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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526738/hpv-vaccine-slashes-rates-of-oral-infection
#1
(no author information available yet)
Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) reduces the prevalence of oral infection by an estimated 88% among young adults in the United States, a protection that could help reduce rates of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers, according to data that will be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL. However, the population-level benefit will remain low unless more people get vaccinated.
May 19, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526681/adoptive-transfer-of-phosphoantigen-specific-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subset-attenuates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-nonhuman-primates
#2
Arwa Qaqish, Dan Huang, Crystal Y Chen, Zhuoran Zhang, Richard Wang, Shengpu Li, Enzhuoa Yang, Yang Lu, Michelle H Larsen, William R Jacobs, Lixia Qian, James Frencher, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
The dominant Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset recognizes phosphoantigen and exists only in humans and nonhuman primates. Despite the discovery of γδ T cells >30 y ago, a proof-of-concept study has not been done to prove the principle that the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset is protective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other infections. In this study, we used an adoptive cell-transfer strategy to define the protective role of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in a primate tuberculosis (TB) model. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells for adoptive transfer displayed central/effector memory and mounted effector functions, including the production of anti-M...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526680/decrease-in-numbers-of-naive-and-resting-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-kenyan-adults-leads-to-a-proportional-increase-in-total-and-plasmodium-falciparum-specific-atypical-memory-b-cells
#3
Anne E Frosch, Oludare A Odumade, Justin J Taylor, Kathleen Ireland, George Ayodo, Bartholomew Ondigo, David L Narum, John Vulule, Chandy C John
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with B cell activation and exhaustion, and hypergammaglobulinemia. How these changes influence B cell responses to coinfections such as malaria is poorly understood. To address this, we compared B cell phenotypes and Abs specific for the Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate apical membrane Ag-1 (AMA1) in HIV-infected and uninfected adults living in Kenya. Surprisingly, HIV-1 infection was not associated with a difference in serum AMA1-specific Ab levels...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526582/mait-cells-a-tailor-made-mate-in-the-ancient-battle-against-infectious-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Marcela de Lima Moreira, Moriya Tsuji, Alexandra Jane Corbett, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis
It has been almost two decades since the discovery of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT)-cells. Several advances in the field have been made such as the discovery of the antimicrobial activity of MAIT-cells, the abundance of these cells in human mucosa and in liver and the discovery of ligands able to bind MR1 and activate MAIT-cells. MAIT-cells are a unique subset of innate-like T-cells that express a canonical T-cell receptor with the alpha chain containing hAV7S2 and AJ33 in humans (TCRVα7.2Jα33) and respond to bacterial/fungus vitamin B2 metabolites by an MR1-dependent pathway...
May 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526331/prevalence-of-oral-human-papillomavirus-by-vaccination-status-among-young-adults-18-30years-old
#5
Jacqueline M Hirth, Mihyun Chang, Vicente A Resto
BACKGROUND: Although there is evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may protect against oral HPV infection, no current research has demonstrated this in the general population. METHODS: We used repeated cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2009 and 2014. Participants 18-30years who indicated whether they had received the HPV vaccine and provided an adequate oral sample were included (N=3040)...
May 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525963/the-use-of-transgenic-parasites-in-malaria-vaccine-research
#6
Ahmad Syibli Othman, Catherin Marin-Mogollon, Ahmed M Salman, Blandine M Franke-Fayard, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan
Transgenic malaria parasites expressing foreign genes, for example fluorescent and luminescent proteins, are used extensively to interrogate parasite biology and host-parasite interactions associated with malaria pathology. Increasingly transgenic parasites are also exploited to advance malaria vaccine development. Areas Covered: We review how transgenic malaria parasites are used, in vitro and in vivo, to determine protective efficacy of different antigens and vaccination strategies and to determine immunological correlates of protection...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525893/rat-embryonic-fibroblasts-immortalized-by-mrps18-2-protein-are-target-for-nk-cells
#7
Muhammad Mushtaq, Pradeepa N Pangigadde, Suhas Darekar, Erik Dissen, Elena Kashuba
Overexpression of the human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) led to immortalization of primary rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs). The derived cells (18IM) expressed embryonic stem cell markers. Noteworthy, genes encoding the COX family proteins were up-regulated significantly. It is known that the COX family proteins are involved in the regulation of immune response.In the present work we demonstrate that 18IM cells behave like stem cells when subjected to directed differentiation in vitro. However, unlike stem cells, 18IM cells do not develop tumors in vivo, in SCID mice...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525755/antibodies-from-a-human-survivor-define-sites-of-vulnerability-for-broad-protection-against-ebolaviruses
#8
Anna Z Wec, Andrew S Herbert, Charles D Murin, Elisabeth K Nyakatura, Dafna M Abelson, J Maximilian Fels, Shihua He, Rebekah M James, Marc-Antoine de La Vega, Wenjun Zhu, Russell R Bakken, Eileen Goodwin, Hannah L Turner, Rohit K Jangra, Larry Zeitlin, Xiangguo Qiu, Jonathan R Lai, Laura M Walker, Andrew B Ward, John M Dye, Kartik Chandran, Zachary A Bornholdt
