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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731987/evidence-of-heritable-determinants-of-decompression-sickness-in-rats
#1
Jacky Lautridou, Peter Buzzacott, Marc Belhomme, Emmanuel Dugrenot, Pierre Lafère, Costantino Balestra, François Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a complex and poorly understood systemic disease caused by inadequate desaturation following a decrease of ambient pressure. Strong variability between individuals is observed for DCS occurrence. This raises questions concerning factors that may be involved in the inter-individual variability of DCS occurrence. This study aimed to experimentally assess the existence of heritable factors involved in DCS occurrence by selectively breeding individuals resistant to DCS from a population stock of wistar rats...
July 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676021/medical-management-and-risk-reduction-of-the-cardiovascular-effects-of-underwater-diving
#2
Thomas F Whayne
Undersea diving is a sport and commercial industry. Knowledge of potential problems began with Caisson disease or "the bends", first identified with compressed air in the construction of tunnels under rivers in the 19th century. Subsequently, there was the commercially used old-fashioned diving helmet attached to a suit, with compressed air pumped down from the surface. Breathhold diving, with no supplementary source of air or other breathing mixture, is also a sport as well as a commercial fishing tool in some parts of the world...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661230/circle-co2-reabsorbing-breathing-systems-human-applications
#3
Patrick Magee
Artificial breathing systems to help humans survive extreme environments are used over a range of ambient pressures, using various gases of different volumetric concentrations. These activities include anaesthesia and intensive care activity, high-altitude mountaineering, firefighting, aerospace extravehicular space activity and underwater diving operations. A circle breathing system is one in which the exhaled carbon dioxide is absorbed by an alkali substance and the remaining unused gases are recirculated, usually for the sake of economy and environment...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641325/superior-canal-dehiscence-syndrome-associated-with-scuba-diving
#4
Naoharu Kitajima, Akemi Sugita-Kitajima, Seiji Kitajima
A 28-year-old female diver presented with dizziness and difficulty clearing her left ear whilst scuba diving. Her pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry were normal. Testing of Eustachian tube function revealed tubal stenosis. Video-oculography revealed a predominantly torsional nystagmus while the patient was in the lordotic position. Fistula signs were positive. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone revealed a diagnosis of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCDS). Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) testing showed that the amplitude of the cVEMP measured from her left ear was larger than that from the right...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641322/scuba-diving-and-otology-a-systematic-review-with-recommendations-on-diagnosis-treatment-and-post-operative-care
#5
REVIEW
Devon M Livingstone, Kristine A Smith, Beth Lange
Scuba diving is a popular recreational and professional activity with inherent risks. Complications related to barotrauma and decompression illness can pose significant morbidity to a diver's hearing and balance systems. The majority of dive-related injuries affect the head and neck, particularly the outer, middle and inner ear. Given the high incidence of otologic complications from diving, an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of otic pathology is a necessity. We performed a systematic and comprehensive literature review including the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of otologic pathology related to diving...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531363/beneficial-effect-of-enriched-air-nitrox-on-bubble-formation-during-scuba-diving-an-open-water-study
#6
Anne-Kathrin Brebeck, Andreas Deussen, Ursula Range, Costantino Balestra, Sinclair Cleveland, Jochen D Schipke
Bubble formation during scuba diving might induce decompression sickness. This prospective randomised and double-blind study included 108 advanced recreational divers (38 females). Fifty-four pairs of divers, 1 breathing air and the other breathing nitrox28 undertook a standardised dive (24 ± 1 msw; 62 ± 5min) in the Red Sea. Venous gas bubbles were counted (Doppler) 30-<45 min (early) and 45-60 min (late) post-dive at jugular, subclavian and femoral sites. Only 7% (air) vs. 11% (air28®) (n.s.) were bubble-free after a dive...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518008/latent-presentation-of-decompression-sickness-after-altitude-chamber-training-in-an-active-duty-flier
#7
James Gentry, Juan Rango, Jianzhong Zhang, Shane Biedermann
BACKGROUND: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a potential danger and risk for both divers and aircrew alike. DCS is also a potential side effect of altitude (hypobaric) chamber training as well and can present long after training occurs. Literature review shows that altitude chamber induced DCS has approximately a 0.25% incidence. CASE REPORT: A 32-yr-old, active duty military member developed symptoms of DCS 3 h after his hypobaric chamber training. Unfortunately, he did not seek treatment for DCS until 48 h after the exposure...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518001/propranolol-effects-on-decompression-sickness-in-a-simulated-dissub-rescue-in-swine
#8
Angela S Forbes, David P Regis, Aaron A Hall, Richard T Mahon, William A Cronin
