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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321950/manifestations-of-renal-impairment-in-fructose-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Kameliya Bratoeva, George S Stoyanov, Albena Merdzhanova, Mariya Radanova
Introduction International studies show an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). It is assumed that the major components of MS - obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension - are linked to renal damage through the systemic release of several pro-inflammatory mediators, such as uric acid (UA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and generalized oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of kidney impairment and manifestations of dysfunction in rats with fructose-induced MS...
November 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321483/extracellular-total-electrolyte-concentration-imaging-for-electrical-brain-stimulation-ebs
#2
Saurav Z K Sajib, Mun Bae Lee, Hyung Joong Kim, Eung Je Woo, Oh In Kwon
Techniques for electrical brain stimulation (EBS), in which weak electrical stimulation is applied to the brain, have been extensively studied in various therapeutic brain functional applications. The extracellular fluid in the brain is a complex electrolyte that is composed of different types of ions, such as sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and calcium (Ca+). Abnormal levels of electrolytes can cause a variety of pathological disorders. In this paper, we present a novel technique to visualize the total electrolyte concentration in the extracellular compartment of biological tissues...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321218/non-uniform-relationship-between-salt-status-and-aldosterone-activity-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Alison H M Taylor, Alastair J Rankin, Emily P McQuarrie, E Marie Freel, Natalie Z M Homer, Ruth Andrew, Alan G Jardine, Patrick B Mark
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Studies suggest that reduction in dietary salt intake reduces blood pressure (BP). We studied relationships between salt intake, BP and renin angiotensin system regulation in order to establish if it is disordered in CKD. METHODS: Mechanistic crossover study of CKD patients versus non-CKD controls. Participants underwent modified saline suppression test prior to randomisation to either low or high salt diet for 5 days and then crossed over to the alternate diet...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310960/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-treatment-in-the-emergency-department
#4
John R Richards
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a challenging clinical disorder. CHS patients frequently present to the emergency department and may require treatment for intractable emesis, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities. Thought to be a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, CHS has become more prevalent with increasing cannabis potency and use, as enabled by various states having legalized the recreational use of cannabis. OBJECTIVE: This aim of this review is to investigate the pathophysiology of CHS and evaluate the published literature on pharmacologic treatment in the emergency department...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310400/clinical-analysis-of-hyperkalemia-after-esophagectomy-a-case-report
#5
Qiang Chen, Wei-Guo Zhang, Shu-Chang Chen
RATIONALE: The occurrence of hyperkalemia after esophagectomy is clinically rare. Patients who underwent esophagectomy often have a serum potassium level due to perioperative reduced intake, fluids loss, consumption and other reasons. These patients often require the artificial administration of potassium. Rapid fluid loss and physiological consumption lead to the deficiency of potassium, even hypokalemia. Patients often require the addition of a large amount of potassium after operation...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304463/management-of-qt-prolongation-induced-by-anti-cancer-drugs-target-therapy-and-old-agents-different-algorithms-for-different-drugs
#6
REVIEW
Carmela Coppola, Anna Rienzo, Giovanna Piscopo, Antonio Barbieri, Claudio Arra, Nicola Maurea
The side effects of anticancer drugs still play a critical role in survival and quality of life. Although the recent progresses of cancer therapies have significantly improved the prognosis of oncologic patients, side effects of antineoplastic treatments are still responsible for the increased mortality of cancer survivors. Cardiovascular toxicity is the most dangerous adverse effect induced by anticancer therapies. A survey conducted by the National Health and Nutrition Examination, showed that 1807 cancer survivors followed up for seven years: 51% died of cancer and 33% of heart disease (Vejpongsa and Yeh, 2014)...
