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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908610/economics-human-biology-and-inequality-a-review-of-puzzles-and-recent-contributions-from-a-deatonian-perspective
#1
Joerg Baten
The Nobel laureate Angus Deaton concentrated his work on puzzling developments and phenomena in economics. Puzzles are exciting elements in economics, because readers feel challenged by the question of how they can be solved. Among the puzzles analyzed by Deaton are: (1) Mortality increase of white, U.S. non-Hispanic men (2000 to today); (2) Why are height and income sometimes closely correlated, but not always?; (3) Height inequality among males and females; and (4) The Indian puzzle of declining consumption of calories during overall expenditure growth...
November 18, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908547/high-dietary-choline-and-betaine-intake-is-associated-with-low-insulin-resistance-in-the-newfoundland-population
#2
Xiang Gao, Yongbo Wang, Guang Sun
OBJECTIVE: Dietary betaine supplement could ameliorate insulin resistance (IR) in animals, but no data are available for choline. Reports on humans are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intake and IR in humans. METHODS: We assessed 2394 adults from the CODING (Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study. Intake of dietary choline and betaine was evaluated from the Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908430/evaluation-of-tissue-metal-and-trace-element-content-in-a-rat-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-icp-drc-ms
#3
Eugenia R Gatiatulina, Elizaveta V Popova, Valentina S Polyakova, Anastasia A Skalnaya, Eduard F Agletdinov, Alexandr A Nikonorov, Anatoly V Skalny, Alexey A Tinkov
The primary objective of the study was to assess the level of metals and trace elements in liver, serum, and hair of rats with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer (ICP-DRC-MS). 56 female 3-months-old Wistar rats divided into two equal groups were fed either standard (10% calories from fat) or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (60% calories from fat in chow and 10% sucrose solution) for 6 weeks. Serum was examined for insulin resistance markers, lipid profile, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906549/anti-inflammatory-and-ros-suppressive-effects-of-the-addition-of-fiber-to-a-high-fat-high-calorie-meal
#4
Husam Ghanim, Manav Batra, Sanaa Abuaysheh, Kelly Green, Antoine Makdissi, Nitesh Kuhadiya, Ajay Chaudhuri, Paresh Dandona
BACKGROUND: Fiber intake is associated with a reduction in the occurrence of cardiovascular events and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the addition of fiber to a high fat-high Calorie (HFHC) meal prevents pro-inflammatory changes induced by HFHC meal. DESIGN: Ten fasting normal subjects consumed HFHC meal with or without an additional 30g of insoluble dietary fiber on 2 separate visits. Blood samples were collected over 5hr and mononuclear cells (MNC) isolated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905882/plasticity-in-growth-of-farmed-and-wild-atlantic-salmon-is-the-increased-growth-rate-of-farmed-salmon-caused-by-evolutionary-adaptations-to-the-commercial-diet
#5
Alison Catherine Harvey, Monica Favnebøe Solberg, Eva Troianou, Gary Robert Carvalho, Martin Ian Taylor, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar Helge Matre, Kevin Alan Glover
BACKGROUND: Domestication of Atlantic salmon for commercial aquaculture has resulted in farmed salmon displaying substantially higher growth rates than wild salmon under farming conditions. In contrast, growth differences between farmed and wild salmon are much smaller when compared in the wild. The mechanisms underlying this contrast between environments remain largely unknown. It is possible that farmed salmon have adapted to the high-energy pellets developed specifically for aquaculture, contributing to inflated growth differences when fed on this diet...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904677/an-engineered-fgf21-variant-ly2405319-can-prevent-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-enhancing-hepatic-mitochondrial-function
#6
Ju Hee Lee, Yea Eun Kang, Joon Young Chang, Ki Cheol Park, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Jung Tae Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi, Minho Shong, Hyo Kyun Chung, Koon Soon Kim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent obesity-related disease that affects large populations throughout the world due to excessive calorie intake and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. FGF21 is a starvation-induced pleiotropic hormone with various beneficial metabolic effects, and pharmacological treatment in rodents has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and decrease simple fatty liver disease...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904539/the-effect-of-renal-transplantation-on-respiratory-muscle-strength-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#7
Sasan Tavana, Samaneh Mirzaei
BACKGROUND: There is evidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory involvement in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This is attributed to protein calorie imbalance that is caused by the disease process, and hemodialysis and is generally referred to as uremic myopathy. This results in calcification of respiratory muscles such as diaphragm and intercostal muscles. There are limited data about respiratory muscle strength in patients with CKD. We intended to evaluate the effect of kidney transplantation on respiratory muscles strength in patients with CKD...
