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Motor Evoked Potentials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932966/combination-of-static-magnetic-fields-and-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-can-alter-focal-cortical-excitability
#1
Ippei Nojima, Satoko Koganemaru, Tatsuya Mima
For clinical application of transcranial static magnetic stimulation (tSMS), it is important to achieve a focal target cortical stimulation. Previous study suggested that the associative stimulation combining non-invasive stimulation of the motor cortex (M1) and the peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) may be useful to produce cortical excitability change. To test this hypothesis, we measured the M1 excitability and intracortical circuits by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after the tSMS of short duration (5 min) combined with PNS...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932695/posture-dependent-corticomotor-excitability-differs-between-the-transferred-biceps-in-individuals-with-tetraplegia-and-the-biceps-of-nonimpaired-individuals
#2
Carrie L Peterson, Lynn M Rogers, Michael S Bednar, Anne M Bryden, Michael W Keith, Eric J Perreault, Wendy M Murray
Background Following biceps transfer to enable elbow extension in individuals with tetraplegia, motor re-education may be facilitated by greater corticomotor excitability. Arm posture modulates corticomotor excitability of the nonimpaired biceps. If arm posture also modulates excitability of the transferred biceps, posture may aid in motor re-education. Objective Our objective was to determine whether multi-joint arm posture affects corticomotor excitability of the transferred biceps similar to the nonimpaired biceps...
December 8, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929075/long-latency-modulation-of-motor-cortex-excitability-by-ipsilateral-posterior-inferior-frontal-gyrus-and-pre-supplementary-motor-area
#3
Francesca Fiori, Emilio Chiappini, Marco Soriano, Riccardo Paracampo, Vincenzo Romei, Sara Borgomaneri, Alessio Avenanti
The primary motor cortex (M1) is strongly influenced by several frontal regions. Dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (dsTMS) has highlighted the timing of early (<40 ms) prefrontal/premotor influences over M1. Here we used dsTMS to investigate, for the first time, longer-latency causal interactions of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) with M1 at rest. A suprathreshold test stimulus (TS) was applied over M1 producing a motor-evoked potential (MEP) in the relaxed hand...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927951/effects-of-the-selective-%C3%AE-5-gabaar-antagonist-s44819-on-excitability-in-the-human-brain-a-tms-emg-and-tms-eeg-phase-i-study
#4
Ghazaleh Darmani, Carl M Zipser, Gabriele M Böhmer, Karine Deschet, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Paolo Belardinelli, Matthias Schwab, Ulf Ziemann
: Alpha-5 gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (α5-GABAARs) are located extrasynaptically, regulate neuronal excitability through tonic inhibition, and are fundamentally important for processes such as plasticity and learning. For example, pharmacological blockade of α5-GABAAR in mice with ischemic stroke improved recovery of function by normalizing exaggerated perilesional α5-GABAAR-dependent tonic inhibition. S44819 is a novel competitive selective antagonist of the α5-GABAAR at the GABA-binding site...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927520/staged-anterior-release-and-posterior-instrumentation-in-correction-of%C3%A2-severe-rigid-scoliosis-cobb-angle-100-degrees
#5
Pankaj Kandwal, Ankur Goswami, G Vijayaraghavan, K R Subhash, Ashok Jaryal, B N Upendra, Arvind Jayaswal
PURPOSE: Severe rigid curves present a big challenge to the treating spine surgeon. We evaluated the outcome of staged anterior release and posterior instrumentation for rigid scoliosis. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with an average age of 14.4 years (range 11-17) having a rounded severe rigid scoliosis (Cobb angle >100 degrees) underwent surgical correction. Six patients had congenital scoliosis, 13 idiopathic scoliosis, and 2 syndromic. All patients underwent anterior release in Stage I with one or more Ponte osteotomies and in Stage II with all pedicle screw instrumentation, and 13 of the patients underwent an asymmetric pedicle subtraction osteotomy at the apex...
