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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635545/current-asthma-respiratory-symptoms-and-airway-infections-among-students-in-relation-to-the-school-and-home-environment-in-japan
#1
Motoko Takaoka, Kyoko Suzuki, Dan Norbäck
OBJECTIVE: To study associations between the school and home environment and current asthma, respiratory symptoms and airway infections among Japanese students. METHODS: Japanese students (12-15 y) (N = 1048) in four schools responded to a questionnaire on respiratory health, allergy and the home environment. Temperature, relative air humidity (RH) and student density (students/m(2) floor area) was measured in the classrooms: dust was collected from floors and in classroom air and analysed for cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergens...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632064/the-effectiveness-of-front-fork-systems-at-damping-accelerations-during-isolated-aspects-specific-to-cross-country-mountain-biking
#2
Paul W Macdermid, Matthew C Miller, Philip W Fink, Stephen R Stannard
Cross-country mountain bike suspension reportedly enhances comfort and performance through reduced vibration and impact exposure. This study analysed the effectiveness of three different front fork systems at damping accelerations during the crossing of three isolated obstacles (stairs, drop, and root). One participant completed three trials on six separate occasions in a randomised order using rigid, air-sprung, and carbon leaf-sprung forks. Performance was determined by time to cross obstacles, while triaxial accelerometers quantified impact exposure and damping response...
March 1, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632017/correlation-of-iso-16840-2-2007-impact-damping-and-hysteresis-measures-for-a-sample-of-wheelchair-seating-cushions
#3
Susan J Hillman, James Hollington, Neil Crossan, Carmen Torres-Sánchez
Hysteresis and impact damping measures were made on 37 wheelchair seating cushions according to ISO 16840-2:2007 Wheelchair seating-Part 2: Determination of physical and mechanical characteristics of devices intended to manage tissue integrity-seat cushions. These measures were then correlated using Spearman and Pearson correlations to investigate the relationship between them. Correlations were also conducted on the subset of cushions comprising only those with planar foam construction. Correlation between the hysteresis measures (h250 and h500) and the mean number of rebounds greater in amplitude than 10% of the peak acceleration amplitude (R10%) were weak, as were the correlations between the hysteresis measures and the mean peak first rebound acceleration (aa)...
February 7, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629872/sevoflurane-relieves-lung-function-deterioration-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#4
Adam L Balogh, Ferenc Peták, Gergely H Fodor, Roberta Sudy, Barna Babik
OBJECTIVE: To investigate sevoflurane's potential to alleviate the detrimental pulmonary changes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical investigation. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ninety patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Ninety-nine patients under intravenous anesthesia were administered 1 minimal alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for 5 minutes after being weaned from CPB (group SEV); intravenous anesthesia was maintained in the other 91 patients (group CTRL)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629359/forced-expiration-measurements-in-mouse-models-of-obstructive-and-restrictive-lung-diseases
#5
Fien C Devos, André Maaske, Annette Robichaud, Lore Pollaris, Sven Seys, Carolina Aznar Lopez, Erik Verbeken, Matthias Tenbusch, Rik Lories, Benoit Nemery, Peter Hm Hoet, Jeroen Aj Vanoirbeek
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function measurements are important when studying respiratory disease models. Both resistance and compliance have been used to assess lung function in mice. Yet, it is not always clear how these parameters relate to forced expiration (FE)-related parameters, most commonly used in humans. We aimed to characterize FE measurements in four well-established mouse models of lung diseases. METHOD: Detailed respiratory mechanics and FE measurements were assessed concurrently in Balb/c mice, using the forced oscillation and negative pressure-driven forced expiration techniques, respectively...
June 19, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626569/importance-of-double-resonance-effects-in-two-photon-absorption-properties-of-au25-sr-18
#6
Zhongwei Hu, Lasse Jensen
The two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-sections of small thiolate-protected gold clusters have been shown to be much larger than typical small organic molecules. In comparison with larger nanoparticles, their TPA cross-sections per gold atom are also found to be larger. Theoretical simulations have suggested that the large enhancement of these TPA cross-sections comes from a one-photon double-resonance mechanism. However, it remains difficult to simulate TPA cross-sections of thiolate-protected gold clusters due to their large system size and a high density of states...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626276/standing-and-travelling-waves-in-a-spherical-brain-model-the-nunez-model-revisited
#7
S Visser, R Nicks, O Faugeras, S Coombes
The Nunez model for the generation of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is naturally described as a neural field model on a sphere with space-dependent delays. For simplicity, dynamical realisations of this model either as a damped wave equation or an integro-differential equation, have typically been studied in idealised one dimensional or planar settings. Here we revisit the original Nunez model to specifically address the role of spherical topology on spatio-temporal pattern generation. We do this using a mixture of Turing instability analysis, symmetric bifurcation theory, centre manifold reduction and direct simulations with a bespoke numerical scheme...
