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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241722/higher-calorie-menu-items-eliminated-in-large-chain-restaurants
#1
Sara N Bleich, Alyssa J Moran, Marian P Jarlenski, Julia A Wolfson
INTRODUCTION: Large chain restaurants have reduced calories in their new menu items. No research has examined the calorie content of items eliminated from these menus. METHODS: Data are from the MenuStat project (2012-2015), which includes 66 of the 100 largest U.S. chain restaurants (n=27,238 items), to compare: (1) mean calories for items on the menu in all years compared with those dropped after 2012 and (2) mean calories for items new in 2013 or 2014 that stayed on the menu compared with items new in 2013 or 2014 that were dropped...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240304/weight-status-diet-quality-perceived-stress-and-functional-health-of-caregivers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Xiaoyin Sara Li, Jennifer A Pinto-Martin, Aleda Thompson, Jesse Chittams, Tanja V E Kral
PURPOSE: Caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be highly demanding and can put significant strain on caregivers. To date, little is known about the extent to which caregivers of children with ASD experience increased levels of stress which may adversely affect health outcomes. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to compare caregivers of children with ASD and caregivers of typically developing children (TDC) in weight status, diet quality, perceived stress related to the parenting role, and functional health and well-being...
December 14, 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239795/effects-of-very-low-calorie-diets-on-liver-size-and-weight-loss-in-the-preoperative-period-of-bariatric-surgery-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Mariana Holderbaum, Daniela Schaan Casagrande, Samanta Sussenbach, Caroline Buss
Restrictive diet implementation in bariatric surgery (BS) preoperative period is common, although its benefits are not well established. This study aimed to assess the effects of very low calorie diets (VLCD) on liver size and weight loss during BS preoperative period. Surgery-related complications were also assessed. A systematic review of the literature was performed. Terms such as "bariatric surgery" and "very low energy diet" were included in the search strategy. Inclusion criteria were adult patients (aged>18 yr); VLCD treatment in BS preoperative period (10 d to 12 wk); and assessment of 1 the following outcomes: weight loss, liver volume reduction, and surgical complications...
October 2, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236165/polyphenol-rich-curry-made-with-mixed-spices-and-vegetables-benefits-glucose-homeostasis-in-chinese-males-polyspice-study-a-dose-response-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#4
Sumanto Haldar, Siok Ching Chia, Sze Han Lee, Joseph Lim, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Eric Chun Yong Chan, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
PURPOSE: To investigate acute effects of two doses of a polyphenol-rich curry made with seven different spices and four base vegetables, eaten with white rice, on 24 h glucose response, postprandial insulinemia, triglyceridemia and 24 h urinary total polyphenol excretion (TPE). METHODS: Randomized, controlled, dose-response crossover trial in healthy, Chinese men [n = 20, mean ± standard deviation (SD) age 23.7 ± 2.30 years, BMI 23.0 ± 2.31 kg/m2] who consumed test meals matched for calories, macronutrients and total vegetables content, consisting either Dose 0 Control (D0C) or Dose 1 Curry (D1C) or Dose 2 Curry (D2C) meal...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235560/effect-of-high-milk-and-sugar-sweetened-and-non-caloric-soft-drink-intake-on-insulin-sensitivity-after-6-months-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Sara Engel, Tine Tholstrup, Jens M Bruun, Arne Astrup, Bjørn Richelsen, Anne Raben
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Milk contributes with saturated fat, but randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the effects of dairy on the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) where dairy is given as whole foods are scarce. The objective of our study was to investigate the long-term effects of semi-skimmed milk on insulin sensitivity and further to compare milk with sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSSD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A secondary analysis of a 6-month RCT with 60 overweight and obese subjects randomly assigned to 1 L/d of either milk (1...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235157/dietary-intake-in-people-consuming-a-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-the-uk-biobank
#6
M Shafique, S Russell, S Murdoch, J D Bell, N Guess
