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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430959/expression-immunogenicity-and-variation-of-iron-regulated-surface-protein-a-from-bovine-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
N Misra, T F Wines, C L Knopp, M A McGuire, J K Tinker
Staphylococcus aureus iron-regulated surface protein A (IsdA) is a fibrinogen and fibronectin adhesin that also contributes to iron sequestration and resistance to innate immunity. IsdA is conserved in human isolates and has been investigated as a human vaccine candidate. Here we report the expression of isdA, the efficacy of anti-IsdA responses, and the existence of IsdA sequence variants from bovine Staphylococcus. Clinical staphylococci were obtained from U.S. dairy farms and assayed by PCR for the presence and expression of isdA...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429728/a-formulated-tlr7-8-agonist-is-a-flexible-highly-potent-and-effective-adjuvant-for-pandemic-influenza-vaccines
#2
Neal Van Hoeven, Christopher B Fox, Brian Granger, Tara Evers, Sharvari W Joshi, Ghislain I Nana, Sarah C Evans, Susan Lin, Hong Liang, Li Liang, Rie Nakajima, Philip L Felgner, Richard A Bowen, Nicole Marlenee, Airn Hartwig, Susan L Baldwin, Rhea N Coler, Mark Tomai, James Elvecrog, Steven G Reed, Darrick Carter
Since 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been transmitted from avian hosts to humans. The severity of H5N1 infection in humans, as well as the sporadic nature of H5N1 outbreaks, both geographically and temporally, make generation of an effective vaccine a global public health priority. An effective H5N1 vaccine must ultimately provide protection against viruses from diverse clades. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist adjuvant formulations have a demonstrated ability to broaden H5N1 vaccine responses in pre-clinical models...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428646/-hpv-vaccination-active-offer-in-an-italian-region
#3
Elisa Terracciano, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Silvia Aquilani, Anna Maria Aversa, Giuseppina Bartolomei, Maria Gabriella Calenda, Raffaele Catapano, Silvio Compagno, Piera Della Rovere, Angelo Fraioli, Roberto Ieraci, Daniela Reggiani, Stefano Sgricia, Antonietta Spadea, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
Human Papillomavirus is responsible for 4.8% of cancers, and is the main cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be reduced by mean of secondary prevention (PAP-test, HPV-DNA test), while through primary prevention (anti-HPV vaccine) the incidence of other HPV-attributable cancers can also be reduced. In Italy, anti-HPV vaccination is part of the immunization schedule in girls since 2008, and in 2017 it was extended to boys. However, vaccine coverage is decreasing nationwide. This study aims to examine anti-HPV vaccination practices in Health care services of Lazio Region, Italy...
January 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428619/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-a-previously-unknown-role-for-cd8-t-cells-in-rvsv-ebov-mediated-protection
#4
Andrea R Menicucci, Suhas Sureshchandra, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann, Ilhem Messaoudi
Ebola virus (EBOV) poses a significant threat to human health as highlighted by the recent epidemic in West Africa. Data from animal studies and a ring vaccination clinical trial conducted in Guinea during the recent epidemic demonstrated that a recombinant VSV where G protein is replaced with EBOV GP (rVSV-EBOV) is safe and highly efficacious. We previously established that antibodies are essential for rVSV-EBOV mediated protection against EBOV; however, the mechanisms by which this vaccine induces a humoral response and the role of T-cells in rVSV-EBOV mediated protection remain poorly understood...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428537/human-cytomegalovirus-induces-cellular-and-humoral-virus-specific-immune-responses-in-humanized-blt-mice
#5
Lindsey B Crawford, Rebecca Tempel, Daniel N Streblow, Craig Kreklywich, Patricia Smith, Louis J Picker, Jay A Nelson, Patrizia Caposio
The strict species specificity of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has impeded our understanding of antiviral adaptive immune responses in the context of a human immune system. We have previously shown that HCMV infection of human hematopoietic progenitor cells engrafted in immune deficient mice (huNSG) results in viral latency that can be reactivated following G-CSF treatment. In this study, we characterized the functional human adaptive immune responses in HCMV latently-infected huBLT (humanized Bone marrow-Liver-Thymus) mice...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428157/texting-and-mobile-phone-app-interventions-for-improving-adherence-to-preventive-behavior-in-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#6
Sherif M Badawy, Lisa M Kuhns
BACKGROUND: Many preventable behaviors contribute to adolescent mortality and morbidity. Non-adherence to preventive measures represents a challenge and has been associated with worse health outcomes in this population. The widespread use of electronic communication technologies by adolescents, particularly the use of text messaging (short message service, SMS) and mobile phones, presents new opportunities to intervene on risk and preventive risk behavior, but little is known about their efficacy...
