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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911254/neutralizing-and-enhancing-antibody-responses-to-five-genotypes-of-dengue-virus-type-1-denv-1-in-denv-1-patients
#1
Atsushi Yamanaka, Meng Ling Moi, Tomohiko Takasaki, Ichiro Kurane, Eiji Konishi
Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes, DENV-1-4, with 4-6 genotypes in each serotype. The World Health Organization recommends tetravalent formulations including one genotype of each serotype as safe and effective dengue vaccines. Here, we investigated the impact of genotype on the neutralizing antibody responses to DENV-1 in humans. Convalescent sera collected from patients with primary infection of DENV-1 were examined for neutralizing antibody against single-round infectious particles of the five DENV-1 genotypes (GI-GV)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911041/impact-of-rabies-vaccination-history-on-attainment-of-an-adequate-antibody-titre-among-dogs-tested-for-international-travel-certification-israel-2010-2014
#2
B Yakobson, N Taylor, N Dveres, S Rotblat, Ż Spero, E W Lankau, J Maki
Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs seeking travel certification in Israel to assess demographic and vaccine history factors associated with antibody titres below the acceptable threshold for travel certification...
December 2, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910798/a-qualitative-study-of-women-who-experience-side-effects-from-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#3
Tina Sørensen, Pernille Tanggaard Andersen
INTRODUCTION: In Denmark, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is offered to girls and women to prevent cervical cancer. Unfortunately, reporting of possible side effects from vaccination has increased in recent years. Therefore, the present study examine women's experiences of side effects from the HPV vaccine. METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with eight HPV-vaccinated Danish women, aged 25-44 years, who experienced side effects from the vaccine...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910264/vaccination-against-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-reduces-bronchus-associated-lymphoid-tissue-formation-in-cynomolgus-macaques-after-intranasal-virus-challenge-infection
#4
Misako Nakayama, Hiroichi Ozaki, Yasushi Itoh, Kosuke Soda, Hirohito Ishigaki, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Chun-Ho Park, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara
H9N2 avian influenza virus causes sporadic human infection. Since humans do not possess acquired immunity specific to this virus, we examined the pathogenicity of an H9N2 virus isolated from a human and then analyzed protective effects of a vaccine in cynomolgus macaques. After intranasal challenge with A/Hong Kong/1073/1999 (H9N2) (HK1073) isolated from a human patient, viruses were isolated from nasal and tracheal swabs in unvaccinated macaques with mild fever and body weight loss. A formalin-inactivated H9N2 whole particle vaccine derived from our virus library was subcutaneously inoculated to macaques...
December 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909576/zika-antiviral-chemotherapy-identification-of-drugs-and-promising-starting-points-for-drug-discovery-from-an-fda-approved-library
#5
Bruno S Pascoalino, Gilles Courtemanche, Marli T Cordeiro, Laura H V G Gil, Lucio Freitas-Junior
Background The recent epidemics of Zika virus (ZIKV) implicated it as the cause of serious and potentially lethal congenital conditions such microcephaly and other central nervous system defects, as well as the development of the Guillain-Barré syndrome in otherwise healthy patients. Recent findings showed that anti-Dengue antibodies are capable of amplifying ZIKV infection by a mechanism similar to antibody-dependent enhancement, increasing the severity of the disease. This scenario becomes potentially catastrophic when the global burden of Dengue and the advent of the newly approved anti-Dengue vaccines in the near future are taken into account...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908830/protective-efficacy-of-fc-targeting-conserved-influenza-virus-m2e-antigen-expressed-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#6
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Qian Wang, Hai-Bin Huang, Yan-Long Jiang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Ke-Yan Huang, Yu-Bei Jin, Chun-Feng Wang
The influenza A (H1N1) virus is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease affecting pigs and humans. This disease causes severe economic loss in many countries, and developing mucosal vaccines is an efficient strategy to control the influenza virus. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important role in transferring IgG across polarized epithelial cells. In the present study, an oral vaccine was developed using Lactobacillus plantarum to deliver the internal influenza viral protein M2e fused to an IgG Fc fragment...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908639/animal-models-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#7
Geraldine Taylor
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908630/non-linear-dose-response-of-aluminium-hydroxide-adjuvant-particles-selective-low-dose-neurotoxicity
#8
Guillemette Crépeaux, Housam Eidi, Marie-Odile David, Yasmine Baba-Amer, Eleni Tzavara, Bruno Giros, François-Jérôme Authier, Christopher Exley, Christopher A Shaw, Josette Cadusseau, Romain K Gherardi
Aluminium (Al) oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel(®)), the main adjuvant licensed for human and animal vaccines, consists of primary nanoparticles that spontaneously agglomerate. Concerns about its safety emerged following recognition of its unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence within immune cells in some individuals, and reports of chronic fatigue syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, myalgia, dysautonomia and autoimmune/inflammatory features temporally linked to multiple Al-containing vaccine administrations. Mouse experiments have documented its capture and slow transportation by monocyte-lineage cells from the injected muscle to lymphoid organs and eventually the brain...
