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decompression sickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340152/impact-of-gas-emboli-and-hyperbaric-treatment-on-respiratory-function-of-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta
#1
Cyril Portugues, Jose Luis Crespo-Picazo, Daniel García-Párraga, Jordi Altimiras, Teresa Lorenzo, Alicia Borque-Espinosa, Andreas Fahlman
Fisheries interactions are the most serious threats for sea turtle populations. Despite the existence of some rescue centres providing post-traumatic care and rehabilitation, adequate treatment is hampered by the lack of understanding of the problems incurred while turtles remain entrapped in fishing gears. Recently it was shown that bycaught loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) could experience formation of gas emboli (GE) and develop decompression sickness (DCS) after trawl and gillnet interaction. This condition could be reversed by hyperbaric O2 treatment (HBOT)...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281188/health-care-worker-decompression-sickness-incidence-risk-and-mitigation
#2
Richard Clarke
Inadvertent exposure to radiation, chemical agents and biological factors are well recognized hazards associated with the health care delivery system. Less well appreciated yet no less harmful is risk of decompression sickness in those who accompany patients as inside attendants (IAs) during provision of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Unlike the above hazards where avoidance is practiced, IA exposure to decompression sickness risk is unavoidable. While overall incidence is low, when calculated as number of cases over number of exposures or potential for a case during any given exposure, employee cumulative risk, defined here as number of cases over number of IAs, or risk that an IA may suffer a case, is not...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242701/a-software-tool-for-the-annotation-of-embolic-events-in-echo-doppler-audio-signals
#3
Paola Pierleoni, Lorenzo Maurizi, Lorenzo Palma, Alberto Belli, Simone Valenti, Alessandro Marroni
The use of precordial Doppler monitoring to prevent decompression sickness (DS) is well known by the scientific community as an important instrument for early diagnosis of DS. However, the timely and correct diagnosis of DS without assistance from diving medical specialists is unreliable. Thus, a common protocol for the manual annotation of echo Doppler signals and a tool for their automated recording and annotation are necessary. We have implemented original software for efficient bubble appearance annotation and proposed a unified annotation protocol...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233239/perfluorocarbon-in-delayed-recompression-with-a-mixed-gender-swine-model-of-decompression-sickness
#4
William A Cronin, Aaron A Hall, Charles R Auker, Richard T Mahon
INTRODUCTION: Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are fluorinated hydrocarbons that dissolve gases to a much greater degree than plasma and hold promise in treating decompression sickness (DCS). The efficacy of PFC in a mixed gender model of DCS and safety in recompression therapy has not been previously explored. METHODS: Swine (25 kg; N = 104; 51 male and 53 female) were randomized into normal saline solution (NSS) or PFC emulsion treatment groups and subjected to compression on air in a hyperbaric chamber at 200 fsw for 31 min...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212841/hyperbaric-oxygen-pretreatment-benefits-on-decompression-sickness-in-bama-pigs
#5
Long Qing, Hong-Jie Yi, Ye-Wei Wang, Quan Zhou, Dinesh K Ariyadewa, Wei-Gang Xu
Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when ambient pressure severely reduces during diving and aviation. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) pretreatment has been proven to exert beneficial effects on DCS in rats via heat-shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesize that HBO pretreatment will also reduce DCS via HSPs in swine models. In part 1, six swine were subjected to a session of HBO treatment. HSP 32, 60, 70 and 90 were detected, before and at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 h following exposure in lymphocytes. In part 2, another ten swine were randomly assigned into 2 groups, 5 in each...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175087/iso-risk-air-no-decompression-limits-after-scoring-marginal-decompression-sickness-cases-as-non-events
#6
F Gregory Murphy, Ashleigh J Swingler, Wayne A Gerth, Laurens E Howle
Decompression sickness (DCS) in humans is associated with reductions in ambient pressure that occur during diving, aviation, or certain manned spaceflight operations. Its signs and symptoms can include, but are not limited to, joint pain, radiating abdominal pain, paresthesia, dyspnea, general malaise, cognitive dysfunction, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, and death. Probabilistic models of DCS allow the probability of DCS incidence and time of occurrence during or after a given hyperbaric or hypobaric exposure to be predicted based on how the gas contents or gas bubble volumes vary in hypothetical tissue compartments during the exposure...
