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Behzad Babaei, A J Velasquez-Mao, Kenneth M Pryse, William B McConnaughey, Elliot L Elson, Guy M Genin
Characterizing how a tissue's constituents give rise to its viscoelasticity is important for uncovering how hidden timescales underlie multiscale biomechanics. These constituents are viscoelastic in nature, and their mechanics must typically be assessed from the uniaxial behavior of a tissue. Confounding the challenge is that tissue viscoelasticity is typically associated with nonlinear elastic responses. Here, we experimentally assessed how fibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM) within engineered tissue constructs give rise to the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of a tissue...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Satoru Emori, Di Yi, Sam Crossley, Jacob J Wisser, Purnima P Balakrishnan, Behrouz Khodadadi, Padraic Shafer, Christoph Klewe, Alpha T N'Diaye, Brittany T Urwin, Krishnamurthy Mahalingam, Brandon Howe, Harold Y Hwang, Elke Arenholz, Yuri Suzuki
Pure spin currents, unaccompanied by dissipative charge flow, are essential for realizing energy-efficient nanomagnetic information and communications devices. Thin-film magnetic insulators have been identified as promising materials for spin-current technology, since they are thought to exhibit lower damping compared to their metallic counterparts. However, insulating behavior is not a sufficient requirement for low damping, as evidenced by the very limited options for low-damping insulators. Here, we demonstrate a new class of nanometer-thick ultralow-damping insulating thin films, based on design criteria that minimize orbital angular momentum and structural disorder...
May 24, 2018: Nano Letters
Nestor Gisbert Quilis, Médéric Lequeux, Priyamvada Venugopalan, Imran Khan, Wolfgang Knoll, Souhir Boujday, Marc Lamy de la Chapelle, Jakub Dostalek
The facile preparation of arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles over a square centimeter surface area is reported. The developed method relies on tailored laser interference lithography (LIL) that is combined with dry etching and it offers means for the rapid fabrication of periodic arrays of metallic nanostructures with well controlled morphology. Adjusting the parameters of the LIL process allows for the preparation of arrays of nanoparticles with a diameter below hundred nanometers independently of their lattice spacing...
May 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Luis A Velosa-Moncada, Luz Antonio Aguilera-Cortés, Max A González-Palacios, Jean-Pierre Raskin, Agustin L Herrera-May
Primary tumors of patients can release circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to flow inside of their blood. The CTCs have different mechanical properties in comparison with red and white blood cells, and their detection may be employed to study the efficiency of medical treatments against cancer. We present the design of a novel MEMS microgripper with rotatory electrostatic comb-drive actuators for mechanical properties characterization of cells. The microgripper has a compact structural configuration of four polysilicon layers and a simple performance that control the opening and closing displacements of the microgripper tips...
May 22, 2018: Sensors
Philipp Comanns
Several mechanisms of water acquisition have evolved in animals living in arid habitats to cope with limited water supply. They enable access to water sources such as rain, dew, thermally facilitated condensation on the skin, fog, or moisture from a damp substrate. This Review describes how a significant number of animals - in excess of 39 species from 24 genera - have acquired the ability to passively collect water with their integument. This ability results from chemical and structural properties of the integument, which, in each species, facilitate one or more of six basic mechanisms: increased surface wettability, increased spreading area, transport of water over relatively large distances, accumulation and storage of collected water, condensation, and utilization of gravity...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Julien Farlin, Tom Gallé, Michael Bayerle, Denis Pittois, Stephan Köppchen, Martina Krause, Diana Hofmann
We present the results of a two years study on the contamination of the Luxembourg Sandstone aquifer by metolachlor-ESA and metolachlor-OXA, two major transformation products of s-metolachlor. The aim of the study was twofold: (i) assess whether elevated concentrations of both transformation products (up to 1000 ng/l) were due to fast flow breakthough events of short duration or the signs of a contamination of the entire aquifer and (ii) estimate the time to trend reversal once the parent compound was withdrawn from the market...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Sayantanu Koley, Sabyasachi Sen, Swapan Chakrabarti