INTRODUCTION: Disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors may face elevated CO2 levels and inert gas saturation, putting them at risk for CO2 toxicity and decompression sickness (DCS). Propranolol was shown to reduce CO2 production in an experimental DISSUB model in humans but its effects on DCS in a DISSUB rescue scenario are unknown. A 100% oxygen prebreathe (OPB) reduces DCS incidence and severity and is incorporated into some DISSUB rescue protocols. We used a swine model of DISSUB rescue to study the effect of propranolol on DCS incidence and mortality with and without an OPB...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517999/venous-gas-emboli-and-ambulation-at-4-3-psia
#9
Johnny Conkin, Neal W Pollock, Michael J Natoli, Stefanie D Martina, James H Wessel, Michael L Gernhardt
INTRODUCTION: Ambulation during extravehicular activity on Mars may increase the risk of decompression sickness through enhanced bubble formation in the lower body. HYPOTHESES: walking effort (ambulation) before an exercise-enhanced denitrogenation (prebreathe) protocol at 14.7 psia does not increase the incidence of venous gas emboli (VGE) at 4.3 psia, but does increase incidence if performed after tissues become supersaturated with nitrogen at 4.3 psia. METHODS: VGE results from 45 control subjects who performed exercise prebreathe without ambulation before or during a 4-h exposure to 4...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505552/probabilistic-pharmacokinetic-models-of-decompression-sickness-in-humans-part-1-coupled-perfusion-limited-compartments
#10
F Gregory Murphy, Ethan A Hada, David J Doolette, Laurens E Howle
Decompression sickness (DCS) is a disease caused by gas bubbles forming in body tissues following a reduction in ambient pressure, such as occurs in scuba diving. Probabilistic models for quantifying the risk of DCS are typically composed of a collection of independent, perfusion-limited theoretical tissue compartments which describe gas content or bubble volume within these compartments. It has been previously shown that 'pharmacokinetic' gas content models, with compartments coupled in series, show promise as predictors of the incidence of DCS...
July 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439981/evolution-of-the-plasma-proteome-of-divers-before-and-after-a-single-scuba-dive
#11
Jacky Lautridou, Vianney Pichereau, Sébastien Artigaud, Benoit Bernay, Otto Barak, Ryan Hoiland, Andrew T Lovering, Ingrid Eftedal, Zeljko Dujic, François Guerrero
PURPOSE: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a poorly understood and complex systemic disease caused by inadequate desaturation following a reduction of ambient pressure. A previous proteomic study of ours showed that DCS occurrence but not diving was associated with changes in the plasma proteome in rats, including a dramatic decrease of abundance of the tetrameric form of Transthyretin (TTR). The present study aims to assess the impact on the human blood proteome of a dive inducing significant decompression stress but without inducing DCS symptoms...
April 25, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415099/p594contrast-transthoracic-echocardiography-as-a-gatekeeper-for-patent-foramen-ovale-closure
#12
M Muratori, G Italiano, E Innocenti, L Fusini, M Mapelli, G Tamborini, S Ghulam Ali, P Gripari, A Maltagliati, F Celeste, M Pepi
Background.: The presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been linked to many illness, including cryptogenic stroke, transient ischemic attack, migraine, platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome and decompression sickness in scuba divers. Transesophageal echocardiography is the gold standard technique for the visualization of atrial septal anatomy, but it is a secondary level exam, not always available, with additional associated costs and not completely free from procedural risks. Standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has a too low sensitivity for PFO screening...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411929/updates-in-decompression-illness
#13
REVIEW
Neal W Pollock, Dominique Buteau
Decompression sickness and arterial gas embolism, collectively known as decompression illness (DCI), are rare but serious afflictions that can result from compressed gas diving exposures. Risk is primarily determined by the pressure-time profile but is influenced by several factors. DCI can present idiosyncratically but with a wide range of neurologic symptoms. Examination is critical for assessment in the absence of diagnostic indicators. Many conditions must be considered in the differential diagnosis. High-fraction oxygen breathing provides first aid but definitive treatment of DCI is hyperbaric oxygen...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378268/carbon-dioxide-poisoning-a-literature-review-of-an-often-forgotten-cause-of-intoxication-in-the-emergency-department
#14
REVIEW
Kris Permentier, Steven Vercammen, Sylvia Soetaert, Christian Schellemans
The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the literature available on carbon dioxide intoxication. Articles were included based on their focus on medical or physiological effects of carbon dioxide. Studies related to decompression sickness were excluded. Mechanisms of carbon dioxide poising (both as an asphyxiant and as a toxicant) were described. Our review suggested that precautions are needed when handling dry ice or while working in confined spaces. Pre-hospital responders also need to pay attention for the possible diagnosis of CO2 intoxication for their own safety...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357838/female-professional-divers-similarities-and-differences-between-male-and-female-professional-divers
#15
Ågot Irgens, Kari Troland, Marit Grønning
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to explore the potential differences between female and male professional divers with regards to demographics, diving certificates, areas of diving, diving activity and health effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority's Diving certificate register contains data on all professional inshore divers who have held a certificate at any time since 1980. Forty nine per cent of these divers responded to the "Norwegian diver 2011" questionnaire...
