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Andrew M Holmes, Christopher J Emmans, Robert Coleman, Tessa E Smith, Charlotte A Hosie
Understanding the immediate and longer-term effects of transportation and re-housing in a laboratory species is crucial in order to refine the transfer process, enable the optimal introduction of new animals to a novel environment and to provide a sufficient acclimatisation period before usage. Whilst consideration of animal welfare in most model vertebrate species has received attention, little quantitative evidence exists for the optimal care of the common laboratory amphibian Xenopus laevis. Techniques for the non-invasive welfare assessment of amphibians are also limited and here a non-invasive physiological assay was developed to investigate the impacts of transportation, transport medium and re-housing on X...
March 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Theodoros T Koutserimpas, Romain Fleury
We explore the unconventional wave scattering properties of non-Hermitian systems in which amplification or damping are induced by time-periodic modulation. These non-Hermitian time-Floquet systems are capable of nonreciprocal operations in the frequency domain, which can be exploited to induce novel physical phenomena such as unidirectional wave amplification and perfect nonreciprocal response with zero or even negative insertion losses. This unique behavior is obtained by imparting a specific low-frequency time-periodic modulation to the complex coupling between lossless resonators, promoting only upward frequency conversion, and leading to nonreciprocal parametric gain...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
H Le Jeannic, A Cavaillès, K Huang, R Filip, J Laurat
Non-Gaussian states, and specifically the paradigmatic cat state, are well known to be very sensitive to losses. When propagating through damping channels, these states quickly lose their nonclassical features and the associated negative oscillations of their Wigner function. However, by squeezing the superposition states, the decoherence process can be qualitatively changed and substantially slowed down. Here, as a first example, we experimentally observe the reduced decoherence of squeezed optical coherent-state superpositions through a lossy channel...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
May Anne Mata, Priscilla Greenwood, Rebecca Tyson
We present an analysis of an avian flu model that yields insight into the roles of different transmission routes in the recurrence of avian influenza epidemics. Recent modelling work suggests that the outbreak periodicity of the disease is mainly determined by the environmental transmission rate. This conclusion, however, is based on a modelling study that only considers a weak between-host transmission rate. We develop an approximate model for stochastic avian flu epidemics, which allows us to determine the relative contribution of environmental and direct transmission routes to the periodicity and intensity of outbreaks over the full range of plausible parameter values for transmission...
March 14, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Daniel Pedziwiatr, Monika Cymer, Magda Kucia, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Jerzy Samochowiec
Evidence has accumulated that the occurrence of psychiatric disorders is related to chronic inflammation. In support of this linkage, changes in the levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood (PB) of psychiatric patients as well as correlations between chronic inflammatory processes and psychiatric disorders have been described. Furthermore, an inflammatory process known as "sterile inflammation" when initiated directly in brain tissue may trigger the onset of psychoses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Joel Cramer, Felix Fuhrmann, Ulrike Ritzmann, Vanessa Gall, Tomohiko Niizeki, Rafael Ramos, Zhiyong Qiu, Dazhi Hou, Takashi Kikkawa, Jairo Sinova, Ulrich Nowak, Eiji Saitoh, Mathias Kläui
Information transport and processing by pure magnonic spin currents in insulators is a promising alternative to conventional charge-current-driven spintronic devices. The absence of Joule heating and reduced spin wave damping in insulating ferromagnets have been suggested for implementing efficient logic devices. After the successful demonstration of a majority gate based on the superposition of spin waves, further components are required to perform complex logic operations. Here, we report on magnetization orientation-dependent spin current detection signals in collinear magnetic multilayers inspired by the functionality of a conventional spin valve...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Felix Büttner, Ivan Lemesh, Geoffrey S D Beach
