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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219715/metabolic-syndrome-causes-rec-ognition-memory-impairments-and-reduced-the-hippocampal-neuronal-plasticity-in-rats
#1
Samuel Treviño, Rubén A Vázquez-Roque, Gustavo López-López, Claudia Perez-Cruz, Carolina Moran, Anhabella Handal-Silva, Enrique González-Vergara, Gonzalo Flores, Jorge Guevara, Alfonso Díaz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious public health problem, which can promote neuronal alterations in cognitive regions related to memory processes and learning, such as the hippocampus. However, up to now there is no information of a regional segregation of this damage. In this study, we evaluate the MS effect on the neuronal morphology of the hippocampus by a regional segregation approach. Our results demonstrate that 90days of a high-calorie diet altered metabolic energy markers and caused memory impairments, as evaluated by the recognition of novel objects test (NORT)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219529/challenges-and-prospects-of-xylitol-production-with-whole-cell-bio-catalysis-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Diptarka Dasgupta, Sheetal Bandhu, Dilip K Adhikari, Debashish Ghosh
Xylitol, as an alternative low calorie sweetener is well accepted in formulations of various confectioneries and healthcare products. Worldwide it is industrially produced by catalytic hydrogenation of pure d-xylose solution under high temperature and pressure. Biotechnological xylitol production is a potentially attractive replacement for chemical process, as it occurs under much milder process conditions and can be based on sugar mixtures derived from low-cost industrial and agri-waste. However, microbial fermentation route of xylitol production is not so far practiced industrially...
April 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215456/food-and-beverage-selection-patterns-among-menu-label-users-and-nonusers-results-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Jessie Gruner, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati
BACKGROUND: By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. DESIGN: Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214525/-is-there-an-optimal-diet-for-weight-management-and-metabolic-health
#4
George Thom, Mike Lean
Individuals can lose body weight and improve health status on a wide range of energy (calorie) restricted dietary interventions. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of the most commonly utilized diets, including low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean approaches in addition to commercial slimming programmes, meal replacements and newly-popularized intermittent fasting diets. We also consider the role of artificial sweeteners in weight management. Low-fat diets tend to improve LDL-cholesterol most, whilst lower-carbohydrate diets may preferentially improve triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, however differences between diets are marginal...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214452/calorie-counting-and-fitness-tracking-technology-associations-with-eating-disorder-symptomatology
#5
Courtney C Simpson, Suzanne E Mazzeo
The use of online calorie tracking applications and activity monitors is increasing exponentially. Anecdotal reports document the potential for these trackers to trigger, maintain, or exacerbate eating disorder symptomatology. Yet, research has not examined the relation between use of these devices and eating disorder-related attitudes and behaviors. This study explored associations between the use of calorie counting and fitness tracking devices and eating disorder symptomatology. Participants (N=493) were college students who reported their use of tracking technology and completed measures of eating disorder symptomatology...
February 9, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213011/calorie-restriction-promotes-cardiolipin-biosynthesis-and-distribution-between-mitochondrial-membranes
#6
Luis Alberto Luévano-Martínez, Maria Fernanda Forni, Julia Peloggia, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Alicia J Kowaltowski
Calorie restriction (CR) has been amply demonstrated to modify mitochondrial function. However, little is known regarding the effects of this dietary regimen on mitochondrial membranes. We isolated phospholipids from rat liver mitochondria from animals on CR or ad libitum diets and found that mitochondria from ad libitum animals present an increased content of lipoperoxides and the content of cardiolipin. Cardiolipin is the main anionic phospholipid present in mitochondrial membranes, and plays a key role in mitochondrial function, signaling and stress response...
February 14, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210840/dietary-sources-of-energy-and-nutrient-intake-among-children-and-adolescents-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Wen Chen, Kirstie Ducharme-Smith, Laura Davis, Wun Fung Hui, Bradley A Warady, Susan L Furth, Alison G Abraham, Aisha Betoko
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to identify the main food contributors to energy and nutrient intake in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of dietary intake assessed using Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study, we estimated energy and nutrient intake and identified the primary contributing foods within this population. RESULTS: Completed FFQs were available for 658 children...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209419/a-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-dosing-study-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-in-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#8
David L Sigalet, Mary E Brindle, Dana Boctor, Bryan Dicken, Viona Lam, Lily Sia Lu, Elaine de Heuvel, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health Canada Protocol:150,979), parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants were treated with 5-20-μg/kg/day GLP-2 for 3days (phase 1), and if tolerated continued for 42days (phase 2)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208811/does-the-valuation-of-nutritional-claims-differ-among-consumers-insights-from-spain
#9
Francesc Jurado, Azucena Gracia
The presence in the market of food products with nutritional claims is increasing. The objective of this paper is to assess consumers' valuation of some nutritional claims ('high in fiber' and 'reduced saturated fat') in a European country and to test for differences among consumers. An artefactual non-hypothetical experiment was carried out in a realistic setting (mock/real brick-and-mortar supermarket) with a sample of 121 Spanish consumers stratified by gender, age, and body mass index. A latent class model was specified and estimated with the data from the experiment...
