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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730291/electrolyte-disorders-with-platinum-based-chemotherapy-mechanisms-manifestations-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Bryan Oronsky, Scott Caroen, Arnold Oronsky, Vaughn E Dobalian, Neil Oronsky, Michelle Lybeck, Tony R Reid, Corey A Carter
Platinum chemotherapy, particularly cisplatin, is commonly associated with electrolyte imbalances, including hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hyponatremia. The corpus of literature on these dyselectrolytemias is large; the objective of this review is to synthesize the literature and summarize the mechanisms responsible for these particular electrolyte disturbances in the context of platinum-based treatment as well as to present the clinical manifestations and current management strategies for oncologists and primary care physicians, since the latter are increasingly called on to provide care for cancer patients with medical comorbidities...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729970/severe-cyclophosphamide-related-hyponatremia-in-a-patient-with-acute-glomerulonephritis
#2
Pasquale Esposito, Maria Valentina Domenech, Nicoletta Serpieri, Marta Calatroni, Ilaria Massa, Alessandro Avella, Edoardo La Porta, Luca Estienne, Elena Caramella, Teresa Rampino
Cyclophosphamide is frequently used to treat cancer, autoimmune and renal diseases, such as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Its side effects are well-known, including bone marrow depression, infections, alopecia, sterility, bladder malignancy and hemorrhagic cystitis. Moreover, in some cases cyclophosphamide use has been related to the onset of hyponatremia, by development of a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. Indeed, severe hyponatremia has been previously reported in patients treated with high-dose or moderate-dose of intravenous cyclophosphamide, while only few cases have been reported in patients treated with low dose...
July 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723186/ingestible-sensors
#3
Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Nam Ha, Jian Zhen Ou, Kyle J Berean
Ingestible sensing capsules are fast emerging as a critical technology that has the ability to greatly impact health, nutrition, and clinical areas. These ingestible devices are noninvasive and hence are very attractive for customers. With widespread access to smart phones connected to the Internet, the data produced by this technology can be readily seen and reviewed online, and accessed by both users and physicians. The outputs provide invaluable information to reveal the state of gut health and disorders as well as the impact of food, medical supplements, and environmental changes on the gastrointestinal tract...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722461/-disorders-of-water-and-electrolyte-metabolism-and-changes-in-acid-base-balance-in-patients-with-ascitic-liver-cirrhosis
#4
Halima Gottfriedová, Miroslava Horáčková, Milena Čáslavská, Julius Špičák, Otto Schück
In patients with advanced cirrhosis with ascites disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism are often present and they are associated with changes in acid-base balance. These changes can be very complicated, their diagnosis and treatment difficult. Dilutional hyponatremia is the most common disorder. Hyponatremia in these patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality before and after liver transplantation. Other common disorders include hyperchloremic acidosis, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, lactic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722343/free-standing-photonic-glasses-fabricated-in-a-centrifugal-field
#5
Mengdi Chen, Danja Fischli, Lukas Schertel, Geoffroy J Aubry, Benedikt Häusele, Sebastian Polarz, Georg Maret, Helmut Cölfen
One efficient method to obtain disordered colloidal packing is to reduce the stability of colloidal particles by adding electrolytes to the colloidal dispersions. But the correct amount of additional electrolytes must be found empirically. Here, the effect of CaCl2 on polystyrene colloidal dispersions is studied, and a link between the amount of CaCl2 and the corresponding glassy colloidal structure is quantitatively built. A threshold concentration of CaCl2 is found by dynamic light scattering. When exceeding this threshold, different nanoparticle oligomers are observed in the dispersions by analytical ultracentrifugation...
July 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718031/newcomers-in-paediatric-gi-pathology-childhood-enteropathies-including-very-early-onset-monogenic-ibd
#6
Arzu Ensari, Judith Kelsen, Pierre Russo
Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response...