Magnetic skyrmions are topological quasiparticles of great interest for data storage applications because of their small size, high stability, and ease of manipulation via electric current. However, although models exist for some limiting cases, there is no universal theory capable of accurately describing the structure and energetics of all skyrmions. The main barrier is the complexity of non-local stray field interactions, which are usually included through crude approximations. Here we present an accurate analytical framework to treat isolated skyrmions in any material, assuming only a circularly-symmetric 360° domain wall profile and a homogeneous magnetization profile in the out-of-plane direction...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mira C Patel, Kari Ann Shirey, Marina S Boukhvalova, Stefanie N Vogel, Jorge C G Blanco
Host-derived "danger-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) contribute to innate immune responses and serve as markers of disease progression and severity for inflammatory and infectious diseases. There is accumulating evidence that generation of DAMPs such as oxidized phospholipids and high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) during influenza virus infection leads to acute lung injury (ALI). Treatment of influenza virus-infected mice and cotton rats with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist Eritoran blocked DAMP accumulation and ameliorated influenza virus-induced ALI...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Haoliang Liu, Chuang Zhang, Hans Malissa, Matthew Groesbeck, Marzieh Kavand, Ryan McLaughlin, Shirin Jamali, Jingjun Hao, Dali Sun, Royce A Davidson, Leonard Wojcik, Joel S Miller, Christoph Boehme, Z Valy Vardeny
Magnonics concepts utilize spin-wave quanta (magnons) for information transmission, processing and storage. To convert information carried by magnons into an electric signal promises compatibility of magnonic devices with conventional electronic devices, that is, magnon spintronics1 . Magnons in inorganic materials have been studied widely with respect to their generation2,3 , transport4,5 and detection6 . In contrast, resonant spin waves in the room-temperature organic-based ferrimagnet vanadium tetracyanoethylene (V(TCNE)x (x ≈ 2)), were detected only recently7 ...
March 12, 2018: Nature Materials
Dan Norbäck, Chan Lu, Juan Wang, Yinping Zhang, Baizhan Li, Zhuohui Zhao, Chen Huang, Xin Zhang, Hua Qian, Yuexia Sun, Jan Sundell, Qihong Deng
BACKGROUND: Few data exist on asthma and rhinitis across China in relation to indoor and outdoor air pollution, climate and socioeconomic factors. The main aim was to study associations between asthma, rhinitis and current respiratory symptoms among pre-school children across China and selected indoor and outdoor exposure and indicators of socio-economic status (SES) in mutually adjusted models. METHODS: Chinese children (3-6 yr.) (n = 39,782) were recruited from randomly selected day care centres in seven cities in China...
March 9, 2018: Environment International
Marcel Heers, Moritz Helias, Tanguy Hedrich, Matthias Dümpelmann, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Tonio Ball
The foremost aim of presurgical epilepsy evaluation is the delineation of the seizure onset zone (SOZ). There is increasing evidence that fast epileptic activity (FEA, 14-250 Hz) occurring interictally, i.e. between seizures, is predominantly localized within the SOZ. Currently it is unknown, which frequency band of FEA performs best in identifying the SOZ, although prior studies suggest highest concordance of spectral changes with the SOZ for high frequency changes. We suspected that FEA reflects dampened oscillations in local cortical excitatory-inhibitory neural networks, and that interictal FEA in the SOZ is a consequence of reduced oscillatory damping...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
S Eh Shirmovsky, D V Shulga
The paper investigates microtubules lattice properties taking into consideration elastic, dipole-dipole interaction of tubulins and viscosity. A microtubule is modeled as a system of bound tubulins, forming a skewed hexagonal two-dimensional lattice. Wave frequencies and group velocities have been calculated. Calculations have been performed for various directions of wave front propagation: helix, along the protofilament, and anti-helix. Three different wave polarization directions have been considered. It has been shown that the direction of the wave polarization influences the frequency and wave group velocity values in the lattice considerably...
