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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531363/beneficial-effect-of-enriched-air-nitrox-on-bubble-formation-during-scuba-diving-an-open-water-study
#1
Anne-Kathrin Brebeck, Andreas Deussen, Ursula Range, Costantino Balestra, Sinclair Cleveland, Jochen D Schipke
Bubble formation during scuba diving might induce decompression sickness. This prospective randomised and double-blind study included 108 advanced recreational divers (38 females). Fifty-four pairs of divers, 1 breathing air and the other breathing nitrox28 undertook a standardised dive (24 ± 1 msw; 62 ± 5min) in the Red Sea. Venous gas bubbles were counted (Doppler) 30-<45 min (early) and 45-60 min (late) post-dive at jugular, subclavian and femoral sites. Only 7% (air) vs. 11% (air28®) (n.s.) were bubble-free after a dive...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518008/latent-presentation-of-decompression-sickness-after-altitude-chamber-training-in-an-active-duty-flier
#2
James Gentry, Juan Rango, Jianzhong Zhang, Shane Biedermann
BACKGROUND: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a potential danger and risk for both divers and aircrew alike. DCS is also a potential side effect of altitude (hypobaric) chamber training as well and can present long after training occurs. Literature review shows that altitude chamber induced DCS has approximately a 0.25% incidence. CASE REPORT: A 32-yr-old, active duty military member developed symptoms of DCS 3 h after his hypobaric chamber training. Unfortunately, he did not seek treatment for DCS until 48 h after the exposure...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518001/propranolol-effects-on-decompression-sickness-in-a-simulated-dissub-rescue-in-swine
#3
Angela S Forbes, David P Regis, Aaron A Hall, Richard T Mahon, William A Cronin
INTRODUCTION: Disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors may face elevated CO2 levels and inert gas saturation, putting them at risk for CO2 toxicity and decompression sickness (DCS). Propranolol was shown to reduce CO2 production in an experimental DISSUB model in humans but its effects on DCS in a DISSUB rescue scenario are unknown. A 100% oxygen prebreathe (OPB) reduces DCS incidence and severity and is incorporated into some DISSUB rescue protocols. We used a swine model of DISSUB rescue to study the effect of propranolol on DCS incidence and mortality with and without an OPB...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517999/venous-gas-emboli-and-ambulation-at-4-3-psia
#4
Johnny Conkin, Neal W Pollock, Michael J Natoli, Stefanie D Martina, James H Wessel, Michael L Gernhardt
INTRODUCTION: Ambulation during extravehicular activity on Mars may increase the risk of decompression sickness through enhanced bubble formation in the lower body. HYPOTHESES: walking effort (ambulation) before an exercise-enhanced denitrogenation (prebreathe) protocol at 14.7 psia does not increase the incidence of venous gas emboli (VGE) at 4.3 psia, but does increase incidence if performed after tissues become supersaturated with nitrogen at 4.3 psia. METHODS: VGE results from 45 control subjects who performed exercise prebreathe without ambulation before or during a 4-h exposure to 4...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505552/probabilistic-pharmacokinetic-models-of-decompression-sickness-in-humans-part-1-coupled-perfusion-limited-compartments
#5
F Gregory Murphy, Ethan A Hada, David J Doolette, Laurens E Howle
Decompression sickness (DCS) is a disease caused by gas bubbles forming in body tissues following a reduction in ambient pressure, such as occurs in scuba diving. Probabilistic models for quantifying the risk of DCS are typically composed of a collection of independent, perfusion-limited theoretical tissue compartments which describe gas content or bubble volume within these compartments. It has been previously shown that 'pharmacokinetic' gas content models, with compartments coupled in series, show promise as predictors of the incidence of DCS...
May 4, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439981/evolution-of-the-plasma-proteome-of-divers-before-and-after-a-single-scuba-dive
#6
Jacky Lautridou, Vianney Pichereau, Sébastien Artigaud, Benoit Bernay, Otto Barak, Ryan Hoiland, Andrew T Lovering, Ingrid Eftedal, Zeljko Dujic, François Guerrero
PURPOSE: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a poorly understood and complex systemic disease caused by inadequate desaturation following a reduction of ambient pressure. A previous proteomic study of ours showed that DCS occurrence but not diving was associated with changes in the plasma proteome in rats, including a dramatic decrease of abundance of the tetrameric form of Transthyretin (TTR). The present study aims to assess the impact on the human blood proteome of a dive inducing significant decompression stress but without inducing DCS symptoms...
