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Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. METHODS: HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory...
October 19, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sa Liu, Yulong Chen, Shiping Xie, Qianlei Xu, Jianshe Chen, Changhai Wang, Zhao Wang, Suna Ma, Xingwei Wu, Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applied in the clinic as a complementary and alternative therapy has helped improve immunity and reduce side effects and symptomatic treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the mechanisms of TCM syndromes are not clear. Transcriptomics enables the study of such TCM syndromes. DESIGN: This study compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of healthy persons and patients with HIV/AIDS who had two common TCM syndromes, qi-yin deficiency and dampness-heat retention, to find the difference in HIV/AIDS with TCM syndromes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Cheng Jiang, Yuanshun Cui, Guibin Chen
We explore theoretically the dynamics of an optomechanical system in which a resonantly driven cavity mode is quadratically coupled to the displacement of a mechanical resonator. Considering the first order correction to adiabatic elimination, we obtain the analytical expression of optomechanical damping rate which is negative and depends on the position of the mechanical resonator. After comparing the numerical results between the full simulation of Langevin equations, adiabatic elimination, and first order correction to adiabatic elimination, we explain the dynamics of the system in terms of overall mechanical potential and optomechanical damping rate...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
A A Baker, A I Figueroa, D Pingstone, V K Lazarov, G van der Laan, T Hesjedal
We present a study of the interaction mechanisms in magnetic trilayer structures with an MgO barrier grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The interlayer exchange coupling, Aex, is determined using SQUID magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), displaying an unexpected oscillatory behaviour as the thickness, tMgO, is increased from 1 to 4 nm. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the continuity and quality of the tunnelling barrier, eliminating the prospect of exchange arising from direct contact between the two ferromagnetic layers...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Olga Borovkova, Andrey Kalish, Vladimir Belotelov
We propose a novel method to enhance the transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect (TMOKE) in the magneto-plasmonic (MP) nanostructures by means of the active dielectric layer. We report the theoretical analysis of the MP structure with a ferromagnetic dielectric doped with rear-earth ions (Nd<sup>3+</sup>) as the example of a gain layer. The enhancement takes place near the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonances of the nanostructures. The stimulated emission of the dopants in the field of the SPP wave partially compensates its losses...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Tetsuo Nakayama
The humoral and cellular immune responses of adaptive immunity are induced following immunization with effective vaccines. They induce functional cytokines and chemokines through the binding of vaccine components or adjuvants to innate immune receptors. Alum-adjuvanted vaccines induce local inflammatory nodules at injection sites, and the systemic and local production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, has been reported to occur three hours after vaccinations. Furthermore, G-CSF levels increase at injection sites...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
Jennifer Gamboa Jackman, Hemraj Juwarker, Luke P Poveromo, Howard Levinson, Kam W Leong, Bruce A Sullenger
Dying cells release nucleic acids (NA) and NA-containing complexes that activate inflammatory pathways of immune cells. Sustained activation of these pathways contributes to chronic inflammation frequently encountered in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this study, grafting of cationic polymers onto a nanofibrous mesh enabled local scavenging of negatively charged pro-inflammatory molecules in the extracellular space. Nucleic acid scavenging nanofibers (NASFs) formed from poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) conjugated with 1...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Xi Fu, Torsten Lindgren, Gunilla Wieslander, Christer Janson, Dan Norbäck
The aim was to study associations between work and home environment and prevalence and incidence of respiratory health and a history of atopy in a 3-y cohort of commercial pilots. A questionnaire was mailed in 1997 to all pilots in a Scandinavian airline company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. The same questionnaire was sent to the participants 3 years later, 436 participated (76%). There were questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, allergies, the cabin environment, psychosocial environment and the home environment...
2016: PloS One
Janet M Macher, Mark J Mendell, Wenhao Chen, Kazukiyo Kumagai
Subjective indicators of building dampness consistently have been linked to health, but they are, at best, semi-quantitative, and objective and quantitative assessments of dampness are also needed to study dampness-related health effects. Investigators can readily and non-destructively measure the "moisture content" of building materials with hand-held moisture meters. However, moisture content does not indicate the amount of the water in a material that is available to microorganisms for growth, i.e., the "water activity...
October 14, 2016: Indoor Air
Anoosheh Yazdi, Matthias Sperl
We consider a two-dimensional model system of Brownian particles in which slow particles are accelerated while fast particles are damped. The motion of the individual particles is described by a Langevin equation with Rayleigh-Helmholtz velocity-dependent friction. In the case of noninteracting particles, the time evolution equations lead to a non-Gaussian velocity distribution. The velocity-dependent friction allows negative values of the friction or energy intakes by slow particles, which we consider active motion, and also causes breaking of the fluctuation dissipation relation...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Itay Grinberg, Oleg V Gendelman
We explore the dynamics of strongly localized periodic solutions (discrete solitons or discrete breathers) in a finite one-dimensional chain of oscillators. Localization patterns with both single and multiple localization sites (breathers and multibreathers) are considered. The model involves parabolic on-site potential with rigid constraints (the displacement domain of each particle is finite) and a linear nearest-neighbor coupling. When the particle approaches the constraint, it undergoes an inelastic impact according to Newton's impact model...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Rahul Krishnan, David Ko, Clarence E Foster, Wendy Liu, A M Smink, Bart de Haan, Paul De Vos, Jonathan R T Lakey
Transplantation of alginate-encapsulated islets has the potential to treat patients suffering from type I diabetes, a condition characterized by an autoimmune attack against insulin-secreting beta cells. However, there are multiple immunological challenges associated with this procedure, all of which must be adequately addressed prior to translation from trials in small animal and nonhuman primate models to human clinical trials. Principal threats to graft viability include immune-mediated destruction triggered by immunogenic alginate impurities, unfavorable polymer composition and surface characteristics, and release of membrane-permeable antigens, as well as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by the encapsulated islets themselves...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bonnie Janzen, Chandima Karunanayake, Donna Rennie, William Pickett, Joshua Lawson, Shelley Kirychuk, Louise Hagel, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Niels Koehncke, James Dosman, Punam Pahwa
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the association of individual and contextual exposures with lung function by gender in rural-dwelling Canadians. METHODS: A cross-sectional mail survey obtained completed questionnaires on exposures from 8263 individuals; a sub-sample of 1609 individuals (762 men, 847 women) additionally participated in clinical lung function testing. The three dependent variables were forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio...
