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BCAA metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141216/slc3a2-mediates-branched-chain-amino-acid-dependent-maintenance-of-regulatory-t-cells
#1
Kayo Ikeda, Makoto Kinoshita, Hisako Kayama, Shushi Nagamori, Pornparn Kongpracha, Eiji Umemoto, Ryu Okumura, Takashi Kurakawa, Mari Murakami, Norihisa Mikami, Yasunori Shintani, Satoko Ueno, Ayatoshi Andou, Morihiro Ito, Hideki Tsumura, Koji Yasutomo, Keiichi Ozono, Seiji Takashima, Shimon Sakaguchi, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Kiyoshi Takeda
Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress immune responses, are highly proliferative in vivo. However, it remains unclear how the active replication of Treg cells is maintained in vivo. Here, we show that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including isoleucine, are required for maintenance of the proliferative state of Treg cells via the amino acid transporter Slc3a2-dependent metabolic reprogramming. Mice fed BCAA-reduced diets showed decreased numbers of Foxp3(+) Treg cells with defective in vivo proliferative capacity...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122443/identification-of-serum-metabolites-associated-with-obesity-and-traditional-risk-factors-for-metabolic-disease-in-chinese-adults
#2
S M Wang, R Y Yang, M Wang, F S Ji, H X Li, Y M Tang, W X Chen, J Dong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is a major worldwide health problem and is often associated with many metabolic diseases. Levels of several serum-specific metabolites may be altered in patients with these metabolic diseases. We aimed to investigate the associations of serum metabolite levels with obesity and traditional risk factors for metabolic disease in Chinese individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six-hundred Chinese individuals undergoing annual physical exams were recruited and categorized into overweight/obese and control groups (1:1 ratio)...
October 3, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118722/branched-chain-amino-acid-negatively-regulates-klf15-expression-via-pi3k-akt-pathway
#3
Yunxia Liu, Weibing Dong, Jing Shao, Yibin Wang, Meiyi Zhou, Haipeng Sun
Recent studies have linked branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) with numerous metabolic diseases. However, the molecular basis of BCAA's roles in metabolic regulation remains to be established. KLF15 (Krüppel-like factor 15) is a transcription factor and master regulator of glycemic, lipid, and amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we found high concentrations of BCAA suppressed KLF15 expression while BCAA starvation induced KLF15 expression, suggesting KLF15 expression is negatively controlled by BCAA...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104034/distribution-of-the-branched-chain-%C3%AE-ketoacid-dehydrogenase-complex-e1%C3%AE-subunit-and-glutamate-dehydrogenase-in-the-human-brain-and-their-role-in-neuro-metabolism
#4
Jonathon Hull, Marcela Usmari Moraes, Emma Brookes, Seth Love, Myra E Conway
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, with the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) acting as key nitrogen donors for de novo glutamate synthesis. Despite the importance of these major metabolites, their metabolic pathway in the human brain is still not well characterised. The metabolic pathways that influence the metabolism of BCAAs have been well characterised in rat models. However, the expression of key proteins such as the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex and glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes (GDH) in the human brain is still not well characterised...
November 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075976/specific-plasma-amino-acid-disturbances-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Marta Siomkajło, Jacek Rybka, Magdalena Mierzchała-Pasierb, Andrzej Gamian, Joanna Stankiewicz-Olczyk, Marek Bolanowski, Jacek Daroszewski
PURPOSE: The primary objective of the present study was to examine the association between branched chain and aromatic amino acid profiles (BCAA and AAA respectively) and the metabolic syndrome (MS), and to evaluate the clinical utility of these associations in the diagnostic process. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty three healthy men with MS [MS(+): n = 165] and without MS [MS(-): n = 98] were enrolled in the observational study. Anthropometrical, biochemical, and amino acid measurements were performed...
October 26, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062026/early-onset-and-classical-forms-of-type-2-diabetes-show-impaired-expression-of-genes-involved-in-muscle-branched-chain-amino-acids-metabolism
#6
María Isabel Hernández-Alvarez, Angels Díaz-Ramos, María Berdasco, Jeff Cobb, Evarist Planet, Diane Cooper, Agnieszka Pazderska, Krzystof Wanic, Declan O'Hanlon, Antonio Gomez, Laura R de la Ballina, Manel Esteller, Manuel Palacin, Donal J O'Gorman, John J Nolan, Antonio Zorzano
The molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiological traits of type 2 diabetes are incompletely understood. Here we have performed transcriptomic analysis in skeletal muscle, and plasma metabolomics from subjects with classical and early-onset forms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Focused studies were also performed in tissues from ob/ob and db/db mice. We document that T2D, both early and late onset, are characterized by reduced muscle expression of genes involved in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046328/genetic-support-for-a-causal-role-of-insulin-resistance-on-circulating-branched-chain-amino-acids-and-inflammation
#7
Qin Wang, Michael V Holmes, George Davey Smith, Mika Ala-Korpela
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance has deleterious effects on cardiometabolic disease. We used Mendelian randomization analyses to clarify the causal relationships of insulin resistance (IR) on circulating blood-based metabolites to shed light on potential mediators of the IR to cardiometabolic disease relationship. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with IR from a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) to explore their effects on circulating lipids and metabolites...