April 19, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427960/construct-and-expression-of-recombinant-domains-i-ii-of-dengue-virus-2-and-its-efficacy-to-evaluate-immune-response-in-endemic-area-possible-use-in-prognosis
#7
Alfredo Eduardo Montes-Gómez, Hector Vivanco-Cid, José Bustos-Arriaga, Mussaret Bano Zaidi, Jazmin Garcia Machorro, Benito Gutierrez-Castañeda, Leticia Cedillo-Barron
The envelope (E) protein from DENV, contain three functional and structural domains (DI, DII and DIII). Some studies suggest that neutralizing antibodies during natural DENV infection are predominantly against DI and DII, in contrast, low proportion of the antibodies were against DIII. Thus it is necessary to establish the proportion of human antibodies against DENV E protein that bind to DI and DII during the normal course of infection; as an indicator of the quality of the antibody response and to further design new vaccine candidates for DENV...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427948/comprehensive-characterization-of-humoral-correlates-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-superinfection-acquisition-in-high-risk-kenyan-women
#8
Keshet Ronen, Adam S Dingens, Susan M Graham, Walter Jaoko, Kishor Mandaliya, R Scott McClelland, Julie Overbaugh
HIV-1 superinfection, in which an infected individual acquires a second HIV-1 infection from a different partner, is one of the only settings in which HIV acquisition occurs in the context of a pre-existing immune response to natural HIV infection. There is evidence that initial infection provides some protection from superinfection, particularly after 6months of initial infection, when development of broad immunity occurs. Comparison of the immune response of superinfected individuals at the time of superinfection acquisition to that of individuals who remain singly infected despite continued exposure can shed light on immune correlates of HIV acquisition to inform prophylactic vaccine design...
April 7, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426952/plant-viruses-and-bacteriophages-for-delivery-in-medicine-and-biotechnology
#9
REVIEW
Anna E Czapar, Nicole F Steinmetz
There are a wide variety of synthetic and naturally occurring nanomaterials under development for nanoscale cargo-delivery applications. Viruses play a special role in these developments, because they can be regarded as naturally occurring nanomaterials evolved to package and deliver cargos. While any nanomaterial has its advantage and disadvantages, viral nanoparticles (VNPs), in particular the ones derived from plant viruses and bacteriophages, are attractive options for cargo-delivery as they are biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-infectious to mammals...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425928/porcine-circoviruses-and-xenotransplantation
#10
REVIEW
Joachim Denner, Annette Mankertz
Allotransplantation and xenotransplantation may be associated with the transmission of pathogens from the donor to the recipient. Whereas in the case of allotransplantation the transmitted microorganisms and their pathogenic effect are well characterized, the possible influence of porcine microorganisms on humans is mostly unknown. Porcine circoviruses (PCVs) are common in pig breeds and they belong to porcine microorganisms that still have not been fully addressed in terms of evaluating the potential risk of xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, and organs...
April 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425901/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-the-adverse-effects-immunogenicity-and-efficacy-of-lyme-disease-vaccines-guiding-novel-vaccine-development
#11
Alaa Badawi, Maria Shering, Shusmita Rahman, L Robbin Lindsay
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infectious disease in North America. Currently, no vaccine is available to prevent LB in humans, although monovalent and multivalent vaccines have been developed in the past. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the findings from these two classes of vaccines for their reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy, in the hope this may assist in the development of future vaccines...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425834/rift-valley-fever-vaccines-an-overview-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-live-attenuated-mp-12-vaccine-candidate
#12
Tetsuro Ikegami
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic viral disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. High rates of abortion among infected ruminants and hemorrhagic fever in infected humans are major public health concerns. Commercially available veterinary RVF vaccines are important for preventing the spread of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in endemic countries; however, RVFV outbreaks continue to occur frequently in endemic countries in the 21(st) century. In the U.S., the live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine has been developed for both animal and human vaccination...
April 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425447/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-of-recombinant-human-myelin-basic-protein-nano-therapeutic-vaccine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice-animal-model
#13
Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Aliaa N ElMeshad, Rania M Abdelsalam, Mohammed M Nooh, Muhammad Al-Shorbagy, Götz Laible
Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424831/-recurrent-and-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-prophylaxis-and-prevention
#14
H Piechota
Urinay tract infection (UTI) as one of the most frequent bacterial infections in humans is of utmost relevance. Because of the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, urinalysis should always include urine culture and a resistogram in order to avoid an unspecific selection and overuse of antibiotics. Prevention of recurrent UTI must first of all rule out predisposing uropathogenic conditions. Nowadays, a great variety of drugs, behavioral, and supportive treatment options can effectively minimize UTI recurrence...
