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BCAA metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417264/branched-chain-amino-acids-and-brain-metabolism
#1
Justin E Sperringer, Adele Addington, Susan M Hutson
This review aims to provide a historical reference of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism and provide a link between peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) metabolism of BCAAs. Leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu, Ile, and Val) are unlike most other essential amino acids (AA), being transaminated initially in extrahepatic tissues, and requiring interorgan or intertissue shuttling for complete catabolism. Within the periphery, BCAAs are essential AAs and are required for protein synthesis, and are key nitrogen donors in the form of Glu, Gln, and Ala...
April 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413737/amino-acid-leucine-chromatography-a-study-of-branched-chain-aminoaciduria-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
Bhagavan Reddy Kolanu, Venugopal Boddula, Sabitha Vadakedath, Venkataramana Kandi
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a disease characterized by insulin deficiency resulting in glucose intolerance and in abnormalities of other metabolic fuels including protein. Recently, a number of studies have revealed that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) play an important role in the regulation of protein synthesis by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in pancreatic β cells. BCAAs have positive effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis...
March 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396325/metabolic-genetic-screens-reveal-multidimensional-regulation-of-virulence-gene-expression-in-listeria-monocytogenes-and-an-aminopeptidase-that-is-critical-for-prfa-protein-activation
#3
Sivan Friedman, Marika Linsky, Lior Lobel, Lev Rabinovich, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and intracellular bacterial pathogen. Upon invading mammalian cells, the bacterium senses abrupt changes in its metabolic environment, which are rapidly transduced to regulation of virulence gene expression. To explore the relationship between L. monocytogenes metabolism and virulence, we monitored virulence gene expression dynamics across a library of genetic mutants grown under two metabolic conditions known to activate the virulent state: charcoal-treated rich medium containing glucose 1-phosphate and minimal defined medium containing limiting concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)...
April 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395865/metabolism-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#4
Yiqin Deng, Xiongqi Ding, Xiaochun Huang, Yiying Yang, Chang Chen
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) play important roles in nitrogen metabolism. However, little is known about the metabolism of BCAAs in the fish pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, the global gene expression patterns of V. alginolyticus ZJ-T cultured in M63 minimal medium supplemented with ammonium sulfate or with three BCAAs (isoleucine, leucine and valine) as nitrogen source were evaluated by transcriptome analysis. The results revealed that 311 genes are up-regulated (|log2(Fold Change)|>1), which are involved in the pathways of flagellar assembly, bacterial chemotaxis and oxidative phosphorylation etc, and meanwhile 251 genes are down-regulated, which are involved in the pathways of BCAAs biosynthesis, selenocompound metabolism and C5-branced dibasic acid metabolism etc...
April 5, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393236/metabolomic-analysis-of-the-saliva-of-japanese-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Mitsuyoshi Ohshima, Keisuke Sugahara, Kiyohiro Kasahara, Akira Katakura
The aim of the present study was to characterize the metabolic systems in Japanese patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) metabolome analysis of saliva samples. A previous study showed variations among ethnicities and tumor sites in the saliva metabolome of patients with OSCC using CE-MS. In the present study, saliva was obtained from 22 Japanese patients with OSCC and from 21 healthy controls who visited the Department of Dentistry, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Dental Collage Ichikawa General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, and all samples were subject to comprehensive quantitative metabolome analysis using CE-MS...
April 6, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378845/central-adiposity-induced-plasma-free-amino-acid-alterations-are-associated-with-increased-insulin-resistance-in-healthy-singaporean-adults
#6
X Bi, S L Tey, Y T Loo, C J Henry
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent metabolomics technique reveals a plasma-free amino acid (PFAA)-based metabolite signature that is suggestive of altered PFAAs being an early manifestation of obesity-related insulin resistance. However, the PFAA profiles within non-obese, but more insulin-resistant Asians are not well researched. Compared with Caucasians, Asian populations have more central adiposity, which is generally regarded as metabolically more adverse, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371347/genetic-engineering-of-the-branched-fatty-acid-metabolic-pathway-of-bacillus-subtilis-for-the-overproduction-of-surfactin-c14-isoform
#7
Debarun Dhali, François Coutte, Anthony Argüelles Arias, Sandrine Auger, Vladimir Bidnenko, Gabrielle Chataigné, Michael Lalk, Joachim Niehren, Joana de Sousa, Cristian Versari, Philippe Jacques
Surfactin, a lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, is one of the most powerful biosurfactants known. This molecule consists of a cyclic heptapeptide linked to a β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The isomery and the length of the fatty acid (FA) chain are responsible for the surfactin's activities. In this study, the gene codY, which encode for the global transcriptional regulator and the gene lpdV, located in the bkd operon (lpdV, bkdAA, bkdAB and bkdB genes), which is responsible for the last step of the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation in acyl-CoA were deleted...
