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cancer nanomedicine

Mahi R Singh
In this chapter, we explain why metallic nanomaterials are used in nanomedicine. We have shown that the electron density in metallic nanomaterials oscillates and creates electron density waves. When laser light falls on metallic nanoparticles, light interacts with electron density waves. According to Einstein, light, which is electromagnetic waves, consists of particles called photons. Similarly, electron density waves are also made of particles called surface plasmons. Therefore, photons from laser light and surface plasmons from metallic nanostructures interact with each other and create new particles called surface plasmon polaritons...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xi Hu, Fangyuan Li, Shuying Wang, Fan Xia, Daishun Ling
Nanoassembly technology has emerged as a powerful tool for targeted drug delivery and provides a basis for fabricating medical theranostic nanosystems. However, it is extremely difficult to concentrate nanoparticles at tumor sites, and the poor target-to-background ratio undoubtedly obstructs the accurate diagnosis and effective therapy of cancerous tissues. Importantly, the addition of biological stimulus-responsive groups to nanoassembly systems can enable a biological stimulus-driven assembly-disassembly mutual switch or structural composition/conformation change, thereby amplifying the imaging signal and/or enhancing the therapeutic effect...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Yu Seok Youn, You Han Bae
The justification of cancer nanomedicine relies on enhanced permeation (EP) and retention (R) effect and the capability of intracellular targeting due primarily to size after internalization (endocytosis) into the individual target cells. The EPR effect implies improved efficacy. Affinity targeting for solid tumors only occur after delivery to individual cells, which help internalization and/or retention. The design principles have been supported by animal results in numerous publications, but hardly translated...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Ankit Saneja, Divya Arora, Robin Kumar, Ravindra Dhar Dubey, Amulya K Panda, Prem N Gupta
In recent years scientific community has drawn a great deal of attention towards understanding the enigma of cluster of differentiation-44 (CD44) in order to deliver therapeutic agents more selectively towards tumor tissues. Moreover, its over-expression in variety of solid tumors has attracted drug delivery researchers to target this receptor with nanomedicines. Conventional nanomedicines based on biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) are often associated with insufficient cellular uptake by cancer cells, due to lack of active targeting moiety on their surface...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Huanli Sun, Yifan Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhong
The development of smart delivery systems that are robust in circulation and quickly release drugs following selective internalization into target cancer cells is a key to precision cancer therapy. Interestingly, reduction-sensitive polymeric nanomedicines showing high plasma stability and triggered cytoplasmic drug release behavior have recently emerged as one of the most exciting platforms for targeted delivery of various anticancer drugs including small chemical drugs, proteins, and nucleic acids. In vivo studies in varying tumor models reveal that these reduction-sensitive multifunctional nanomedicines outperform the currently used clinical formulations and reduction-insensitive counterparts, bringing about not only significantly enhanced tumor selectivity, accumulation and inhibition efficacy but also markedly reduced systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic index...
May 15, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Yaqi Lv, Xiangmei Zhao, Lidan Zhu, Sijia Li, Qingqing Xiao, Wei He, Lifang Yin
Treatment for metastatic cancer is a great challenge throughout the world. Commonly, directed inhibition of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by cancer cells can reduce metastasis. Here, a novel nanoplatform (HPMC NPs) assembled from hyaluronic acid (HA)-paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug and marimastat (MATT)/β-casein (CN) complexes was established to cure a 4T1 metastatic cancer model via targeting CD44 and intracellular, rather than extracellular, MMPs. Methods: HPMC NPs were prepared by assembling the complexes and prodrug under ultrasonic treatment, which the interaction between them was evaluated by förster resonance energy transfer, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra...
2018: Theranostics
Lijia Jing, Haijing Qu, Dongqi Wu, Chaojian Zhu, Yongbo Yang, Xing Jin, Jian Zheng, Xiangsheng Shi, Xiufeng Yan, Yang Wang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a great challenge to cancer therapy. It is difficult to inhibit the growth of MDR cancer due to its chemoresistance. Furthermore, MDR cancers are more likely to metastasize, causing a high mortality among cancer patients. In this study, a nanomedicine RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX was developed by encapsulating melanin nanoparticles (MNPs) and doxorubicin (DOX) inside RGD peptide (c(RGDyC))-modified nanoscale platelet vesicles (RGD-NPVs) to efficiently inhibit the growth and metastasis of drug-resistant tumors via a cancer cells and tumor vasculature dual-targeting strategy...
