphorylation-of-branched-chain-keto-acid-dehydrogenase-is-a-potential-mechanism-coupling-bcka-mediated-astrocyte-activation-to-bcaa-depletion-mediated-cognitive-deficit-after-tbi
#1
Guoqiang Xing, Ming Ren, Ajay Verma
Deficient branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are implicated in cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The mechanism remains unknown. BCAAs are catabolized by neuron-specific cytosolic and astrocyte-specific mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferases (BCATc, BCATm) to generate glutamate and branched-chain keto-acids (BCKAs) that are metabolized via the mitochondrial branched-chain-keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) whose activity is regulated by its phosphorylation state. BCKD phosphorylation by BCKD kinase (BCKDK) inactivates BCKD and cause neuro-cognitive dysfunction, whereas de-phosphorylation by specific phosphatase restores BCKD activity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#2
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752915/increase-in-insulin-secretion-and-decrease-in-muscle-degradation-by-fat-free-milk-intake-are-attenuated-by-physical-exercise
#3
Tetsuo Yamada, Masami Matsuzaki, Akira Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Protein intake, particularly branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), and exercise have opposing actions on insulin secretion, but the same action on protein anabolism. We examined the effects of BCAA-rich fat-free milk intake and/or exercise on levels of insulin secretion and indices related to muscle protein metabolism in order to assess the potency of dietary and exercise therapies against metabolic and locomotive disorders. METHODS: Eight adult female volunteers participated in all four 24 h experiments; control diet intake with or without exercise, and fat-free milk-containing diet intake with or without exercise...
May 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742810/metabolic-reconstructions-identify-plant-3-methylglutaconyl-coa-hydratase-that-is-crucial-for-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-in-mitochondria
#4
Scott Latimer, Yubing Li, Thuong T H Nguyen, Eric Soubeyrand, Abdelhak Fatihi, Christian G Elowsky, Anna Block, Eran Pichersky, Gilles J Basset
The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential nutrients for mammals. In plants, BCAAs double as alternative energy sources when carbohydrates become limiting, the catabolism of BCAAs providing electrons to the respiratory chain and intermediates to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Yet, the actual architecture of the degradation pathways of BCAAs is not well understood. In this study, gene network modeling in Arabidopsis and rice, and plant-prokaryote comparative genomics detected candidates for 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase (4...
May 9, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740775/evaluation-of-plasma-biomarkers-of-inflammation-in-patients-with-maple-syrup-urine-disease
#5
Giselli Scaini, Tássia Tonon, Carolina F Moura de Souza, Patricia F Schuck, Gustavo C Ferreira, João Quevedo, João Seda Neto, Tatiana Amorim, Jose S Camelo, Ana Vitoria Barban Margutti, Rafael Hencke Tresbach, Fernanda Sperb-Ludwig, Raquel Boy, Paula F V de Medeiros, Ida Vanessa D Schwartz, Emilio Luiz Streck
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder that affects branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism and is associated with acute and chronic brain dysfunction. Recent studies have shown that inflammation may be involved in the neuropathology of MSUD. However, these studies have mainly focused on single or small subsets of proteins or molecules. Here we performed a case-control study, including 12 treated-MSUD patients, in order to investigate the plasmatic biomarkers of inflammation, to help to establish a possible relationship between these biomarkers and the disease...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735415/interventions-targeting-glucocorticoid-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-15-branched-chain-amino-acid-signaling-improve-disease-phenotypes-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-mice
#6
Lisa M Walter, Marc-Olivier Deguise, Katharina E Meijboom, Corinne A Betts, Nina Ahlskog, Tirsa L E van Westering, Gareth Hazell, Emily McFall, Anna Kordala, Suzan M Hammond, Frank Abendroth, Lyndsay M Murray, Hannah K Shorrock, Domenick A Prosdocimo, Saptarsi M Haldar, Mukesh K Jain, Thomas H Gillingwater, Peter Claus, Rashmi Kothary, Matthew J A Wood, Melissa Bowerman
The circadian glucocorticoid-Krüppel-like factor 15-branched-chain amino acid (GC-KLF15-BCAA) signaling pathway is a key regulatory axis in muscle, whose imbalance has wide-reaching effects on metabolic homeostasis. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder also characterized by intrinsic muscle pathologies, metabolic abnormalities and disrupted sleep patterns, which can influence or be influenced by circadian regulatory networks that control behavioral and metabolic rhythms. We therefore set out to investigate the contribution of the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway in SMA pathophysiology of Taiwanese Smn-/- ;SMN2 and Smn2B/- mouse models...