Herein we report an unprecedented enhancement of thermoelectric properties of a single walled carbon nanotube upon encapsulation of a zig-zag sulfur chain inside the nanocore. Our calculations on a 70 Å long [5; 5] carbon nanotube reveals that the encapsulation of zig-zag sulfur chain will lead to 107% increase in the thermoelectric gure of merit and concomitant quenching of thermal conductance by 90%. We have noticed that finite transmission gradient at the Fermi level combined with destructive quantum interference at the sulfur sites and structural conformation dependent scattering induced damping of phonon transmission are attributed to the dramatic improvement of thermoelectric behavior of this material...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Elzbieta Kaczmarek, Carl J Hauser, Woon Yong Kwon, Ingred Rica, Li Chen, Nicola Sandler, Leo E Otterbein, Yan Campbell, Charles H Cook, Michael B Yaffe, Michael Marusich, Kiyoshi Itagaki
BACKGROUND: Trauma causes inflammation by releasing mitochondria (MT) that act as DAMPs. Trauma also increases susceptibility to infection. Human MT contain 13 N-formyl peptides (mtFPs). We studied whether mtFPs released into plasma by clinical injury induce neutrophil (PMN) inflammatory responses, whether their potency reflects their similarity to bacterial FPs and how their presence at clinically relevant concentration affects PMN function. METHODS: N-terminal sequences of the 13 mtFPs were synthesized...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Algirdas J Jesaitis, Jeannie Gripentrog, Jovanka M Voyich
N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) is a model PAMP/DAMP driving human PMN to sites of injury/infection utilizing the GPCR, FPR1. We examined a microtiter plate format for measurement of FPR1 phosphorylation in adherent PMN at high densities and found that a new phosphosensitive FPR1 fragment, 25K-FPR1, accumulates in SDS-PAGE extracts. 25K-FPR1 is fully inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate PMN pretreatment but is not physiologic, as its formation failed to be significantly perturbed by ATP depletion, time and temperature of adherence, or adherence mechanism...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Haomin Wang, Le Wang, Devon S Jakob, Xiaoji G Xu
Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) enables nanoscale spectroscopic imaging and has been instrumental for many nano-photonic discoveries and in situ studies. However, conventional s-SNOM techniques with atomic force microscopy tapping mode operation and lock-in detections do not provide direct tomographic information with explicit tip-sample distance. Here, we present a non-traditional s-SNOM technique, named peak force scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (PF-SNOM), by combination of peak force tapping mode and time-gated light detection...
May 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Haixia Huang, Mingxing Zhang, Meng Zhang, Jing Peng, Guiling Li, Congjian Xu, Suiqi Gui
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pinellia pedatisecta Schott extract (PE), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to reduce swelling, dry dampness and suppress cervical tumors. AIMS: To evaluate the roles of PE in the regulation of anti-tumor effects and the cellular immune response in the tumor microenvironment. METHODS: The immune microenvironment of HPV+ TC-1 tumors was examined by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and flow cytometry...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kyle J Schnitzenbaumer, Gordana Dukovic
Surface ligand modification of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals has been widely used as a means of controlling photoexcited state generation, relaxation, and coupling to the environment. While progress has been made in understanding how surface ligand modification affects the behavior of excitonic states, less is known about the influence of surface ligand modification on phonon behavior, which impacts relaxation dynamics and transport phenomena. In this work we compare the dynamics of optical and acoustic phonons in CdTe quantum dots (QDs), CdTe/CdSe core/shell QDs capped with octadecylphosphonic acid ligands, and CdTe QDs capped with Se2- to ascertain how ligand exchange from native aliphatic ligands to single-atom Se2- ligands affects phonon behavior...
May 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Paul A Constable, David Ngo
BACKGROUND: The standing potential of the eye exhibits a slow damped oscillation under light and dark conditions that continues for at least 80 minutes. However, our understanding of the relationship between the slow dark and light oscillation has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to explore through regression analysis a model of these oscillations in order to establish if they may have the same underlying cellular generators. METHODS: Healthy participants undertook recordings of the standing potential using the electro-oculogram for 100 minutes...