October 18, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046316/evidence-for-the-presence-in-rainbow-trout-brain-of-amino-acid-sensing-systems-involved-in-the-control-of-food-intake
#8
Sara Comesana, Cristina Velasco, Rosa M Ceinos, Marcos A Lopez-Patiño, Jesus M Miguez, Sofia Morais, Jose L Soengas
To assess the existence of central amino acid sensing systems in fish we carried out two experiments in rainbow trout. In the first one, we injected ICV two different branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine and valine, and assessed food intake up to 48 h later. Leucine decreased and valine increased food intake. In a second experiment, 6h after similar ICV treatment we determined changes in parameters related to putative amino acid sensing systems. Amino acid sensing systems respond to leucine in hypothalamus and telencephalon, and to valine in telencephalon...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035970/emerging-perspectives-on-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-during-adipocyte-differentiation
#9
Daniela Salinas-Rubio, Armando R Tovar, Lilia G Noriega
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipogenesis has been extensively studied in the context of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, little information exists on the role of amino acid metabolism during adipocyte differentiation. Here, we review how branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism is modified during adipogenesis and, due to the limited information in the area, address questions that remain to be answered with further research. RECENT FINDINGS: BCAAs are rapidly consumed during adipocyte differentiation and are indispensable for this process...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035969/effects-of-medical-food-leucine-content-in-the-management-of-methylmalonic-and-propionic-acidemias
#10
Jennifer G Myles, Irini Manoli, Charles P Venditti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights the varied effects of medical foods high in leucine (Leu) and devoid of valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) in the management of methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia and cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency, aiming to advance dietary practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Leu is a key metabolic regulator with a multitude of effects on different organ systems. Recent observational studies have demonstrated that these effects can have unintended consequences in patients with MMA as a result of liberal use of medical foods...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030588/impaired-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-may-underlie-the-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-like-pathology-of-neonatal-testosterone-treated-female-rats
#11
Álvaro Anzai, Rodrigo R Marcondes, Thiago H Gonçalves, Kátia C Carvalho, Manuel J Simões, Natália Garcia, José M Soares, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Edmund C Baracat, Ismael D C G da Silva, Gustavo A R Maciel
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is frequently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the mechanisms involved in the development of NAFLD in PCOS are not well known. We investigated histological changes and metabolomic profile in the liver of rat models of PCOS phenotype induced by testosterone or estradiol. Two-day old female rats received sc injections of 1.25 mg testosterone propionate (Testos; n = 10), 0.5 mg estradiol benzoate (E2; n = 10), or vehicle (control group, CNT; n = 10)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987236/associations-of-cord-blood-metabolites-with-perinatal-characteristics-newborn-anthropometry-and-cord-blood-hormones-in-project-viva
#12
Wei Perng, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Scott McCulloch, Leda Chatzi, Christos Mantzoros, Marie-France Hivert, Emily Oken
CONTEXT: Metabolomics has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize biomarkers and elucidate physiological processes underlying adverse health outcomes. Little is known of these relationships during gestation and infancy, which are critical period for development of metabolic disease risk. OBJECTIVES: To identify cord blood metabolite patterns associated with birth size; and to investigate relations of the birth size-associated metabolite patterns, and a branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolite pattern with a range of newborn and perinatal characteristics...
November 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958693/amino-acid-profile-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-male-mediterranean-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
A Ntzouvani, T Nomikos, D Panagiotakos, E Fragopoulou, C Pitsavos, A McCann, P M Ueland, S Antonopoulou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of clinically relevant factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Circulating levels of several amino acids and metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and MetS. We aimed to identify the amino acid profile that is significantly associated with MetS among an all male Mediterranean population. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred middle-aged men (54...
July 25, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958691/branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-rather-than-amino-acids-plasma-concentrations-is-associated-with-diet-induced-changes-in-insulin-resistance-in-overweight-to-obese-individuals
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
S Haufe, S Engeli, J Kaminski, H Witt, D Rein, B Kamlage, W Utz, J C Fuhrmann, V Haas, A Mähler, J Schulz-Menger, F C Luft, M Boschmann, J Jordan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate (3-HIB), a catabolic intermediate of the BCAA valine, which stimulates muscle fatty acid uptake, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that circulating 3-HIB herald insulin resistance and that metabolic improvement with weight loss are related to changes in BCAAs and 3-HIB. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed plasma and urine in 109 overweight to obese individuals before and after six months on hypocaloric diets reduced in either carbohydrates or fat...