February 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207682/quickstats-percentage-of-total-daily-kilocalories-%C3%A2-consumed-from-sugar-sweetened-beverages-%C3%A2-among-children-and-adults-by-sex-and-income-level-%C3%A2-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-united-states-2011-2014
#10
(no author information available yet)
During 2011-2014, on average, 7.3% of boys' and 7.2% of girls' total daily calories were obtained from SSBs compared with 6.9% for men and 6.1% for women. For men, women, and girls, the percentage of total daily kilocalories from SSBs declined as income level increased. For boys, the percentage of total daily kilocalories was lower for those in the highest income group than in the other income groups. Compared with women, a larger proportion of men's total daily kilocalorie intake came from SSBs.
February 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207373/food-label-knowledge-usage-and-attitudes-of-older-adults
#11
Beverly A Jackey, Nancy Cotugna, Elizabeth Orsega-Smith
Few recent studies have investigated food label practices in older adults. This cross-sectional study surveyed adults, 60 years and older in Delaware (n = 100, 82% female, 74% between 60 and 79 years, 49% Caucasian, 45% African Americans) to examine associations between food label knowledge, attitudes, and usage patterns. A 28-item questionnaire assessed knowledge, attitudes, usage, and demographic information. Bivariate analysis results showed food label knowledge was associated with education and monthly income...
January 2017: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204912/effect-of-food-on-the-bioavailability-of-palbociclib
#12
Ana Ruiz-Garcia, Anna Plotka, Melissa O'Gorman, Diane D Wang
PURPOSE: This phase I study estimated the effect of food on bioavailability of palbociclib (IBRANCE(®)), and a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 approved for oncology indications has pH-dependent solubility and high permeability. METHODS: In this randomized, four-sequence, four-period crossover study, 28 healthy volunteers received a single 125-mg dose of palbociclib (free-base capsule) following an overnight fast or (1) after a high-fat/-calorie meal, (2) after a low-fat/-calorie meal, and (3) between two moderate-fat/standard-calorie meals...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202779/fasting-mimicking-diet-and-markers-risk-factors-for-aging-diabetes-cancer-and-cardiovascular-disease
#13
Min Wei, Sebastian Brandhorst, Mahshid Shelehchi, Hamed Mirzaei, Chia Wei Cheng, Julia Budniak, Susan Groshen, Wendy J Mack, Esra Guen, Stefano Di Biase, Pinchas Cohen, Todd E Morgan, Tanya Dorff, Kurt Hong, Andreas Michalsen, Alessandro Laviano, Valter D Longo
Calorie restriction or changes in dietary composition can enhance healthy aging, but the inability of most subjects to adhere to chronic and extreme diets, as well as potentially adverse effects, limits their application. We randomized 100 generally healthy participants from the United States into two study arms and tested the effects of a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD)-low in calories, sugars, and protein but high in unsaturated fats-on markers/risk factors associated with aging and age-related diseases. We compared subjects who followed 3 months of an unrestricted diet to subjects who consumed the FMD for 5 consecutive days per month for 3 months...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198565/training-nonnursing-staff-to-assist-with-nutritional-care-delivery-in-nursing-homes-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#14
Sandra F Simmons, Emily K Hollingsworth, Emily A Long, Xulei Liu, Matthew S Shotwell, Emmett Keeler, Ruopeng An, Heidi J Silver
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect and cost-effectiveness of training nonnursing staff to provide feeding assistance for nutritionally at-risk nursing home (NH) residents. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Five community NHs. PARTICIPANTS: Long-stay NH residents with an order for caloric supplementation (N = 122). INTERVENTION: Research staff provided an 8-hour training curriculum to nonnursing staff...