May 4, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728917/short-and-long-term-effects-of-leucine-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-of-a-protein-and-energy-reduced-diet-on-muscle-protein-metabolism-in-neonatal-pigs
#7
Rodrigo Manjarín, Daniel A Columbus, Jessica Solis, Adriana D Hernandez-García, Agus Suryawan, Hanh V Nguyen, Molly M McGuckin, Rafael T Jimenez, Marta L Fiorotto, Teresa A Davis
The objective of this study was to determine if enteral leucine or branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation increases muscle protein synthesis in neonates who consume less than their protein and energy requirements, and whether this increase is mediated via the upregulation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway or the decrease in muscle protein degradation signaling. Neonatal pigs were fed milk replacement diets containing reduced energy and protein (R), R supplemented with BCAA (RBCAA), R supplemented with leucine (RL), or complete protein and energy (CON) at 4-h intervals for 9 (n = 24) or 21 days (n = 22)...
May 4, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719258/ppm1k-regulates-hematopoiesis-and-leukemogenesis-through-cdc20-mediated-ubiquitination-of-meis1-and-p21
#8
Xiaoye Liu, Feifei Zhang, Yaping Zhang, Xie Li, Chiqi Chen, Meiyi Zhou, Zhuo Yu, Yunxia Liu, Yuzheng Zhao, Xiaoxin Hao, Yabin Tang, Liang Zhu, Ligen Liu, Li Xie, Hao Gu, Hongfang Shao, Fangzhen Xia, Chunrong Yin, Minfang Tao, Jingjing Xie, Cheng Cheng Zhang, Yi Yang, Haipeng Sun, Guo-Qiang Chen, Junke Zheng
In addition to acting as building blocks for biosynthesis, amino acids might serve as signaling regulators in various physiological and pathological processes. However, it remains unknown whether amino acid levels affect the activities of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). By using a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor of the intracellular levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), we could monitor the dynamics of BCAA metabolism in HSCs. A mitochondrial-targeted 2C-type Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PPM1K) promotes the catabolism of BCAAs to maintain MEIS1 and p21 levels by decreasing the ubiquitination-mediated degradation controlled by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CDC20...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718430/post-ruminal-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-and-intravenous-lipopolysaccharide-infusion-alters-blood-metabolites-rumen-fermentation-and-nitrogen-balance-of-beef-steers
#9
C A Löest, G G Gilliam, J W Waggoner, J L Turner
Steers exposed to an endotoxin may require additional branched-chain AA (BCAA) to support an increase in synthesis of immune proteins. This study evaluated effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and BCAA supplementation on blood metabolites and N balance of 20 ruminally-cannulated steers (177 ± 4.2 kg BW). The experiment was a randomized block design, with 14-d adaptation to metabolism stalls and diet (DM fed = 1.5% BW) and 6-d collection. Treatments were a 2 × 2 factorial of LPS (0 vs 1.0 to 1.5 μg/kg BW; -LPS vs +LPS) and BCAA (0 vs 35 g/d; -BCAA vs +BCAA)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706852/associations-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-with-parameters-of-energy-balance-and-survival-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-results-from-the-colocare-study
#10
Mahmoud Delphan, Tengda Lin, David B Liesenfeld, Johanna Nattenmüller, Jürgen T Böhm, Biljana Gigic, Nina Habermann, Lin Zielske, Petra Schrotz-King, Martin Schneider, Alexis Ulrich, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Cornelia M Ulrich, Jennifer Ose
Background: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been previously linked to survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. It is unclear whether BCAAs are prognostic biomarkers or surrogate markers for energy balance. Objectives: We aimed to determine correlations of BCAAs with markers of energy balance over time and to investigate prognostic significance of BCAAs in CRC. Methods: We used urinary samples from newly diagnosed CRC patients [n=163; (stage I - IV)] from the ColoCare study in Heidelberg, Germany, collected at surgery (n=163), 6 (n=83) and 12 months follow-up (n=54)...
March 2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705267/branched-chain-amino-acid-depletion-conditions-bone-marrow-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-avoiding-amino-acid-imbalance-associated-toxicity
#11
Adam C Wilkinson, Maiko Morita, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Satoshi Yamazaki
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are used clinically in bone marrow transplantation due to their unique ability to reform the entire hematopoietic system. We recently reported that HSCs are highly sensitive to valine, one of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) along with isoleucine and leucine. Dietary depletion of valine could even be used as a conditioning regimen for HSC transplantation. Here, we report that HSCs are highly sensitive to the balance of BCAAs, with both proliferation and survival reduced by BCAA imbalance...
