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BCAA metabolism

Raj Kumar Sharma, Kumudesh Mishra, Alvina Farooqui, Anu Behari, Vinay Kumar Kapoor, Neeraj Sinha
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We present in this article (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic approach to screen the serum metabolic alterations in human gallbladder inflammation with chronic cholecystitis (CC). MATERIAL/METHODS: Total of 71 human serum samples was divided into two groups, (n = 41, CC) and (n = 30 control). (1)H NMR metabolic profiling was carried out for investigation of metabolic alterations. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied for pattern recognition and identification of metabolites playing crucial role in gallbladder inflammation...
October 21, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Mariya Markova, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Stephanie Sucher, Turid Frahnow, Katrin Wegner, Jürgen Machann, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Johannes Hierholzer, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Christian Herder, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Michael Roden, Natalia Rudovich, Susanne Klaus, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat but may induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein vs plant protein, which differ in levels of methionine and BCAA, in subjects with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Mary Anne D Chiong, Marilyn A Tan, Cynthia P Cordero, Esphie Grace D Fodra, Judy S Manliguis, Cristine P Lopez, Leslie Michelle M Dalmacio
BACKGROUND: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is the most common inborn error of metabolism in the country. The cause of the neuropathology is still not well established although accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and alteration in large neutral amino acids (LNAA) as well as energy deprivation are suggested. It is therefore the aim of this study to determine the plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles of patients with MSUD and correlate the findings with their neurologic features...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Ji-Young Choi, Ye Jin Kim, Ri Ryu, Su-Jung Cho, Eun-Young Kwon, Myung-Sook Choi
Green tea (GT) has various health effects, including anti-obesity properties. However, the multiple molecular mechanisms of the effects have not been fully determined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the anti-obesity effects of GT via the analysis of its metabolic and transcriptional responses based on RNA-seq profiles. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal, high-fat (60% energy as fat), or high-fat + 0.25% (w/w) GT diet for 12 weeks. The GT extract ameliorated obesity, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Jie Zhang, Alan R Light, Charles L Hoppel, Caitlin Campbell, Carol J Chandler, Dustin J Burnett, Elaine C Souza, Gretchen A Casazza, Ronald W Hughen, Nancy L Keim, John W Newman, Gary R Hunter, Jose R Fernandez, W Timothy Garvey, Mary-Ellen Harper, Oliver Fiehn, Sean H Adams
With insulin-resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, mismatches between mitochondrial fatty acid fuel delivery and oxidative phosphorylation/tricarboxylic acid cycle activity may contribute to inordinate accumulation of short- or medium-chain acylcarnitine fatty acid derivatives (markers of incomplete long-chain fatty acid oxidation [FAO]). We reasoned that incomplete FAO in muscle would be ameliorated concurrent with improved insulin sensitivity and fitness following a ∼14 wk training and weight loss intervention in obese, sedentary, insulin-resistant women...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Xiao Wei, Shan Jiang, Yuye Chen, Xiangna Zhao, Huan Li, Weishi Lin, Boxing Li, Xuesong Wang, Jing Yuan, Yansong Sun
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota operated as a whole and was closely related with human health. Previous studies had suggested close relationship between liver cirrhosis (LC) and gut microbiota. METHODS: To determine the functional characteristic of the intestinal microbiota specific for liver cirrhosis, the fecal metaproteome of three LC patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score of A, B, and C, and their spouse were first compared using high-throughput approach based on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in our study...
October 4, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Elham Assadi Soumeh, Mette Skou Hedemann, Hanne Damgaard Poulsen, Etienne Corrent, Jacob van Milgen, Jan Værum Nørgaard
The metabolic response to plasma and urine of pigs when feeding an optimum level of BCAA for best growth performance is unknown. The objective of the current study was to identify the metabolic phenotype associated with the BCAA intake level that could be linked to the animal growth performance. Three dose-response studies were carried out to collect blood and urine samples from pigs fed increasing levels of Ile, Val, or Leu followed by a non-targeted LC-MS approach to characterize the metabolic profile of bio-fluids when dietary BCAA is optimum for animal growth...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Wenhui Yang, Yan He, Shijie Liu, Lulu Gan, Zhiguo Zhang, Jun Wang, Jie Liang, Yang Dong, Qing Wang, Zongliu Hou, Li Yang
Dysregulation of metabolism in hepatocytes leads to hepatic diseases such as hepatitis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is likely to progress to cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, which lead to poor long-term prognosis. However, the exact mechanism of development of NAFLD is not well elucidated. In order to better understand the pathogenesis of NAFLD, we have performed an integrative analysis to livers from NAFLD rat models in a global view of the transcriptome...
September 30, 2016: Gene
Marc Yudkoff
Glutamatergic neurotransmission entails a tonic loss of glutamate from nerve endings into the synapse. Replacement of neuronal glutamate is essential in order to avoid depletion of the internal pool. In brain this occurs primarily via the glutamate-glutamine cycle, which invokes astrocytic synthesis of glutamine and hydrolysis of this amino acid via neuronal phosphate-dependent glutaminase. This cycle maintains constancy of internal pools, but it does not provide a mechanism for inevitable losses of glutamate N from brain...