November 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161578/probabilistic-pharmacokinetic-models-of-decompression-sickness-in-humans-part-2-coupled-perfusion-diffusion-models
#7
F Gregory Murphy, Ethan A Hada, David J Doolette, Laurens E Howle
Decompression sickness (DCS) can be experienced following a reduction in ambient pressure; such as that associated with diving or ascent to high altitudes. DCS is believed to result when supersaturated inert gas dissolved in biological tissues exits solution and forms bubbles. Models to predict the probability of DCS are typically based on nitrogen and/or helium gas uptake and washout in several theoretical tissues, each represented by a single perfusion-limited compartment. It has been previously shown that coupled perfusion-diffusion compartments are better descriptors than solely perfusion-based models of nitrogen and helium uptake and elimination kinetics observed in the brain and skeletal muscle of sheep...
November 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157337/simulated-high-altitude-helium-oxygen-diving
#8
Lu Shi, Yan-Meng Zhang, Katsuura Tetsuo, Zhong-Yuan Shi, Yi-Qun Fang, Petar J Denoble, Yang-Yang Li
BACKGROUND: Experience with commercial heliox diving at high altitude is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute high-altitude exposure on fitness to dive and the safety of decompression after heliox diving while using U.S. Navy heliox decompression tables with Cross correction. METHOD: Four professional male divers were consecutively decompressed in a hypo- and hyperbaric chamber to altitudes of 3000 m (9842.5 ft), 4000 m (13,123...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116696/spinal-decompression-sickness-in-an-artisanal-diving-fisherman-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-mexico-a-case-report
#9
Daniel Popa, Walter Chin, Oswaldo Huchim-Lara, Ian Grover
Artisanal fishermen around the world employ scuba and surface-supplied diving for their livelihoods and often undergo provocative dive profiles due to economic pressures. Consequently, rates of decompression sickness (DCS) are much greater than in recreational scuba divers. Here we present the case of a surface-supplied diving fisherman from the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, who suffered a significant episode of spinal DCS and underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatments, with a favorable outcome. Additionally, we review the proposed mechanisms underlying spinal DCS...
2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116694/efficacy-of-the-u-s-navy-treatment-tables-in-treating-dcs-in-103-recreational-scuba-divers
#10
Walter Chin, Ellie Joo, Scott Ninokawa, Daniel A Popa, Derek B Covington
Despite the fact that current decompression schedules reduce the risk of decompression sickness (DCS), recreational scuba divers continue to experience DCS. Therapy outcomes in these divers are difficult to track. Our study aims to understand the efficacy of the United States Navy (USN) Treatment Tables (5, 6, 6A, 9) in providing symptomatic relief among recreational scuba divers. We conducted a single-center retrospective review of recreational divers treated from 2003 to 2013. A total of 187 divers were identified: 84 divers were excluded, and the charts of the remaining 103 divers were independently reviewed by three clinicians...
2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051628/deadly-acute-decompression-sickness-in-risso-s-dolphins
#11
A Fernández, E Sierra, J Díaz-Delgado, S Sacchini, Y Sánchez-Paz, C Suárez-Santana, M Arregui, M Arbelo, Y Bernaldo de Quirós
Diving air-breathing vertebrates have long been considered protected against decompression sickness (DCS) through anatomical, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. However, an acute systemic gas and fat embolic syndrome similar to DCS in human divers was described in beaked whales that stranded in temporal and spatial association with military exercises involving high-powered sonar. More recently, DCS has been diagnosed in bycaught sea turtles. Both cases were linked to human activities. Two Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) out of 493 necropsied cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands in a 16-year period (2000-2015), had a severe acute decompression sickness supported by pathological findings and gas analysis...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045210/decompression-sickness
#12
Qing Sun, Guangkai Gao
A 42-year-old man presented to the emergency department with palpitations, arthralgias, and vomiting 2 hours after scuba diving to a depth of 26 m. The physical examination revealed diffuse violaceous skin mottling over his trunk and arms (Panel A). Laboratory values were notable for mild..
October 19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040885/bimodal-decompression-sickness-onset-times-are-not-related-to-dive-type-or-event-severity
#13
Amy E King, F Gregory Murphy, Laurens E Howle
Human decompression sickness (DCS) is a condition associated with depressurization during underwater diving. Human research dive trial data containing dive outcome (DCS, no-DCS) and symptom information are used to calibrate probabilistic DCS models. DCS symptom onset time information is visualized using occurrence density functions (ODF) which plot the DCS onset rate per unit time. For the BIG292 human dive trial data set, a primary U.S. Navy model calibration set, the ODFs are bimodal, however probabilistic models do not produce bimodal ODFs...
