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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525898/ginsenoside-rg3-inhibits-the-senescence-of-prostate-stromal-cells-through-down-regulation-of-interleukin-8-expression
#1
Yanfei Peng, Ran Zhang, Lingfei Kong, Yongmei Shen, Da Xu, Fang Zheng, Jianwei Liu, Qian Wu, Bona Jia, Ju Zhang
Senescent stromal cells support the development of prostate cancer and are considered potential therapeutic targets. This research evaluated the regulatory effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on the senescence of prostatic stromal cells pre-incubated in medium supplemented with 0.5% fetal bovine serum. The results revealed that ginsenoside Rg3 decreased the number of stromal cells positively stained with a senescent cell marker (senescence-associated β-galactosidase). Ginsenoside Rg3 also increased the viability of stromal cells and promoted cell cycle transition from G0/G1 to S phase, as well as inhibited the carcinoma-associated fibroblast-like phenotype in prostate stromal cells, through the up-regulation of smooth muscle cell markers SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525309/from-chaos-to-harmony-responses-and-signaling-upon-microbial-pattern-recognition
#2
Xiao Yu, Baomin Feng, Ping He, Libo Shan
Pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are detected as nonself by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Microbial invasions often trigger the production of host-derived endogenous signals referred to as dangeror damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are also perceived by PRRs to modulate PTI responses. Collectively, PTI contributes to host defense against infections by a broad range of pathogens. Remarkable progress has been made toward demonstrating the cellular and physiological responses upon pattern recognition, elucidating the molecular, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of PRR activation as well as dissecting the complex signaling networks that orchestrate PTI responses...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525267/the-supernatant-from-hepatocyte-cultures-with-drugs-that-cause-idiosyncratic-liver-injury-activates-macrophage-inflammasomes
#3
Ryuji Kato, Jack Uetrecht
There is increasing evidence that most idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is immune mediated, and in most cases reactive metabolites appear to be responsible for induction of this immune response. Reactive metabolites can cause cell damage with the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which is thought to be involved in immune activation. Presumably the reason that the liver is a common target of idiosyncratic drug reactions is because it is the major site of drug metabolism and reactive metabolite formation...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524687/observation-of-oscillatory-radial-electric-field-relaxation-in-a-helical-plasma
#4
J A Alonso, E Sánchez, I Calvo, J L Velasco, K J McCarthy, A Chmyga, L G Eliseev, T Estrada, R Kleiber, L I Krupnik, A V Melnikov, P Monreal, F I Parra, S Perfilov, A I Zhezhera
Measurements of the relaxation of a zonal electrostatic potential perturbation in a nonaxisymmetric magnetically confined plasma are presented. A sudden perturbation of the plasma equilibrium is induced by the injection of a cryogenic hydrogen pellet in the TJ-II stellarator, which is observed to be followed by a damped oscillation in the electrostatic potential. The waveform of the relaxation is consistent with theoretical calculations of zonal potential relaxation in a nonaxisymmetric magnetic geometry. The turbulent transport properties of a magnetic confinement configuration are expected to depend on the features of the collisionless damping of zonal flows, of which the present Letter is the first direct observation...
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524066/a-flight-phase-terrain-following-control-strategy-for-stable-and-robust-hopping-of-a-one-legged-robot-under-large-terrain-variations
#5
Natan Shemer, Amir Degani
This work demonstrates a simple, once per step, flight-phase control method for robots running on a planar unknown rough-terrain environment. The robot used to exemplify these control strategies is the ParkourBot, a Spring-Loaded Inverted Pendulum (SLIP)-based robot. The SLIP model is widely used for the description of humans and animals running motion and has been the basis for many robots. A known control scheme for increasing robustness of the conservative, SLIP model is the Swing Leg Retraction (SLR) method...