June 15, 2017: Physica D. Nonlinear Phenomena
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624972/sbs-symptoms-in-relation-to-dampness-and-ventilation-in-inspected-single-family-houses-in-sweden
#8
Greta Smedje, Juan Wang, Dan Norbäck, Håkan Nilsson, Karin Engvall
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships between symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS) in adults and building dampness and ventilation in single-family houses. METHODS: Within the Swedish BETSI study, a national sample of single-family houses were inspected by professional building experts, and adults living in the houses answered a questionnaire on SBS. Relationships between building factors and SBS were analysed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the respondents, 23% reported having had weekly SBS symptoms during the last three months...
June 17, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623352/effect-of-sliding-friction-in-harmonic-oscillators
#9
Miguel V Vitorino, Arthur Vieira, Mario S Rodrigues
Sliding friction is ubiquitous in nature as are harmonic oscillators. However, when treating harmonic oscillators the effect of sliding friction is often neglected. Here, we propose a simple analytical model to include both viscous and sliding friction in common harmonic oscillator equations, allowing to separate these different types of dissipation. To compare this model with experimental data, a nanometric vibration was imposed on a quartz tuning fork, while an atomic force microscope tip was used to disturb its motion...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621997/cooling-a-harmonic-oscillator-by-optomechanical-modification-of-its-bath
#10
Xunnong Xu, Thomas Purdy, Jacob M Taylor
Optomechanical systems show tremendous promise for the high-sensitivity sensing of forces and modification of mechanical properties via light. For example, similar to neutral atoms and trapped ions, laser cooling of mechanical motion by radiation pressure can take single mechanical modes to their ground state. Conventional optomechanical cooling is able to introduce an additional damping channel to mechanical motion while keeping its thermal noise at the same level, and, as a consequence, the effective temperature of the mechanical mode is lowered...
June 2, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621972/warm-dense-matter-demonstrating-non-drude-conductivity-from-observations-of-nonlinear-plasmon-damping
#11
B B L Witte, L B Fletcher, E Galtier, E Gamboa, H J Lee, U Zastrau, R Redmer, S H Glenzer, P Sperling
We present simulations using finite-temperature density-functional-theory molecular dynamics to calculate the dynamic electrical conductivity in warm dense aluminum. The comparison between exchange-correlation functionals in the Perdew-Burke-Enzerhof and Heyd-Scuseria-Enzerhof (HSE) approximation indicates evident differences in the density of states and the dc conductivity. The HSE calculations show excellent agreement with experimental Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray plasmon scattering spectra revealing plasmon damping below the widely used random phase approximation...
June 2, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619306/management-of-viral-oral-ulcers-in-children-using-chinese-herbal-medicine-a-report-of-two-cases
#12
Yi-Chiao Lee, Ting-Hao Wang, Shih-Yu Chen, Hsiang-Ling Lin, Ming-Yen Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Viral oral ulcers are common presentations in pediatric clinics. Although self-limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and lead to dehydration. Despite the widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for pediatric upper respiratory disease in Taiwan, there is little evidence for its effectiveness as an antipyretic or in aiding ulcer healing for children with viral oral ulcers. We report two cases of children who presented with viral oral ulcers to illustrate the potential efficacy of CHM treatment in recovery from herpangina (HA) and herpetic gingivostomatitis (HGS)...