July 17, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713431/an-unexpected-cause-of-bradycardia-in-a-patient-with-bacterial-meningitis
#7
Petros Ioannou, Magdalini Velegraki, Stella Soundoulounaki, Achilleas Gikas, Diamantis P Kofteridis
Sinus bradycardia which is a sinus rhythm with a resting heart rate of less than 60 bpm is caused by intrinsic cardiac disorders like sick sinus syndrome or inferior myocardial infarction, metabolic and environmental causes (such as hypothyroidism and electrolyte disorders), medications (such as beta-blockers and amiodarone), infection (such as myocarditis), increased intracranial pressure, and toxic exposure, while it can sometimes be a normal phenomenon, especially during sleep, in athletes, and during pregnancy...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707396/role-of-abnormal-repolarization-in-the-mechanism-of-cardiac-arrhythmia
#8
O E Osadchii
In cardiac patients, life-threatening tachyarrhythmia is often precipitated by abnormal changes in ventricular repolarization and refractoriness. Repolarization abnormalities typically evolve as a consequence of impaired function of outward K(+) currents in cardiac myocytes, which may be caused by genetic defects or result from various acquired pathophysiological conditions, including electrical remodelling in cardiac disease, ion channel modulation by clinically used pharmacological agents, and systemic electrolyte disorders seen in heart failure, such as hypokalaemia...
July 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701060/epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-304-patients-with-infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis-in-anhui%C3%A2-province-of-east-china-2012-2015
#9
Jing Li, Wei Gao, Ji-Min Zhu, Wei Zuo, Xiang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) so as to provide scientific evidences for diagnosis and prevention of IHPS. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of IHPS patients diagnosed from 2012 to 2015 at Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital. Demographic characteristic and clinical data were collected. RESULTS: Three hundred four patients (264 males and 40 females) were studied...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697860/multimodal-nutritional-management-in-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Guorui Cao, Qiang Huang, Bin Xu, Zeyu Huang, Jinwei Xie, Fuxing Pei
BACKGROUND: This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of a new multimodal nutritional management (MNM) on albumin (ALB) transfusion, the incidence of electrolyte disorders, blood loss, perioperative levels of ALB and electrolyte, length of hospital stay (LOH), and complications in patients following total knee arthroplasty without tourniquet. METHODS: A total of 162 patients were randomized to receive either the MNM protocol (n = 81, experimental group) or traditional protocol (n = 81, control group)...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697837/-poor-weight-gain-recurrent-metabolic-alkalosis-and-hypokalemia-in-a-neonate
#11
Miao Qian, Shu-Ping Han, Zhang-Bing Yu, Xiao-Hui Chen
The study reports a female neonate with a gestational age of 29(+2) weeks and a birth weight of 1 210 g. Ten minutes after birth, the neonate was admitted to the hospital due to shortness of breath. Several days after birth, the neonate presented with hyperglycemia, polyuria, and poor weight gain, accompanied by azotemia, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia. Laboratory examinations showed elevated levels of aldosterone, renin, and angiotensin II. Gene detection revealed SLC12A1 gene mutation...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693742/impact-of-cirrhosis-in-patients-who-underwent-surgical-aortic-valve-replacement
#12
Robert J Steffen, Faisal G Bakaeen, Patrick R Vargo, Bogdan A Kindzelski, Douglas R Johnston, Eric E Roselli, A Marc Gillinov, Lars G Svensson, Edward G Soltesz
Cirrhosis is known to adversely affect cardiac surgery outcomes. Our objective was to quantify the morbidity, mortality, and cost that cirrhosis adds to surgical aortic valve replacement. From 1998 to 2011, 423,789 patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample Healthcare Cost Utilization Project underwent isolated aortic valve replacement; 2,769 (0.7%) had cirrhosis. Multivariable linear regression and 1:1 propensity matching were used to determine the effect of cirrhosis on postsurgical outcomes. The number of patients with cirrhosis who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement per year more than tripled during the 13-year study period...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685698/medical-therapy-for-long-qt-syndrome
#13
George Adamos, Nicoletta Iacovidou, Theodoros Xanthos
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrhythmogenic disorder characterized by repolarization abnormalities with a propensity to cause life threatening cardiac events. The first manifestation of the syndrome may be sudden death, therefore, early diagnosis and therapy is of great importance. LQTS can be both congenital and acquired. The latter is most commonly seen in hospitalized patients and such individuals have an easily recognizable and reversible precipitating factor (electrolyte disturbances, certain drugs etc...
July 7, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682062/-energy-selection-channels-for-high-performance-electrolyte-anion-frenkel-defect-pair-as-dominant-source-for-o-ion-conductions-in-pyrochlore-type-lanthanide-hafnium-oxides-sofc
#14
Mingzi Sun, Bolong Huang
The excellent ion conductivities of pyrochlore-type materials are believed to be based on oxygen anion transportations caused by the intrinsic defects, in which the anion Frenkel (a-Fr) pair (VO+IO) defect is the most stable one that lacks detailed study. The partially disordered pyrochlore with formation of the a-Fr pair defect will result in more disorder in local pyrochlore structure and increase number of possible migration paths for oxygen anions, which could further improve the ion conductivities of materials...
