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decompression sickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770194/clinical-utility-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-in-genitourinary-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Jason Gandhi, Omar Seyam, Noel L Smith, Gunjan Joshi, Sohrab Vatsia, Sardar Ali Khan
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a medical technique which delivers oxygen at ambient pressures to increase the amount of dissolved oxygen in the blood and oxygen distribution to tissues. There are several beneficial properties of HBOT concomitant with elevated oxygen distribution in tissue including anti-inflammation, angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor proliferation, augmented fibroblast activity through fibroblast growth factor proliferation, tissue and wound repair, enhancement of lymphocyte and macrophage activity, increased male testosterone secretion, and bactericidal activity...
January 2018: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695441/pulmonary-ventilation-perfusion-mismatch-a-novel-hypothesis-for-how-diving-vertebrates-may-avoid-the-bends
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Garcia Párraga, Michael Moore, Andreas Fahlman
Hydrostatic lung compression in diving marine mammals, with collapsing alveoli blocking gas exchange at depth, has been the main theoretical basis for limiting N2 uptake and avoiding gas emboli (GE) as they ascend. However, studies of beached and bycaught cetaceans and sea turtles imply that air-breathing marine vertebrates may, under unusual circumstances, develop GE that result in decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms. Theoretical modelling of tissue and blood gas dynamics of breath-hold divers suggests that changes in perfusion and blood flow distribution may also play a significant role...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687909/breath-hold-diving
#3
John R Fitz-Clarke
Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673435/decompression-sickness-in-the-f-a-18c-after-atypical-cabin-pressure-fluctuations
#4
Katherine J Lee, Aliye Z Sanou
BACKGROUND: The spectrum of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) is evolving as more cases of atypical pressure fluctuations occur. This ongoing change makes it a difficult condition to diagnose and even more difficult to identify. Both Flight Surgeons and Undersea Medical Officers (UMOs) must keep DCS on the differential. These two cases describe altitude DCS after unique pressure patterns, with one at a markedly lower than expected altitude for DCS. CASE REPORT: Both cases occurred in the F/A-18C and resulted in DCS requiring hyperbaric chamber treatment...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618908/compressed-air-working-in-chennai-during-metro-tunnel-construction-occupational-health-problems
#5
Ajit C Kulkarni
Chennai metropolis has been growing rapidly. Need was felt of a metro rail system. Two corridors were planned. Corridor 1, of 23 km starting from Washermanpet to Airport. 14.3 km of this would be underground. Corridor 2, of 22 km starting from Chennai Central Railway station to St. Thomas Mount. 9.7 km of this would be underground. Occupational health centre's role involved selection of miners and assessing their fitness to work under compressed air. Planning and execution of compression and decompression, health monitoring and treatment of compression related illnesses...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616324/variability-in-circulating-gas-emboli-after-a-same-scuba-diving-exposure
#6
V Papadopoulou, P Germonpré, D Cosgrove, R J Eckersley, P A Dayton, G Obeid, A Boutros, M-X Tang, S Theunissen, C Balestra
PURPOSE: A reduction in ambient pressure or decompression from scuba diving can result in ultrasound-detectable venous gas emboli (VGE). These environmental exposures carry a risk of decompression sickness (DCS) which is mitigated by adherence to decompression schedules; however, bubbles are routinely observed for dives well within these limits and significant inter-personal variability in DCS risk exists. Here, we assess the variability and evolution of VGE for 2 h post-dive using echocardiography, following a standardized pool dive in calm warm conditions...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571234/cervicocranial-artery-dissection-and-scuba-diving-is-there-a-link-or-is-it-serendipity
#7
Gerald K Walters
Introduction: Numerous reports have documented cervicocranial artery dissection (CCAD) associated with scuba diving. The question remains as to whether there are risk factors unique to scuba diving related to the occurrence of CCAD. Objectives: This article aims to perform an examination of the reported cases to demonstrate any commonality among the injured divers and association with known risk factors for CCAD. Methods: A PubMed search was performed utilizing the key words: carotid artery dissection, dissection, arterial dissection, cranial artery dissection, scuba, diving, scuba diving...
