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cancer nanomedicine

Thidarat Wongpinyochit, Blair F Johnston, F Philipp Seib
Silk is a promising biopolymer for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications due to its outstanding mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well its ability to protect and subsequently release its payload in response to a trigger. While silk can be formulated into various material formats, silk nanoparticles are emerging as promising drug delivery systems. Therefore, this article covers the procedures for reverse engineering silk cocoons to yield a regenerated silk solution that can be used to generate stable silk nanoparticles...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Tumor progression and response to treatment is determined in large part by the generation of mechanical stresses that stem from both the solid and the fluid phase of the tumor. Furthermore, elevated solid stress levels can regulate fluid stresses by compressing intratumoral blood and lymphatic vessels. Blood vessel compression reduces tumor perfusion, while compression of lymphatic vessels hinders the ability of the tumor to drain excessive fluid from its interstitial space contributing to the uniform elevation of the interstitial fluid pressure...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Gaoxing Su, Xiaofei Zhou, Hongyu Zhou, Ye Li, Xianren Zhang, Yin Liu, Dapeng Cao, Bing Yan
Understandings of how biomolecules modify nanoparticles in a biological context and how these exchanges impact nano-bio interactions are fundamental to nanomedicine and nanotoxicology research. In this work, cancer-targeting gold nanoparticles (TGNPs) with different sizes (5, 15, and 40 nm) were designed and synthesized. These nanoparticles spontaneously adsorbed proteins in complete cell culture medium (DMEM with 10% human serum). Although the targeting ligands on the surface of nanoparticles were likely to be shielded by adsorbed proteins, the targeting capability of nanoparticles was maintained due to the highly dynamic nature of protein adsorption...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jabadurai Jayapaul, Susanne Arns, Matt Bunker, Marek Weiler, Sandra Rutherford, Peter Comba, Fabian Kiessling
: Riboflavin (Rf) receptors bind and translocate Rf and its phosphorylated forms (e.g. flavin mononucleotide, FMN) into cells where they mediate various cellular metabolic pathways. Previously, we showed that FMN-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (FLUSPIO) nanoparticles are suitable for labeling metabolically active cancer and endothelial cells in vitro. In this study, we focused on the in vivo application of FLUSPIO using prostate cancer xenografts. Size, charge, and chemical composition of FLUSPIO were evaluated...
2016: Nano Research
Bhabatosh Banik, Brett W Askins, Shanta Dhar
The field of intracellular organelle targeting using nanoparticle (NP) is mushrooming rapidly. Thus, the area of nanotechnology-enabled targeting of mitochondrion, the cellular powerhouse, for diseases characterized by mitochondrial dysfunctions such as cancer, diseases of the central nervous system, and cardiovascular diseases is also growing at a rapid pace. Optimization of a NP's ability to target the mitochondria requires quantification of the particles in this subcellular organelle and isolation of mitochondria from the cells...
October 13, 2016: Nanoscale
Pingsheng Huang, Huijuan Song, Yumin Zhang, Jinjian Liu, Ju Zhang, Weiwei Wang, Jianfeng Liu, Chen Li, Deling Kong
The objective of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal delivery of nanomedicines by an injectable, thermosensitive and nanoparticle self-aggregated hydrogel for peritumoral chemotherapy. Doxorubicin (Dox) was taken as the model medicine, which was encapsulated into poly(ε-caprolactone-co- 1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone-co -1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT) nanoparticles (PECT/Dox NPs). Macroscale hydrogel was formed by thermosensitive self-aggregation of PECT/Dox NPs in aqueous solution...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chandran Murugan, Kathirvel Rayappan, Ramar Thangam, Ramasamy Bhanumathi, Krishnamurthy Shanthi, Raju Vivek, Ramasamy Thirumurugan, Atanu Bhattacharyya, Srinivasan Sivasubramanian, Palani Gunasekaran, Soundarapandian Kannan
Combination therapy of multiple drugs through a single system is exhibiting high therapeutic effects. We investigate nanocarrier mediated inhibitory effects of topotecan (TPT) and quercetin (QT) on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (MDA-MB-231) and multi drug resistant (MDR) type breast cancer cells (MCF-7) with respect to cellular uptake efficiency and therapeutic mechanisms as in vitro and in vivo. The synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) pores used for loading TPT; the outer of the nanoparticles was decorated with poly (acrylic acid) (PAA)-Chitosan (CS) as anionic inner-cationic outer layer respectively and conjugated with QT...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Merel van Elk, Bruce P Murphy, Tatiane Eufrásio-da-Silva, Daniel P O'Reilly, Tina Vermonden, Wim E Hennink, Garry P Duffy, Eduardo Ruiz-Hernández
