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Motor Evoked Potentials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205500/primary-motor-cortex-excitability-is-modulated-during-the-mental-simulation-of-hand-movement
#1
Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Jarrad A G Lum, Jacqueline Williams, Jason He, Peter G Enticott
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether the primary motor cortex (PMC) is involved in the mental simulation of movement [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. The present study aimed to clarify PMC involvement using a highly novel adaptation of the hand laterality task (HLT). METHODS: Participants were administered single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the hand area of the left PMC (hPMC) at either 50 ms, 400 ms, or 650 ms post stimulus presentation. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous via electromyography...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197542/the-proline-arginine-dipeptide-from-hexanucleotide-repeat-expanded-c9orf72-inhibits-the-proteasome
#2
Rahul Gupta, Matthews Lan, Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Won Hoon Choi, Nathaniel Safren, Sami Barmada, Min Jae Lee, Robert Kalb
An intronic hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) mutation in the C9ORF72 gene is the most common cause of familial ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and is found in ∼7% of individuals with apparently sporadic disease. Several different diamino acid peptides can be generated from the HRE by noncanonical translation (repeat-associated non-ATG translation, or RAN translation), and some of these peptides can be toxic. Here, we studied the effects of two arginine containing RAN translation products [proline/arginine repeated 20 times (PR20) and glycine/arginine repeated 20 times (GR20)] in primary rat spinal cord neuron cultures grown on an astrocyte feeder layer...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196631/effects-of-12-weeks-of-chiropractic-care-on-central-integration-of-dual-somatosensory-input-in-chronic-pain-patients-a-preliminary-study
#3
Heidi Haavik, Imran Khan Niazi, Kelly Holt, Bernadette Murphy
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess whether the dual somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) technique is sensitive enough to measure changes in cortical intrinsic inhibitory interactions in patients with chronic neck or upper extremity pain and, if so, whether changes are associated with changes in pain scores. METHODS: The dual peripheral nerve stimulation SEP ratio technique was used for 6 subjects with a history of chronic neck or upper limb pain...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192079/electrical-neuromodulation-of-the-cervical-spinal-cord-facilitates-forelimb-skilled-function-recovery-in-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#4
Monzurul Alam, Guillermo Garcia-Alias, Benita Jin, Jonathan Keyes, Hui Zhong, Roland R Roy, Yury Gerasimenko, Daniel C Lu, V Reggie Edgerton
Enabling motor control by epidural electrical stimulation of the spinal cord is a promising therapeutic technique for the recovery of motor function after a spinal cord injury (SCI). Although epidural electrical stimulation has resulted in improvement in hindlimb motor function, it is unknown whether it has any therapeutic benefit for improving forelimb fine motor function after a cervical SCI. We tested whether trains of pulses delivered at spinal cord segments C6 and C8 would facilitate the recovery of forelimb fine motor control after a cervical SCI in rats...
February 9, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186673/modulation-of-fronto-parietal-connections-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#5
Anke Ninija Karabanov, Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Mark Schram Christensen, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Jens Bo Nielsen
Accumulating evidence suggests that parieto-frontal connections play a role in adjusting body ownership during the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Using a motor version of the rubber hand illusion paradigm, we applied single-site and dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate cortico-spinal and parietal-frontal connectivity during perceived rubber hand ownership. Healthy volunteers received a conditioning TMS pulse over left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and a test TMS pulse over left primary motor cortex (M1)...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185615/clinical-study-of-neuroregen-scaffold-combined-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-repair-of-chronic-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Yannan Zhao, Fengwu Tang, Guang Han, Nuo Wang, Na Yin, Bing Chen, Xianfeng Jiang, Chen Yun, Wanjun Han, Changyu Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Regeneration of damaged neurons and recovery of sensation and motor function after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) are challenging. We previously developed a collagen scaffold, NeuroRegen scaffold, to promote axonal growth along collagen fibers and inhibit glial scar formation after SCI. When functionalized with multiple biomolecules, this scaffold promoted neurological regeneration and functional recovery in animals with SCI. In this study, eight patients with chronic complete SCI were enrolled to examine the safety and efficacy of implanting NeuroRegen scaffold with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
February 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179557/individual-differences-in-resting-cortico-spinal-excitability-are-correlated-with-reaction-time-and-gaba-content-in-motor-cortex
#7
Ian Greenhouse, Maedbh King, Sean Noah, Richard J Maddock, Richard B Ivry
Individuals differ in the intrinsic excitability of their corticospinal pathways, and perhaps more generally, their entire nervous system. At present, we have little understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences and how variation in intrinsic excitability relates to behavior. Here, we examined the relationship between individual differences in intrinsic corticospinal excitability, local cortical γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels, and reaction time in a group of twenty healthy human adults. We measured corticospinal excitability at rest with transcranial magnetic stimulation, local concentrations of basal GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and RT with a behavioral task...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168212/novel-synaptobrevin-1-mutation-causes-fatal-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome
#8
Xin-Ming Shen, Rosana H Scola, Paulo J Lorenzoni, Cláudia S K Kay, Lineu C Werneck, Joan Brengman, Duygu Selcen, Andrew G Engel
OBJECTIVE: To identify the molecular basis and elucidate the pathogenesis of a fatal congenital myasthenic syndrome. METHODS: We performed clinical electrophysiology studies, exome and Sanger sequencing, and analyzed functional consequences of the identified mutation. RESULTS: Clinical electrophysiology studies of the patient revealed several-fold potentiation of the evoked muscle action potential by high frequency nerve stimulation pointing to a presynaptic defect...