December 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299949/hiv-aids-related-hyponatremia-an-old-but-still-serious-problem
#7
Zhanjun Shu, Halmurat Upur, Zimeng Tian, Jinglin Chen, Jianping Ma, Aihemaiti Abudureyimu, Qianqian Qian, Li Zhuo
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitals. Many medical illnesses, including congestive heart failure, liver failure, renal failure and pneumonia, may be associated with hyponatremia. In addition, hyponatremia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) was first reported in 1993. The evidence suggests that severe hyponatremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients; however, the incidence of hyponatremic syndrome in HIV/AIDS patients remains very high in clinical practice, as almost 40% of HIV/AIDS inpatients in Xinjiang, a developing region of China, are hyponatremic...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295830/treatment-of-severe-hyponatremia
#8
Richard H Sterns
Patients with severe (serum sodium ≤120 mEq/L), symptomatic hyponatremia can develop life-threatening or fatal complications from cerebral edema if treatment is inadequate and permanent neurologic disability from osmotic demyelination if treatment is excessive. Unfortunately, as is true of all electrolyte disturbances, there are no randomized trials to guide the treatment of this challenging disorder. Rather, therapeutic decisions rest on physiologic principles, animal models, observational studies, and single-patient reports...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282699/dizziness-in-the-emergency-department-an-update-on-diagnosis
#9
Rainer Spiegel, Mark Kirsch, Christiane Rosin, Heiko Rust, Thomas Baumann, Raoul Sutter, Hergen Friedrich, Martina Göldlin, René Müri, Roger Kalla, Roland Bingisser, Georgios Mantokoudis
This review aims to assist emergency physicians in finding the underlying aetiology when a patient presents with dizziness to the emergency department. After reading this review, the emergency physician will be able to consider the most relevant differential diagnoses and have an idea about dangerous aetiologies that require immediate action. The emergency physician will also know what diagnostic steps need to be taken at what time, such as the three-component HINTS Test (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, and Test-of-Skew), which helps with distinguishing central from peripheral causes of the acute vestibular syndrome...
December 28, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281773/fluid-and-electrolyte-management-across-the-age-continuum
#10
Tamara M Kear
Optional function of body systems depends upon fluid and electrolyte balance; however, across the lifespan, disorders of fluid and electrolytes offset this, and the causative factors are varied. Nurses play a major role in the management of fluid and electrolyte balance. This article focuses on the role total body water content, plasma proteins, kidney function, and drug metabolism have on the age-related physiology impacting fluid and electrolyte balance, and on nursing implications.
November 2017: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277090/-vomiting
#11
REVIEW
Ga Hee Kim, Kee Wook Jung
Many disorders can cause either acute or chronic vomiting. However, in most cases, vomiting is self-limited. A correct diagnosis is possible by conducting careful histories and physical examinations. In cases of severe vomiting, further testing, including laboratory studies, radiological images, endoscopic evaluation, and gastrointestinal motility tests, can also be considered. The correction of clinical consequences of vomiting should be initiated, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, malnutrition, and suppression of symptoms via the use empirical antiemetic treatments...
December 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274301/rapid-formation-of-a-disordered-layer-on-monoclinic-bivo4-co-catalyst-free-photoelectrochemical-solar-water-splitting
#12
Jung Kyu Kim, Yoonjun Cho, Myung Jin Jeong, Ben Levy-Wendt, Dongguen Shin, Yeonjin Yi, Dong Hwan Wang, Xiaolin Zheng, Jong Hyeok Park
Surface disordered layer is plausible approach to improve the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2. However, the formation of a crystal disordered layer in BiVO4 and its effectiveness towards photoelectrochemical water splitting has remained a big challenge. Here, we report a rapid solution process (within 5 seconds) that is capable of forming a few nanometre-thick disordered layer on the surface of BiVO4 nanoparticles using a specific solution with controllable reducing power. The disordered layer on BiVO4 alleviates charge recombination at the electrode/electrolyte interface and greatly reduces the on-set potential, which in turn results in a photocurrent density of around 2...
December 23, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250633/in-situ-probing-electronic-dynamics-at-organic-bulk-heterojunction-aqueous-electrolyte-interfaces-by-charge-modulation-spectroscopy
#13
Haihua Xu, Ying Lv, Yongchun Deng, Qingqing Zhu
Interfacing an organic bulk heterojunction (OBHJ) with an aqueous electrolyte (aqE) solution has the potential for applications in biological sensing and neuronal stimulus, by taking advantage of the benefits of the high excitation efficiency and biocompatibility of the OBHJ. At the OBHJ/aqE interface, local charge transfer and transport processes, which are influenced by the polymer/fullerene interface and ion migration, are critically important for device performance but poorly understood. Here, we have introduced charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) in aqE-gated heterojunction transistors to in situ investigate electronic dynamics at the OBHJ/aqE interface...