The development of nanomedicines for the treatment of cancer focuses on the local targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to enhance drug efficacy and reduce adverse effects. The nanomedicines which are currently approved for clinical use are mainly successful in terms of improved bioavailability and tolerability but do not necessarily increase drug performance. Therefore, there is a need for improved drug carrier systems which are able to deliver high doses of anti-cancer drugs to the tumor. Stimuli responsive carriers are promising candidates since drug release can be triggered locally in the tumor via internal (i...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Pei-Chi Lee, Chien-Yu Lin, Cheng-Liang Peng, Ming-Jium Shieh
The development of a controlled-release drug delivery system has been an important objective for cancer therapy. To achieve the goal of sustained drug release for preventing the biotoxicity of platinum drugs, oxaliplatin was encapsulated into PEGylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) decorated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The superparamagnetic properties and purification of SPIO/MWNT composites were achieved by annealing treatment during the fabrication process; the better hydrophilicity and biocompatibility were also accomplished subsequently after modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG)...
October 7, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Zijian Zhou, Jibin Song, Liming Nie, Xiaoyuan Chen
The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanism is the major cause underlying the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT procedure is based on the cascade of synergistic effects between light, a photosensitizer (PS) and oxygen, which greatly favors the spatiotemporal control of the treatment. This procedure has also evoked several unresolved challenges at different levels including (i) the limited penetration depth of light, which restricts traditional PDT to superficial tumours; (ii) oxygen reliance does not allow PDT treatment of hypoxic tumours; (iii) light can complicate the phototherapeutic outcomes because of the concurrent heat generation; (iv) specific delivery of PSs to sub-cellular organelles for exerting effective toxicity remains an issue; and (v) side effects from undesirable white-light activation and self-catalysation of traditional PSs...
October 5, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Yan Wang, Ling Zhou, Meng Xiao, Zhong-Liang Sun, Chang-Yuan Zhang
In the present study, we have synthesized an amphiphilic pH-sensitive structure of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-b-(poly lactic acid-co-poly(b-amino esters)) (MPEG-b-(PLA-co-PAE)) to load paclitaxel to increase the therapeutic efficacy in leukemia. The micelles exhibit excellent drug-loading capacities for paclitaxel (PTX) and exhibited a typical pH-responsive drug release pattern. The release of PTX from the micelles was significantly accelerated by decreasing pH from 7.4 to 5.0 which just fitted the pathological process...
September 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Narayanasamy Badrinath, Jeong Heo, So Young Yoo
Oncolytic virotherapy, a type of nanomedicine in which oncolytic viruses (OVs) are used to selectively infect and lyse cancer cells, is an emerging field in cancer therapy. Some OVs exhibit a specific tropism for cancer cells, whereas others require genetic modification to enhance their binding with and entry into cancer cells. OVs both kill tumor cells and induce the host's immune response against tumor cells. Armed with antitumor cellular molecules, antibodies, and/or in combination with anticancer drugs, OVs can accelerate the lysis of cancer cells...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Stephan Grabbe, Heinrich Haas, Mustafa Diken, Lena M Kranz, Peter Langguth, Ugur Sahin
The development of nucleic acid based vaccines against cancer has gained considerable momentum through the advancement of modern sequencing technologies and on novel RNA-based synthetic drug formats, which can be readily adapted following identification of every patient's tumor-specific mutations. Furthermore, affordable and individual 'on demand' production of molecularly optimized vaccines should allow their application in large groups of patients. This has resulted in the therapeutic concept of an active personalized cancer vaccine, which has been brought into clinical testing...
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Xiao Tong, Zhantong Wang, Xiaolian Sun, Jibin Song, Orit Jacobson, Gang Niu, Dale O Kiesewetter, Xiaoyuan Chen
Gold nanorods (AuNR) have been intensively used in nanomedicine for cancer diagnostics and therapy, due to their excellent plasmonic photothermal properties. Tuning the size and aspect ratio of AuNR tailors the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the NIR spectrum at which biological tissues are transparent, thus enables specific and effective treatment. The AuNR extravasates into tumor interstitium through enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Efficient AuNR based cancer therapy requires efficient AuNR tumor delivery...