February 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167410/objects-rapidly-prime-the-motor-system-when-located-near-the-dominant-hand
#9
Paula J Rowe, Corinna Haenschel, Maciej Kosilo, Kielan Yarrow
Objects are said to automatically "afford" various actions depending upon the motor repertoire of the actor. Such affordances play a part in how we prepare to handle or manipulate tools and other objects. Evidence obtained through fMRI, EEG and TMS has proven that this is the case but, as yet, the temporal evolution of affordances has not been fully investigated. The aim here was to further explore the timing of evoked motor activity using visual stimuli tailored to drive the motor system. Therefore, we presented three kinds of stimuli in stereoscopic depth; whole hand grasp objects which afforded a power-grip, pinch-grip objects which afforded a thumb and forefinger precision-grip and an empty desk, affording no action...
February 3, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163678/primary-motor-cortex-activation-during-action-observation-of-tasks-at-different-video-speeds-is-dependent-on-movement-task-and-muscle-properties
#10
Takefumi Moriuchi, Daiki Matsuda, Jirou Nakamura, Takashi Matsuo, Akira Nakashima, Keita Nishi, Kengo Fujiwara, Naoki Iso, Hideyuki Nakane, Toshio Higashi
The aim of the present study was to investigate how the video speed of observed action affects the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1), as assessed by the size of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve healthy subjects observed a video clip of a person catching a ball (Experiment 1: rapid movement) and another 12 healthy subjects observed a video clip of a person reaching to lift a ball (Experiment 2: slow movement task). We played each video at three different speeds (slow, normal and fast)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161015/-electrophysiological-testing-in-spinal-cord-tumors
#11
REVIEW
N André-Obadia, F Mauguière
Evoked potentials (EPs) are useful to evaluate the functional impairment of motor and somatosensory pathways in spinal cord tumors. Conduction through pyramidal tracts is evaluated by motor EPs (MEPs) elicited by transcranial stimulation, magnetic for awake patients or electric in the operating room. Somatosensory EPs (SEPs) and laser EPs (LEPs) are complementary procedures to explore conduction in dorsal columns and spinothalamic tracts, respectively. MEPs as well as SEPs show conduction abnormalities in about 60% of cases with a sensitivity that increases up to 70% when both procedures are carried out...
February 1, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159637/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-responses-elicited-in-hindlimb-muscles-as-an-assessment-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-spino-muscular-circuitry-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Hayk A Petrosyan, Valentina Alessi, Sue A Sisto, Mark Kaufman, Victor L Arvanian
Electromagnetic stimulation applied at the cranial level, i.e. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is a technique for stimulation and neuromodulation used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in clinical and research settings. Although recordings of TMS elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEP) are an essential diagnostic tool for spinal cord injured (SCI) patients, they are reliably recorded from arm, and not leg muscles. Mid-thoracic contusion is a common SCI that results in locomotor impairments predominantly in legs...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147417/neurologic-prognostication-neurologic-examination-and-current-guidelines
#13
Claudio Sandroni, Sonia D'Arrigo
Clinical examination is paramount for prognostication in patients who are comatose after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. At 72 hours from recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), an absent or extensor motor response to pain (M ≤ 2) is a very sensitive, but not specific predictor of poor neurologic outcome. Bilaterally absent pupillary or corneal reflexes are less sensitive, but highly specific predictors. Besides the clinical examination, investigations such as somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), electroencephalography (EEG), blood levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), or imaging studies can be used for neuroprognostication...
