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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341515/the-uptake-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-in-irish-schools-the-impact-of-disadvantage
#1
C Migone, T Barrett, S Cotter, A Clarke, B Corcoran
HPV vaccine Gardasil© is offered to girls in first year of secondary school in Ireland. We aimed to determine the association between HPV vaccine uptake among girls for academic year 2013/2014, by school and school characteristics: socioeconomic disadvantage and religious ethos. The National Schools Immunisation System (SIS) was searched to determine HPV vaccine uptake in schools for 2013/2014 (prior to recent anti-HPV vaccine publicity). The disadvantaged status and ethos of each school was added to the report...
August 8, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341430/tuberculosis-vaccines-opportunities-and-challenges
#2
REVIEW
Bingdong Zhu, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Thomas G Evans, Ying Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease around the world. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine licensed for use in human beings, and is effective in protecting infants and children against severe miliary and meningeal TB. However, BCG's protective efficacy is variable in adults. Novel TB vaccine candidates being developed include whole-cell vaccines (recombinant BCG (rBCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, killed M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium vaccae), adjuvanted protein subunit vaccines, viral vector-delivered subunit vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines, RNA-based vaccines etc...
January 17, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340893/a-prospective-study-of-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-hepatitis-b-vaccination-in-habitual-marijuana-smokers
#3
Sylvia M Kiertscher, Pallavi R Gangalum, Grace Ibrahim, Donald P Tashkin, Michael D Roth
Exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vitro and in animal models can significantly impair the differentiation, activation and function of dendritic cells, T cells and B cells. However, studies directly assessing the impact of marijuana smoking on human immunity are lacking. A prospective study of immune responses to a standard hepatitis B vaccination was therefore carried out in a matched cohort of 9 marijuana smokers (MS) and 9 nonsmokers (NS). In addition to their regular marijuana use, MS smoked four marijuana cigarettes in a monitored setting on the day of each vaccination...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340212/40-years-without-smallpox
#4
G A Shchelkunova, S N Shchelkunov
The last case of natural smallpox was recorded in October, 1977. It took humanity almost 20 years to achieve that feat after the World Health Organization had approved the global smallpox eradication program. Vaccination against smallpox was abolished, and, during the past 40 years, the human population has managed to lose immunity not only to smallpox, but to other zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections as well. As a result, multiple outbreaks of orthopoxvirus infections in humans in several continents have been reported over the past decades...
October 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339972/evaluation-of-green-tea-extract-as-a-safe-personal-hygiene-against-viral-infections
#5
Yun Ha Lee, Yo Han Jang, Young-Seok Kim, Jinku Kim, Baik Lin Seong
Background: Viral infections often pose tremendous public health concerns as well as economic burdens. Despite the availability of vaccines or antiviral drugs, personal hygiene is considered as effective means as the first-hand measure against viral infections. The green tea catechins, in particular, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are known to exert potent antiviral activity. In this study, we evaluated the green tea extract as a safe personal hygiene against viral infections. Results: Using the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) as a model, we examined the duration of the viral inactivating activity of green tea extract (GTE) under prolonged storage at various temperature conditions...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339750/a-single-dose-of-modified-vaccinia-ankara-expressing-ebola-virus-like-particles-protects-nonhuman-primates-from-lethal-ebola-virus-challenge
#6
Arban Domi, Friederike Feldmann, Rahul Basu, Nathanael McCurley, Kyle Shifflett, Jackson Emanuel, Michael S Hellerstein, Farshad Guirakhoo, Chiara Orlandi, Robin Flinko, George K Lewis, Patrick W Hanley, Heinz Feldmann, Harriet L Robinson, Andrea Marzi
Ebola virus (EBOV), isolate Makona, was the causative agent of the West African epidemic devastating predominantly Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone from 2013-2016. While several experimental vaccine and treatment approaches have been accelerated through human clinical trials, there is still no approved countermeasure available against this disease. Here, we report the construction and preclinical efficacy testing of a novel recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine expressing the EBOV-Makona glycoprotein GP and matrix protein VP40 (MVA-EBOV)...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339428/mucosal-infections-and-invasive-potential-of-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-are-enhanced-by-oligopeptide-binding-proteins-alic-and-alid
#7
Jessica L Bradshaw, Haley R Pipkins, Lance E Keller, James K Pendarvis, Larry S McDaniel
Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp) is an emerging human pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx and is associated with noninvasive diseases such as otitis media (OM), conjunctivitis, and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Since capsule expression was previously thought to be necessary for establishment of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype-specific polysaccharide capsules are targeted by currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines. Yet, NESp expressing oligopeptide binding proteins AliC and AliD have been isolated during IPD...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339060/quantification-of-a-recombinant-antigen-in-an-immuno-stimulatory-whole-yeast-cell-based-therapeutic-vaccine
#8
Jenny Wang, Daniel Stenzel, Ally Liu, Dengfeng Liu, Darren Brown, Alexandre Ambrogelly
Therapeutic vaccines represent an emerging class of immune-modulatory treatments for cancer, infections, and chronic diseases. One such vaccine was designed as an immune stimulator of the T cell response against HBV antigens to eliminate HBV infected cells and offer a therapeutic avenue to treat patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B infection. Whole deactivated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing a recombinant fusion of HBV X, S and Core antigens elicit T cell responses in mice and activate human T cells linked with viral clearance...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338608/immunotherapy-of-cancer-targeting-cancer-during-active-disease-or-during-dormancy
#9
Syed Ammer Shah, Melika Zarei, Saeed H Manjili, Georgi Guruli, Xiang-Yang Wang, Masoud H Manjili
Immunotherapeutic targeting of advanced stage cancers has prolonged the survival of cancer patients, yet its curative efficacy is limited due to tumor immunoediting and escape. On the other hand, human vaccines have been able to eradicate smallpox and control several other infectious diseases. The success has resulted from the administration of vaccines in prophylactic settings, or during latency periods in order to protect an individual during future exposure to the disease rather than curing an established disease...