May 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518187/in-vitro-shock-absorption-tests-on-implant-supported-crowns-influence-of-crown-materials-and-luting-agents
#6
Martin Rosentritt, Sibylle Schneider-Feyrer, Michael Behr, Verena Preis
PURPOSE: To investigate the force absorption capacity of implant-supported crowns made of different restorative materials and connected to abutments with different luting agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molar crowns were milled of different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture materials (n = 8 crowns per material): polymethyl methacrylate, polyether ether ketone, composite, lithium disilicate, titanium, and zirconia. Crowns were mounted on titanium implant replicas using different luting agents: uncemented, temporarily cemented (zinc oxide-eugenol cement), conventionally cemented (zinc oxide phosphate cement), and adhesively bonded...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515446/phase-channel-dynamics-reveal-the-role-of-impurities-and-screening-in-a-quasi-one-dimensional-charge-density-wave-system
#7
M D Thomson, K Rabia, F Meng, M Bykov, S van Smaalen, H G Roskos
Charge density waves (CDWs), i.e. the periodic spatial modulation of coupled electronic and lattice density, are ubiquitous in low-dimensional conductors and have taken on renewed relevance due their role in state-of-the-art materials, e.g. high-T c superconductors, topological insulators and low-dimensional carbon. As CDWs are described by a complex order parameter to represent both the amplitude and phase, they are formally analogous to BCS superconductors and spin-waves, providing a prototype of collective phenomena for the further development of field theories and ab-initio calculations of complex solids...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515390/biocontrol-potential-of-an-endophytic-streptomyces-sp-strain-mbcn152-1-against-alternaria-brassicicola-on-cabbage-plug-seedlings
#8
Naglaa Hassan, Satoko Nakasuji, Mohsen Mohamed Elsharkawy, Hushna Ara Naznin, Masaharu Kubota, Hammad Ketta, Masafumi Shimizu
In the present study, 77 strains of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from cabbage were screened in order to assess their biocontrol potential against Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seedlings. In the first and second screening trials, cabbage seedlings pretreated with mycelial suspensions of each isolate were spray-inoculated with A. brassicicola. Strain MBCN152-1, which exhibited the best protection in screening trials and had no adverse effects on seedling growth, was selected for the greenhouse trial...
May 18, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515313/low-temperature-nullifies-the-circadian-clock-in-cyanobacteria-through-hopf-bifurcation
#9
Yoriko Murayama, Hiroshi Kori, Chiaki Oshima, Takao Kondo, Hideo Iwasaki, Hiroshi Ito
Cold temperatures lead to nullification of circadian rhythms in many organisms. Two typical scenarios explain the disappearance of rhythmicity: the first is oscillation death, which is the transition from self-sustained oscillation to damped oscillation that occurs at a critical temperature. The second scenario is oscillation arrest, in which oscillation terminates at a certain phase. In the field of nonlinear dynamics, these mechanisms are called the Hopf bifurcation and the saddle-node on an invariant circle bifurcation, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510416/optical-asymmetry-and-nonlinear-light-scattering-from-colloidal-gold-nanorods
#10
Miao-Bin Lien, Ji-Young Kim, Myung-Geun Han, You-Chia Chang, Yu-Chung Chang, Heather J Ferguson, Yimei Zhu, Andrew A Herzing, John C Schotland, Nicholas A Kotov, Theodore B Norris
A systematic study is presented of the intensity-dependent nonlinear light scattering spectra of gold nanorods under resonant excitation of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The spectra exhibit features due to coherent second and third harmonic generation as well as a broadband feature that has been previously attributed to multiphoton photoluminescence arising primarily from interband optical transitions in the gold. A detailed study of the spectral dependence of the scaling of the scattered light with excitation intensity shows unexpected scaling behavior of the coherent signals, which is quantitatively accounted for by optically induced damping of the SPR mode through a Fermi liquid model of the electronic scattering...
May 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509684/histone-complexed-dna-fragments-levels-are-associated-with-coagulopathy-endothelial-cell-damage-and-increased-mortality-after-severe-pediatric-trauma
#11
Robert T Russell, Sarah C Christiaans, Tate Nice, Morgan Banks, Vincent Mortellaro, Charity Morgan, Amy Duhachek-Stapelman, Steven J Lisco, Jeffrey D Kerby, Brant M Wagener, Mike K Chen, Jean-François Pittet
BACKGROUND: The release of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) in the extracellular space secondary to injury has been shown to cause systemic activation of the coagulation system and endothelial cell damage. We hypothesized that pediatric trauma patients with increased levels of histone-complexed DNA fragments (hcDNA) would have evidence of coagulopathy and endothelial damage that would be associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of 149 pediatric trauma patients and 62 control patients at two level 1 pediatric trauma centers from 2013-2016...
May 15, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508555/laminin-and-collagen-iv-inclusion-in-immunoisolating-microcapsules-reduces-cytokine-mediated-cell-death-in-human-pancreatic-islets
#12
Alberto Llacua, Bart J de Haan, Paul de Vos
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules have several functions in pancreatic islets including provision of mechanical support and prevention of cytotoxicity during inflammation. During islet isolation, ECM-connections are damaged and are not restored after encapsulation and transplantation. Inclusion of specific combinations of collagen type IV and laminins in immunoisolating capsules can enhance survival of pancreatic islets. Here we investigated whether ECM can also enhance survival and lower susceptibility of human islets to cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505818/anomalous-temperature-dependent-heat-transport-in-one-dimensional-momentum-conserving-systems-with-soft-type-interparticle-interaction
#13
Daxing Xiong
We numerically investigate the heat transport problem in a one-dimensional momentum-conserving lattice with a soft-type (ST) anharmonic interparticle interaction. It is found that with the increase of the system's temperature, while the introduction of ST anharmonicity softens phonons and decreases their velocities, this type of nonlinearity like its hard type (HT) counterpart, can still not be able to fully damp the longest wavelength phonons. Therefore, a usual anomalous temperature dependence of heat transport with certain scaling properties similarly to those shown in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-β-like systems with HT interactions can be seen...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505097/nonlinear-parameter-identification-of-a-resonant-electrostatic-mems-actuator
#14
Majed S Al-Ghamdi, Ayman M Alneamy, Sangtak Park, Beichen Li, Mahmoud E Khater, Eihab M Abdel-Rahman, Glenn R Heppler, Mustafa Yavuz
We experimentally investigate the primary superharmonic of order two and subharmonic of order one-half resonances of an electrostatic MEMS actuator under direct excitation. We identify the parameters of a one degree of freedom (1-DOF) generalized Duffing oscillator model representing it. The experiments were conducted in soft vacuum to reduce squeeze-film damping, and the actuator response was measured optically using a laser vibrometer. The predictions of the identified model were found to be in close agreement with the experimental results...
