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Motor Evoked Potentials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820738/the-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-short-interval-intracortical-inhibition-and-intracortical-facilitation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Mana Biabani, Maryam Aminitehrani, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly being used to affect the neurological conditions with deficient intracortical synaptic activities (i.e. Parkinson's disease and epilepsy). In addition, it is suggested that the lasting effects of tDCS on corticospinal excitability (CSE) have intracortical origin. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether tDCS has any effect on intracortical circuits. Eleven electronic databases were searched for the studies investigating intracortical changes induced by anodal (a) and cathodal (c) tDCS, in healthy individuals, using two paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms: short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF)...
August 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813949/monitoring-brain-potentials-to-guide-neurorehabilitation-of-tracking-impairments
#2
Boris Yazmir, Miriam Reiner
Motor impairments come in different forms. One class of motor impairments, relates to accuracy of tracking a moving object, as, for instance, when chasing in an attempt to catch it. Here we look at neural signals associated with errors in tracking, and the implications for brain-computer-interfaces that target impairment-tailored rehabilitation. As a starting point, we characterized EEG signals evoked by tracking errors during continuous natural motion, in healthy participants. Participants played a virtual 3D, ecologically valid haptic tennis game, and had to track a moving tennis ball in order to hit and send the ball towards the opponent's court...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813867/therapeutic-effects-of-anti-gravity-treadmill-alterg-training-on-reflex-hyper-excitability-corticospinal-tract-activities-and-muscle-stiffness-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#3
Sh Parvin, A Taghiloo, A Irani, M Mehdi Mirbagheri
We aimed to study therapeutic effects of antigravity treadmill (AlterG) training on reflex hyper-excitability, muscle stiffness, and corticospinal tract (CST) function in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Three children received AlterG training 3 days per week for 8 weeks as experimental group. Each session lasted 45 minutes. One child as control group received typical occupational therapy for the same amount of time. We evaluated hyper-excitability of lower limb muscles by H-reflex response...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809075/allosteric-modulation-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-desformylflustrabromine-potentiates-antiallodynic-response-of-nicotine-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#4
D Bagdas, D Ergun, A Jackson, W Toma, M K Schulte, M I Damaj
BACKGROUND: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels. The α4β2 subtype of nAChRs plays an important role in the mediation of pain and several nicotine-evoked responses. Agonists and partial agonists of α4β2 nAChRs show efficacy in animal pain models. In addition, the antinociceptive properties of nicotine, a non-selective nAChR agonist with a high affinity for α4β2 nAChRs, is well-known. There is a growing body of evidence pointing to allosteric modulation of nAChRs as an alternative treatment strategy in experimental pain...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807991/torque-depression-following-active-shortening-is-associated-with-a-modulation-of-cortical-and-spinal-excitation-a-history-dependent-study
#5
Jordan Grant, Chris J McNeil, Leah R Bent, Geoffrey A Power
The reduction in steady-state isometric torque following a shortening muscle action when compared to a purely isometric contraction at the same muscle length and level of activation is termed torque depression (TD). The purpose of this study was to investigate spinal and supraspinal neural responses during the TD state of a maximal voluntary activation of the ankle dorsiflexors. Thirteen subjects (10 male) were recruited for the study. To explore alterations in corticospinal excitability during voluntary muscle activation in the TD state, motor evoked potentials (MEPs), cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs), and maximal compound muscle action potentials (Mmax) were elicited during the isometric steady-state following active shortening (i...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807846/the-reliability-of-commonly-used-electrophysiology-measures
#6
K E Brown, K R Lohse, I M S Mayer, G Strigaro, M Desikan, E P Casula, S Meunier, T Popa, J-C Lamy, O Odish, B R Leavitt, A Durr, R A C Roos, S J Tabrizi, J C Rothwell, L A Boyd, M Orth
BACKGROUND: Electrophysiological measures can help understand brain function both in healthy individuals and in the context of a disease. Given the amount of information that can be extracted from these measures and their frequent use, it is essential to know more about their inherent reliability. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To understand the reliability of electrophysiology measures in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that measures of threshold and latency would be the most reliable and least susceptible to methodological differences between study sites...