September 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338001/modelling-the-large-scale-yellow-fever-outbreak-in-luanda-angola-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#10
Shi Zhao, Lewi Stone, Daozhou Gao, Daihai He
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF), transmitted via bites of infected mosquitoes, is a life-threatening viral disease endemic to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. YF has largely been controlled by widespread national vaccination campaigns. Nevertheless, between December 2015 and August 2016, YF resurged in Angola, quickly spread and becoming the largest YF outbreak for the last 30 years. Recently, YF resurged again in Brazil (December 2016). Thus, there is an urgent need to gain better understanding of the transmission pattern of YF...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337870/glioblastoma-under-siege-an-overview-of-current-therapeutic-strategies
#11
REVIEW
Mayra Paolillo, Cinzia Boselli, Sergio Schinelli
Glioblastoma is known to be one of the most lethal and untreatable human tumors. Surgery and radiotherapy in combination with classical alkylating agents such as temozolomide offer little hope to escape a poor prognosis. For these reasons, enormous efforts are currently devoted to refine in vivo and in vitro models with the specific goal of finding new molecular aberrant pathways, suitable to be targeted by a variety of therapeutic approaches, including novel pharmaceutical formulations and immunotherapy strategies...
January 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337666/tuning-of-in-vivo-cognate-b-t-cell-interactions-by-intersectin-2-is-required-for-effective-anti-viral-b-cell-immunity
#12
Marianne Burbage, Francesca Gasparrini, Shweta Aggarwal, Mauro Gaya, Johan Arnold, Usha Nair, Michael Way, Andreas Bruckbauer, Facundo D Batista
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an immune pathology associated with mutations in WAS protein (WASp) or in WASp interacting protein (WIP). Together with the small GTPase Cdc42 and other effectors, these proteins participate in the remodelling of the actin network downstream of BCR engagement. Here we show that mice lacking the adaptor protein ITSN2, a G-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42 that also interacts with WASp and WIP, exhibited increased mortality during primary infection, incomplete protection after Flu vaccination, reduced germinal centre formation and impaired antibody responses to vaccination...
January 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337653/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-meningococcal-b-recombinant-vaccine-when-administered-with-routine-vaccines-to-healthy-infants-in-taiwan-a-phase-3-open-label-randomized-study
#13
Nan-Chang Chiu, Li-Min Huang, Arnold Willemsen, Chiranjiwi Bhusal, Ashwani Kumar Arora, Zenaida Reynoso Mojares, Daniela Toneatto
Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high mortality and morbidity in infants and children worldwide. This phase 3 study (NCT02173704) evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a 4-component serogroup B recombinant meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) co-administered with routine vaccines in Taiwanese infants. In total, 225 healthy infants were randomized (2:1) to receive 4CMenB and routine vaccines (4CMenB+Routine) or routine vaccines only (Routine group) at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Routine vaccines were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b, 13-valent pneumococcal, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337615/efficacy-of-massachusetts-and-793b-vaccines-against-infectious-bronchitis-moroccan-italy-02-virus-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-and-commercial-broilers
#14
Sakhia F Z Belkasmi, Siham Fellahi, Sajid Umar, Mattias Delpont, Maxence Delverdier, Marie-Noëlle Lucas, Céline Bleuart, Faouzi Kichou, Saâdia Nassik, Jean-Luc Guerin, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri, Mariette F Ducatez, Mohammed El Houadfi
The ability of commercial vaccines H120 and 4/91 to protect against Moroccan-Italy 02 infectious bronchitis virus (Mor-It02) was investigated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and commercial broiler chickens. Commercial broiler chicks (Experiment 1) were vaccinated at the hatchery with H120 vaccine at Day 1, and challenged at Day 21 with 104 50% egg-infective dose (EID50) of Mor-It02. All chicks were observed daily for clinical signs attributable to Mor-It02 infection during the 10 days postchallenge (pc)...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336985/the-blacklegged-tick-ixodes-scapularis-an-increasing-public-health-concern
#15
REVIEW
Rebecca J Eisen, Lars Eisen
In the United States, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is a vector of seven human pathogens, including those causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, Borrelia miyamotoi disease, Powassan virus disease, and ehrlichiosis associated with Ehrlichia muris eauclarensis. In addition to an accelerated rate of discovery of I. scapularis-borne pathogens over the past two decades, the geographic range of the tick, and incidence and range of I. scapularis-borne disease cases, have increased. Despite knowledge of when and where humans are most at risk of exposure to infected ticks, control of I...