April 19, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424703/immune-responses-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-why-do-they-fail-to-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
REVIEW
Juan I Moliva, Joanne Turner, Jordi B Torrelles
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the current leading cause of death due to a single infectious organism. Although curable, the broad emergence of multi-, extensive-, extreme-, and total-drug resistant strains of M.tb has hindered eradication efforts of this pathogen. Furthermore, computational models predict a quarter of the world's population is infected with M.tb in a latent state, effectively serving as the largest reservoir for any human pathogen with the ability to cause significant morbidity and mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424686/mucosal-and-systemic-immune-responses-to-influenza-h7n9-antigen-ha1-2-co-delivered-intranasally-with-flagellin-or-polyethyleneimine-in-mice-and-chickens
#16
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Hongqin Song, Lili Wu, Meihua Zhang, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
Consecutive cases of human infection with H7N9 influenza viruses since 2013 in China have prompted efforts to develop an effective treatment. Subunit vaccines introduced by intranasal administration can block an infection at its primary site; flagellin (fliC) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) have been shown to be potent adjuvants. We previously generated the hemagglutinin (HA)1-2-fliC fusion protein consisting of the globular head domain (HA1-2; amino acids 62-284) of HA fused with Salmonella typhimurium fliC. In the present study, we investigated its effectiveness of both flagellin and PEI as mucosal adjuvants for the H7N9 influenza subunit vaccine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424472/temperature-dependent-folding-allows-stable-dimerization-of-secretory-and-virus-associated-e-proteins-of-dengue-and-zika-viruses-in-mammalian-cells
#17
J L Slon Campos, S Marchese, J Rana, M Mossenta, M Poggianella, M Bestagno, O R Burrone
Dengue and Zika are two of the most important human viral pathogens worldwide. In both cases, the envelope glycoprotein E is the main target of the antibody response. Recently, new complex quaternary epitopes were identified which are the consequence of the arrangement of the antiparallel E dimers on the viral surface. Such epitopes can be exploited to develop more efficient cross-neutralizing vaccines. Here we describe a successful covalent stabilization of E dimers from Dengue and Zika viruses in mammalian cells...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424287/protective-efficacy-of-formaldehyde-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccine-and-antivirals-in-a-murine-model-of-coxsackievirus-a10-infection
#18
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Juan Li, Michael J Carr, Dongming Zhuang, Jianxing Wang, Yawei Zhang, Shujun Ding, Yigang Tong, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) is one of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). CVA10 infection can cause herpangina and viral pneumonia, which can be complicated by severe neurological sequelae. Morbidity and mortality of CVA10-associated HFMD has been increasing in recent years, particularly in the pan-Pacific region. There are limited studies however on the pathogenesis and immunology of CVA10-associated HFMD infections, and few antiviral drugs or vaccines have been reported...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424031/yellow-fever-from-angola-and-congo-a-storm-gathers
#19
Qanta A Ahmed, Ziad A Memish
In common with Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue, Yellow Fever (YF) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus. It is transmitted between humans and from monkeys by mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti (its principal vector), haemogogus and albopictus varieties. Three cycles of transmission may occur: urban; sylvatic; and intermediate. Recently, sub-Saharan Africa has seen the resurgence of this neglected disease. The current YF outbreak in Angola began in December 2015 in the capital Luanda and by October 2016 there had been > 4300 suspected cases, with 376 deaths (case fatality rate = 8...
April 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423693/enhanced-anti-tumor-therapeutic-efficacy-of-dna-vaccine-by-fusing-the-e7-gene-to-baff-in-treating-human-papillomavirus-associated-cancer
#20
Chao-Chih Wu, Fang-Cih Wu, Yun-Tin Hsu, Yu-Chia Hsiao, Yuh-Cheng Yang, C Allen Chang, Chih-Long Chang
B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family that not only stimulates B and T cells but also counteracts immune tolerance. BAFF is also a type II membrane protein, which is secreted through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi apparatus pathway. Fusing an antigen to BAFF might enhance the presentation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. These characteristics represent an opportunity to enhance the antitumor effects of DNA vaccines. Therefore, we fused BAFF to human papillomavirus type 16 E7 as a DNA vaccine and evaluated its antitumor effects...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
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