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electrolyte disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921141/kidney-stones-diseases-and-glycaemic-statuses-focus-on-the-latest-clinical-evidences
#1
REVIEW
Leonardo Spatola, Claudio Angelini, Salvatore Badalamenti, Silvio Maringhini, Giovanni Gambaro
Diabetes and obesity are already recognized as potential risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially for uric acid stones. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia actively contribute to impaired ability to excrete an acid load and altered ammonium production, leading to a lower urinary pH compared to non-diabetic controls. All these electrolytic disorders play an important role in stone formation and aggregation, especially in uric acid stones. There are still missing points in scientific evidence if the increased risk in stone formation is already existing even in the prediabetic statuses (isolated impaired glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, and associated impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose) as well as it is worth to consider the same level of risk...
December 5, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916143/hyponatremia-effect-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-on-their-physical-and-mental-health-status
#2
Ordak Michal, Maj-Zurawska Magdalena, Matsumoto Halina, Bujalska-Zadrozny Magdalena, Nasierowski Tadeusz, Muszynska Elzbieta, Wojnar Marcin
Hyponatremia, i.e. reduction of sodium level in the blood plasma below 135 mmol/L, is one of the most common electrolyte disorders occurring in people addicted to alcohol. Numerous psychopathological symptoms may be significantly associated with its occurrence. Since sodium is one of the main bioelements, which is responsible for proper neuromuscular excitability maintenance and contributes in nerve impulses conduction, sodium balance disorders may be related to a risk to basic life functions. The tested group included 100 alcohol dependent patients (M = 90, F = 10)...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915351/the-role-of-nephrologist-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#3
Zoltán H Endre
Participation by nephrologists is needed in most intensive care units, even when such units are 'closed'. This participation should assist with diagnosis and management of intrinsic and complex renal diseases such as vasculitis, complex metabolic and electrolyte disorders including hyponatremia, and acute kidney injury (AKI) with and without underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD). Early nephrologist involvement will also facilitate transition to continuing care and follow-up after an episode of AKI, but may also assist in avoiding dialysis where treatment is futile...
December 3, 2016: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908485/managing-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Cathy Langston
Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic crisis is careful management of fluid balance, which involves thoughtful assessment of hydration, a fluid treatment plan personalized for the specific patient, and repeated and frequent reassessment of fluid and electrolyte balance. Disorders of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are commonly encountered in kidney disease and some may be life-threatening...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904113/fanconi-syndrome-associated-with-hyponatremia-in-two-patients-with-legionella-pneumonia
#5
Akihiro Ryuge, Yasuhiko Ito, Taishi Yamakawa, Hitoshi Tanaka, Hirotoshi Yasui, Shuko Mashimo, Kenshi Watanabe, Rie Nomura, Nobukazu Suganuma, Shoichi Maruyama
Legionella pneumophila is a cause of community-acquired pneumonia that is reported to induce electrolyte disorders, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia. We herein report two Japanese men with Legionella pneumonia and hyponatremia and hypophosphatemia. These findings were associated with an elevation of urinary low-molecular-weight tubular protein, including urinary β2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, the fractional excretion of phosphate and uric acid, and the presence of glycosuria and panaminoaciduria, suggesting that their electrolyte disorders had been caused by Fanconi syndrome...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902586/neurological-psychological-and-cognitive-disorders-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-on-conservative-and-replacement-therapy
#6
Silvia Lai, Oriano Mecarelli, Patrizia Pulitano, Roberto Romanello, Leonardo Davi, Alessia Zarabla, Amalia Mariotti, Maria Carta, Giorgia Tasso, Luca Poli, Anna Paola Mitterhofer, Massimo Testorio, Nicla Frassetti, Paola Aceto, Alessandro Galani, Carlo Lai
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition in the world. Neurological, psychological, and cognitive disorders, related to CKD, could contribute to the morbidity, mortality, and poor quality of life of these patients. The aim of this study was to assess the neurological, psychological, and cognitive imbalance in patients with CKD on conservative and replacement therapy.Seventy-four clinically stable patients affected by CKD on conservative therapy, replacement therapy (hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD)), or with kidney transplantation (KT) and 25 healthy controls (HC), matched for age and sex were enrolled...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895287/sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-is-there-a-connection-with-inner-ear-electrolytic-disorders-a-literature-review
#7
EDITORIAL
Andrea Ciorba, Virginia Corazzi, Chiara Bianchini, Claudia Aimoni, Henryk Skarzynski, Piotr Henryk Skarzynski, Stavros Hatzopoulos
Electrolytic disorders of the inner ear represent a model that could be implicated in partially explaining the pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Different types of electrolytes and different inner-ear loci are involved in cochlear homeostasis physiologically, to ensure the maintenance of an ion-balanced cochlear environment allowing a normal hair cell function. It has been hypothesized that a sudden loss of endocochlear potential, due to a rapid disruption of the inner ear fluid osmolality, could be responsible for a deterioration of the hearing function caused by damaged hair cells...