November 28, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907183/activation-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-by-a-recombinant-human-cytomegalovirus-strain-expressing-an-nkg2d-ligand
#9
Adriana Tomić, Pavankumar R Varanasi, Mijo Golemac, Suzana Malić, Peggy Riese, Eva M Borst, Eva Mischak-Weissinger, Carlos A Guzmán, Astrid Krmpotić, Stipan Jonjić, Martin Messerle
Development of an effective vaccine against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a need of utmost medical importance. Generally, it is believed that a live attenuated vaccine would best provide protective immunity against this tenacious pathogen. Here, we propose a strategy for an HCMV vaccine that aims at the simultaneous activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. An HCMV strain expressing the host ligand ULBP2 for the NKG2D receptor was found to be susceptible to control by natural killer (NK) cells, and preserved the ability to stimulate HCMV-specific T cells...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907105/epidemiology-of-brucellosis-and-genetic-diversity-of-brucella-abortus-in-kazakhstan
#10
Elena Shevtsova, Alexandr Shevtsov, Kasim Mukanov, Maxim Filipenko, Dinara Kamalova, Igor Sytnik, Marat Syzdykov, Andrey Kuznetsov, Assel Akhmetova, Mira Zharova, Talgat Karibaev, Pavel Tarlykov, Erlan Ramanculov
Brucellosis is a major zoonotic infection in Kazakhstan. However, there is limited data on its incidence in humans and animals, and the genetic diversity of prevalent strains is virtually unstudied. Additionally, there is no detailed overview of Kazakhstan brucellosis control and eradication programs. Here, we analyzed brucellosis epidemiological data, and assessed the effectiveness of eradication strategies employed over the past 70 years to counteract this infection. We also conducted multiple loci variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Brucella abortus strains found in Kazakhstan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906979/a-phosphorylcholine-containing-glycolipid-like-antigen-present-on-the-surface-of-infective-stage-larvae-of-ascaris-spp-is-a-major-antibody-target-in-infected-pigs-and-humans
#11
Johnny Vlaminck, Dries Masure, Tao Wang, Peter Nejsum, Cornelis H Hokke, Peter Geldhof
BACKGROUND: The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906903/announcement-national-influenza-vaccination-week-december-4-10-2016
#12
(no author information available yet)
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, state and local health departments, and other partners will observe National Influenza Vaccination Week during December 4-10, 2016, with educational and promotional activities across the country. Beginning in 2005, National Influenza Vaccination Week was established to highlight the importance of annual influenza vaccination and to foster greater use of influenza vaccine during the months of December, January, and beyond. Last season, almost half (45.6%) of the U...
December 2, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906032/infection-of-rhesus-macaques-with-a-pool-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-with-the-envelope-genes-from-acute-hiv-1-infections
#13
Kendall C Krebs, Meijuan Tian, Mohammed Asmal, Binhua Ling, Kenneth Nelson, Kenneth Henry, Richard Gibson, Yuejin Li, Weining Han, Robin J Shattock, Ronald S Veazey, Norman Letvin, Eric J Arts, Yong Gao
BACKGROUND: New simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses with an HIV-1 env (SHIVenv) are critical for studies on HIV pathogenesis, vaccine development, and microbicide testing. Macaques are typically exposed to single CCR5-using SHIVenv which in most instances does not reflect the conditions during acute/early HIV infection (AHI) in humans. Instead of individual and serial testing new SHIV constructs, a pool of SHIVenv_B derived from 16 acute HIV-1 infections were constructed using a novel yeast-based SHIV cloning approach and then used to infect macaques...