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets are becoming increasingly popular, although their dietary quality outside of clinical studies is unknown. A previous study analysed the dietary intake in people consuming a reduced-carbohydrate diet (<40% calories). However, it is not clear what foods people consume when carbohydrate is reduced to below 26% of total calories. METHODS: In the present cross-sectional study, the dietary and nutrient intake collected via up to five consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and a food frequency questionnaire of 444 individuals (aged 46-79 years) consuming <26% of calories from carbohydrate (LCHO) was compared with that of 131 897 individuals consuming ≥45% calories from carbohydrate (NCHO) using the UK Biobank Dataset...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233861/restoration-of-metabolic-inflammation-related-ghrelin-resistance-by-weight-loss
#7
Farhana Naznin, Koji Toshinai, Tm Zaved Waise, Tadashi Okada, Hideyuki Sakoda, Masamitsu Nakazato
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic inflammation in the central and peripheral organs contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. Long-term HFD blunts signaling by ghrelin, a gastric-derived orexigenic peptide, in the vagal afferent nerve via a mechanism involving in situ activation of inflammation. This study was undertaken to investigate whether ghrelin resistance is associated with progressive development of metabolic inflammation. In mice, ghrelin's orexigenic activity was abolished 2 to 4 weeks after the commencement of HFD (60% of energy from fat), consistent with the timing of accumulation and activation of macrophages and microglia in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233589/factors-contributing-to-the-selection-of-dietary-protein-food-sources
#8
Robert R Wolfe, Jamie I Baum, Carlene Starck, Paul J Moughan
Protein is the only dietary macronutrient required for life. As such, it is reasonable to consider dietary protein as the centerpiece of a healthy eating pattern. To do so requires consideration of what type of protein should be eaten. Account should be taken of the quality of the protein, the density of the protein in the protein food source, and the non-protein components of protein food source. The quality of protein can be quantified based on the amount and profile of essential amino acids (EAAs), as well as the true ileal digestibility of the EAAs in the protein...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233169/an-evidence-based-gamified-mhealth-intervention-for-overweight-young-adults-with-maladaptive-eating-habits-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Ioana R Podina, Liviu A Fodor, Ana Cosmoiu, Rareș Boian
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the first-line of treatment for overweight and obesity patients whose problems originate in maladaptive eating habits (e.g., emotional eating). However, in-person CBT is currently difficult to access by large segments of the population. The proposed SIGMA intervention (i.e., the Self-help, Integrated, and Gamified Mobile-phone Application) is a mHealth intervention based on CBT principles. It specifically targets overweight young adults with underlying maladaptive behaviors and cognitions regarding food...
December 12, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231545/-impacts-of-acupoint-catgut-embedding-therapy-on-postpartum-weight-retention
#10
Huimin Zhang, Xuehong Ma, Chao Jiang, Rongxing Shi
OBJECTIVE: To observe the impacts of acupoint catgut embedding therapy on postpartum weight retention. METHODS: Seventy-one women of postpartum weight retention were divided into an observation group (35 cases) and a control group (36 cases) according to their own wishes when re-examination in 42 days after delivery. In the control group, the nutrition consultation was provided and the calories intake was controlled continuously for 20 weeks. In the observation group, on the basis of the treatment as the control group, the acupoint embedding therapy was applied to Zhongwan (CV 12), Zhongji (CV 3), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Tianshu (ST 25), Guilai (ST 29), Shuifen (CV 9), Shousanli (LI 10), Zusanli (ST 36), Fenglong (ST 40) and Yinlingquan (SP 9)...
July 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230381/exploring-process-variables-through-which-acceptance-based-behavioral-interventions-may-improve-weight-loss-maintenance
#11
J Lillis, J G Thomas, H M Niemeier, R R Wing
Objective: A previously published randomized trial with individuals reporting high internal disinhibition showed significant differences in post-treatment weight change favoring Acceptance-Based Behavioral Intervention (ABBI) when compared to standard behavioral treatment (SBT). This paper examines process variables that might contribute to the observed differences in weight change. Methods: Participants were 162 adults with overweight or obesity (mean BMI 37.6) randomly assigned to ABBI or SBT...