2018: Theranostics
Peipei Peng, Ke Yang, Gangsheng Tong, Liang Ma
Nanomedicines are novel drug delivery systems which can be devised to optimize the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single or multiple drugs to improve the therapeutic index, reduce the systemic toxicity and increase the antitumor efficacy. Numerous classes of materials have been applied to construct nanomedicines, while the potential safety concern raised from the synthetic components during construction significantly impedes the clinical translation of nanomedicines. In virtue of their unique hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability and modifiability, natural biopolymers have been widely employed as either coating materials or backbones to realize targeted cancer therapy with desirable biosafety...
May 11, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Conglian Yang, Yuting Qin, Kun Tu, Chenfeng Xu, Zhen Li, Zhiping Zhang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains as an obstacle for effective cancer treatment. Herein, we developed a novel and efficient nanomedicine by virtue of the carrier characters and MDR inhibition effects of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS). A series of star-shaped polymers CD-g-TPGS with different TPGS substitution degree were synthesized for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery, where β-CD was identified as a core and TPGS as branches. These star polymers can self-assemble into nanoparticles with DOX...
May 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Qingqing Xiong, Jian Wang, Yang Bai, Tianqiang Song
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with insidious onset, insensitive to chemotherapy and poor prognosis, which make its clinical treatment face an enormous challenge. In recent years, with the rapid development of nanotechnology, increasing kinds of nanomedicine come to the forefront in biomedical fields. Through rational design, nanomedicine can be prepared in suitable size and modified with specific liver targeting ligands. Moreover, various therapeutic agents of different mechanisms can be co-loaded into the same nanosystem, thus achieving the synergistic therapeutic effects towards HCC...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Heng Zhao, Ping Zhou, Kai Huang, Guang Deng, Zhiguo Zhou, Jing Wang, Mingwei Wang, Yingjian Zhang, Hong Yang, Shiping Yang
Nanomedicine has significantly impacted cancer theranostics. However, its efficiency is restricted by the limited enhanced permeability and retention effect of nanomaterials and insufficient density/specificity of receptors of tumor cells. Herein, an apoptosis-homing nanoplatform based on zinc(II) dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) conjugated Fe/Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (MNPs/ZnDPA), which demonstrates amplified magnetic resonance signal and photothermal therapy, is developed. In an apoptotic xenograft model constructed by doxorubicin, due to the high affinity between ZnDPA and the upregulated level of phosphatidylserine on the outer surface of apoptotic cancer cells, the accumulation value of MNPs/ZnDPA is enhanced two-fold and the tumor/muscle ratio of T2 values is decreased to 50% compared to that in the normal xenograft model...
May 10, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Hiroyoshi Y Tanaka, Mitsunobu R Kano
Pancreatic cancer is known for its dismal prognosis despite efforts to improve therapeutic outcome. Recently, cancer nanomedicine, application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment, has gained interest for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect that promotes selective accumulation of nanometer-sized molecules within tumors is the theoretical rationale of treatment. However, it is clear that EPR may be insufficient in pancreatic cancer due to stromal barriers within the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Science
Miguel Manzano, María Vallet-Regí
In the last few years mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have gained the attention of the nanomedicine research community, especially for the potential treatment of cancer. Although this topic has been reviewed before, periodic updates on such a hot topic are necessary due to the dynamic character of this field. The reasons that make MSNs so attractive for designing controlled drug delivery systems lie beneath their physico-chemical stability, easy functionalisation, low toxicity and their great loading capacity of many different types of therapeutic agents...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Jia Yao, Yuan Cheng, Min Zhou, Sheng Zhao, Shichao Lin, Xiaoyu Wang, Jiangjiexing Wu, Sirong Li, Hui Wei
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress is linked to various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Though highly efficient natural ROS scavenging enzymes have been evolved, they are sensitive to environmental conditions and hard to mass-produce. Therefore, enormous efforts have been devoted to developing artificial enzymes with ROS scavenging activities. Among them, ROS scavenging nanozymes have recently attracted great interest owing to their enhanced stability, multi-functionality, and tunable activity...
