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Human vaccine

A Porzia, C Cavaliere, E Begvarfaj, S Masieri, F Mainiero
The mucosal immune system located in correspondence to the olfactory organs in adult humans is not well identifiable but has proven important in establishing an effective immune response against inhaled antigens, including the generation of Helper 1 (TH1)- and TH2-cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells. It is constituted by a diffused network of cells of epithelial and immune origin, as well as organized lymphoid tissue, where each component has a role in the initiation and maintenance of a long-lasting immune response, which is evoked not only in the oral and nasal cavities but also in the respiratory, intestinal and genito-urinary tracts...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Olivia Falconer, Marie-Louise Newell, Christine E Jones
The success of prevention of mother to child transmission programs over the last two decades has led to an increasing number of infants who are exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but who are not themselves infected (HIV-exposed, uninfected infants). Although the morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants is considerably lower than that among HIV-infected infants, they may remain at increased risk of infections in the first 2 years of life compared with their HIV-unexposed peers, especially in the absence of breastfeeding...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Stephanie Ascough, Suzanna Paterson, Christopher Chiu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lucine Vuitton, Elise Jacquin, Anne-Laure Parmentier, Elise Crochet, Francine Fein, Anne-Claire Dupont-Gossart, Laurianne Plastaras, Charles-Henri Bretagne, Frédéric Mauny, Stéphane Koch, Jean-Luc Prétet, Christiane Mougin, Séverine Valmary-Degano
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increasing incidence of anal canal carcinomas requires better knowledge on anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We aimed to assess anal canal HPV infection prevalence and risk factors among patients seen at a gastroenterology department in France. METHODS: We analyzed anal tissue samples collected from 469 consecutive patients (median age 54 years, 52% women), including 112 who received immunosuppressant therapies and 101 with inflammatory bowel disease (70 with Crohn's disease), who underwent colonoscopy examinations from April 1, 2012 to April 30, 2015...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Aaron Atkinson, Courtney Studwell, Suyapa Bejarano, Ana Marcela Zapata Castellón, Jorge Arturo Plata Espinal, Sophie Deharvengt, Ethan P M LaRochelle, Linda S Kennedy, Gregory J Tsongalis
Cervical cancer rates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are higher than in developed countries and account for 80% of an estimated 500,000 new cases annually. Factors that contribute to this are that diagnostic and prevention strategies designed for developed countries suffer from the combination of low vaccination rates and limitations due to lack of consistent access to both healthcare and supplies. Here we: 1) improve upon our LMIC deployable HPV test and 2) determine both the high and low-risk HPV genotype prevalence in an isolated Honduran population...
March 15, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Smita Joshi, Richard Muwonge, Pulikottil Okkuru Esmy, Partha Basu, Priya Prabhu, Neerja Bhatla, Bhagwan M Nene, Janmesh Shaw, Usha Rani Reddy Poli, Yogesh Verma, Eric Zomawia, Sharmila Pimple, Massimo Tommasino, Michael Pawlita, Tarik Gheit, Tim Waterboer, Peter Sehr, Madhavan Radhakrishna Pillai
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is a major strategy for preventing cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Worldwide HPV vaccination introduction and coverage will be facilitated if a single dose of vaccine is as effective as two or three doses or demonstrates significant protective effect compared to 'no vaccination'. METHODS: In a multi-centre cluster randomized trial of two vs three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccination (GARDASIL©) in India, suspension of the vaccination due to events unrelated to the study led to per protocol and partial vaccination of unmarried 10-18 year old girls leading to four study groups, two by design and two by default...