2016: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903767/characterization-of-body-composition-and-fat-mass-distribution-1-year-after-kidney-transplantation
#8
Catherine Pantik, Young-Eun Cho, Donna Hathaway, Elizabeth Tolley, Ann Cashion
PURPOSE: In some recipients, significant weight gain occurs after kidney transplantation. Weight gain is associated with poor outcomes, particularly increased cardiovascular risk. In this study, we characterized changes in body mass index and body fat mass and compared them based on gender and race. METHODS: Fifty-two kidney transplant recipients (aged ≥18 years old, 50% men, 58% African American) were enrolled into a prospective study. Body mass index and body fat mass were measured at baseline and 12 months posttransplant...
November 30, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903201/nutrition-in-the-intensive-care-unit-you-must-breathe-what-you-eat
#9
John F Cade, Daryl A Jones, Rinaldo Bellomo
The imprecision in prescribing of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients must result in occasions of overfeeding as well as underfeeding. Overfeeding could cause increased CO2 production and thus increased work of breathing and prolonged ventilator dependence. This possibility is supported by the limited relevant literature. We examined this possibility mathematically using the data in The Augmented versus Routine Approach to Giving Energy Trial (TARGET) feasibility study and in its main study protocol...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902529/perceived-exertion-during-exercise-is-associated-with-children-s-energy-intake
#10
S Nicole Fearnbach, Travis D Masterson, Haley A Schlechter, Eric Loken, Danielle S Downs, David Thivel, Kathleen L Keller
PURPOSE: To examine the individual-level factors that predict energy intake (EI) following imposed exercise (EX) and sedentary time (SED) in children. METHODS: Healthy-weight children ages 9-12 years (n = 20) reported to the laboratory for 1 baseline and 2 experimental visits (EX and SED) each separated by 1 week in a randomized crossover design. Percent body fat, weight (kg), and height (m) were used to calculate fat-mass index (FM index) and fat-free mass index (FFM index; kg/m)...
November 29, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901038/burden-assessment-in-caregivers-of-patients-with-home-artificial-nutrition-a-need-and-a-challenge
#11
R Villar-Taibo, M A Martínez-Olmos, D Bellido-Guerrero, A Calleja-Fernández, R Peinó-García, A Martís-Sueiro, E Camarero-González, V Ríos-Barreiro, P Cao-Sánchez, R Durán-Martínez, M-J Rodríguez-Iglesias, B Rodríguez-Blanco, J Rojo-Valdés
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Caregiving can be a stressful task with severe consequences on caregivers' health. Our aim was to evaluate the profile and the burden of caregivers of patients with home artificial nutrition (HAN) in our area. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of patients who had started HAN over a period of a year (n=573) and their home caregivers (n=103). Epidemiological characteristics of the patients and the type of HAN were registered...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900447/controversies-about-sugars-results-from-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-on-obesity-cardiometabolic-disease-and-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Tauseef A Khan, John L Sievenpiper
Fructose-containing sugars are a focus of attention as a public health target for their putative role in obesity and cardiometabolic disease including diabetes. The fructose moiety is singled out to be the primary driver for the harms of sugars due to its unique endocrine signal and pathophysiological role. However, this is only supported by ecological studies, animal models of overfeeding and select human intervention studies with supraphysiological doses or lack of control for energy. The highest level of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled trials has not shown that fructose-containing sugars behave any differently from other forms of digestible carbohydrates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899768/effects-of-dietary-restriction-on-adipose-mass-and-biomarkers-of-healthy-aging-in-human
#13
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Esmeralda Giovannetti, Katia Aquilano
In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899294/impact-of-food-choice-on-sodium-intake-patterns-from-multiple-nhanes-surveys
#14
Zefeng Dong, Zhifeng Gao, Brandon McFadden
To examine how the food consumption from various food groups would impact American adults' sodium intake and whether this impact structurally changes over time, data were obtained from six-cycle National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Foods were categorized by the first two digits of the USDA food code. Regression models were employed to investigate the associations between the consumption of each food group and sodium intake, and whether there were changes in the associations in consecutive six cycles...