October 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951188/-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis-identifies-limitations-to-increasing-specific-productivity-in-fed-batch-and-perfusion
#15
Neil Templeton, Sen Xu, David J Roush, Hao Chen
Industrial cell culture requires substantial energy to generate protein. The protein generated is not only the product of interest (IgG in this case), but also the protein associated with biomass. Here, (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis ((13)C-MFA) was utilized to compare the stationary phase of a fed-batch process to a perfusion process producing the same product by the same clone. The fed-batch process achieved significantly higher specific productivity, approximately 60% greater than the perfusion process. In spite of this, a general lack of difference was observed when globally comparing glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle fluxes...
September 22, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934166/is-branched-chain-amino-acids-supplementation-an-efficient-nutritional-strategy-to-alleviate-skeletal-muscle-damage-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Alexandre Fouré, David Bendahan
Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have also been implicated in the limitation of structural and metabolic alterations associated with exercise damage. This systematic review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation within the context of exercise-induced muscle damage or muscle injury...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926411/lower-mitochondrial-dna-and-altered-mitochondrial-fuel-metabolism-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-cameroon
#17
Jennifer Jao, Kathleen M Powis, Brian Kirmse, Chunli Yu, Fanny Epie, Emmanuel Nshom, Elaine J Abrams, Rhoda S Sperling, Derek Leroith, Mitchell E Geffner, Irwin J Kurland, Hélène C F Côté
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate blood mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in HIV/antiretroviral-exposed uninfected (HEU) vs. HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants and investigate differences in mitochondrial-related metabolites by exposure group. DESIGN: We enrolled a prospective cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant woman/infant pairs in Cameroon. METHODS: Dried blood spot mtDNA : nuclear DNA ratio was measured by monochrome multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction in HEU infants exposed to in-utero antiretrovirals and postnatal zidovudine (HEU-Z) or nevirapine (HEU-N), and in HUU infants at 6 weeks of life...
November 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919799/maple-syrup-urine-disease-mechanisms-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Patrick R Blackburn, Jennifer M Gass, Filippo Pinto E Vairo, Kristen M Farnham, Herjot K Atwal, Sarah Macklin, Eric W Klee, Paldeep S Atwal
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by defects in the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, which results in elevations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in plasma, α-ketoacids in urine, and production of the pathognomonic disease marker, alloisoleucine. The disorder varies in severity and the clinical spectrum is quite broad with five recognized clinical variants that have no known association with genotype. The classic presentation occurs in the neonatal period with developmental delay, failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, and maple syrup odor in the cerumen and urine, and can lead to irreversible neurological complications, including stereotypical movements, metabolic decompensation, and death if left untreated...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919422/over-expression-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-obese-mice-adipose-tissue-improves-insulin-sensitivity
#19
Haruya Takahashi, Kohei Sanada, Hiroyuki Nagai, Yongjia Li, Yumeko Aoki, Takeshi Ara, Shigeto Seno, Hideo Matsuda, Rina Yu, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is important in the regulation of lipid metabolism and expressed at high levels in the liver. Although PPARα is also expressed in adipose tissue, little is known about the relationship between its activation and the regulation of glucose metabolism. In this study, we developed adipose tissue specific PPARα over-expression (OE) mice. Metabolomics and insulin tolerance tests showed that OE induces branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) profile and improvement of insulin sensitivity...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878358/enoyl-coa-hydratase-1-regulates-mtor-signaling-and-apoptosis-by-sensing-nutrients
#20
Ya-Kun Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Qu, Yan Lin, Xiao-Hui Wu, Hou-Zao Chen, Xu Wang, Kai-Qiang Zhou, Yun Wei, Fushen Guo, Cui-Fang Yao, Xia-Di He, Li-Xia Liu, Chen Yang, Zong-Yuan Guan, Shi-Dong Wang, Jianyuan Zhao, De-Pei Liu, Shi-Min Zhao, Wei Xu
The oncogenic mechanisms of overnutrition, a confirmed independent cancer risk factor, remain poorly understood. Herein, we report that enoyl-CoA hydratase-1 (ECHS1), the enzyme involved in the oxidation of fatty acids (FAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), senses nutrients and promotes mTOR activation and apoptotic resistance. Nutrients-promoted acetylation of lys(101) of ECHS1 impedes ECHS1 activity by impairing enoyl-CoA binding, promoting ECHS1 degradation and blocking its mitochondrial translocation through inducing ubiquitination...
September 6, 2017: Nature Communications
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