2017: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357820/preventive-effect-of-rosiglitazone-on-liver-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-decompression-sickness
#16
Bin Peng, Miao-Miao Chen, Zheng-Lin Jiang, Xia Li, Guo-Hua Wang, Li-Hua Xu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe decompression sickness (DCS) is a multi-organ injury. This study investigated the preventive effects of rosiglitazone on liver injury following rapid decompression in mice and examined the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, vehicle group, and rosiglitazone (5 and 10 mg·kg⁻¹) groups, the latter three being exposed to a pressure of 911 kPa. Haematoxylin and eosin staining, plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase and blood cell counts were used to evaluate liver injury at 30 min after rapid decompression...
March 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357819/a-comparative-evaluation-of-two-decompression-procedures-for-technical-diving-using-inflammatory-responses-compartmental-versus-ratio-deco
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Enzo Spisni, Claudio Marabotti, Luigia De Fazio, Maria Chiara Valerii, Elena Cavazza, Stefano Brambilla, Klarida Hoxha, Antonio L'Abbate, Pasquale Longobardi
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare two decompression procedures commonly adopted by technical divers: the ZH-L16 algorithm modified by 30/85 gradient factors (compartmental decompression model, CDM) versus the 'ratio decompression strategy' (RDS). The comparison was based on an analysis of changes in diver circulating inflammatory profiles caused by decompression from a single dive. METHODS: Fifty-one technical divers performed a single trimix dive to 50 metres' sea water (msw) for 25 minutes followed by enriched air (EAN50) and oxygen decompression...
March 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336821/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-reduces-renal-lactate-production
#18
Thomas S Nørlinger, Per Mose Nielsen, Haiyun Qi, Emmeli Mikkelsen, Kasper Hansen, Nikolaj H Schmidt, Michael Pedersen, Peter Agger, Fredrik Palm, Christoffer Laustsen
Intrarenal hypoxia is an acknowledged factor contributing to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is a well-known adjuvant treatment for several medical conditions, such as decompression sickness, infections, and wound healing. The underlying metabolic response of HBO is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of HBO on the intrarenal metabolic alteration in diabetes. Hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate MRI was performed to assess intrarenal energy metabolism in normoglycemic controls and short-term (2 weeks) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with and without HBO for five consecutive days...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296928/the-probability-and-severity-of-decompression-sickness
#19
Laurens E Howle, Paul W Weber, Ethan A Hada, Richard D Vann, Petar J Denoble
Decompression sickness (DCS), which is caused by inert gas bubbles in tissues, is an injury of concern for scuba divers, compressed air workers, astronauts, and aviators. Case reports for 3322 air and N2-O2 dives, resulting in 190 DCS events, were retrospectively analyzed and the outcomes were scored as (1) serious neurological, (2) cardiopulmonary, (3) mild neurological, (4) pain, (5) lymphatic or skin, and (6) constitutional or nonspecific manifestations. Following standard U.S. Navy medical definitions, the data were grouped into mild-Type I (manifestations 4-6)-and serious-Type II (manifestations 1-3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251616/migraine-with-neurological-features-in-a-scuba-diver-with-a-patent-foramen-ovale
#20
Ashhar Ali, A David Rothner
Neurologic complications of decompression sickness have been observed for over half of a century. Little is known, however, about the risk of diving in patients that suffer from migraine with aura (MWA). We report the case of a pediatric patient with a history of migraine with aura, who was later found to have a PFO, who developed headache with neurological symptoms during a scuba diving lesson.
April 2017: Headache
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