Experimental monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies have shown promise for treatment of lethal Ebola virus (EBOV) infections, but their species-specific recognition of the viral glycoprotein (GP) has limited their use against other divergent ebolaviruses associated with human disease. Here, we mined the human immune response to natural EBOV infection and identified mAbs with exceptionally potent pan-ebolavirus neutralizing activity and protective efficacy against three virulent ebolaviruses. These mAbs recognize an inter-protomer epitope in the GP fusion loop, a critical and conserved element of the viral membrane fusion machinery, and neutralize viral entry by targeting a proteolytically primed, fusion-competent GP intermediate (GPCL) generated in host cell endosomes...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525447/mothers-fathers-sons-and-human-papillomavirus-immunization-practices
#9
Tami Lynn Thomas, Ora L Strickland, Melinda Higgins
Despite the fact that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-related cancers are on the rise in men, male HPV vaccine series completion is less than 10% in many areas. This study examined parental knowledge of the HPV vaccine and intent to vaccinate their sons. A cross-sectional study of 341 parents of boys was conducted in school settings in rural southeastern Georgia. Mothers were 2.07 times more likely than fathers to vaccinate their sons. Future research directions should include strategies to increase HPV vaccination in both genders and focus on parents' perceived severity and vulnerability of their sons to HPV infection...
July 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523396/clostridium-perfringens-beta-toxin-dna-prime-protein-boost-elicits-enhanced-protective-immune-response-in-mice
#10
Amit Kumar Solanki, Bharati Bhatia, Himani Kaushik, Sachin K Deshmukh, Aparna Dixit, Lalit C Garg
Clostridium perfringens beta toxin (CPB) is the primary pathogenic factor responsible for necrotic enteritis in sheep, cattle and humans. Owing to rapid progression of the disease, vaccination is the only possible recourse to avoid high mortality in animal farms and huge economic losses. The present study reports evaluation of a cpb gene-based DNA vaccine encoding the beta toxin of C. perfringens with homologous as well as heterologous booster strategy. Immunization strategy employing heterologous booster with heat-inactivated rCPB mounted stronger immune response when compared to that generated by homologous booster...
May 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523298/role-of-genetic-polymorphism-in-nutritional-supplementation-therapy-in-personalized-medicine
#11
Nicolae Ovidiu Peneş, Bernard Weber, Silviu Dumitru Păun
Genetic-guided nutritional supplementation therapy in personalized medicine is the type of treatment that prevents and acts against errors during the copying process of a cell's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), mistakes that lead to diversification in the DNA sequence at certain locations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Positive results are quickly achieved using one of the four types of therapy. These types are: personalized, when individual human genetic variations drive individual treatment, preventive, with a tailored healthcare strategy and therapeutic preventive drugs and vaccines, participatory, when empowered patients make informed choices and take responsibility of their own health and predictive, using a proactive approach to health and medicine...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523002/humanized-mouse-models-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#12
REVIEW
Dane Parker
Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen that has adapted itself in response to selection pressure by the human immune system. A commensal of the human skin and nose, it is a leading cause of several conditions: skin and soft tissue infection, pneumonia, septicemia, peritonitis, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Mice have been used extensively in all these conditions to identify virulence factors and host components important for pathogenesis. Although significant effort has gone toward development of an anti-staphylococcal vaccine, antibodies have proven ineffective in preventing infection in humans after successful studies in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522585/herpes-simplex-virus-glycoprotein-d-targets-a-specific-dendritic-cell-subset-and-improves-the-performance-of-vaccines-to-human-papillomavirus-associated-tumors
#13
Bruna F M M Porchia, Ana Carolina R Moreno, Rodrigo N Ramos, Mariana O Diniz, Laís Helena T M de Andrade, Daniela S Rosa, José Alexandre M Barbuto, Silvia B Boscardin, Luís Carlos S Ferreira
Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in women. Virtually all cases of cervical cancer, as well as a growing share of anal and head/neck tumors, are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Despite the effectiveness, the available prophylactic vaccines do not benefit women with cervical lesions or cancer. Therefore, the search of new immunotherapeutic approaches to treat HPV-induced tumors is still a priority. The present study characterizes a therapeutic antitumor vaccine based on the genetic fusion of the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) with the E7 oncoprotein from HPV-16 (gDE7)...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521627/disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-osteomyelitis-in-twin-sisters-related-to-stat1-gene-deficiency
#14
Sabah Boudjemaa, Linda Dainese, Sébastien Héritier, Caroline Masserot, Samia Hachemane, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Aurore Coulomb, Jacinta Bustamante
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare syndrome characterized by severe clinical infections usually caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccines and environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria or more virulent mycobacteria as mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since 1996, 9 genes including 7 autosomal ( STAT1, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15, and IRF8) and 2 X-linked genes ( NEMO and CYBB) have been identified. Allelic heterogeneity leaded to recognize about 18 genetic diseases with variable clinical phenotypes, but sharing a same physiological mechanism represented by a defect in human IL-12-dependant-INF-γ-mediated immunity...