December 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#14
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214384/dispensability-of-annual-laboratory-follow-up-after-more-than-2%C3%A2-years-of-valproic-acid-use-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Rosanne W Meijboom, Koen P Grootens
BACKGROUND: The necessity of annual laboratory follow-up in patients treated with valproic acid (VPA) is controversial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the need for annual laboratory follow-up of liver enzymes, electrolytes, and full blood count (FBC) in patients treated with VPA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic search in Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR), MEDLINE, and EMBASE was undertaken in December 2016 to identify all published articles investigating or citing valproic acid, liver function disorders, electrolyte disorders, and FBC deviations...
December 6, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212860/reference-values-of-renal-tubular-function-tests-are-dependent-on-age-and-kidney-function
#16
Anneke P Bech, Jack F M Wetzels, Tom Nijenhuis
Electrolyte disorders due to tubular disorders are rare, and knowledge about validated clinical diagnostic tools such as tubular function tests is sparse. Reference values for tubular function tests are based on studies with small sample size in young healthy volunteers. Patients with tubular disorders, however, frequently are older and can have a compromised renal function. We therefore evaluated four tubular function tests in individuals with different ages and renal function. We performed furosemide, thiazide, furosemide-fludrocortisone, and desmopressin tests in healthy individuals aged 18-50 years, healthy individuals aged more than 50 years and individuals with compromised renal function...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208883/tumor-lysis-syndrome-and-hyperleukocytosis-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#17
R Tasmeen, A Islam, S T Alam, M Begum
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common (77%) childhood leukemia and also the most common neoplastic disease in children. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia initially present with hyperleukocytosis (WBC count more than 50,000/mm³) in twenty percent cases. These children are particularly at risk of development of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic disorder consists of hyperuricaemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia with or without renal insufficiency. It is the most common disease related emergency encountered by physicians caring for cancer of children and adult...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206071/multivariable-analysis-of-the-association-between-electrolyte-disturbances-and-mortality-in-cats
#18
Robert Goggs, Sage De Rosa, Daniel J Fletcher
Objectives Electrolyte disorders have been individually associated with mortality in small populations of cats with specific conditions, but the associations and interactions between electrolyte disturbances and outcome have not been evaluated in a large, heterogeneous population. It was hypothesized that abnormalities of sodium, chloride, potassium and calcium concentrations would be independently and proportionately associated with death from natural causes and with all-cause mortality in cats. Methods An electronic database containing 7064 electrolyte profiles was constructed to assess the association between disorders of sodium, potassium, corrected-chloride and ionized calcium concentrations with non-survival by multivariable modelling...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200659/electrochemical-detection-of-urinary-micrornas-via-sulfonamide-bound-antisense-hybridisation
#19
Daniel A Smith, Lucy J Newbury, Guido Drago, Timothy Bowen, James E Redman
Altered serum and plasma microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been observed in numerous human diseases, with a number of studies describing circulating miRNA biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment, and recruitment to clinical trials for miRNA-based drug therapy already underway. Electrochemical detection of biomarkers in urine has several significant advantages over circulating biomarker analysis including safety, cost, speed and ease of conversion to the point of care environment...
December 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193639/oligonephronia-and-wolf-hirschhorn-syndrome-a-further-observation
#20
Antonio Gatto, Pietro Ferrara, Chiara Leoni, Roberta Onesimo, Marcella Zollino, Francesco Emma, Giuseppe Zampino
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by a partial deletion of chromosome 4 (4p16.3p16.2). We describe a case of a male 9 years old children with WHS proteinuria and hypertension. Laboratory data showed creatinine 1.05 mg/dl, GFR 65.9 ml/min/1.73 m2 , cholesterol 280 mg/dl, triglyceride 125 mg/dl with electrolytes in the normal range. Urine collection showed protein 2.72 g/L with a urine protein/creatinine ratio (UP /UCr ratio) of 4.2 and diuresis of 1,100 ml. Renal ultrasound showed reduced kidney dimensions with diffusely hyperechogenic cortex and poorly visualized pyramids...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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