January 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571231/a-case-control-questionnaire-survey-of-decompression-sickness-risk-in-okinawa-divers
#8
Naoko Suzuki, Kazuyoshi Yagishita, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Yasushi Kojima, Takuya Oyaizu, Masaharu Shibayama, Kazuo Yamamoto
Background: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a rare condition that is often difficult to diagnose in deep-sea divers. Because of this, prevention and early diagnosis are important. In this case-control study, we examined the risk and preventive factors associated with DCS. Methods: Our original questionnaire survey was conducted among 269 recreational divers in Okinawa. Divers who were diagnosed with DCS by a physician (n = 94) were compared with healthy recreational divers (n = 175)...
January 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545754/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-has-a-protective-effect-on-decompression-sickness-in-rats
#9
Aleksandra Mazur, Anthony Guernec, Jacky Lautridou, Julie Dupas, Emmanuel Dugrenot, Marc Belhomme, Michael Theron, François Guerrero
Introduction: Commercial divers, high altitude pilots, and astronauts are exposed to some inherent risk of decompression sickness (DCS), though the mechanisms that trigger are still unclear. It has been previously showed that diving may induce increased levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is one of the most important regulators of blood pressure and fluid volume. The purpose of the present study was to control the influence of angiotensin II on the appearance of DCS...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535634/effect-of-shallow-and-deep-scuba-dives-on-heart-rate-variability
#10
Yeonsik Noh, Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Yan Bai, Joseph White, John P Florian, Peter R Brink, Ki H Chon
Prolonged and high pressure diving may lead to various physiological changes including significant alterations of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity that may be associated with altered physical performance, decompression sickness, or central nervous system oxygen toxicity. Ideally, researchers could elucidate ANS function before, during, and after dives that are most associated with altered function and adverse outcomes. However, we have a limited understanding of the activities of the ANS especially during deeper prolonged SCUBA diving because there has never been a convenient way to collect physiological data during deep dives...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497483/polarization-of-macrophages-in-the-blood-after-decompression-in-mice
#11
Cui-Hong Han, Pei-Xi Zhang, Wei-Gang Xu, Run-Ping Li, Jia-Jun Xu, Wen-Wu Liu
The veins are a major site of bubble formation after decompression and the lung is a target organ of bubbles. Bubble-induced inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of decompression sickness (DCS). Macrophages play a central role in the inflammation, and macrophage polarization is closely related to the pathogenesis of some lung diseases. This study aimed to investigate the blood macrophage polarization in mice after decompression. BALB/c mice were exposed to hyperbaric air for 60 minutes, and rapid decompression was performed to induce DCS...
October 2017: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491309/portal-venous-gas-due-to-decompression-sickness
#12
Akihiko Kondo, Hiroki Nagawasa, Ikuto Takeuchi, Youichi Yanagawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463357/point-of-care-ultrasound-for-pulmonary-concerns-in-remote-spaceflight-triage-environments
#13
REVIEW
Benjamin D Johansen, Rebecca S Blue, Tarah L Castleberry, Erik L Antonsen, James M Vanderploeg
INTRODUCTION: With the development of the commercial space industry, growing numbers of spaceflight participants will engage in activities with a risk for pulmonary injuries, including pneumothorax, ebullism, and decompression sickness, as well as other concomitant trauma. Medical triage capabilities for mishaps involving pulmonary conditions have not been systematically reviewed. Recent studies have advocated the use of point-of-care ultrasound to screen for lung injury or illness. The operational utility of portable ultrasound systems in disaster relief and other austere settings may be relevant to commercial spaceflight...
February 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460254/diagnosis-of-arterial-gas-embolism-in-scuba-diving-modification-suggestion-of-autopsy-techniques-and-experience-in-eight-cases
#14
Josep M Casadesús, Fernando Aguirre, Ana Carrera, Pere Boadas-Vaello, Maria T Serrando, Francisco Reina
The purpose of this study was to suggest modifications of autopsy techniques in order to improve post-mortem diagnosis of arterial gas embolism (AGE) based on multidisciplinary investigation of SCUBA diving fatalities. Five adult human cadavers from the voluntary donation program of the Human Anatomy Laboratory, and eight judicial autopsied bodies of SCUBA divers from the Forensic Pathology Service were assessed. Before performing any autopsies, we accessed the diving plan and the divers' profiles for each case...