June 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520906/maximizing-the-impact-of-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccination
#15
Suzanne M Garland, Dorothy A Machalek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516860/salmonella-diva-vaccine-reduces-disease-colonization-and-shedding-due-to-virulent-s-typhimurium-infection-in-swine
#16
Bradley L Bearson, Shawn M D Bearson, Brian W Brunelle, Darrell O Bayles, In Soo Lee, Jalusa D Kich
PURPOSE: Non-host-adapted Salmonella serovars, including the common human food-borne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), are opportunistic pathogens that can colonize food-producing animals without causing overt disease. Interventions against Salmonella are needed to enhance food safety, protect animal health and allow the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). METHODOLOGY: An attenuated S. Typhimurium DIVA vaccine (BBS 866) was characterized for the protection of pigs following challenge with virulent S...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516833/animal-models-of-ebolavirus-infection
#17
Marisa C St Claire, Dan R Ragland, Laura Bollinger, Peter B Jahrling
Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic member of the family Filoviridae that causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humansand NHP. The 2013-2016 West African outbreak has increased interest in the development and refinement of animal models of Ebola virus disease. These models are used to test countermeasures and vaccines, gain scientific insights into the mechanisms of disease progression and transmission, and study key correlates of immunology. Ebola virus is classified as a BSL4 pathogen and Category A agent, for which the United States government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism...
May 17, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516082/multifocal-recurrent-osteomyelitis-and-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-a-boy-with-partial-dominant-ifn-%C3%AE-r1-deficiency-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Aidé Tamara Staines-Boone, Caroline Deswarte, Edna Venegas Montoya, Luz María Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge Alberto García Campos, Teodoro Muñiz-Ronquillo, Jacinta Bustamante, Francisco J Espinosa-Rosales, Saul Oswaldo Lugo Reyes
Mutations in the genes coding for cytokines, receptors, second messengers, and transcription factors of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) immunity cause Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We report the case of a 7-year-old male patient with partial dominant (PD) IFN-γ receptor 1 deficiency who had suffered from multifocal osteomyelitis attributable to bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination since the age of 18 months. He developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a hyper-inflammatory complication, and died with multiorgan dysfunction, despite having been diagnosed and treated relatively early...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516066/the-alpha-tocopherol-form-of-vitamin-e-boosts-elastase-activity-of-human-pmns-and-their-ability-to-kill-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#19
Elsa N Bou Ghanem, James N Lee, Basma H Joma, Simin N Meydani, John M Leong, Alexander Panda
Despite the availability of vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pulmonary PMN response to control bacterial numbers followed by modulation of this response later in infection. The elderly, who manifest a general decline in immune function and higher basal levels of inflammation, are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516052/whole-body-mri-of-the-non-human-primate-using-a-clinical-3t-scanner-initial-experiences
#20
Chun-Xia Li, Xiaodong Zhang
With the advent of parallel imaging MRI techniques, whole-body MRI is being increasingly used in clinical diagnosis. However, its application in preclinical research using large animals remains very limited. In the present study, the whole-body MRI techniques for adult macaque monkeys were explored using a conventional clinic 3T scanner. The T1, T2 anatomical images, and MR angiography of adult macaque whole bodies were illustrated. The preliminary results suggest whole-body MRI can be a robust tool to examine multiple organs of non-human primate (NHP) models from head to toe non-invasively and simultaneously using a conventional clinical setting...
April 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
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