October 13, 2016: Lung
Zahra Nourmohammadi, Surabhi Joshi, Srikar Vengallatore
The linear theory of thermoelastic damping (TED) has been extensively developed over the past eight decades, but relatively little is known about the different types of nonlinearities that are associated with this fundamental mechanism of material damping. Here, we initiate the study of a dissipative nonlinearity (also called thermomechanical nonlinearity) whose origins reside at the heart of the thermomechanical coupling that gives rise to TED. The finite difference method is used to solve the nonlinear governing equation and estimate nonlinear TED in Euler-Bernoulli beams...
2016: PloS One
Nai-Yun Hsu, Yu-Chun Liu, Chia-Wei Lee, Ching-Chang Lee, Huey-Jen Su
Water damage and moisture in buildings may become more prevalent due to the increasing frequency of extreme precipitation and flooding events resulting from climate change. However, the effects of moisture levels on phthalate emissions from building materials are still underreported. This study aims to evaluate the effect of moisture content (MC) on the level of di-(2ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) emitted from plastic wallpaper (0.22wt% DEHP) within 15 days in a closed chamber. A scenario of short-term exposure to DEHP in buildings suffering from water damage was simulated...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Research
Adama Creppy, Franck Plouraboué, Olivier Praud, Xavier Druart, Sébastien Cazin, Hui Yu, Pierre Degond
New experimental evidence of self-motion of a confined active suspension is presented. Depositing fresh semen sample in an annular shaped microfluidic chip leads to a spontaneous vortex state of the fluid at sufficiently large sperm concentration. The rotation occurs unpredictably clockwise or counterclockwise and is robust and stable. Furthermore, for highly active and concentrated semen, richer dynamics can occur such as self-sustained or damped rotation oscillations. Experimental results obtained with systematic dilution provide a clear evidence of a phase transition towards collective motion associated with local alignment of spermatozoa akin to the Vicsek model...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Chunya Ni, Marie-Sophie Narzt, Ionela-Mariana Nagelreiter, Cheng Feng Zhang, Lionel Larue, Heidemarie Rossiter, Johannes Grillari, Erwin Tschachler, Florian Gruber
Autophagy is a recycling program which allows cells to adapt to metabolic needs and to stress. Defects in autophagy can affect metabolism, aging, proteostasis and inflammation. Autophagy pathway genes, including autophagy related 7 (Atg7), have been associated with the regulation of skin pigmentation, and autophagy defects disturb the biogenesis and transport of melanosomes in melanocytes as well as transfer and processing of melanin into keratinocytes. We have previously shown that mice whose melanocytes or keratinocytes lack Atg7 (and thus autophagy) as a result of specific gene knockout still retained functioning melanosome synthesis and transfer, and displayed only moderate reduction of pigmentation...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Bolin Liao, A A Maznev, Keith A Nelson, Gang Chen
There is a growing interest in the mode-by-mode understanding of electron and phonon transport for improving energy conversion technologies, such as thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Whereas remarkable progress has been made in probing phonon-phonon interactions, it has been a challenge to directly measure electron-phonon interactions at the single-mode level, especially their effect on phonon transport above cryogenic temperatures. Here we use three-pulse photoacoustic spectroscopy to investigate the damping of a single sub-terahertz coherent phonon mode by free charge carriers in silicon at room temperature...
October 12, 2016: Nature Communications
Thomas A Kufer, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti
NOD-like receptor (NLR) proteins, as much as Toll-like receptor proteins, play a major role in modulating myeloid cells in their immune functions. There is still, however, limited knowledge on the expression and function of several of the mammalian NLR proteins in myeloid lineages. Still, the function of pyrin domain-containing NLR proteins and NLRC4/NAIP as inflammasome components that drive interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 maturation and secretion upon pathogen stimulation is well established. NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, and NLRC4/NAIP act as bona fide pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) but also react to endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Joshua B Bostwick, Paul H Steen
A partially-wetting sessile drop is driven by a sinusoidal pressure field that produces capillary waves on the liquid/gas interface. Response diagrams and phase shifts for the droplet, whose contact-line moves with contact-angle that is a smooth function of the contact line speed, are reported. Contact-line dissipation originating from the contact-line speed condition leads to damping for drops with finite contact-line mobility, even for inviscid fluids. The critical mobility and associated driving frequency to generate the largest contact-line dissipation is computed...
October 10, 2016: Soft Matter
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