December 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884088/physiopathology-clinical-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyponatremia
#8
Fabrice Gankam Kengne
Hyponatremia is the commonest electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. It develops when the mechanisms regulating water and electrolyte handling are impaired, which in many instances occur in the setting of concurrent diseases such as heart failure, liver failure, renal failure etc… Hyponatremia as an electrolyte disorder has several specificities: when profound it can be quickly fatal and when moderate it carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity, but at the same time incorrect treatment of profound hyponatremia can lead to debilitating neurological disease and it remains unclear if treatment of moderate hyponatremia is associated with a decrease in mortality and morbidity...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881118/electrolyte-disorders-and-aging-risk-factors-for-delirium-in-patients-undergoing-orthopedic-surgeries
#9
Li-Hong Wang, Dong-Juan Xu, Xian-Jiao Wei, Hao-Teng Chang, Guo-Hong Xu
BACKGROUND: At present, the exact mechanism of postoperative delirium has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of delirium in patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries and to explore possible related factors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study. We used 582 patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery between January 2011 and December 2014. The surgeries consisted of 155 cases of internal fixation for intertrochanteric fracture (IFIF), 128 cases of femoral head replacement (FHR), 169 cases of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and 130 cases of total knee arthroplasty (TKA)...
November 23, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875951/effect-of-supraphysiological-doses-of-nandrolone-decanoate-upon-aldosterone-concentration-and-serum-na-k-levels-in-albino-mice
#10
Parmita Chowdhury, Rita Mahanta
BACKGROUND: This article is a study of adverse effects associated with the abuse of recreational drugs such as Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. Nandrolone Decanoate is one such drug often abused by athletes and bodybuilders seeking enhanced physical strength or appearance. The use of such steroids has increased dramatically over the years. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of nandrolone decanoate when consumed at an abused dose, upon serum aldosterone concentration in albino mice...
November 21, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875630/eosinophilic-fasciitis-with-subjacent-myositis
#11
Julia B Whitlock, Elliot L Dimberg, Duygu Selcen, Devon I Rubin
Introduction Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare disorder that can present with muscle symptoms that mimic other neuromuscular diseases. Methods We report a 43-year-old woman with chronic muscle aches, tightness, and stiffness with hypertrophied, well-defined muscles despite physical inactivity, and thickened skin with reduced elasticity and discoloration. Results Except for mild peripheral eosinophilia, laboratory studies, including blood count, electrolytes, paraneoplastic panel, muscle enzymes, thyroid function, and serum protein electrophoresis were normal...