March 8, 2018: Bio Systems
Shi-Jun Liu, Zhi-Shu Tang, Zhi-Xin Liao, Chun-Li Cui, Hong-Bo Liu, Yan-Ni Liang, Yu Zhang, Hong-Bo Xu, Dong-Bo Zhang, Ya-Ting Zheng, Huan-Xian Shi, Shi-Ying Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ligularia przewalskii (Maxim.) Diels (LP) (called zhangyetuowu in Chinese), is generally found in moist forest areas in the western regions of China. The root, leaves and flower of LP are utilized as a common traditional medicine in China. It has been utilized conventionally in herbal remedies for the remedy of haemoptysis, asthma, pulmonary phthisis, jaundice hepatitis, food poisoning, bronchitis, cough, fever, wound healing, measles, carbuncle, swelling and phlegm diseases...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Haiqiang Yao, Shanlan Mo, Ji Wang, Yingshuai Li, Chong-Zhi Wang, Jin-Yi Wan, Zengliang Zhang, Yu Chen, Ranran Sun, Chun-Su Yuan, Xin Liu, Lingru Li, Qi Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metabolic diseases are leading health concerns in today's global society. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), one body type studied is the phlegm-dampness constitution (PC), which predisposes individuals to complex metabolic disorders. Genomic studies have revealed the potential metabolic disorders and the molecular features of PC. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of PC, however, is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed a genome-wide DNA methylation in 12 volunteers using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
March 2, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Graeme P Sullivan, Conor M Henry, Danielle M Clancy, Tazhir Mametnabiev, Ekaterina Belotcerkovskaya, Pavel Davidovich, Sylvia Sura-Trueba, Alexander V Garabadzhiu, Seamus J Martin
Sterile inflammation is initiated by molecules released from necrotic cells, called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Members of the extended IL-1 cytokine family are important DAMPs, are typically only released through necrosis, and require limited proteolytic processing for activation. The IL-1 family cytokines, IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ, are expressed as inactive precursors and have been implicated as key initiators of psoriatic-type skin inflammation. We have recently found that IL-36 family cytokines are proteolytically processed and activated by the neutrophil granule-derived proteases, elastase, and cathepsin G...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Nicole Zimmermann, Svea Brandt, Jeanette Brünner, Carl Erb
INTRODUCTION: Our study compares the biomechanical properties of the cornea in patients with long-term pre-existing (for at least 10 years) systemic sclerosis (SSc) with those of healthy suspects. MATERIAL/METHODS: The examination was performed in 14 systemic SSc patients and 38 healthy volunteers. Non-invasive assessment of corneal biomechanical parameters, including central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF), was performed in one randomised study eye in accordance with a standardised protocol...
March 7, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Jesús Martínez-Cruz, Diego F Romero, Fernando de la Torre, Dolores Fernández-Ortuño, Juan Antonio Torés, Antonio de Vicente, Alejandro Perez-Garcia
Podosphaera xanthii is the main causal agent of powdery mildew disease in cucurbits. In a previous study, we determined that P. xanthii expresses approximately 50 Podosphaera effector candidates (PECs), identified based on the presence of a predicted signal peptide and the absence of functional annotation. In this work, we used host-induced gene silencing (HIGS), employing Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector for the delivery of the silencing constructs (ATM-HIGS), to identify genes involved in early plant-pathogen interaction...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Tomonori Shinya, Shigetaka Yasuda, Kiwamu Hyodo, Rena Tani, Yuko Hojo, Yuka Fujiwara, Kei Hiruma, Takuma Ishizaki, Yasunari Fujita, Yusuke Saijo, Ivan Galis
Plant defense against herbivores is modulated by herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs) from oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva of insects. Furthermore, feeding wounds initiate plant's self-damage responses modulated by danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) such as immune defense-promoting plant elicitor peptides (Peps). While temporal and spatial co-existence of both patterns during herbivory implies a possibility of their close interactions, molecular mechanisms remain undetermined. Here, we report that exogenous application of rice (Oryza sativa) peptides (OsPeps) can elicit multiple defense responses in rice cell cultures...
March 7, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kinya Otsu
Mitochondria play a central role in multiple cellular functions, including energy production, calcium homeostasis, and cell death. Currently, growing evidence indicates the vital roles of mitochondria in triggering and maintaining inflammation. Chronic inflammation without microbial infection - termed sterile inflammation - is strongly involved in the development of heart failure. Sterile inflammation is triggered by the activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense endogenous ligands called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
March 6, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Julien Farlin, Piotr Małoszewski
The use of the annual cycles of stable isotopes to estimate the parameters of transit time distribution functions has been recently criticised by Kirchner who showed that if the catchment is heterogeneous the mean residence time calculated from the damping of the amplitude of the input signal is often underestimated by large factors. We modify Kirchner's initial analysis and show that the estimation bias is a function of the degree of heterogeneity. In low heterogeneity cases corresponding to permeable aquifers, the transit time distribution of a simple exponential model developed assuming a homogeneous medium deviates only slightly from the true transit time distribution, and thus estimated and true mean transit times are close...
March 6, 2018: Ground Water
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