April 3, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336113/effect-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-ratio-on-the-proliferation-differentiation-and-expression-levels-of-key-regulators-involved-in-protein-metabolism-of-myocytes
#8
Yehui Duan, Liming Zeng, Fengna Li, Wenlong Wang, Yinghui Li, Qiuping Guo, Yujiao Ji, Bi'e Tan, Yulong Yin
OBJECTIVES: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val), are key regulators of protein synthesis in muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different BCAA ratios (Leu:Ile:Val) on the proliferation, differentiation, and expression levels of the regulators related to protein metabolism of C2 C12 myocytes. METHODS: Studies were conducted in C2C12 myocytes exposed to different BCAA ratios (Leu: Ile: Val = 0, 1:0...
April 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326005/bioactivity-of-food-peptides-biological-response-of-rats-to-bovine-milk-whey-peptides-following-acute-exercise
#9
Carolina Soares Moura, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Priscila Neder Morato, Eder Muller Risso, Jaime Amaya-Farfan
Background: Several physiologically beneficial effects of consuming a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have been attributed to the greater availability of bioactive peptides. Aims: The aim was to investigate the effect of four branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA-)containing dipeptides, present in WPH, on immune modulation, stimulation of HSP expression, muscle protein synthesis, glycogen content, satiety signals and the impact of these peptides on the plasma free amino acid profiles. Methods: The animals were divided in groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), L-isoleucyl-L-leucine (lle-Leu), L-leucyl-L-isoleucine (Leu-lle), L-valyl-Lleucine (Val-Leu), L-leucyl-L-valine (Leu-Val) and WPH...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324240/neurocognitive-profiles-in-msud-school-age-patients
#10
Juliette Bouchereau, Julie Leduc-Leballeur, Samia Pichard, Apolline Imbard, Jean-François Benoist, Marie-Thérèse Abi Warde, Jean-Baptiste Arnoux, Valérie Barbier, Anaïs Brassier, Pierre Broué, Aline Cano, Brigitte Chabrol, Gilles Damon, Claire Gay, Isabelle Guillain, Florence Habarou, Delphine Lamireau, Chris Ottolenghi, Laetitia Paermentier, Frédérique Sabourdy, Guy Touati, Hélène Ogier de Baulny, Pascale de Lonlay, Manuel Schiff
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an inborn error of amino acids catabolism is characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, valine and their corresponding alpha-ketoacids. Impact on the cognitive development has been reported historically, with developmental delays of varying degree. Currently, earlier diagnosis and improved management allow a better neurodevelopment, without requirement of special education. However, specific impairments can be observed, and so far, results of detailed neurocognitive assessments are not available...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323986/chronic-intranasal-insulin-does-not-affect-hepatic-lipids-but-lowers-circulating-bcaas-in-healthy-male-subjects
#11
Thomas Scherer, Peter Wolf, Sabina Smajis, Melania Gaggini, Martina Hackl, Amalia Gastaldelli, Peter Klimek, Elisa Einwallner, Rodrig Marculescu, Anton Luger, Clemens Fürnsinn, Siegfried Trattnig, Christoph Buettner, Martin Krššák, Michael Krebs
Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and elevated circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are common characteristics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In rodents, brain insulin signaling controls both hepatic triglyceride secretion and BCAA catabolism. Whether brain insulin signaling controls similar metabolic pathways in humans is unknown. Objective: Here we assessed if intranasal insulin, a method to preferentially deliver insulin to the central nervous system, is able to modulate hepatic lipid content and plasma BCAAs in humans...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323243/proteomics-of-facs-sorted-heterogeneous-corynebacterium-glutamicum-populations
#12
Andreas Harst, Stefan P Albaum, Tanja Bojarzyn, Christian Trötschel, Ansgar Poetsch
The metabolic status of individual cells in microbial cultures can differ, being relevant for biotechnology, environmental and medical microbiology. However, it is hardly understood in molecular detail due to limitations of current analytical tools. Here, we demonstrate that FACS in combination with proteomics can be used to sort and analyze cell populations based on their metabolic state. A previously established GFP reporter system was used to detect and sort single Corynebacterium glutamicum cells based on the concentration of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) using FACS...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296401/effects-of-low-protein-diets-supplemented-with-branched-chain-amino-acid-on-lipid-metabolism-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-piglets
#13
Yinghui Li, Hongkui Wei, Fengna Li, Yehui Duan, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin
This study evaluated the effect of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in low-protein diets on lipid metabolism in dorsal subcutaneous adipose (DSA), abdominal subcutaneous adipose (ASA), and perirenal adipose (PRA) tissues. A total of 24 piglets were allotted to four treatments, and each group was fed the adequate protein (AP) diet, low-protein (LP) diet, LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + B), or LP diet supplemented with twice BCAA (LP + 2B). Serum concentrations of leptin in the BCAA-supplemented treatments were higher (P < 0...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285648/branched-chain-amino-acids-alleviate-hepatic-steatosis-and-liver-injury-in-choline-deficient-high-fat-diet-induced-nash-mice
#14