July 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925475/reorganization-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-following-lower-limb-amputation-for-vascular-disease-a-pre-post-amputation-comparison
#6
Brenton Hordacre, Lynley V Bradnam, Maria Crotty
PURPOSE: This study compared bilateral corticomotor and intracortical excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1), pre- and post-unilateral transtibial amputation. METHOD: Three males aged 45, 55, and 48 years respectively who were scheduled for elective amputation and thirteen (10 male, 3 female) healthy control participants aged 58.9 (SD 9.8) were recruited. Transcranial magnetic stimulation assessed corticomotor and intracortical excitability of M1 bilaterally...
December 7, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925214/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-noradrenergic-enhancement-on-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induced-neuroplasticity-in-humans
#7
Hsiao-I Kuo, Walter Paulus, Giorgi Batsikadze, Asif Jamil, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A Nitsche
KEY POINTS: Chronic administration of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine (RBX) increased and prolonged the long-term potentiation-like plasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for over 24 h. Chronic administration of RBX converted cathodal tDCS-induced long-term depression-like plasticity into facilitation for 120 min. Chronic noradrenergic activity enhancement on plasticity of the human brain might partially explain the delayed therapeutic impact of selective NRIs in depression and other neuropsychiatric diseases...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923761/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-for-adult-patients-undergoing-posterior-spinal-fusion
#8
Nitin Agarwal, D Kojo Hamilton, Alp Ozpinar, Phillip Choi, Robert Hart, Ilker Yaylali
INTRODUCTION: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) are frequently used to monitor neurological function during spinal deformity surgery. The sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF) in debatable. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients undergoing PSF with IONM from October 2008 to December 2012 was performed. Factors including gender, operative time and spinal levels of posterior fusion were analyzed as risk factors for intraoperative alerts...
December 3, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921243/comparison-of-rnai-ngr-and-nep1-40-in-acting-on-axonal-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat-models
#9
Jing Xu, Jian He, Huang He, Renjun Peng, Jian Xi
This study was intended to compare the therapeutic efficacies of NEP1-40 and SiNgR199 on treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Nogo-A, growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43), microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and amyloid βA4 precursor protein (APP) expressions were determined using western blot and quantitative PCR. Neurite outgrowth detected the growth of neurites, and BDA anterograde tracing was used to label the regenerated axonal. Rats' behavior was assessed with Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale (BBB)...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920938/comparison-of-effectiveness-between-cork-screw-and-peg-screw-electrodes-for-transcranial-motor-evoked-potential-monitoring-using-the-finite-element-method
#10
Ryosuke Tomio, Takenori Akiyama, Takayuki Ohira, Kazunari Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials by transcranial electric stimulation is popular in neurosurgery for monitoring motor function preservation. Some authors have reported that the peg-screw electrodes screwed into the skull can more effectively conduct current to the brain compared to subdermal cork-screw electrodes screwed into the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of electrode design on transcranial motor evoked potential monitoring...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920095/functional-characterization-of-the-left-ventrolateral-premotor-cortex-in-humans-a-direct-electrophysiological-approach
#11
L Fornia, V Ferpozzi, M Montagna, M Rossi, M Riva, F Pessina, F Martinelli Boneschi, P Borroni, R N Lemon, L Bello, G Cerri
In monkeys, motor outputs from premotor cortex (PM) involve cortico-cortical connections with primary motor cortex (M1). However, in humans, the functional organization of PM and its relationship with the corticospinal tract (CST) is still uncertain. This study was carried out in 21 patients undergoing intraoperative brain mapping prior to tumor resection. The left ventrolateral premotor cortex (vlPM-BA6) was identified preoperatively by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and then investigated intraoperatively using high frequency direct electrical stimulation (HF-DES) of the convexity of M1 and vlPM-BA6, with simultaneous recording of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from oro-facial, hand and arm muscles...
