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In vitro diagnostic

Beatrice Xuan Ho, Nicole Min Qian Pek, Boon-Seng Soh
The rising interest in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived organoid culture has stemmed from the manipulation of various combinations of directed multi-lineage differentiation and morphogenetic processes that mimic organogenesis. Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) structures that are comprised of multiple cell types, self-organized to recapitulate embryonic and tissue development in vitro. This model has been shown to be superior to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture methods in mirroring functionality, architecture, and geometric features of tissues seen in vivo...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maxim Shevtsov, Boris Nikolaev, Yaroslav Marchenko, Ludmila Yakovleva, Nikita Skvortsov, Anton Mazur, Peter Tolstoy, Vyacheslav Ryzhov, Gabriele Multhoff
Background: Glioblastoma is the most devastating primary brain tumor of the central nervous system in adults. Magnetic nanocarriers may help not only for a targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor site but also provide contrast enhancing properties for diagnostics using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Synthesized hybrid chitosan-dextran superparamagnetic nanoparticles (CS-DX-SPIONs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and relaxometry studies...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Kaishun Shi, Qingjing Ru, Chenyi Zhang, Jie Huang
BACKGROUND Cyclin Y (CCNY) is a member of the cyclin family of proteins that regulate the cell cycle. The aims of this study were to compare the expression of CCNY in normal liver and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in normal and HCC cell lines, and in mouse HCC tumor xenografts. MATERIAL AND METHODS Tumor tissues from 55 patients diagnosed with HCC were studied for CCNY expression. Human HCC cell lines, SK-Hep1, HepG2, HEP3B, HuH7 and L02 were studied using the MTT cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis, transwell and wound healing assays...
March 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Zhuang Liu, Han Lin, Menglong Zhao, Chen Dai, Shengjian Zhang, Weijun Peng, Yu Chen
Background : The emergence of two-dimensional MXenes has spurred their versatile applications in broad fields, but the exploring of novel MXene-based family members and their potential applications in theranostic nanomedicine (concurrent diagnostic imaging and therapy) have been rarely explored. In this work, we report the construction of a novel superparamagnetic MXene-based theranostic nanoplatform for efficient breast-cancer theranostics, which was based on intriguing tantalum carbide (Ta4 C3 ) MXene and its further rational surface-superparamagnetic iron-oxide functionalization (Ta4 C3 -IONP-SPs composite MXenes) for efficient breast-cancer theranostic...
2018: Theranostics
C Incorvaia, C Cavaliere, F Frati, S Masieri
Allergic rhinitis (AR) was long considered a quite trivial disease, but the advance in epidemiological and clinical knowledge, with a major role for Allergic rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative, substantially changed the scene. Now we know that AR has significant effects on patients’ quality of life and also has a relevant economic burden. The ARIA phenotypes related to the duration of symptoms and to the severity of AR are very useful in establishing the optimal strategy in each patient with AR, also according to the kind of allergens that cause rhinitis...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
F Frati, C Incorvaia, C Cavaliere, G Di Cara, F Marcucci, S Esposito, S Masieri
The skin prick test (SPT) is the most common test for the diagnosis of allergy. SPT is performed by pricking the skin, usually in the volar surface of the forearm, with a lancet through a drop of an allergen extract and is usually the first choice test in the diagnostic workup for allergic diseases because of its reliability, safety, convenience and low cost. SPT is minimally invasive and has the advantage of testing multiple allergens in 15 to 20 min. In children, SPT is far less disturbing than venipuncture and is used to obtain a sample of serum to measure specific IgE through in vitro tests...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Fangfang Tao, Xinxin Tian, Zhiqian Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be of great importance in the formation and progression of a wide range of human carcinomas including prostate cancer (PCa). Among them, PCAT3 and PCAT9 have been identified as two prostate tissue-specific lncRNAs and are up-regulated in PCa. However, their roles in the biological characteristics of PCa have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, our data revealed that knockdown of PCAT3 and PCAT9 suppressed cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis and stemness in androgen-dependent LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Xiao-Long Zhang, Gang Xu, Yi Zhou, Jia-Jun Yan
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is insensitive to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and its prognosis remains poor. Targeted therapy is a novel technique for the treatment of RCC. The present study aimed to determine the precise effects of microRNA-183 (miR-183) on RCC. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was conducted in order to analyze the expression level of miR-183 in RCC cell lines. Cell transfection, viability assays and invasion assays were also performed, followed by western blot analysis and a luciferase reporter assay, in order to examine the effects of miR-183...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jinfeng Wang, Jianchang Wang, Ruoxi Zhang, Libing Liu, Ruihan Shi, Qingan Han, Wanzhe Yuan
A rapid and specific real-time reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay (RT-RPA) was developed to detect the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in this study. The primers and exo probe were designed to be specific for a portion of spike (S) gene conserved in TGEV, but absent in the closely related porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). The amplification was performed at 40°C for 20min. The assay could only detect the TGEV, and there was no cross-reaction with other pathogens tested...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Jian Zhang, Junhong Li, Junwei Ma, Hongxin Wang, Yin Yi
Hepatitis B cirrhosis is caused by liver cell necrosis, residual liver cell nodular regeneration, connective tissue hyperplasia and fiber formation, which frequently leads to adrenal insufficiency. Previous reports have demonstrated that human fibroblast growth factor (hFGF)-21 is a multifunctional protein that exhibits potential therapeutic value for metabolic diseases. The present study investigated the diagnostic value of hFGF-21 and analyzed the potential molecular mechanism in the progression of hepatitis B cirrhosis combined with adrenal insufficiency...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Felista L Tansi, Ronny Rüger, Ansgar M Kollmeier, Markus Rabenhold, Frank Steiniger, Roland E Kontermann, Ulf K Teichgraeber, Alfred Fahr, Ingrid Hilger
BACKGROUND: Endoglin (CD105) is overexpressed on tumor cells and tumor vasculatures, making it a potential target for diagnostic imaging and therapy of different neoplasms. Therefore, studies on nanocarrier systems designed for endoglin-directed diagnostic and drug delivery purposes would expose the feasibility of targeting endoglin with therapeutics. METHODS: Liposomes carrying high concentrations of a near-infrared fluorescent dye in the aqueous interior were prepared by the lipid film hydration and extrusion procedure, then conjugated to single chain antibody fragments either selective for murine endoglin (termed mEnd-IL) or directed towards human endoglin (termed hEnd-IL)...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Marc Pretze, Andreas Hien, Matthias Raedle, Ralf Schirrmacher, Carmen Wängler, Björn Wängler
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have widely been used for 70 years in cancer treatment, but only in the last 15 years the focus has been on specific AuNPs with homogeneous size and shape for various areas in science. They constitute a perfect platform for multi-functionalization and therefore enable the enhancement of target affinity. Here we report on the development of tumor specific AuNPs as diagnostic tools intended for the detection of prostate cancer via fluorescence imaging and positron emission tomography (PET)...