November 22, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865300/effect-of-dapagliflozin-treatment-on-fluid-and-electrolyte-balance-in-diabetic-rats
#12
Ling Chen, Lauren M LaRocque, Orhan Efe, Juan Wang, Jeff M Sands, Janet D Klein
AIM: This study evaluates the effect of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on fluid or electrolyte balance and its effect on urea transporter-A1 (UT-A1), aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) protein abundance in diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by injection of streptozotocin into the tail vein. Serum Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) concentration, urine Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) excretion, blood glucose, urine glucose excretion, urine volume, urine osmolality and urine urea excretion were analyzed after the administration of dapagliflozin...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863290/cardiorenal-acute-kidney-injury-epidemiology-presentation-causes-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Luca Di Lullo, Antonio Bellasi, Domenico Russo, Mario Cozzolino, Claudio Ronco
Cardiovascular disease and major cardiovascular events represent main cause of death in both acute and chronic kidney disease patients. Kidney and heart failure are common and frequently co-exist; this organ - organ interaction, also called organ cross-talk led to well-known definition of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Here we'll describe cardiovascular involvement in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Also known as type-3 CRS or acute reno-cardiac CRS, it occurs when AKI contributes and/or precipitates development of acute cardiac injury...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862139/differential-diagnosis-of-hyponatraemia-moving-forward
#14
Ewout J Hoorn
Hyponatraemia is a resident's nightmare. A water balance disorder disguised as decreased serum sodium concentration. A plethora of diagnostic algorithms that seem to have been developed with the sole purpose of getting you lost as quickly as possible. Nothing but untrustworthy parameters to guide you through this dark wood. And when you finally see light at the end of the tunnel, there is always some staff member, alias electrolyte aficionado, who enjoys public interrogation and makes you feel you're back to square one...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857513/difficulties-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-hyponatremia
#15
REVIEW
Mihaela Mocan, Lia Manuela Terheş, Sorin Nicu Blaga
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte imbalance encountered in clinical practice. Beside the difficulty of the etiological diagnosis, the general lack of awareness regarding the negative impact of hyponatremia on the quality of life and the lack of targeted treatments until recent years may be responsible for the poor management of the disorder. Therefore we consider of utmost importance to improve the knowledge regarding the diagnosis and management of hyponatremia, by underlining the difficulties of the etiological diagnosis and its management...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852657/kwashiorkor-an-unexpected-complication-to-anorexia-nervosa
#16
Camilla Viola Buskbjerg Palm, Jacob Stampe Frølich, Lena Sønder Snogdal, René Klinkby Støving
We present the case of a woman aged 48 years, diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) at the age of 12. She was admitted to a highly specialised eating disorder facility with distended abdomen, muscular atrophy, ulcerative dermatitis, electrolyte derangements and low serum albumin. Her weight was 53.1 kg, corresponding to a body mass index (BMI) of 17.9 kg/m(2) After initial stabilisation, a therapeutic ascites puncture relieved the patient from 6500 mL of ascites. After 6 weeks of nutritional and diuretic treatment, the patient was discharged with a weight of 46...
November 15, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845295/effects-of-medial-septal-lesion-on-hippocampal-extracellular-glutamate-and-gaba-levels-during-spatial-alternation-testing
#17
S Mataradze, T Naneishvili, M Sephashvili, D Mikeladze, M Dashniani
The present study investigated spatial working memory assessed in spontaneous alternation (SA) task and hippocampal glutamate and GABA release prior to, during, and after SA test in sham-operated and electrolytic medial septal (MS) lesioned rats. Also, have been investigated the effects of MS lesion on KCl-stimulated release of glutamate and GABA in the hippocampus. Behavioral study showed that electrolytic lesion of MS significantly impaired SA performance. Although both groups of animals had an insignificant rise in their respective hippocampal glutamate efflux during the SA, the rise of MS lesioned animals was blunted when compared with control animals...
October 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833511/patient-risk-factors-for-mechanical-wound-complications-and-postoperative-infections-after-elective-open-intestinal-resection
#18
Wei Chao Chang, Akiva Turner, Michael Imon, Anthony Dyda
BACKGROUND: Few studies focused on the construction of preoperative patient surgical risk profile using only patients' personal, social history, and comorbidity profiles. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for mechanical wound complications and postoperative infections in patients' preoperative profiles. DESIGN: Quantitative retrospective cohort study using 2009-2011 Health Care Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases...
October 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833494/anesthetic-management-of-a-case-of-sanjad-sakati-syndrome
#19
A N Alshoaiby, M Rafiq, R Jan, M Shahbaz, A Faqeeh, M A Alsohaibani
Sanjad-Sakati syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder first described in Saudi Arabia. Anesthetic management of these patients is challenging due to airway difficulties, electrolyte imbalance, growth and mental retardation, and seizures. The anesthetic management of the syndrome is described in this case report.
October 2016: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826706/clinical-associations-of-early-dysnatremias-in-critically-ill-neonates-and-infants-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#20
Jon Kaufman, Daniel Phadke, Suhong Tong, Jennifer Eshelman, Sarah Newman, Christopher Ruzas, Eduardo M da Cruz, Suzanne Osorio
: Dysnatremias (DN) are common electrolyte disturbances in cardiac critical illness and are known risk factors for adverse outcomes in certain populations. Little information exists on DN in children with cardiac disease admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) after undergoing cardiac surgery, either corrective or palliative. The aim was to determine the incidence and adverse outcomes associated with DN in neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery. Retrospective cohort and single center study performed at Children's Hospital Colorado from May 2013 to May 2014, in children under 1 year old admitted to the CICU after undergoing surgery for congenital or acquired cardiac disease...
November 8, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
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