May 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505089/squeeze-film-air-damping-of-a-five-axis-electrostatic-bearing-for-rotary-micromotors
#15
Shunyue Wang, Fengtian Han, Boqian Sun, Haixia Li
Air-film damping, which dominates over other losses, plays a significant role in the dynamic response of many micro-fabricated devices with a movable mass suspended by various bearing mechanisms. Modeling the damping characteristics accurately will be greatly helpful to the bearing design, control, and test in various micromotor devices. This paper presents the simulated and experimental squeeze-film air damping results of an electrostatic bearing for use in a rotary high-speed micromotor. It is shown that the boundary condition to solve the three-dimensional Reynolds equation, which governs the squeeze-film damping in the air gap between the rotor and its surrounding stator sealed in a three-layer evacuated cavity, behaves with strong cross-axis coupling characteristics...
May 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501420/manipulation-of-visual-information-affects-control-strategy-during-a-visuomotor-tracking-task
#16
Paulina J M Bank, Lucas R M Dobbe, Carel G M Meskers, Jurriaan H de Groot, Erwin de Vlugt
Proper understanding of motor control requires insight into the extent and manner in which task performance and control strategy are influenced by various aspects of visual information. We therefore systematically manipulated the visual presentation (i.e., scaling factor and optical flow density) of a visuomotor tracking task without changing the task itself, and investigated the effect on performance, effort, motor control strategy (i.e., anticipatory or corrective steering) and underlying neuromechanical parameters (i...
May 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501024/sensing-of-molecular-patterns-through-cell-surface-immune-receptors
#17
REVIEW
Stefanie Ranf
In plants, sensing of Pathogen/Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) and host-derived Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) by host cell surface Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) activates Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI). The identification of an increasing number of immunogenic patterns and PRRs illustrates that PTI is a universal defence mechanism against pathogens, pests, and parasitic plants, and that evolutionary selective pressure drives diversification of molecular patterns and diversity of PRRs...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494849/identification-and-classification-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-syndrome-types-among-senior-patients-with-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-latent-tree-analysis
#18
Chen Fu, Nevin Lianwen Zhang, Bao-Xin Chen, Zhou Rong Chen, Xiang Lan Jin, Rong-Juan Guo, Zhi-Gang Chen, Yun-Ling Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To treat patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (VMCI) using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it is necessary to classify the patients into TCM syndrome types and to apply different treatments to different types. In this paper, we investigate how to properly carry out the classification for patients with VMCI aged 50 or above using a novel data-driven method known as latent tree analysis (LTA). METHOD: A cross-sectional survey on VMCI was carried out in several regions in Northern China between February 2008 and February 2012 which resulted in a data set that involves 803 patients and 93 symptoms...
May 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491064/mitochondria-derived-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-in-neurodegeneration
#19
REVIEW
Heather M Wilkins, Ian W Weidling, Yan Ji, Russell H Swerdlow
Inflammation is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative disease pathology. As no acquired pathogen appears to drive this inflammation, the question of what does remains. Recent advances indicate damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules, which are released by injured and dying cells, can cause specific inflammatory cascades. Inflammation, therefore, can be endogenously induced. Mitochondrial components induce inflammatory responses in several pathological conditions. Due to evidence such as this, a number of mitochondrial components, including mitochondrial DNA, have been labeled as DAMP molecules...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487062/mitochondrial-damps-are-released-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-surgery-and-are-associated-with-postoperative-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Nicola Sandler, Elzbieta Kaczmarek, Kiyoshi Itagaki, Yi Zheng, Leo Otterbein, Kamal Khabbaz, David Liu, Venkatachalam Senthilnathan, Russell L Gruen, Carl J Hauser
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent complication of surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and recent work associates CPB with postoperative inflammation. We have shown that all tissue injury releases mitochondrial damage associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs) including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This can act as a direct, early activator of neutrophils (PMN), eliciting a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) while suppressing PMN function. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are crucial to host defence...
March 24, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
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