December 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987197/neuropathology-of-cerebrovascular-diseases
#14
Isidro Ferrer, Noemi Vidal
The chapter describes the epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases, anatomy of the cerebral blood vessels, pathophysiology of ischemia, hypoxia, hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, carbon monoxide damage, hyperoxid brain damage and decompression sickness, and selective cell and regional vulnerability; diseases of the blood vessels including atherosclerosis, hypertensive angiopathy, small vessel disease, inflammatory vascular diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathies, CADASIL, CARASIL and other diseases that can lead to cerebrovascular occlusion; intracranial and intraspinal aneurysms and vascular malformations; hematologic disorders that can cause cerebral infarct or hemorrhage; brain ischemic damage; and spontaneous intracranial bleeding...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977037/fast-hyperbaric-decompression-after-heliox-saturation-altered-the-brain-proteome-in-rats
#15
Alvhild Alette Bjørkum, Eystein Oveland, Linda Stuhr, Marianne Bjordal Havnes, Frode Berven, Marit Grønning, Arvid Hope
Better understanding of the physiological mechanisms and neurological symptoms involved in the development of decompression sickness could contribute to improvements of diving procedures. The main objective of the present study was to determine effects on the brain proteome of fast decompression (1 bar/20 s) compared to controls (1 bar/10 min) after heliox saturation diving, using rats in a model system. The protein S100B, considered a biomarker for brain injury, was not significantly different in serum samples from one week before, immediately after, and one week after the dive...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974936/dive-risk-factors-gas-bubble-formation-and-decompression-illness-in-recreational-scuba-diving-analysis-of-dan-europe-dsl-data-base
#16
Danilo Cialoni, Massimo Pieri, Costantino Balestra, Alessandro Marroni
Introduction: The popularity of SCUBA diving is steadily increasing together with the number of dives and correlated diseases per year. The rules that govern correct decompression procedures are considered well known even if the majority of Decompression Sickness (DCS) cases are considered unexpected confirming a bias in the "mathematical ability" to predict DCS by the current algorithms. Furthermore, little is still known about diving risk factors and any individual predisposition to DCS. This study provides an in-depth epidemiological analysis of the diving community, to include additional risk factors correlated with the development of circulating bubbles and DCS...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928667/thirty-five-day-fluoxetine-treatment-limits-sensory-motor-deficit-and-biochemical-disorders-in-a-rat-model-of-decompression-sickness
#17
Caroline Cosnard, Sébastien De Maistre, Jacques H Abraini, Laurent Chazalviel, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Jean-Jacques Risso, Nicolas Vallée
According to the OECD statistical base for 2014, anti-depressants will, on average, be distributed at a rate of 62 daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants for the 25 countries surveyed (Health at a glance: Europe 2014; OECD Health Statistics; World Health Organization and OECD Health Statistics, 2014). Divers must be concerned. On another hand, divers are potentially exposed to decompression sickness including coagulation inflammation and ischemia, which can result in neurological lesions or even death. The purpose of this study is to assess whether chronic treatment with anti-depressants may represent a contraindication to the practice of an at-risk activity, such as, scuba diving, or even presents a benefit by attenuating the severity of the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880140/-diving-accident-induced-arterial-gas-embolism
#18
P D Nijk, T P van Rees Vellinga, J M van Lieshout, M I Gaakeer
BACKGROUND: During scuba diving, nitrogen dissolves into the body tissues due to elevated pressure under water. During a sudden drop in pressure due to a rapid return to the water surface, arterial gas embolism can arise from pulmonary barotrauma. In a later phase, nitrogen bubbles can also arise in the venous circulation (decompression sickness). Arterial bubbles can incur vascular damage, obstruction, hypoxia and infarction. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 53-year-old healthy sport diver presented at the emergency department in a hypovolemic shock with progressive paresis of all the extremities...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868598/turkish-recreational-divers-a-comparative-study-of-their-demographics-diving-habits-health-and-attitudes-towards-safety
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Bengusu Mirasoglu, Samil Aktas
INTRODUCTION: In Turkey, scuba diving has become more popular and accessible in the past decade and there has been a commensurate rise in the number of certified divers. This new generation of recreational divers has not been described in detail previously. The aim of this study was to profile this group, while investigating any gender differences and making comparisons with the global diving community. METHODS: Turkish dive club members and diving forum⁄blog readers were invited to complete an online questionnaire investigating their demography, medical issues and diving history and habits...
September 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868597/decompressing-recompression-chamber-attendants-during-australian-submarine-rescue-operations
#20
Michael P Reid, Andrew Fock, David J Doolette
INTRODUCTION: Inside chamber attendants rescuing survivors from a pressurised, distressed submarine may themselves accumulate a decompression obligation which may exceed the limits of Defense and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine tables presently used by the Royal Australian Navy. This study assessed the probability of decompression sickness (PDCS) for medical attendants supervising survivors undergoing oxygen-accelerated saturation decompression according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 17...
September 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
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