2016: Theranostics
Alexandra Ap Mansur, Herman S Mansur, Sandhra M de Carvalho, Zélia Ip Lobato, Maria Imc Guedes, Maria F Leite
Herein, for the first time, we demonstrated that novel biofunctionalized semiconductor nanomaterials made of Cd-containing fluorescent quantum dot nanoconjugates with the surface capped by an aminopolysaccharide are not biologically safe for clinical applications. Conversely, the ZnS-based nanoconjugates proved to be noncytotoxic, considering all the parameters investigated. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity were remarkably dependent on the chemical composition of quantum dot (CdS or ZnS), the nature of the cell (human cancerous and embryonic types), and the concentration and time period of exposure to these nanomaterials, caused by the effects of Cd(2+) on the complex nanotoxicity pathways involved in cellular uptake...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Shahryar Khoshtinat Nikkhoi, Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh, Davoud Ahmadvand
Variable heavy chain of HcAb (VHH), the smallest intact antibody fragment, possesses sub-nanomolar affinity to antigens. In spite of conventional antibodies, these fragments recognize concave and linear epitopes. VHHs are one the best weapon for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine and biopharmaceutics. HER2 is overexpressed in 20-25% of breast and ovarian cancers. For many reasons, HER2 is a prominent target for drug delivery to breast tumor. In this study, we designed a robust prokaryotic expression system to express functional VHHs against HER2 receptor...
January 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Cong Luo, Jin Sun, Bingjun Sun, Dan Liu, Lei Miao, Tyler Jay Goodwin, Leaf Huang, Zhonggui He
The conjugate of paclitaxel (PTX) and docosahexaenoic acid has entered into clinical trials. However, the most recent clinical outcomes fell short of expectations, due to the extremely slow drug release from the hydrophobic conjugates. Herein, a novel prodrug-based nanoplatform self-assembled by the disulfide bond linked conjugates of PTX and oleic acid for rapid and differential release of PTX in tumor cells is reported. This redox-responsive prodrug-nanosystem demonstrates multiple therapeutic advantages, including one-step facile fabrication, high drug-loading efficiency (56%, w/w), on-demand drug release responding to redox stimuli, as well as favorable cellular uptake and biodistribution...
September 30, 2016: Small
Silvia Chowdhury, Faridah Yusof, Wan Wardatul Amani Wan Salim, Nadzril Sulaiman, Mohammad Omer Faruck
Cancer is a complicated disease for which finding a cure presents challenges. In recent decades, new ways to treat cancer are being sought; one being nanomedicine, which manipulates nanoparticles to target a cancer and release drugs directly to the cancer cells. A number of cancer treatments based on nanomedicine are under way and mostly are in preclinical trials owing to challenges in administration, safety, and effectiveness. One alternative method for drug delivery is the use of photovoltaic nanoparticles, which has the potential to deliver drugs via light activation...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Lili He, Jian Gu, Lee Y Lim, Zhi-Xiang Yuan, Jingxin Mo
Accumulating evidences have suggested the existence of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which possess the potential of both self-renewal and differentiation. The origin of BCSCs might have relationship to the development of normal mammary stem cells. BCSCs are believed to play a key role in the initiation, recurrence and chemo-/radiotherapy resistances of breast cancer. Therefore, elimination of BCSCs is crucial for breast cancer therapy. However, conventional chemo and radiation therapies cannot eradicate BCSCs effectively...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yinan Zhong, Mathias Dimde, Daniel Stöbener, Fenghua Meng, Chao Deng, Zhiyuan Zhong, Rainer Haag
Cancer nanomedicines are typically stealthed by a poly(ethylene glycol) layer that is important to obtain extended blood circulation and elevated tumor accumulation. PEG stealth, however, also leads to poor tumor cell selectivity and uptake thereby reducing treatment efficacy. Here, we report that biodegradable micelles with sheddable dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) shells show an unusual tumor targetability and chemotherapy in vivo. The self-assembly of dPGS-SS-poly(ε-caprolactone) amphiphilic block copolymer with an Mn of 4...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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