July 31, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805756/-an-experience-of-neurophysiological-monitoring-in-neurosurgery
#7
A G Vasyatkina, E A Levin, K Yu Orlov, V V Kobozev
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of neuromonitoring methods in prevention of postoperative neurological complications and estimation of predictive power of intraoperative changes in monitored characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study examined 240 patients, operated in the years 2014-2015 using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. One hundred and seventy-three patients suffered from hemispheric lesions and 67 had lesions located in or near the brainstem...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800341/robotic-assisted-gait-training-combined-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-chronic-stroke-patients-a-pilot-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Han Gil Seo, Woo Hyung Lee, Seung Hak Lee, Youbin Yi, Kwang Dong Kim, Byung-Mo Oh
BACKGROUND: Although robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) is becoming a standard method in stroke rehabilitation, its effect on chronic stroke patients is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether anodal tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation) enhances the effect of RAGT on functional ambulation in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: Chronic hemiplegic stroke patients with a Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC) score≤4 were randomly assigned to either the RAGT with anodal tDCS (Anodal) group or the sham tDCS (Sham) group...
August 11, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797973/frontal-fibers-connecting-the-superior-frontal-gyrus-to-broca-s-area-a-cortico-cortical-evoked-potential-study
#9
Satoshi Ookawa, Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoko Ochi, Yukinori Akiyama, Tamaki Kobayashi, Yukihiro Yamao, Takayuki Kikuchi, Riki Matsumoto, Takeharu Kunieda, Nobuhiro Mikuni
BACKGROUND: The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca's area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). METHOD: Eight patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language dominant side were enrolled in this study...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796636/effect-of-tms-coil-orientation-on-the-spatial-distribution-of-motor-evoked-potentials-in-an-intrinsic-hand-muscle
#10
Victor Hugo Souza, Taian Martins Vieira, André Salles Cunha Peres, Marco Antonio Cavalcanti Garcia, Claudia Domingues Vargas, Oswaldo Baffa
Previous reports on the relationship between coil orientation and amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP) in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) did not consider the effect of electrode arrangement. Here we explore this open issue by investigating whether TMS coil orientation affects the amplitude distribution of MEPs recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle with a bi-dimensional grid of 61 electrodes. Moreover, we test whether conventional mono- and bipolar montages provide representative MEPs compared to those from the grid of electrodes...
August 10, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796385/muscle-length-effect-on-corticospinal-excitability-during-maximal-concentric-isometric-and-eccentric-contractions-of-the-knee-extensors
#11
Valentin Doguet, Kazunori Nosaka, Arnaud Guével, Gary Thickbroom, Kazuhiro Ishimura, Marc Jubeau
Neural control of eccentric contractions differs from that of concentric and isometric contractions, but no previous study has compared responses to motor cortex stimulations at long muscle lengths during such contraction types. This study compared the effect of muscle length on corticospinal excitability between maximal concentric, isometric and eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Twelve males performed 12 maximal concentric, isometric and eccentric voluntary contractions (36 contractions in total), separated by a 5-min rest between contraction types...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791522/pre-processing-and-transfer-entropy-measures-in-motor-neurons-controlling-limb-movements
#12
Fernando P Santos, Carlos D Maciel, Philip L Newland
Directed information transfer measures are increasingly being employed in modeling neural system behavior due to their model-free approach, applicability to nonlinear and stochastic signals, and the potential to integrate repetitions of an experiment. Intracellular physiological recordings of graded synaptic potentials provide a number of additional challenges compared to spike signals due to non-stationary behaviour generated through extrinsic processes. We therefore propose a method to overcome this difficulty by using a preprocessing step based on Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) to remove nonlinear trends and discontinuities...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790910/hybrid-brain-computer-interface-techniques-for-improved-classification-accuracy-and-increased-number-of-commands-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Keum-Shik Hong, Muhammad Jawad Khan
In this article, non-invasive hybrid brain-computer interface (hBCI) technologies for improving classification accuracy and increasing the number of commands are reviewed. Hybridization combining more than two modalities is a new trend in brain imaging and prosthesis control. Electroencephalography (EEG), due to its easy use and fast temporal resolution, is most widely utilized in combination with other brain/non-brain signal acquisition modalities, for instance, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electromyography (EMG), electrooculography (EOG), and eye tracker...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790251/-resection-of-a-posterior-mediastinal-tumor-using-intraoperative-motor-evoked-potential-monitoring-report-of-a-case
#14
Motoaki Yasukawa, Tsunenori Takatani, Masahiko Kawaguchi, Takeshi Kawaguchi, Norikazu Kawai, Takashi Tojo, Shigeki Taniguchi
A 20-year-old man with a posterior mediastinal tumor incidentally found on a chest X-ray was referred to our hospital. Chest computed tomography showed a 3 cm nodule located on the left side of the 10-11th thoracic vertebra, where the artery of Adamkiewicz is presumed to arise. He underwent left thoracotomy to remove the lesion. The tumor was safely resected with the assistance of intraoperative motor evoked potential(MEP) monitoring. The postoperative diagnosis was a benign schwannoma. In thoracic surgery for posterior mediastinal tumors, intraoperative MEP monitoring is useful for preventing paraplegia...