February 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145274/the-hybrid-bci-system-for-movement-control-by-combining-motor-imagery-and-moving-onset-visual-evoked-potential
#14
Teng Ma, Hui Li, Lili Deng, Hao Yang, Xulin Lv, Peiyang Li, Fali Li, Rui Zhang, Tiejun Liu, Dezhong Yao, Peng Xu
OBJECTIVE: Movement control is an important application for EEG-BCI (EEG-based brain-computer interface) systems. A single-modality BCI cannot provide an efficient and natural control strategy, but a hybrid BCI system that combines two or more different tasks can effectively overcome the drawbacks encountered in single-modality BCI control. APPROACH: In current paper, we developed a new hybrid BCI system by combining MI (motor imagery) and mVEP (motion-onset visual evoked potential), aiming to realize the more efficient 2D movement control of a cursor...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144218/changes-in-cortical-plasticity-in-relation-to-a-history-of-concussion-during-adolescence
#15
Sean K Meehan, Jasmine L Mirdamadi, Douglas N Martini, Steven P Broglio
Adolescence and early adulthood is a critical period for neurophysiological development potentially characterized by an increased susceptibility to the long-term effects of traumatic brain injury. The current study investigated differences in motor cortical physiology and neuroplastic potential across a cohort of young adults with adolescent concussion history and those without. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143920/proportional-motor-recovery-after-stroke-implications-for-trial-design
#16
Cathy M Stinear, Winston D Byblow, Suzanne J Ackerley, Marie-Claire Smith, Victor M Borges, P Alan Barber
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recovery of upper-limb motor impairment after first-ever ischemic stroke is proportional to the degree of initial impairment in patients with a functional corticospinal tract (CST). This study aimed to investigate whether proportional recovery occurs in a more clinically relevant sample including patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and previous stroke. METHODS: Patients with upper-limb weakness were assessed 3 days and 3 months poststroke with the Fugl-Meyer scale...
January 31, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137723/in-vivo-spiking-dynamics-of-intra-and-extratelencephalic-projection-neurons-in-rat-motor-cortex
#17
Akiko Saiki, Yutaka Sakai, Ryoji Fukabori, Shogo Soma, Junichi Yoshida, Masanori Kawabata, Hiromu Yawo, Kazuto Kobayashi, Minoru Kimura, Yoshikazu Isomura
In motor cortex, 2 types of deep layer pyramidal cells send their axons to other areas: intratelencephalic (IT)-type neurons specifically project bilaterally to the cerebral cortex and striatum, whereas neurons of the extratelencephalic (ET)-type, termed conventionally pyramidal tract-type, project ipsilaterally to the thalamus and other areas. Although they have totally different synaptic and membrane potential properties in vitro, little is known about the differences between them in ongoing spiking dynamics in vivo...
January 30, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132610/upper-limb-recovery-in-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Jens A Petersen, Martina Spiess, Armin Curt, Norbert Weidner, Rüdiger Rupp, Rainer Abel, Martin Schubert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The course of central and peripheral motor recovery after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) may be investigated by electrophysiological measures. The goal of this study was to compare the 2 over the first year after injury in relation to motor gains. METHODS: Compound motor action potentials (CMAPs), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and F-waves were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi and CMAP and F-waves from abductor hallucis muscles in 305 patients at about 15 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months following an acute traumatic SCI...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130081/an-exploratory-study-of-the-influence-of-posture-and-hand-task-on-corticomotor-excitability-of-upper-extremity-muscles-after-stroke
#19
Caroline Ie Renner, Sophia Hanna, Ricarda Ludwig, Balazs Lukats, Horst Hummelsheim
OBJECTIVE: To explore the interaction between postural stability and hand task on the corticospinal excitability (CE) of upper extremity muscles and how it is affected by lesion location. DESIGN: Cross-sectional explorative survey. SETTING: inpatient rehabilitation center PARTICIPANTS: Neurologically healthy subjects (volunteer sample, n=36) and patients with stroke (convenience sample, mean time since stroke=45 days), stratified according to lesion location: pure subcortical strokes (n=25), strokes with cortical involvement (n=20)...
January 24, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129054/interindividual-variability-and-intraindividual-reliability-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-induced-neuroplasticity-mechanisms-in-the-healthy-brain
#20
Lukas Schilberg, Teresa Schuhmann, Alexander T Sack
We combined patterned TMS with EMG in several sessions of a within-subject design to assess and characterize intraindividual reliability and interindividual variability of TMS-induced neuroplasticity mechanisms in the healthy brain. Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) was applied over M1 to induce long-term potentiation-like mechanisms as assessed by changes in corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, we investigated the association between the observed iTBS effects and individual differences in prolonged measures of corticospinal excitability...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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