March 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450472/otorhinolaryngology-and-diving-part-1-otorhinolaryngological-hazards-related-to-compressed-gas-scuba-diving-a-review
#15
Matt Lechner, Liam Sutton, Jonathan M Fishman, David M Kaylie, Richard E Moon, Liam Masterson, Christoph Klingmann, Martin A Birchall, Valerie J Lund, John S Rubin
Importance: Scuba diving is becoming increasingly popular. However, scuba diving is associated with specific risks; 80% of adults and 85% of juvenile divers (aged 6-17 years) have been reputed to have an ear, nose, or throat complaint related to diving at some point during their diving career. Divers frequently seek advice from primary care physicians, diving physicians, and otorhinolaryngologists, not only in the acute setting, but also related to the long-term effects of diving. Observations: The principles underpinning diving-related injuries that may present to the otorhinolaryngologist rely on gas volume and gas saturation laws, and the prevention of these injuries requires both that the diver is skilled and that their anatomy allows for pressure equalization between the various anatomical compartments...
March 1, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340152/impact-of-gas-emboli-and-hyperbaric-treatment-on-respiratory-function-of-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta
#16
Cyril Portugues, Jose Luis Crespo-Picazo, Daniel García-Párraga, Jordi Altimiras, Teresa Lorenzo, Alicia Borque-Espinosa, Andreas Fahlman
Fisheries interactions are the most serious threats for sea turtle populations. Despite the existence of some rescue centres providing post-traumatic care and rehabilitation, adequate treatment is hampered by the lack of understanding of the problems incurred while turtles remain entrapped in fishing gears. Recently it was shown that bycaught loggerhead sea turtles ( Caretta caretta ) could experience formation of gas emboli (GE) and develop decompression sickness (DCS) after trawl and gillnet interaction. This condition could be reversed by hyperbaric O2 treatment (HBOT)...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281188/health-care-worker-decompression-sickness-incidence-risk-and-mitigation
#17
Richard Clarke
Inadvertent exposure to radiation, chemical agents and biological factors are well recognized hazards associated with the health care delivery system. Less well appreciated yet no less harmful is risk of decompression sickness in those who accompany patients as inside attendants (IAs) during provision of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Unlike the above hazards where avoidance is practiced, IA exposure to decompression sickness risk is unavoidable. While overall incidence is low, when calculated as number of cases over number of exposures or potential for a case during any given exposure, employee cumulative risk, defined here as number of cases over number of IAs, or risk that an IA may suffer a case, is not...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242701/a-software-tool-for-the-annotation-of-embolic-events-in-echo-doppler-audio-signals
#18
Paola Pierleoni, Lorenzo Maurizi, Lorenzo Palma, Alberto Belli, Simone Valenti, Alessandro Marroni
The use of precordial Doppler monitoring to prevent decompression sickness (DS) is well known by the scientific community as an important instrument for early diagnosis of DS. However, the timely and correct diagnosis of DS without assistance from diving medical specialists is unreliable. Thus, a common protocol for the manual annotation of echo Doppler signals and a tool for their automated recording and annotation are necessary. We have implemented original software for efficient bubble appearance annotation and proposed a unified annotation protocol...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233239/perfluorocarbon-in-delayed-recompression-with-a-mixed-gender-swine-model-of-decompression-sickness
#19
William A Cronin, Aaron A Hall, Charles R Auker, Richard T Mahon
INTRODUCTION: Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are fluorinated hydrocarbons that dissolve gases to a much greater degree than plasma and hold promise in treating decompression sickness (DCS). The efficacy of PFC in a mixed gender model of DCS and safety in recompression therapy has not been previously explored. METHODS: Swine (25 kg; N = 104; 51 male and 53 female) were randomized into normal saline solution (NSS) or PFC emulsion treatment groups and subjected to compression on air in a hyperbaric chamber at 200 fsw for 31 min...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212841/benefits-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-pretreatment-for-decompression-sickness-in-bama-pigs
#20
Long Qing, Hong-Jie Yi, Ye-Wei Wang, Quan Zhou, Dinesh K Ariyadewa, Wei-Gang Xu
Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when ambient pressure is severely reduced during diving and aviation. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) pretreatment has been shown to exert beneficial effects on DCS in rats via heat-shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesized that HBO pretreatment will also reduce DCS via HSPs in swine models. In the first part of our investigation, six swine were subjected to a session of HBO treatment. HSP32, 60, 70 and 90 were detected, before and at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 h following exposure in lymphocytes...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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