August 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779945/cumulative-effects-of-single-tms-pulses-during-beta-tacs-are-stimulation-intensity-dependent
#15
Valerio Raco, Robert Bauer, Sandro Norim, Alireza Gharabaghi
BACKGROUND: Single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses activate different components of the motor cortex neural circuitry in a stimulation intensity-dependent way and may lead to a cumulative increase of corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the same stimulation session. Furthermore, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been shown to increase in a frequency-specific way the level of CSE probed by single-pulse TMS. The interaction of these two phenomena, i...
July 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771697/effects-of-centrally-administered-endocannabinoids-and-opioids-on-orofacial-pain-perception-in-rats
#16
Marek Zubrzycki, Anna Janecka, Andreas Liebold, Mechthild Ziegler, Maria Zubrzycka
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endocannabinoids and opioids play a vital role in mediating pain-induced analgesia. The specific effects of these compounds within orofacial region are largely unknown. In this study we tried to determine whether the increase of cannabinoid and opioid concentration in cerebrospinal fluid affects impulse transmission between the motor centers localized in the vicinity of the third and fourth cerebral ventricles. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The study objectives were realized on rats using the method allowing to record the amplitude of evoked tongue jerks (ETJ) in response to noxious tooth pulp stimulation...
August 3, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770112/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-provokes-neuroplasticity-in-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#17
Ho Jeong Kim, Soo Jeong Han
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) provokes behavioral and cognitive changes. But the study about electrophysiologic findings and managements of rmTBI is limited. In this study, we investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on rmTBI. Thirty-one Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: sham, rmTBI, and rmTBI treated by tDCS. Animals received closed head mTBI three consecutive times a day. Anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor cortex. We evaluated the motor-evoked potential (MEP) and the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758184/motor-evoked-potentials-and-bis-guided-anaesthesia-in-image-guided-mini-invasive-neurosurgery-of-supratentorial-tumors-nearby-the-cortico-spinal-tract
#18
Roberto Cordella, Eleonora Orena, Francesco Acerbi, Elena Beretta, Dario Caldiroli, Francesco Dimeco, Carla Carozzi
AIM: to describe and evaluate the anaesthesiological regimen used in neurophysiologically monitored image-guided mini-invasive neurosurgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 24 patients underwent elective surgery under general anaesthesia that was administered through Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) for effect-site concentration (Ce) of Propofol and Remifentanil, targeting Bispectral Index (BIS) in the 40-60 intervals. Stimulating intensity of transcranial motor evoked potentials (tMEP), BIS index, Propofol and Remifentanil Ce were collected at MEPs threshold (T) definition (respectively BIS@T, CeProp@T and CeRemi@T)...
June 14, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752624/paired-motor-cortex-and-cervical-epidural-electrical-stimulation-timed-to-converge-in-the-spinal-cord-promotes-lasting-increases-in-motor-responses
#19
Asht M Mishra, Ajay Pal, Disha Gupta, Jason B Carmel
Convergent activity in neural circuits can generate changes at their intersection. The rules of paired electrical stimulation are best understood for paradigms that stimulate input circuits and their targets. We took a different approach by targeting the interaction of descending motor pathways and large-diameter afferents in the spinal cord. We hypothesized that pairing stimulation of motor cortex and cervical spinal cord would strengthen motor responses through their convergence. We placed epidural electrodes over motor cortex and the dorsal cervical spinal cord in rats; motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from biceps...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748319/diverse-action-of-repeated-corticosterone-treatment-on-synaptic-transmission-neuronal-plasticity-and-morphology-in-superficial-and-deep-layers-of-the-rat-motor-cortex
#20
Joanna Kula, Anna Gugula, Anna Blasiak, Bartosz Bobula, Joanna Danielewicz, Alan Kania, Grzegorz Tylko, Grzegorz Hess
One of the adverse effects of prolonged stress in rats is impaired performance of skilled reaching and walking tasks. The mechanisms that lead to these abnormalities are incompletely understood. Therefore, we compared the effects of twice daily repeated corticosterone injections for 7 days on miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), as well as on synaptic plasticity and morphology of layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons of the primary motor cortex (M1) of male Wistar rats. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased frequency, but not amplitude, of mEPSCs in layer II/III neurons accompanied by increased complexity of the apical part of their dendritic tree, with no changes in the density of dendritic spines...
July 27, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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