April 26, 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664677/silac-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-livers-of-spontaneous-obese-and-diabetic-rhesus-monkeys
#12
Junlong Wang, Shimeng Xu, Jing Gao, Linqiang Zhang, Zhiguo Zhang, Wenhui Yang, Yunhai Li, Shasha Liao, Hu Zhou, Pingsheng Liu, Bin Liang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a severely metabolic disorder that affects above 10% worldwide population. Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance and contributes to the development of T2DM. Liver is an essential metabolic organ that plays crucial roles in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms of liver in the transition of obesity to diabetes are not fully understood. Nonhuman primate (NHP) rhesus monkey is an appropriate animal for research of human diseases...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617462/doxorubicin-chemotherapy-affects-the-intracellular-and-interstitial-free-amino-acid-pools-in-skeletal-muscle
#13
Sergio Fabris, David A MacLean
Skeletal muscle (SM) health and integrity is dependent on the dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation, and central to this process is the availability of amino acids (AA) in the amino pool. While Doxorubicin (DOX) remains one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies, little is known of the effect of the drug on SM, particularly its effect on the availability of amino acids in the tissue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of DOX administration on vascular, interstitial and intracellular concentrations of AA in SM of the rat up to 8 days after the administration of a 1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614759/high-glucose-induced-cardiomyocyte-death-may-be-linked-to-unbalanced-branched-chain-amino-acids-and-energy-metabolism
#14
Xi Zhang, Qiuting Lin, Jiuxia Chen, Tingting Wei, Chen Li, Liangcai Zhao, Hongchang Gao, Hong Zheng
High glucose-induced cardiomyocyte death is a common symptom in advanced-stage diabetic patients, while its metabolic mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore metabolic changes in high glucose-induced cardiomyocytes and the heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics. We found that high glucose can promote cardiomyocyte death both in vitro and in vivo studies. Metabolomic results show that several metabolites exhibited inconsistent variations in vitro and in vivo...
April 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601848/food-safety-using-nmr-based-metabolomics-assessment-of-the-atlantic-bluefin-tuna-thunnus-thynnus-from-the-mediterranean-sea
#15
Tiziana Cappello, Alessia Giannetto, Vincenzo Parrino, Giuseppe De Marco, Angela Mauceri, Maria Maisano
Seafood is a valuable component of human diet because of its nutritional properties. The Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus is a scombroid fish highly appreciated as seafood worldwide. Being a top pelagic predator, concerns have been raised over human health risks due to its consumption. Therefore, herein it was comprehensively evaluated the health status and potential metabolite shifts between sexes of bluefin tuna from the Mediterranean Sea, proved to bioaccumulate environmental obesogens, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at hepatic level...
March 27, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575812/branched-chain-amino-acids-androgen-hormones-and-metabolic-risk-across-early-adolescence-a-prospective-study-in-project-viva
#16
Wei Perng, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Marie-France Hivert, Jorge E Chavarro, Emily Oken
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the associations of two obesity-related metabolite patterns with changes in metabolic biomarkers during early adolescence. METHODS: Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) and androgen hormone patterns with changes in glycemia (fasting glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), lipid profile, and blood pressure during ∼5 years of follow-up among 213 children aged 6 to 10 years at baseline...
March 25, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572205/circulating-branched-chain-amino-acids-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-us-women
#17
Deirdre K Tobias, Patrick R Lawler, Paulo H Harada, Olga V Demler, Paul M Ridker, JoAnn E Manson, Susan Cheng, Samia Mora
BACKGROUND: Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, and valine) are strong predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), but their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is uncertain. We hypothesized that plasma BCAAs are positively associated with CVD risk and evaluated whether this was dependent on an intermediate diagnosis of T2D. METHODS: Participants in the Women's Health Study prospective cohort were eligible if free of CVD at baseline blood collection (n=27 041)...
April 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570613/branched-chain-amino-acids-beyond-nutrition-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Cunxi Nie, Ting He, Wenju Zhang, Guolong Zhang, Xi Ma
Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val), play critical roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, nutrition metabolism, gut health, immunity and disease in humans and animals. As the most abundant of essential amino acids (EAAs), BCAAs are not only the substrates for synthesis of nitrogenous compounds, they also serve as signaling molecules regulating metabolism of glucose, lipid, and protein synthesis, intestinal health, and immunity via special signaling network, especially phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signal pathway...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559272/amino-acid-levels-in-nascent-metabolic-syndrome-a-contributor-to-the-pro-inflammatory-burden
#19
Priya Reddy, Joseph Leong, Ishwarlal Jialal
AIMS: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors characterized by low-grade inflammation which confers an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prior studies have linked elevated branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) with T2DM and CVD. Due to the paucity of data in MetS, the aim of this study was to investigate the status of amino acids as early biomarkers of nascent MetS patients without T2DM and CVD or smoking...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547796/time-course-changes-in-circulating-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-and-metabolism-in-obese-yucatan-minipig
#20
Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
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