June 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618641/kinetic-simulations-of-ladder-climbing-by-electron-plasma-waves
#13
Kentaro Hara, Ido Barth, Erez Kaminski, I Y Dodin, N J Fisch
The energy of plasma waves can be moved up and down the spectrum using chirped modulations of plasma parameters, which can be driven by external fields. Depending on whether the wave spectrum is discrete (bounded plasma) or continuous (boundless plasma), this phenomenon is called ladder climbing (LC) or autoresonant acceleration of plasmons. It was first proposed by Barth et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 075001 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.115.075001] based on a linear fluid model. In this paper, LC of electron plasma waves is investigated using fully nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations of collisionless bounded plasma...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618589/emergence-of-chaos-in-starlike-networks-of-dissipative-nonlinear-oscillators-by-localized-parametric-excitations
#14
R Chacón, A Martínez García-Hoz, J A Martínez
We study the effectiveness of locally controlling the impulse transmitted by parametric periodic excitations at inducing and suppressing chaos in starlike networks of driven damped pendula, leading to asynchronous chaotic states and equilibria, respectively. We found that the inducing (suppressor) effect of increasing (decreasing) the impulse transmitted by the parametric excitations acting on particular nodes depends strongly on their number and degree of connectivity as well as the coupling strength. Additionally, we provide a theoretical analysis explaining the basic physical mechanisms of the emergence and suppression of chaos as well as the main features of the chaos-control scenario...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618500/recovery-of-mechanical-pressure-in-a-gas-of-underdamped-active-dumbbells-with-brownian-noise
#15
Marc Joyeux
In contrast with a gas at thermodynamic equilibrium, the mean force exerted on a wall by a gas of active particles usually depends on the confining potential, thereby preventing a proper definition of mechanical pressure. In this paper, we investigate numerically the properties of a gas of underdamped self-propelled dumbbells subject to Brownian noise of increasing intensity, in order to understand how the notion of pressure is recovered as noise progressively masks the effects of self-propulsion and the system approaches thermodynamic equilibrium...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618494/radiation-dynamics-of-a-cavitation-bubble-in-a-liquid-filled-cavity-surrounded-by-an-elastic-solid
#16
Catherine Drysdale, Alexander A Doinikov, Philippe Marmottant
A specific cavitation phenomenon occurs inside the stems of trees. The internal pressure in tree conduits can drop down to significant negative values, which causes the nucleation of bubbles. The bubbles exhibit high-frequency oscillations just after their nucleation. In the present study, this phenomenon is modeled by taking into account acoustic waves produced by bubble oscillations. A dispersion equation is derived, which is then used to calculate the resonance frequency and the attenuation coefficient of the bubble oscillations...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618471/energy-dissipation-anomaly-in-systems-of-localized-waves
#17
Basile Gallet
We study the statistics of the power P dissipated by waves propagating in a one-dimensional disordered medium with damping coefficient ν. An operator imposes the wave amplitude at one end, therefore injecting a power P that balances dissipation. The typical realization of P vanishes for ν→0: Disorder leads to localization and total reflection of the wave energy back to the emitter, with negligible losses. More surprisingly, the mean dissipated power 〈P〉 averaged over the disorder reaches a finite limit for ν→0...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618465/two-dimensional-localized-chaotic-patterns-in-parametrically-driven-systems
#18
Deterlino Urzagasti, David Laroze, Harald Pleiner
We study two-dimensional localized patterns in weakly dissipative systems that are driven parametrically. As a generic model for many different physical situations we use a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation that contains parametric forcing, damping, and spatial coupling. The latter allows for the existence of localized pattern states, where a finite-amplitude uniform state coexists with an inhomogeneous one. In particular, we study numerically two-dimensional patterns. Increasing the driving forces, first the localized pattern dynamics is regular, becomes chaotic for stronger driving, and finally extends in area to cover almost the whole system...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618428/the-impact-of-circulating-mitochondrial-dna-on-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-and-myocardial-injury-after-tlr4-activation-in-experimental-autoimmune-myocarditis
#19
Bangwei Wu, Huanchun Ni, Jian Li, Xinyu Zhuang, Jinjin Zhang, Zhiyong Qi, Qiying Chen, Zhichao Wen, Haiming Shi, Xinping Luo, Bo Jin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), acting as a newly found 'danger-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs), is released into circulation upon tissue injury and performs as a considerable activator of inflammation and immune response. However, the role of circulating mtDNA in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) as well as Toll like receptor4 (TLR4) mediated cardiac inflammation and injury remains unknown. METHODS: A model of EAM was established in BALB/c mice by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin...
June 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617819/between-simplicity-and-accuracy-effect-of-adding-modeling-details-on-quarter-vehicle-model-accuracy
#20
Ming Foong Soong, Rahizar Ramli, Ahmad Saifizul
Quarter vehicle model is the simplest representation of a vehicle that belongs to lumped-mass vehicle models. It is widely used in vehicle and suspension analyses, particularly those related to ride dynamics. However, as much as its common adoption, it is also commonly accepted without quantification that this model is not as accurate as many higher-degree-of-freedom models due to its simplicity and limited degrees of freedom. This study investigates the trade-off between simplicity and accuracy within the context of quarter vehicle model by determining the effect of adding various modeling details on model accuracy...
2017: PloS One
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