May 20, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Serge Grazioli, Jérôme Pugin
Over the recent years, much has been unraveled about the pro-inflammatory properties of various mitochondrial molecules once they are leaving the mitochondrial compartment. On entering the cytoplasm or the extracellular space, mitochondrial DAMPs (also known as mitochondrial alarmins) can become pro-inflammatory and initiate innate and adaptive immune responses by activating cell surface and intracellular receptors. Current evidence indicates that uncontrolled and excessive release of mitochondrial DAMPs is associated with severity, has prognosis value in human diseases, and contributes to the dysregulated process observed in numerous inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, as well as in ischemic heart disease and cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
G J Morales
A numerical study is presented of a free particle interacting with a deterministic thermostat in which the usual friction force is supplemented with a fluctuating force that depends on the self-consistent damping coefficient associated with coupling to the heat bath. It is found that this addition results in a chaotic environment in which a particle self-heats from rest and moves in positive and negative directions, exhibiting a characteristic diffusive behavior. The frequency power spectrum of the dynamical quantities displays the exponential frequency dependence ubiquitous to chaotic dynamics...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
A V Kargovsky, A Yu Chikishev, O A Chichigina
An open system that can be analyzed using the Langevin equation with multiplicative noise is considered. The stationary state of the system results from a balance of deterministic damping and random pumping simulated as noise with controlled periodicity. The dependence of statistical moments of the variable that characterizes the system on parameters of the problem is studied. A nontrivial decrease in the mean value of the main variable with an increase in noise stochasticity is revealed. Applications of the results in several physical, chemical, biological, and technical problems of natural and humanitarian sciences are discussed...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Yuchao Wu, Darshil U Shah, Baoyuan Wang, Ji Liu, Xiaohe Ren, Michael H Ramage, Oren A Scherman
Spider silk is a fascinating material, combining high strength and elasticity that outperforms most synthetic fibers. Another intriguing feature of spider silk is its ability to "supercontract," shrinking up to 50% when exposed to water. This is likely on account of the entropy-driven recoiling of secondary structured proteins when water penetrates the spider silk. In contrast, humidity-driven contraction in synthetic fibers is difficult to achieve. Here, inspired by the spider silk model, a supercontractile fiber (SCF), which contracts up to 50% of its original length at high humidity, comparable to spider silk, is reported...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
Nian-Ke Chen, Xian-Bin Li, Junhyeok Bang, Xue-Peng Wang, Dong Han, Damien West, Shengbai Zhang, Hong-Bo Sun
Time-dependent density-functional theory molecular dynamics reveals an unexpected effect of optical excitation in the experimentally observed rhombohedral-to-cubic transition of GeTe. The excitation induces coherent forces along [001], which may be attributed to the unique energy landscape of Peierls-distorted solids. The forces drive the A_{1g} optical phonon mode in which Ge and Te move out of phase. Upon damping of the A_{1g} mode, phase transition takes place, which involves no atomic diffusion, defect formation, or the nucleation and growth of the cubic phase...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Xiaodong Ge, Elena Arriazu, Fernando Magdaleno, Daniel J Antoine, Rouchelle Dela Cruz, Neil Theise, Natalia Nieto
BACKGROUND & RATIONALE: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) increased in response to liver injury. Since HMGB1 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), we hypothesized that induction of HMGB1 could participate in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis via RAGE cell-specific signaling mechanisms. RESULTS: liver HMGB1 protein expression correlated with fibrosis stage in patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH)...
May 18, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ritwik Mondal, Marco Berritta, Peter Oppeneer
The phenomenological Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation of motion remains as the cornerstone of contemporary magnetisation dynamics studies, wherein the Gilbert damping parameter has been attributed to first-order relativistic effects. To include magnetic inertial effects the LLG equation has previously been extended with a supplemental inertia term and the arising inertial dynamics has been related to second-order relativistic effects. Here we start from the relativistic Dirac equation and, performing a Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, derive a generalised Pauli spin Hamiltonian that contains relativistic correction terms to any higher order...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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