November 26, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899007/the-impact-of-interventions-to-promote-healthier-ready-to-eat-meals-to-eat-in-to-take-away-or-to-be-delivered-sold-by-specific-food-outlets-open-to-the-general-public-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
F C Hillier-Brown, C D Summerbell, H J Moore, A Routen, A A Lake, J Adams, M White, V Araujo-Soares, C Abraham, A J Adamson, T J Brown
INTRODUCTION: Ready-to-eat meals sold by food outlets that are accessible to the general public are an important target for public health intervention. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of such interventions. METHODS: Studies of any design and duration that included any consumer-level or food-outlet-level before-and-after data were included. RESULTS: Thirty studies describing 34 interventions were categorized by type and coded against the Nuffield intervention ladder: restrict choice = trans fat law (n = 1), changing pre-packed children's meal content (n = 1) and food outlet award schemes (n = 2); guide choice = price increases for unhealthier choices (n = 1), incentive (contingent reward) (n = 1) and price decreases for healthier choices (n = 2); enable choice = signposting (highlighting healthier/unhealthier options) (n = 10) and telemarketing (offering support for the provision of healthier options to businesses via telephone) (n = 2); and provide information = calorie labelling law (n = 12), voluntary nutrient labelling (n = 1) and personalized receipts (n = 1)...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898643/effect-of-different-osmolalities-cho-types-and-cho-on-gastric-emptying-in-humans
#16
Xiaocai Shi, Kristin L Osterberg, Heather Petrie, John R Stofan, Robert Murray
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of beverage osmolalities, carbohydrate (CHO) type and CHO concentration on gastric emptying in euhydrated subjects at rest. METHODS: The gastric emptying of water (W), four glucose beverages (2, 4, 6, and 8% glucose: 2G, 4G, 6G, and 8G) and four sucrose beverages (2, 4, 6, and 8% sucrose: 2S, 4S, 6S, and 8S) were determined in eight healthy subjects using the modified George double-sampling technique. Subjects ingested a beverage (7 ml/kg body weight) containing 25-ppm phenol red as quickly as possible (≤1...
November 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898428/beneficial-effects-of-a-dietary-weight-loss-intervention-on-human-gut-microbiome-diversity-and-metabolism-are-not-sustained-during-weight-maintenance
#17
Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Daniela Fangmann, Nike Müller, Dominik M Schulte, Malte C Rühlemann, Kathrin Türk, Ute Settgast, Wolfgang Lieb, John F Baines, Stefan Schreiber, Andre Franke, Matthias Laudes
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we examined the effect of a very low-calorie diet(VLCD)-based obesity program on human gut microbiome diversity and metabolism during weight loss and weight maintenance. METHODS: Obese subjects underwent 3 months of VLCD followed by 3 months of weight maintenance. A lean and an obese control group were included. The microbiome was characterized by performing high-throughput dual-indexed 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. RESULTS: At baseline, a significant difference in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio between the lean and obese individuals was observed (p = 0...
November 30, 2016: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896586/effect-of-berberine-on-the-ratio-of-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-to-total-adiponectin-and-adiponectin-receptors-expressions-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#18
Yue-Yue Wu, Ying Zha, Jun Liu, Fang Wang, Jiong Xu, Zao-Ping Chen, He-Yuan Ding, Li Sheng, Xiao-Jie Han
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of berberine (BBR) on high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (adipoR1/adipoR2) expressions in high-fat (HF) diet fed rats. METHODS: Forty Wistar male rats were randomly assigned into a normal diet fed group and three HF diet (fat for 45% calories) fed groups (n=10 for each group). All rats underwent 12 weeks of feeding. After 4 weeks feeding, rats in the two of three HF diet fed groups were treated with 150 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) BBR (HF+LBBR group) and 380 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) BBR (HF+HBBR group) by gavage once a day respectively for the next 8 weeks while the rats in other groups treated with vehicle (NF+Veh and HF+Veh)...
November 17, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895989/diet-induced-obesity-skin-changes-monitored-by-in-vivo-shg-and-ex-vivo-cars-microscopy
#19
Dóra Haluszka, Kende Lőrincz, Norbert Kiss, Róbert Szipőcs, Enikő Kuroli, Nóra Gyöngyösi, Norbert M Wikonkál
Obesity related metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have severe consequences on our skin. Latest developments in nonlinear microscopy allow the use of noninvasive, label free imaging methods, such as second harmonic generation (SHG) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), for early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome-related skin complications by 3D imaging of the skin and the connective tissue. Our aim was to study effects of various types of diet-induced obesity in mice using these methods. We examined mice on different diets for 32 weeks...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894746/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-versus-calorie-restriction-support-for-surgery-per-se-as-the-direct-contributor-to-altered-responses-of-insulin-and-incretins-to-a-mixed-meal
#20
Johan Berggren, Andreas Lindqvist, Jan Hedenbro, Leif Groop, Nils Wierup
OBJECTIVE: To study the immediate effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on glucose homeostasis, insulin, and incretin responses to mixed-meal tests compared with the effects of calorie restriction (CR). SETTING: University-affiliated bariatric surgery clinic. BACKGROUND: RYGB induces remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) long before significant weight loss occurs. The time course and underlying mechanisms of this remission remain enigmatic...
September 28, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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