November 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905974/dynamic-denominators-the-impact-of-seasonally-varying-population-numbers-on-disease-incidence-estimates
#14
Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Victor A Alegana, Alessandro Sorichetta, Catherine Linard, Christoper Lourenço, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Bonita Graupe, Tomas J Bird, Carla Pezzulo, Amy Wesolowski, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: Reliable health metrics are crucial for accurately assessing disease burden and planning interventions. Many health indicators are measured through passive surveillance systems and are reliant on accurate estimates of denominators to transform case counts into incidence measures. These denominator estimates generally come from national censuses and use large area growth rates to estimate annual changes. Typically, they do not account for any seasonal fluctuations and thus assume a static denominator population...
October 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905628/-virulence-mechanisms-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
Ana Elvira Farfán-García, Sandra Catherine Ariza-Rojas, Fabiola Andrea Vargas-Cárdenas, Lizeth Viviana Vargas-Remolina
Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries and is one of the causes of mortality in children under five. ADD etiologic agents include viruses, bacteria and parasites in that order. Escherichia coli bacteria it is classified as a major diarrheagenic agent and transmitted by consuming contaminated water or undercooked foods. This review compiled updates on information virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms involved in adhesion and colonization of seven pathotypes of E...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905473/carcinogenic-human-papillomavirus-infection
#16
Mark Schiffman, John Doorbar, Nicolas Wentzensen, Silvia de Sanjosé, Carole Fakhry, Bradley J Monk, Margaret A Stanley, Silvia Franceschi
Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are common and transmitted by direct contact. Although the great majority of infections resolve within 2 years, 13 phylogenetically related, sexually transmitted HPV genotypes, notably HPV16, cause - if not controlled immunologically or by screening - virtually all cervical cancers worldwide, a large fraction of other anogenital cancers and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. The carcinogenicity of these HPV types results primarily from the activity of the oncoproteins E6 and E7, which impair growth regulatory pathways...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905089/novel-paradigm-for-immunotherapy-of-ovarian-cancer-by-engaging-prophylactic-immunity-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#17
Marek Malecki, Emily Putzer, Caroline Quach, Chaitanya Dodivenaka, Xenia Tombokan
BACKGROUND: Only eight women out of one hundred diagnosed with ovarian epithelial cancers, which progressed to the clinical stage IV, survive 10 years. First line therapies: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy inflict very serious iatrogenic consequences. Passive immunotherapy of ovarian cancers offers only low efficacy. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for ovarian cancers are not available. Interestingly, prophylactic vaccines for Hepatitis B Viruses (HBV) are very effective...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904885/a-novel-protective-vaccine-antigen-from-the-core-escherichia-coli-genome
#18
Danilo G Moriel, Lendl Tan, Kelvin G K Goh, Minh-Duy Phan, Deepak S Ipe, Alvin W Lo, Kate M Peters, Glen C Ulett, Scott A Beatson, Mark A Schembri
Escherichia coli is a versatile pathogen capable of causing intestinal and extraintestinal infections that result in a huge burden of global human disease. The diversity of E. coli is reflected by its multiple different pathotypes and mosaic genome composition. E. coli strains are also a major driver of antibiotic resistance, emphasizing the urgent need for new treatment and prevention measures. Here, we used a large data set comprising 1,700 draft and complete genomes to define the core and accessory genome of E...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903593/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-detection-and-new-options-for-prevention-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Cameron Griffiths, Steven J Drews, David J Marchant
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a significant cause of hospitalization of children in North America and one of the leading causes of death of infants less than 1 year of age worldwide, second only to malaria. Despite its global impact on human health, there are relatively few therapeutic options available to prevent or treat RSV infection. Paradoxically, there is a very large volume of information that is constantly being refined on RSV replication, the mechanisms of RSV-induced pathology, and community transmission...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903079/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-replication-deficient-recombinant-adenovirus-serotype-5-vaccine-expressing-guanylate-cyclase-c-and-the-padre-t-helper-epitope
#20
Adam Eugene Snook, Trevor R Baybutt, Terry Hyslop, Scott Arthur Waldman
There is an unmet need for improved therapeutics for colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy only marginally improves survival in some patients, and has no benefit in others, underscoring the clinical opportunity for novel immunotherapeutic approaches to improve survival in colorectal cancer. In that context, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is an established biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic colorectal cancer with immunological characteristics that promote durable antitumor efficacy without autoimmunity...
November 30, 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
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