January 11, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336951/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-against-chikungunya-virus-of-novel-small-molecule-antiviral-agents
#16
Roberta Tardugno, Gilda Giancotti, Tine De Burghgraeve, Leen Delang, Johan Neyts, Pieter Leyssen, Andrea Brancale, Marcella Bassetto
Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, responsible for an acute flu-like illness associated with debilitating arthralgia, which can persist for several months or become chronic. In recent years, this viral infection has spread worldwide with a previously unknown virulence. To date, no specific antivirals treatments nor vaccines are available against this important pathogen. Starting from the structures of two antiviral hits previously identified in our research group with in silico techniques, this work describes the design and preparation of 31 novel structural analogues, with which different pharmacophoric features of the two hits have been explored and correlated with the inhibition of Chikungunya virus replication in cells...
January 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336697/understanding-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-toward-west-nile-virus-prevention-a-survey-of-high-risk-adults-in-maryland
#17
Kimberly C Mitchell, Patricia Ryan, Donna E Howard, Katherine A Feldman
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward West Nile virus (WNV) prevention among Maryland adults ≥60 years old who are at increased risk of severe WNV disease utilizing the health belief model. METHODS: Using a stratified random sample of households from zip codes with ≥2 human WNV cases, we conducted a telephone survey of 211 Maryland adults ≥60 years old between October and December 2012. RESULTS: Participants expressing worry about WNV were over thrice more likely to use insect repellent in the prior 90 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336241/generation-of-the-fluorescent-hpv16-e7-protein-for-detection-of-delivery-in-vitro
#18
Sepideh Shahbazi, Azam Bolhassani, Arash Arashkia, Esmaeil Sadroddiny
Immunotherapies targeting the human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenic proteins, E6 and E7, are effective to treat HPV-associated cervical malignancies. In this study, two types of the fusion E7-GFP proteins (i.e., with or without linker) were expressed in different E. coli strains. Then, the efficiency of GFP and E7-GFP transfection was compared with FITC-antibody protein control using TurboFect reagent in the HEK-293T cell line. Our data indicated that both E7-GFP fusion proteins were efficiently produced in M15 E...
January 15, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335595/mapping-the-epidemic-changes-and-risks-of-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome-in-shaanxi-province-china-2005-2016
#19
Weifeng Liang, Xu Gu, Xue Li, Kangjun Zhang, Kejian Wu, Miaomiao Pang, Jianhua Dong, Hunter R Merrill, Tao Hu, Kun Liu, Zhongjun Shao, Hong Yan
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a major rodent-borne zoonosis. Each year worldwide, 60,000-100,000 HFRS human cases are reported in more than seventy countries with almost 90% these cases occurring in China. Shaanxi Province in China has been among the most seriously affected areas since 1955. During 2009-2013, Shaanxi reported 11,400 human cases, the most of all provinces in China. Furthermore, the epidemiological features of HFRS have changed over time. Using long-term data of HFRS from 2005 to 2016, we carried out this retrospective epidemiological study combining ecological assessment models in Shaanxi...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335156/adapting-cervical-cancer-screening-for-women-vaccinated-against-human-papillomavirus-infections-the-value-of-stratifying-guidelines
#20
Kine Pedersen, Emily A Burger, Mari Nygård, Ivar S Kristiansen, Jane J Kim
BACKGROUND: Several countries have implemented vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) for adolescent girls and must decide whether and how to adapt cervical cancer (CC) screening for these low-risk women. We aimed to identify the optimal screening strategies for women vaccinated against HPV infections and quantify the amount that could be spent to identify vaccination status among women and stratify CC screening guidelines accordingly. METHODS: We used a mathematical model reflecting HPV-induced CC in Norway to project the long-term health benefits, resources and costs associated with 74 candidate-screening strategies that varied by screening test, start age and frequency...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
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