March 15, 2018: Vaccine
Bryan Charleston, Simon P Graham
The deployment of effective veterinary vaccines has had a major impact on improving food security and consequently human health. Effective vaccines were essential for the global eradication of Rinderpest and the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in some regions of the world. Effective vaccines also underpin the development of modern intensive food production systems such as poultry and aquaculture. However, for some high consequence diseases there are still significant challenges to develop effective vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Ying Feng, Xikui Sun, Xianmiao Ye, Yupeng Feng, Jinlin Wang, Xuehua Zheng, Xinglong Liu, Changhua Yi, Mingli Hao, Qian Wang, Feng Li, Wei Xu, Liang Li, Chufang Li, Rong Zhou, Ling Chen, Liqiang Feng
Re-emerging human adenoviruses type 14 (HAdV14) and 55 (HAdV55) represent two highly virulent adenoviruses. The neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses elicited by infection or immunization remain largely unknown. Herein, we generated hexon-chimeric HAdV14 viruses harboring each single or entire hexon hyper-variable-regions (HVR) from HAdV55, and determined the neutralizing epitopes of human and mouse nAbs. In human sera, hexon-targeting nAbs are type-specific and mainly recognize HVR2, 5, and 7. Fiber-targeting nAbs are only detectable in sera cross-neutralizing HAdV14 and HAdV55 and contribute substantially to cross-neutralization...
March 15, 2018: Virology
Jie Yu, Yaoming Li, Maohua Zhong, Jingyi Yang, Dihan Zhou, Bali Zhao, Yuan Cao, Hu Yan, Ejuan Zhang, Yi Yang, Zhengshan Feng, Xiuwen Qi, Huimin Yan
The development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine is still a global priority. In recent years, vaccinia virus (VV) has been widely used as an HIV-1 vaccine vector, but its immune efficacy against HIV-1 antigens needs to be optimized. The extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) of VV is capable of faster entry, earlier release, and long-range dissemination. We hypothesized that an improvement in EEV formation by the manipulation of VV genes involved in the EEV release would consequently cause an improved expression of the VV carrying HIV-1 Env antigen and a subsequent enhanced immune response...
March 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
Cuiming Zhu, Hui Lin, Lingli Tang, Jianlin Chen, Yimou Wu, Guangming Zhong
Although Chlamydia has been frequently detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both humans and animals, it is not associated with any gastrointestinal pathology. We have recently shown that gastrointestinal Chlamydiamuridarum is not only non-pathogenic but also induces protective immunity in the genital tract. We now report that the transmucosal immunity induced by a single oral immunization with C.muridarum protected the mouse airway from a subsequent challenge infection. The oral immunization significantly reduced chlamydial burden in the airway as early as day 3 after intranasal challenge...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Brianne J Lindsay, Michal M Bonar, Ian N Costas-Cancelas, Kristin Hunt, Alexander I Makarkov, Sabrina Chierzi, Connie M Krawczyk, Nathalie Landry, Brian J Ward, Isabelle Rouiller
Plant-made virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that display wild-type influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are rapidly advancing through clinical trials. Produced by transient transfection of Nicotiana benthamiana, these novel vaccines are unusually immunogenic, eliciting both humoral and cellular responses. Here, we directly visualized VLPs bearing either HA trimers derived from strains A/California/7/2009 or A/Indonesia/5/05 using cryo-electron microscopy and determined the 3D organization of the VLPs using cryo-electron tomography...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Konrad Sachse, Kh Shamsur Rahman, Christiane Schnee, Elke Müller, Madlen Peisker, Thomas Schumacher, Evelyn Schubert, Anke Ruettger, Bernhard Kaltenboeck, Ralf Ehricht
Serological analysis of Chlamydia (C.) spp. infections is still mainly based on micro-immunofluorescence and ELISA. To overcome the limitations of conventional serology, we have designed a novel microarray carrying 52 synthetic peptides representing B-cell epitopes from immunodominant proteins of all 11 chlamydial species. The new assay has been validated using monospecific mouse hyperimmune sera. Subsequently, serum samples from cattle, sheep and humans with a known history of chlamydial infection were examined...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Manuel Martínez-Lavín
Independent investigators have described the onset of a chronic painful dysautonomic syndrome soon after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The veracity of this syndrome is hotly debated. Many of the reported post-HPV vaccination cases fullfill fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. This article discusses the arguments favoring the existence of a syndrome associated to HPV vaccination. We propose that fibromyalgia dysautonomic-neuropathic model could help in the diagnostic and therapeutic process in those patients in whom the onset of a painful chronic illness began after HPV immunization...