October 1, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Isabela Estrada-Alcalde, Miriam R Tenorio-Guzman, Armando R Tovar, Daniela Salinas-Rubio, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Nimbe Torres, Lilia G Noriega
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism is regulated by the branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT2) and the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). BCAT2 and BCKDH expression and activity are modified during adipogenesis and altered in adipose tissues of mice with genetic or diet-induced obesity. However, little is known about how these modifications and alterations affect the intracellular metabolic fate of BCAAs during adipogenesis, in adipocytes from mice fed a control or high-fat diet or in C2C12 myotubes...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Carles Lerin, Allison B Goldfine, Tanner Boes, Manway Liu, Simon Kasif, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Ana Luisa De Sousa-Coelho, Grace Daher, Irini Manoli, Justin R Sysol, Elvira Isganaitis, Niels Jessen, Laurie J Goodyear, Kirk Beebe, Walt Gall, Charles P Venditti, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are consistently elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and can also prospectively predict T2D. However, the role of BCAA in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2D remains unclear. METHODS: To identify pathways related to insulin resistance, we performed comprehensive gene expression and metabolomics analyses in skeletal muscle from 41 humans with normal glucose tolerance and 11 with T2D across a range of insulin sensitivity (SI, 0...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
F-C Tang, C-C Chan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and purine nucleotide cycle (PNC) are both associated with energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of BCAA supplementation on the PNC activity of male athletes in response to a bout of endurance running exercise. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twelve male athletes (20.3±1.4 years) participated in the study. Each of the athletes received 12 g of a BCAA supplement (leucine 54%, isoleucine 19% and valine 27%) per day during the study...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Xue Zhao, Qing Han, Yujia Liu, Chenglin Sun, Xiaokun Gang, Guixia Wang
Recent studies have shown the positive association between increased circulating BCAAs (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and insulin resistance (IR) in obese or diabetic patients. However, results seem to be controversial in different races, diets, and distinct tissues. Our aims were to evaluate the relationship between BCAA and IR as well as later diabetes risk and explore the phenotypic and genetic factors influencing BCAA level based on available studies. We performed systematic review, searching MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Haipeng Sun, Yibin Wang
Metabolic remodeling is a hall-mark of cardiac maturation and pathology. The switch of substrate utilization from glucose to fatty acid is observed during post-natal maturation period in developing heart, but the process is reversed from fatty acids to glucose in the failing hearts across different clinic and experimental models. Majority of the current investigations have been focusing on the regulatory mechanism and functional impact of this metabolic reprogramming involving fatty acids and carbohydrates...
September 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Francesco Bifari, Enzo Nisoli
Substantial evidences have been accumulated to suggest the positive effect of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation or BCAA-rich diets on the regulation of body weight, muscle protein synthesis, glucose homeostasis, aging process, and healthspan extension. Despite these beneficial effects, epidemiological studies have shown that altered BCAA plasma concentrations and BCAA metabolism are present in several metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD)...
September 17, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Fei Xiao, Ying Du, Ziquan Lv, Shanghai Chen, Jianmin Zhu, Hongguang Sheng, Feifan Guo
Eight amino acids are considered essential for human nutrition, and three of them, including leucine, isoleucine and valine, are called as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). We recently discovered that dietary deficiency of any BCAA for 7 days rapidly reduces the abdominal fat mass in mice. The goal of this study was to investigate (1) whether dietary deficiency of the other five essential amino acids (EAAs), including phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine and lysine, would produce similar effects and (2) whether an association between serum AAs and obesity was observed in humans in Chinese Han population...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Jared R Mayers, Margaret E Torrence, Laura V Danai, Thales Papagiannakopoulos, Shawn M Davidson, Matthew R Bauer, Allison N Lau, Brian W Ji, Purushottam D Dixit, Aaron M Hosios, Alexander Muir, Christopher R Chin, Elizaveta Freinkman, Tyler Jacks, Brian M Wolpin, Dennis Vitkup, Matthew G Vander Heiden
Tumor genetics guides patient selection for many new therapies, and cell culture studies have demonstrated that specific mutations can promote metabolic phenotypes. However, whether tissue context defines cancer dependence on specific metabolic pathways is unknown. Kras activation and Trp53 deletion in the pancreas or the lung result in pancreatic ductal adenocarinoma (PDAC) or non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), respectively, but despite the same initiating events, these tumors use branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) differently...
September 9, 2016: Science
Ah-Reum Han, Hye-Ri Kang, Jonghyeon Son, Do Hoon Kwon, Sulhee Kim, Woo Cheol Lee, Hyun Kyu Song, Moon Jung Song, Kwang Yeon Hwang
GTP and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are metabolic sensors that are indispensable for the determination of the metabolic status of cells. However, their molecular sensing mechanism remains unclear. CodY is a unique global transcription regulator that recognizes GTP and BCAAs as specific signals and affects expression of more than 100 genes associated with metabolism. Herein, we report the first crystal structures of the full-length CodY complex with sensing molecules and describe their functional states...
September 4, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Amy Jennings, Alex MacGregor, Tess Pallister, Tim Spector, Aedín Cassidy
BACKGROUND: Conflicting data exist on the impact of dietary and circulating levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) on cardiometabolic health and it is unclear to what extent these relations are mediated by genetics. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 1997 female twins we examined associations between BCAA intake, measured using food frequency-questionnaires, and a range of markers of cardiometabolic health, including DXA-measured body fat, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipids...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Amey Shirolkar, Bhawana Sharma, Suman Lata, Rajesh Dabur
Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi Sawras) though has been clearly demonstrated in literature for its hypolipidemic and anti-alcoholism properties but its anti-hyperlipidemia mechanistic approach is still missing. Moreover, its direct implication with alcohol induced hyperlipidemia has also not been reported till date. In order to explore the answers of these questions, phytochemicals of Tinospora cordifolia water extract "Guduchi Sawras" (GS) was analyzed using HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. On the basis of relative peak volumes 110 compounds were selected and identified in GS...
August 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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