March 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Hong Truong, Leonard G Gomella, Mathew L Thakur, Edouard J Trabulsi
PURPOSE: Current approaches to prostate cancer screening and diagnosis are plagued with limitations in diagnostic accuracy. There is a compelling need for biomolecular imaging that will not only detect prostate cancer early but also distinguish prostate cancer from benign lesions accurately. In this topic paper, we review evidence that supports further investigation of VPAC1-targeted PET/CT imaging in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer. METHODS: A non-systematic review of Medline/PubMed was performed...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Sophinese Iskander-Rizk, Pieter Kruizinga, Antonius F W van der Steen, Gijs van Soest
Catheter-based radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has long-term success in 60-70% of cases. A better assessment of lesion quality, depth, and continuity could improve the procedure's outcome. We investigate here photoacoustic contrast between ablated and healthy atrial-wall tissue in vitro in wavelengths spanning from 410 nm to 1000 nm. We studied single- and multi-wavelength imaging of ablation lesions and we demonstrate that a two-wavelength technique yields precise detection of lesions, achieving a diagnostic accuracy of 97%...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Lei Kang, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Todd E Barnhart, Dalong Ni, Jonathan W Engle, Rongfu Wang, Peng Huang, Xiaojie Xu, Weibo Cai
CD30 has been considered a unique diagnostic and therapeutic target for CD30-positive lymphomas and some lung diseases. Additionally, CD30 has shown high expression in clinical lung cancer samples. In this study,89 Zr-radiolabeled Brentuximab vedotin (BV) was developed for in vivo tracking of BV and imaging CD30 expression in lung cancer models via conjugation with desferrioxamine (Df). CD30 expression in three lung cancer cell lines (H460, H358, and A549) was quantified by Western blot. Flow cytometry and saturation binding assays were used to evaluate the binding capabilities of the tracer in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Joonchul Shin, Sudesna Chakravarty, Wooseok Choi, Kyungyeon Lee, Dongsik Han, Hyundoo Hwang, Jaekyu Choi, Hyo-Il Jung
The emergence of a wide range of applications of smartphones along with advances in 'liquid biopsy' has significantly propelled medical research particularly in the field of in vitro diagnostics (IVD). Herein, we have presented a detailed analysis of IVD, its associated critical concerns and probable solutions. It also demonstrates the transition in terms of analytes from minimally invasive (blood) to non-invasive (urine, saliva and sweat) and depicts how the different features of a smartphone can be integrated for specific diagnostic purposes...
March 14, 2018: Analyst
Carlos E Catalano
Viral particles provide an attractive platform for the engineering of semisynthetic therapeutic nanoparticles. They can be modified both genetically and chemically in a defined manner to alter their surface characteristics, for targeting specific cell types, to improve their pharmacokinetic features and to attenuate (or enhance) their antigenicity. These advantages derive from a detailed understanding of virus biology, gleaned from decades of fundamental genetic, biochemical, and structural studies that have provided mechanistic insight into virus assembly pathways...
March 13, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Mehrdad Abdinian, Maedeh Aminian, Samad Seyyedkhamesi
Objectives: Foreign bodies (FBs) account for 3.8% of all pathologies of the head and neck region, and approximately one third of them are missed on initial examination. Thus, FBs represent diagnostic challenges to maxillofacial surgeons, rendering it necessary to employ an appropriate imaging modality in suspected cases. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, five different materials, including wood, metal, glass, tooth and stone, were prepared in three sizes (0...
February 2018: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Jan Brandt, Martin Brenner, Hans-Christoph Lauer, Silvia Brandt
PURPOSE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of template-guided implantation planned with implant-planning software (Implant Studio), comparing computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM)-based measurements with measurements via cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty template-guided implantations were planned and performed on acrylic-resin models. The implant positions were detected with an intraoral scanner, evaluated with CAD quality-control software, and compared with the planned positions in the test group...
March 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Beng Yang, Rongliang Tong, Hua Liu, Jingbang Wu, Diyu Chen, Zhengze Xue, Chaofeng Ding, Lin Zhou, Haiyang Xie, Jian Wu, Shusen Zheng
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a fatal, malignant tumor of the liver; effective diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ICC have not been identified yet. High expression of H2A histone family member Z (H2A.Z) is a high-risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer and primary hepatocellular cancer. However, the significance of H2A.Z and its expression in ICC remains unknown. The present study demonstrated that H2A.Z is overexpressed in ICC and expression of H2A.Z correlated with poor prognosis in patients with ICC...
April 2018: International Journal of Oncology
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