Takashi Honda, Masatoshi Ishigami, Fangqiong Luo, Ma Lingyun, Yoji Ishizu, Teiji Kuzuya, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Isao Nakano, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Guo-Gang Feng, Yoshiaki Katano, Tomoya Kohama, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Yoshiharu Shimomura, Hidemi Goto, Yoshiki Hirooka
BACKGROUND: For successful treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), it may be important to treat the individual causative factors. At present, however, there is no established treatment for this disease. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been used to treat patients with decompensated cirrhosis. AIM: In order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the effects of BCAAs on hepatic steatosis and disease progression, we investigated the effects of BCAA supplementation in mice fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF), which induces NASH...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271897/branched-chain-amino-acids-as-predictors-for-individual-differences-of-cisplatin-nephrotoxicity-in-rats-a-pharmacometabonomics-study
#15
Pei Zhang, Wei Li, Jiaqing Chen, Ruiting Li, Zunjian Zhang, Yin Huang, Fengguo Xu
Nephrotoxicity is the dose-limiting adverse effect of cisplatin with large individual differences. Up to now, little has been done on how to recognize and predict the individual differences in either preclinical or clinical research. In the present study, important postdose indicators were screened out first and integrated into a grouping factor, according to which rats were recognized as lowly or highly sensitive individuals. Then, mass-spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach was performed to dissect the metabolic differences in predose serum of the two groups...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266085/branched-chain-amino-acid-ratios-in-low-protein-diets-regulate-the-free-amino-acid-profile-and-the-expression-of-hepatic-fatty-acid-metabolism-related-genes-in-growing-pigs
#16
Y H Duan, F N Li, C Y Wen, W L Wang, Q P Guo, Y H Li, Y L Yin
Liver metabolism is affected by nutrients. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of low-protein diets (17% crude protein, CP) supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val), on hepatic amino acid profile and lipid metabolism in growing pigs. The ratio of Leu : Ile : Val in all groups was 1 : 0.51 : 0.63 (20% crude protein, CP), 1 : 1 : 1 (17% CP), 1 : 0.75 : 0.75 (17% CP), 1 : 0.51 : 0.63 (17% CP) and 1 : 0.25 : 0...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265960/impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-metabolic-and-gut-microbiota-profile-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Dimitrios E Magouliotis, Vasiliki S Tasiopoulou, Eleni Sioka, Christina Chatedaki, Dimitrios Zacharoulis
We aim to review the available literature on obese patients treated with bariatric procedures, in order to assess their effect on the metabolic and gut microbiota profiles. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-two studies (562 patients) met the inclusion criteria. This study points to significant amelioration of postoperative levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HOMA-IR, food intake, and diabetes remission...
March 6, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238968/changes-in-macroautophagy-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-murine-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-during-aging
#18
Jin Zhou, Shu Yun Chong, Andrea Lim, Brijesh K Singh, Rohit A Sinha, Adam B Salmon, Paul M Yen
Aging causes a general decline in cellular metabolic activity, and function in different tissues and whole body homeostasis. However, the understanding about the metabolomic and autophagy changes in skeletal muscle and heart during aging is still limited. We thus examined markers for macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), mitochondrial quality control, as well as cellular metabolites in skeletal and cardiac muscle from young (5 months old) and aged (27 months old) mice. We found decreased autophagic degradation of p62 and increased ubiquitinated proteins in both tissues from aged mice, suggesting a decline in macroautophagy during aging...
February 26, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219950/nutritional-modulation-of-mouse-and-human-liver-bud-growth-through-a-branched-amino-acid-metabolism
#19
Hiroyuki Koike, Ran-Ran Zhang, Yasuharu Ueno, Keisuke Sekine, Yun-Wen Zheng, Takanori Takebe, Hideki Taniguchi
Liver bud progenitors experience a transient amplification during early organ growth phase, yet the responsible mechanism was not fully understood. Collective evidence highlighted the specific requirements in stem cell metabolism for expanding organ progenitors during organogenesis and regeneration. Here, transcriptome analyses showed progenitors of mouse and human liver bud growth stage specifically expressed branched chain aminotransferase1 gene, a known breakdown enzyme of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) for energy generation...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178567/defective-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-disrupts-glucose-metabolism-and-sensitizes-the-heart-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Tao Li, Zhen Zhang, Stephen C Kolwicz, Lauren Abell, Nathan D Roe, Maengjo Kim, Bo Zhou, Yang Cao, Julia Ritterhoff, Haiwei Gu, Daniel Raftery, Haipeng Sun, Rong Tian
Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have recently been implicated in the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. In a mouse model of impaired BCAA catabolism (knockout [KO]), we found that chronic accumulation of BCAAs suppressed glucose metabolism and sensitized the heart to ischemic injury. High levels of BCAAs selectively disrupted mitochondrial pyruvate utilization through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) activity...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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