April 25, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415099/p594contrast-transthoracic-echocardiography-as-a-gatekeeper-for-patent-foramen-ovale-closure
#7
M Muratori, G Italiano, E Innocenti, L Fusini, M Mapelli, G Tamborini, S Ghulam Ali, P Gripari, A Maltagliati, F Celeste, M Pepi
Background.: The presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been linked to many illness, including cryptogenic stroke, transient ischemic attack, migraine, platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome and decompression sickness in scuba divers. Transesophageal echocardiography is the gold standard technique for the visualization of atrial septal anatomy, but it is a secondary level exam, not always available, with additional associated costs and not completely free from procedural risks. Standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has a too low sensitivity for PFO screening...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411929/updates-in-decompression-illness
#8
REVIEW
Neal W Pollock, Dominique Buteau
Decompression sickness and arterial gas embolism, collectively known as decompression illness (DCI), are rare but serious afflictions that can result from compressed gas diving exposures. Risk is primarily determined by the pressure-time profile but is influenced by several factors. DCI can present idiosyncratically but with a wide range of neurologic symptoms. Examination is critical for assessment in the absence of diagnostic indicators. Many conditions must be considered in the differential diagnosis. High-fraction oxygen breathing provides first aid but definitive treatment of DCI is hyperbaric oxygen...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378268/carbon-dioxide-poisoning-a-literature-review-of-an-often-forgotten-cause-of-intoxication-in-the-emergency-department
#9
REVIEW
Kris Permentier, Steven Vercammen, Sylvia Soetaert, Christian Schellemans
The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the literature available on carbon dioxide intoxication. Articles were included based on their focus on medical or physiological effects of carbon dioxide. Studies related to decompression sickness were excluded. Mechanisms of carbon dioxide poising (both as an asphyxiant and as a toxicant) were described. Our review suggested that precautions are needed when handling dry ice or while working in confined spaces. Pre-hospital responders also need to pay attention for the possible diagnosis of CO2 intoxication for their own safety...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357838/female-professional-divers-similarities-and-differences-between-male-and-female-professional-divers
#10
Ågot Irgens, Kari Troland, Marit Grønning
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to explore the potential differences between female and male professional divers with regards to demographics, diving certificates, areas of diving, diving activity and health effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority's Diving certificate register contains data on all professional inshore divers who have held a certificate at any time since 1980. Forty nine per cent of these divers responded to the "Norwegian diver 2011" questionnaire...
2017: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357820/preventive-effect-of-rosiglitazone-on-liver-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-decompression-sickness
#11
Bin Peng, Miao-Miao Chen, Zheng-Lin Jiang, Xia Li, Guo-Hua Wang, Li-Hua Xu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe decompression sickness (DCS) is a multi-organ injury. This study investigated the preventive effects of rosiglitazone on liver injury following rapid decompression in mice and examined the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, vehicle group, and rosiglitazone (5 and 10 mg·kg⁻¹) groups, the latter three being exposed to a pressure of 911 kPa. Haematoxylin and eosin staining, plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase and blood cell counts were used to evaluate liver injury at 30 min after rapid decompression...
March 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357819/a-comparative-evaluation-of-two-decompression-procedures-for-technical-diving-using-inflammatory-responses-compartmental-versus-ratio-deco
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Enzo Spisni, Claudio Marabotti, Luigia De Fazio, Maria Chiara Valerii, Elena Cavazza, Stefano Brambilla, Klarida Hoxha, Antonio L'Abbate, Pasquale Longobardi
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare two decompression procedures commonly adopted by technical divers: the ZH-L16 algorithm modified by 30/85 gradient factors (compartmental decompression model, CDM) versus the 'ratio decompression strategy' (RDS). The comparison was based on an analysis of changes in diver circulating inflammatory profiles caused by decompression from a single dive. METHODS: Fifty-one technical divers performed a single trimix dive to 50 metres' sea water (msw) for 25 minutes followed by enriched air (EAN50) and oxygen decompression...