March 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Yiting Qiao, Jianqin Wan, Liqian Zhou, Wen Ma, Yuanyuan Yang, Weixuan Luo, Zhiqiang Yu, Hangxiang Wang
Cancer remains one of the world's leading causes of death. However, most conventional chemotherapeutic drugs only show a narrow therapeutic window in patients because of their inability to discriminate cancer cells from healthy cells. Nanoparticle-based therapeutics (termed nanotherapeutics) have emerged as potential solutions to mitigate many obstacles posed by these free drugs. Deep insights into knowledge of the tumor microenvironment and materials science make it possible to construct nanotherapeutics that are able to release cargoes in response to a variety of internal stimuli and external triggers...
May 4, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Helen Lee, Daniel Gaddy, Manuela Ventura, Nicholas Bernards, Raquel de Souza, Dmitri Kirpotin, Thomas Wickham, Jonathan Fitzgerald, Jinzi Zheng, Bart S Hendriks
Deposition of liposomal drugs into solid tumors is a potentially rate-limiting step for drug delivery and has substantial variability that may influence probability of response. Tumor deposition is a shared mechanism for liposomal therapeutics such that a single companion diagnostic agent may have utility in predicting response to multiple nanomedicines. Methods: We describe the development, characterization and preclinical proof-of-concept of the positron emission tomography (PET) agent, MM-DX-929, a drug-free untargeted 100 nm PEGylated liposome stably entrapping a chelated complex of 4-DEAP-ATSC and 64 Cu (copper-64)...
2018: Theranostics
Ramon Handerson Gomes Teles, Herick Fernando Moralles, Márcia Regina Cominetti
Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising tool in the clinic to combat several difficult-to-manage diseases, such as cancer, which is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapeutic drugs present several limitations such as undesired side effects, low specificity, resistance, and high relapse rates. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is caused by cells that lack specific receptors in their membrane, such as estrogen (ER+) and progesterone (PR+) receptors, or by cells that do not express the amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2+)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Kaili Wang, Chunjing Guo, Shaohua Zou, Yueming Yu, Xinxin Fan, Bingjie Wang, Mengna Liu, Lei Fang, Daquan Chen
To remedy the problems resulting from the usage of anti-cancer drugs in cancer chemotherapy, such as deficient drug concentration in tumour cells, low water-solubility and non-specific distribution of antitumour drugs, a kind of reduction-sensitive polymer prodrug of curcumin (Cur) containing in the nano-echinus was synthesized and designed. The nano-echinus-like nanomedicine presented synergistic effect with glycyrrhetic acid (GA) and oligomeric hyaluronic (HA) for targeting and combating HepG2 human liver cancer cell...
April 27, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ying Xie, Yazhe Wang, Jing Li, Yu Hang, David Oupický
Chemokines and chemokine receptors play key roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Although multiple chemokines and chemokine receptors have been investigated, inhibition of CXCR4 emerged as one of the most promising approaches in combination cancer therapy, especially when focused on the metastatic disease. Small RNA molecules, such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), represent new class of therapeutics for cancer treatment through RNA interference-mediated gene silencing. However, the clinical applicability of siRNA and miRNA is severely limited by the lack of effective delivery systems...
April 26, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Xiaoxia Han, Ju Huang, Xiangxiang Jing, Dayan Yang, Han Lin, Zhigang Wang, Pan Li, Yu Chen
The conventional inorganic semiconductors are not suitable for in vivo therapeutic nanomedicine because of the lack of an adequate and safe irradiation source to activate them. This work reports on the rational design of titania (TiO2 )-based semiconductors for enhanced and synergistic sono-/photoinduced tumor eradication by creating an oxygen-deficient TiO2- x layer onto the surface of TiO2 nanocrystals, which can create a crystalline-disordered core/shell structure (TiO2 @TiO2- x ) with black color. As found in the lessons from traditional photocatalysis, such an oxygen-deficient TiO2- x layer with abundant oxygen defects facilitates and enhances the separation of electrons (e- ) and holes (h+ ) from the energy-band structure upon external ultrasound irradiation, which can significantly improve the efficacy of sono-triggered sonocatalytic tumor therapy...
April 30, 2018: ACS Nano
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