July 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679017/a-comparison-of-qtc-intervals-in-alcohol-withdrawal-patients-versus-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients
#15
Timothy Chu, Keith Azevedo, Amy A Ernst, Dusadee Sarangarm, Steven J Weiss
OBJECTIVES: Patients with an alcohol use disorder experiencing acute intoxication or withdrawal may be at risk for electrocardiograph (ECG) abnormalities, including prolongation of repolarization (long QTc [corrected QT]) that may contribute to arrhythmias and may be associated with a threefold increase in the likelihood of sudden cardiac events. Patients with acute coronary syndrome may have prolonged QTc as well. To our knowledge, no previous studies have compared the QTc of ACS with acute ethanol (EtOH) withdrawal syndromes in the emergency department (ED)...
July 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666638/a-study-on-the-bioequivalence-of-lithium-and-valproate-salivary-and-blood-levels-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder
#16
A Murru, M Torra, A Callari, I Pacchiarotti, S Romero, B Gonzalez de la Presa, C Varo, J M Goikolea, V Pérez-Sola, E Vieta, F Colom
Lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA) are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD), with narrow therapeutic window requiring periodic control of serum levels. This prevents intoxication, lack of efficacy due to low serum concentrations, and allows monitoring adherence. We aimed at evaluating the bioequivalence of salivary and blood levels of LI or VPA in a sample of adult BD patients. Secondarily, lithium bioequivalence was evaluated across different patients' lifespans. BD patients treated with either Li or VPA underwent contemporary standard serum and salivary measurements...
June 27, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665367/-algorithms-of-the-correction-of-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-patients-with-severe-ischemic-stroke
#17
V I Ershov, A N Chirkov
AIM: To develop a practical algorithm for the correction of sodium levels and osmolality of blood plasma during the acute period of severe ischemic stroke (IS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients with cardioembolic or atherothrombotic stroke, aged from 30 to 80 years, hospitalized in the first 12 h after symptom emergence, were examined. Neurological deficit was assessed with the NIHSS. The monitoring of blood plasma sodium level and osmolality of blood plasma in the 1st and 5th day after stroke as well as of blood circulation volume was performed...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630253/cold-induced-thermogenesis-and-inflammation-associated-cold-seeking-behavior-are-represented-by-different-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-sites-a-three-dimensional-functional-topography-study-in-conscious-rats
#18
Samuel P Wanner, M Camila Almeida, Yury P Shimansky, Daniela L Oliveira, Justin R Eales, Cândido C Coimbra, Andrej A Romanovsky
In the past, we showed that large electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) promoted hypothermia in cold-exposed restrained rats, but attenuated hypothermia in rats challenged with a high dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a thermogradient apparatus. The goal of this study was to identify the thermoeffector mechanisms and DMH representation of the two phenomena and thus to understand how the same lesion could produce two opposite effects on body temperature. We found that the permissive effect of large electrolytic DMH lesions on cold-induced hypothermia was due to suppressed thermogenesis...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628846/substance-p-and-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-expression-in-dog-ileum-with-and-without-inflammation
#19
Giulia Polidoro, Fiorella Giancola, Federico Fracassi, Marco Pietra, Giuliano Bettini, Martina Asti, Roberto Chiocchetti
In the gastrointestinal tract, the tachykinin Substance P (SP) is involved in motility, fluid and electrolyte secretion, and blood flow and regulation of immunoinflammatory response. SP exerts its biological activity on target cells by interacting mainly with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). The present study aims to quantify the percentage of SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) enteric neurons and the density of SP-IR nerve fibers in the ileum of control dogs (CTRL-dogs; n=7) vs dogs with spontaneous ileal inflammation (INF-dogs; n=8)...
June 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625250/-fulminant-clostridium-difficile-colitis-new-challenges-in-critical-care-medicine
#20
Bin Liu
Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis (FCDC) means severe Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC), which often manifested with severe diarrhea, fever, abdominal distention, electrolyte disorder, hypoalbuminemia, and it can lead to pseudo membrane colonitis, toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction. Now Clostridium difficile (CD) becomes one of the most important medical institutions related infectious pathogens. In particular, the recently discovered mutant CD strain NAP1/BI/ribotype 027 has high pathogenicity in the global epidemic and its outbreak...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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