March 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336821/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-reduces-renal-lactate-production
#13
Thomas S Nørlinger, Per Mose Nielsen, Haiyun Qi, Emmeli Mikkelsen, Kasper Hansen, Nikolaj H Schmidt, Michael Pedersen, Peter Agger, Fredrik Palm, Christoffer Laustsen
Intrarenal hypoxia is an acknowledged factor contributing to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is a well-known adjuvant treatment for several medical conditions, such as decompression sickness, infections, and wound healing. The underlying metabolic response of HBO is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of HBO on the intrarenal metabolic alteration in diabetes. Hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate MRI was performed to assess intrarenal energy metabolism in normoglycemic controls and short-term (2 weeks) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with and without HBO for five consecutive days...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296928/the-probability-and-severity-of-decompression-sickness
#14
Laurens E Howle, Paul W Weber, Ethan A Hada, Richard D Vann, Petar J Denoble
Decompression sickness (DCS), which is caused by inert gas bubbles in tissues, is an injury of concern for scuba divers, compressed air workers, astronauts, and aviators. Case reports for 3322 air and N2-O2 dives, resulting in 190 DCS events, were retrospectively analyzed and the outcomes were scored as (1) serious neurological, (2) cardiopulmonary, (3) mild neurological, (4) pain, (5) lymphatic or skin, and (6) constitutional or nonspecific manifestations. Following standard U.S. Navy medical definitions, the data were grouped into mild-Type I (manifestations 4-6)-and serious-Type II (manifestations 1-3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251616/migraine-with-neurological-features-in-a-scuba-diver-with-a-patent-foramen-ovale
#15
Ashhar Ali, A David Rothner
Neurologic complications of decompression sickness have been observed for over half of a century. Little is known, however, about the risk of diving in patients that suffer from migraine with aura (MWA). We report the case of a pediatric patient with a history of migraine with aura, who was later found to have a PFO, who developed headache with neurological symptoms during a scuba diving lesson.
April 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221393/comex-30-f%C3%A3-r-behandling-av-tryckfallssjuka-med-neurologiska-symtom
#16
Anders Rosén, Nicklas Oscarsson, Olaf Gräbel, Göran Sandström
The use of treatment table COMEX 30 for severe neurological decompression sickness Decompression sickness (DCS) can occur after all dives. It often requires treatment in a pressure chamber. DCS with symptoms from the nervous system is particularly serious. In certain cases, the commonly used recompression table (USN TT6) does not suffice to revert severe neurological symptoms. A more advanced recompression table, COMEX 30, can be utilized in these cases. We report three cases of DCS where treatment according to COMEX 30 successfully resolved neurological symptoms...
February 17, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217293/application-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-in-liver-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Hu Lv, Cui-Hong Han, Xue-Jun Sun, Wen-Wu Liu
In recent years, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used in the treatment of a lot of diseases such as decompression sickness, arterial gas embolism, carbon dioxide poisoning, soft tissue infection, refractory osteomyelitis, and problematic wound, but little is known about its application in liver transplantation. Although several studies have been conducted to investigate the protective effects of HBO on liver transplantation and liver preservation, there are still some controversies on this issue, especially its immunomodulatory effect...
October 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159488/lateral-lumbar-retroperitoneal-transpsoas-approach-in-the-setting-of-spondylodiscitis-a-technical-note
#18
George M Ghobrial, Fadi Al-Saiegh, Daniel Franco, Daniel Benito, Joshua Heller
Thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis is a morbid disease entity, impacting a sick patient population with multiple comorbidities. Wherever possible, surgical measures in this population should limit the extent of soft tissue disruption and overall morbidity that is often associated with anteroposterior thoracolumbar decompression and fusion. The authors describe the rationale, technique, and use of the lateral lumbar transpsoas retroperitoneal approach in tandem with posterior decompression and instrumented fusion in the treatment of circumferential thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis with or without epidural abscesses...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150725/allometric-scaling-of-decompression-sickness-risk-in-terrestrial-mammals-cardiac-output-explains-risk-of-decompression-sickness
#19
Andreas Fahlman
A probabilistic model was used to predict decompression sickness (DCS) outcome in pig (70 and 20 kg), hamster (100 g), rat (220 g) and mouse (20 g) following air saturation dives. The data set included 179 pig, 200 hamster, 360 rat, and 224 mouse exposures to saturation pressures ranging from 1.9-15.2 ATA and with varying decompression rates (0.9-156 ATA • min(-1)). Single exponential kinetics described the tissue partial pressures (Ptiss) of N2: Ptiss =  ∫(Pamb - Ptiss) • τ(-1) dt, where Pamb is ambient N2 pressure and τ is a time constant...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119191/bayesian-approach-to-decompression-sickness-model-parameter-estimation
#20
L E Howle, P W Weber, J M Nichols
We examine both maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches for estimating probabilistic decompression sickness model parameters. Maximum likelihood estimation treats parameters as fixed values and determines the best estimate through repeated trials, whereas the Bayesian approach treats parameters as random variables and determines the parameter probability distributions. We would ultimately like to know the probability that a parameter lies in a certain range rather than simply make statements about the repeatability of our estimator...
March 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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