February 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198412/a-screening-strategy-for-the-discovery-of-drugs-that-reduce-c-ebp%C3%AE-lip-translation-with-potential-calorie-restriction-mimetic-properties
#15
Mohamad A Zaini, Christine Müller, Tobias Ackermann, Jeanette Reinshagen, Gertrud Kortman, Ole Pless, Cornelis F Calkhoven
An important part of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) on healthspan and lifespan is mediated through regulation of protein synthesis that is under control of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). As one of its activities, mTORC1 stimulates translation into the metabolic transcription factor CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β (C/EBPβ) isoform Liver-specific Inhibitory Protein (LIP). Regulation of LIP expression strictly depends on a translation re-initiation event that requires a conserved cis-regulatory upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the C/EBPβ-mRNA...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196143/iron-restricted-pair-feeding-affects-renal-damage-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Yoshiro Naito, Aya Senchi, Hisashi Sawada, Makiko Oboshi, Tetsuo Horimatsu, Keisuke Okuno, Seiki Yasumura, Masaharu Ishihara, Tohru Masuyama
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that dietary iron restriction prevents the development of renal damage in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, iron deficiency is associated with appetite loss. In addition, calorie restriction is reported to prevent the development of end-stage renal pathology in CKD rats. Thus, the beneficial effect of iron restriction on renal damage may depend on calorie restriction. Here, we investigate the effect of pair-feeding iron restriction on renal damage in a rat model of CKD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195217/lipid-droplet-dynamics-and-insulin-sensitivity-upon-a-5-day-high-fat-diet-in-caucasians-and-south-asians
#17
Anne Gemmink, Leontine E H Bakker, Bruno Guigas, Esther Kornips, Gert Schaart, A Edo Meinders, Ingrid M Jazet, Matthijs K C Hesselink
A 5-day High-Fat High-Calorie diet (HFHC-diet) reduces insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) in South Asian, but not Caucasian healthy lean males. We aimed to investigate if differences in myocellular lipid handling are underlying this differential response. A two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle biopsies were performed in 12 healthy lean Caucasian and South Asian males (BMI < 25 kg/m(2), 19-25 years) before and after a 5-day HFHC-diet (regular diet + 375 mL cream/day; 1275 kcal/day; 94% fat)...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194257/is-p53-involved-in-tissue-specific-insulin-resistance-formation
#18
REVIEW
Justyna Strycharz, Jozef Drzewoski, Janusz Szemraj, Agnieszka Sliwinska
p53 constitutes an extremely versatile molecule, primarily involved in sensing the variety of cellular stresses. Functional p53 utilizes a plethora of mechanisms to protect cell from deleterious repercussions of genotoxic insults, where senescence deserves special attention. While the impressive amount of p53 roles has been perceived solely by the prism of antioncogenic effect, its presence seems to be vastly connected with metabolic abnormalities underlain by cellular aging, obesity, and inflammation. p53 has been found to regulate multiple biochemical processes such as glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, lipolysis, lipogenesis, β-oxidation, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen synthesis...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194114/emerging-molecular-pathways-governing-dietary-regulation-of-neural-stem-cells-during-aging
#19
REVIEW
Chiara de Lucia, Tytus Murphy, Sandrine Thuret
Aging alters cellular and molecular processes, including those of stem cells biology. In particular, changes in neural stem cells (NSCs) are linked to cognitive decline associated with aging. Recently, the systemic environment has been shown to alter both NSCs regulation and age-related cognitive decline. Interestingly, a well-documented and naturally occurring way of altering the composition of the systemic environment is through diet and nutrition. Furthermore, it is well established that the presence of specific nutrients as well as the overall increase or reduction of calorie intake can modulate conserved molecular pathways and respectively reduce or increase lifespan...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193912/the-effects-of-graded-levels-of-calorie-restriction-viii-impact-of-short-term-calorie-and-protein-restriction-on-basal-metabolic-rate-in-the-c57bl-6-mouse
#20
Sharon E Mitchell, ZhanHui Tang, Celine Kerbois, Camille Delville, Davina Derous, Cara L Green, Yingchun Wang, Jackie J D Han, Luonan Chen, Alex Douglas, David Lusseau, Daniel E L Promislow, John R Speakman
Under calorie restriction (CR) animals need to lower energy demands. Whether this involves a reduction in cellular metabolism is an issue of contention. We exposed C57BL/6 mice to graded CR for 3 months, measured BMR and dissected out 20 body compartments. From a separate age-matched group (n=57), we built 7 predictive models for BMR. Unadjusted BMR declined with severity of restriction. Comparison of measured and predicted BMR from the simple models suggested suppression occurred. The extent of 'suppression' was greater with increased CR severity...
February 11, 2017: Oncotarget
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