March 13, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
Cynthia Chapel, Nathalie Rocher-Hélion, Nathalie Mantel, Sandy Imbert, Eric Deshaies, Véronique Barban, Alain Sabouraud, Jean-Philippe Barbe, Laurent Mallet
Absence of 'live' residual poliovirus in Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV) is routinely checked using Primary Monkey Kidney Cells (PMKC). However, the increasing demand for IPV and the ethical, technical and safety issues associated with the use of non-human primates in research and quality control, has made the replacement of primary cells with an established cell line a priority, in line with the principles of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement in animal testing). As an alternative to PMKC, we evaluated the L20B cell line; a mouse cell-line genetically engineered to express human poliovirus receptor, CD155...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Morteza Abkar, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Hamid Kooshki, Abbas Sahebghadam Lotfi
Brucella (B) species are brucellosis causative agents, a worldwide zoonotic illness causing Malta fever in humans and abortion in domestic animals. In this work, we evaluated the vaccine potential of Trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles formulation of Urease (TMC/Urease) against brucellosis. TMC/Urease nanoparticles and urease without any adjuvant were separately administered both orally and intraperitoneally. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of urease alone as well as oral administration of both TMC/Urease and urease alone, elicited low titers of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), while i...
March 13, 2018: Immunology Letters
Sarah M Tete, Åsne Jul-Larsen, Sina Rostami, Turid Helen Felli Lunde, Hanne Søland, Florian Krammer, Rebecca J Cox
The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) virus had a highly divergent hemagglutinin (HA) compared to pre-2009 seasonal H1N1 strains. Most peoples were immunologically naïve to the A(H1N1)pdm09, although hospital workers were exposed early in the pandemic before pandemic vaccines became available. Here, we evaluated how pre-existing antibodies influence the induction of cross-functional HA stalk antibodies following A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. Fifty-six healthcare workers vaccinated with AS03 adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine were chosen by their pre-vaccination priming status (primed HI titers ≥ 40 or unprimed < 40)...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Tiantian Liu, Zhichao Zhou, Xingui Tian, Wenkuan Liu, Duo Xu, Ye Fan, Jiayi Liao, Shujun Gu, Xiao Li, Rong Zhou
Human adenoviruses types 3 (HAdV-3), 7 (HAdV-7) and 55 (HAdV-55) are major pathogens of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children and adults. More than one type of HAdV can infect patients simultaneously, and the infections are sometimes fatal. However, there is currently no vaccine approved for general use in children and adults. Thus, development of a multivalent HAdV vaccine to combat HAdV infection becomes imperative. In this study, we constructed a new recombinant trivalent human adenovirus vaccine (rAdMHE3-h55), which expresses the hexon protein of HAdV-55 in the E3 region of rAdMHE3, a previously prepared bivalent vaccine candidate against HAdV-3 and HAdV-7...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Kostantinos Kiakos, Bernhard Englinger, Stephanie K Yanow, Debora Wernitznig, Michael A Jakupec, Walter Berger, Bernhard K Keppler, John A Hartley, Moses Lee, Pravin C Patil
HxTfA 4 is a fluorescent analog of a potent cytotoxic and antimalarial agent, TfA 3, which is currently being investigated for the development of an antimalarial vaccine, PlasProtect®. HxTfA contains a p-anisylbenzimidazole or Hx moiety, which is endowed with a blue emission upon excitation at 318 nm; thus enabling it to be used as a surrogate for probing the cellular fate of TfA using confocal microscopy, and addressing the question of nuclear localization. HxTfA exhibits similar selectivity to TfA for A-tract sequences of DNA, alkylating adenine-N3, albeit at 10-fold higher concentrations...
March 5, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ann-Kristin Niewald, Carina Oedingen, Oliver Razum
BACKGROUND: In 2006, the first human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was licensed in Europe and in 2007 it was included in the service catalogue of the statutory health insurance. The HPV vaccine led to a controversy in public and print media even before it was licensed. We evaluated the quality of the newspaper coverage of the HPV vaccine during the controversy in Germany. METHODS: The LexisNexis print media database was scanned for health journalism articles on HPV in 4 high-circulation national newspapers and 4 magazines using pre-defined search terms for the period 2006-2009...
March 16, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
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