October 2017: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229564/alternative-myplate-menus-effects-of-ultra-processed-foods-on-saturated-fat-sugar-and-sodium-content
#12
Marilyn Tseng, Dawn B Neill, Stephanie F Teaford, Aydin Nazmi
OBJECTIVE: Compare saturated fat, sugar, and sodium in the US Department of Agriculture sample menu with a version in which menu items were replaced with comparable ultra-processed foods. DESIGN AND SETTING: The authors modified 7 days of a US Department of Agriculture sample menu providing approximately 2,000 kcal/d by replacing foods with comparable ultra-processed alternatives and then visited 2 chain supermarkets in San Luis Obispo, CA (August, 2016) to locate shopping list items for the 2 menu versions...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227875/soil-to-cassava-transfer-of-naturally-occurring-radionuclides-from-communities-along-ghana-s-oil-and-gas-rich-tano-basin
#13
Israel Nutifafa Yawo Doyi, David Kofi Essumang, Asare Kwaku Agyapong, Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie
Soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is widely used to assess the impact of soil radioactivity on agricultural crops. The root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta) provides 30%-50% of the calories consumed in Sub-Saharan Africa and is widely used in South America. γ-ray analysis was used to measure activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in cassava root and soil. The TF values for 238U, 232Th, and 40K were in the range 0.06-0.12, 0.01-0.10 and 0.04-0.28 respectively. The median transfer factors were 0.10 (238U), 0...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227423/evaluating-the-potential-health-and-revenue-outcomes-of-a-100-healthy-vending-machine-nutrition-policy-at-a-large-agency-in-los-angeles-county-2013-2015
#14
Ranjana N Wickramasekaran, Brenda Robles, George Dewey, Tony Kuo
CONTEXT: Healthy vending machine policies are viewed as a promising strategy for combating the growing obesity epidemic in the United States. Few studies have evaluated the short- and intermediate-term outcomes of healthy vending policies, especially for interventions that require 100% healthy products to be stocked. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential impact of a 100% healthy vending machine nutrition policy. DESIGN: The vendor's quarterly revenue, product sales records, and nutritional information data from 359 unique vending machines were used to conduct a baseline and follow-up policy analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225114/fructose-induced-inflammation-and-increased-cortisol-a-new-mechanism-for-how-sugar-induces-visceral-adiposity
#15
REVIEW
James J DiNicolantonio, Varshil Mehta, Neema Onkaramurthy, James H O'Keefe
Traditionally, the leading hypothesis regarding the development of obesity involves caloric imbalance, whereby the amount of calories consumed exceeds the amount of calories burned which causes obesity. Another hypothesis for why we get fat has surfaced in the last decade which is the idea that the overconsumption of added sugars and refined carbohydrates induce insulin resistance and high insulin levels causing obesity. While insulin is a fat-storing hormone, this hypothesis does not explain visceral adiposity, or why certain people are found to have fat stored in and around their organs...
December 7, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223678/protein-sparing-therapies-in-acute-illness-and-obesity-a-review-of-george-blackburn-s-contributions-to-nutrition-science
#16
REVIEW
Dylan D Thomas, Nawfal W Istfan, Bruce R Bistrian, Caroline M Apovian
Protein sparing therapies were developed to mitigate the harms associated with protein-calorie malnutrition and nitrogen losses induced by either acute illness or hypocaloric diets in patients with obesity. We review the development of protein sparing therapies in illness and obesity with a focus on the pioneering contributions of George Blackburn, MD, PhD. He recognized that protein-calorie malnutrition is a common and serious clinical condition and developed new approaches to its treatment in hospitalized patients...
December 7, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222887/relationship-between-umami-taste-acuity-with-sweet-or-bitter-taste-acuity-and-food-selection-in-japanese-women-university-students
#17
Masaru Kubota, Chikako Toda, Ayako Nagai-Moriyama
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although there are many studies on the umami receptor and its signaling pathway, literature on the effect of umami taste acuity on dietary choices in healthy subjects is limited. The current study aims to clarify the relationship between umami taste acuity with sweet or bitter taste acuity, food preference and intake. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Forty-two healthy Japanese female university students were enrolled. The acuity for umami, sweet, and bitter tastes was evaluated using the filter-paper disc method...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221682/effects-of-fructose-consumption-on-food-intake-and-biochemical-and-body-parameters-in-wistar-rats
#18
Viviane Wagner Ramos, Leandro Oliveira Batista, Kelse Tibau Albuquerque
INTRODUTION AND OBJECTIVE: Increased fructose consumption is associated with various metabolic changes that favor the onset of obesity and related comorbidities. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of chronic fructose consumption on body weight and adipose tissue, as well as on serum glucose and triglyceride levels. METHODS: Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were divided into two groups: fructose (F) and control (C), which had free access to commercial chow and either water or a 20% fructose solution...
December 5, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219626/eveningness-is-associated-with-skipping-breakfast-and-poor-nutritional-intake-in-brazilian-undergraduate-students
#19
Gabriela Pereira Teixeira, Maria Carliana Mota, Cibele Aparecida Crispim
Some studies have proposed that self-reported eveningness, which reflects the preference of performing activities in the evening, may harm nutritional health and influence the eating behavior and nutritional status of individuals. However, the relationship between these variables (eveningness and nutritional status) and the consumption of breakfast, which is currently considered a marker of health, has been insufficiently explored by studies. The aim of this study was to investigate, in undergraduate students, the association between diurnal preference, being overweight, and food consumption (with special focus on breakfast)...
December 8, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218451/the-trajectory-from-mood-to-obesity
#20
REVIEW
Judith Wurtman, Richard Wurtman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe and explain the relationships between mood disturbances and the development of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: That depression, anxiety, PTSD, or severe stresses can promote obesity as a side-effect of the drugs used to treat them, or through "carbohydrate craving" to enhance brain serotonin synthesis and alleviate dysphoria by consuming foods that are rich in both carbohydrates and fats. That seasonal affective disorder and severe PMS can independently cause patients to overconsume foods rich in both carbohydrates and fats...
December 7, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
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