December 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918064/cortical-excitability-in-patients-with-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-compared-to-patients-with-hypothyroidism-and-euthyroid-controls-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#12
C Terranova, V Rizzo, A Calamuneri, L Bartolone, F Morgante, D Bruschetta, V Roberto, P Girlanda, S Benvenga, A Quartarone
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) describes a rare syndrome in which serum levels of thyroid hormones are elevated but serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are unsuppressed. The importance of thyroid hormones for the normal function of the adult brain is corroborated by the frequent association of thyroid dysfunctions with neurological and psychiatric symptoms. In this study we investigated whether adult thyroid hormone resistance affects cortical excitability and modulates inhibitory and excitatory intracortical circuitries by using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
January 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909403/cortical-sensorimotor-processing-of-painful-pressure-in-patients-with-chronic-lower-back-pain-an-optical-neuroimaging-study-using-fnirs
#13
Andrea Vrana, Michael L Meier, Sabina Hotz-Boendermaker, Barry K Humphreys, Felix Scholkmann
In this study we investigated sensorimotor processing of painful pressure stimulation on the lower back of patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. The main objectives were whether patients with CLBP show different relative changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb] and [HHb]) in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1) compared to healthy controls (HC). Twelve patients with CLBP (32 ± 6...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909072/the-mirror-illusion-increases-motor-cortex-excitability-in-children-with-and-without-hemiparesis
#14
Sebastian Grunt, Christopher J Newman, Stefanie Saxer, Maja Steinlin, Christian Weisstanner, Alain Kaelin-Lang
Background Mirror therapy provides a visual illusion of a normal moving limb by using the mirror reflection of the unaffected arm instead of viewing the paretic limb and is used in rehabilitation to improve hand function. Little is known about the mechanism underlying its effect in children with hemiparesis. Objective To investigate the effect of the mirror illusion (MI) on the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) in children and adolescents. Methods Twelve patients with hemiparesis (10-20 years) and 8 typically developing subjects (8-17 years) participated...
November 30, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904488/effects-of-different-frequencies-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-the-recovery-of-upper-limb-motor-dysfunction-in-patients-with-subacute-cerebral-infarction
#15
Jiang Li, Xiang-Min Meng, Ru-Yi Li, Ru Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Yi-Feng Du
Studies have confirmed that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can decrease the activity of cortical neurons, and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can increase the excitability of cortical neurons. However, there are few studies concerning the use of different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the recovery of upper-limb motor function after cerebral infarction. We hypothesized that different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with cerebral infarction would produce different effects on the recovery of upper-limb motor function...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#16
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899888/neurophysiological-characterization-of-subacute-stroke-patients-a-longitudinal-study
#17
Giuseppe Lamola, Chiara Fanciullacci, Giada Sgherri, Federica Bertolucci, Alessandro Panarese, Silvestro Micera, Bruno Rossi, Carmelo Chisari
Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891607/cortical-and-reticular-contributions-to-human-precision-and-power-grip
#18
Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
It is well accepted that the corticospinal tract contributes to the control of finger muscles during precision and power grip in humans but the neural mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here, we examined motor evoked potentials elicited by cortical and subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons (MEPs and CMEPs, respectively) and the activity in intracortical circuits (suppression of voluntary electromyography) and spinal motoneurons (F-waves) in an intrinsic hand muscle during index finger abduction (control task), precision grip, and power grip...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888026/temporary-removal-priming-theta-burst-stimulation-enhances-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-young-but-not-old-adults
#19
George M Opie, Eleni Vosnakis, Michael C Ridding, Ulf Ziemann, John G Semmler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886079/cerebellar-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-and-motor-control-training-in-individuals-with-cervical-dystonia
#20
Lynley V Bradnam, Michelle N McDonnell, Michael C Ridding
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that cervical dystonia is a neural network disorder with the cerebellum as a key node. The cerebellum may provide a target for neuromodulation as a therapeutic intervention in cervical dystonia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation of the cerebellum on dystonia symptoms, quality of life, hand motor dexterity and cortical neurophysiology using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
November 23, 2016: Brain Sciences
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