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gastrointestinal oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329346/evaluation-of-bloodstream-infections-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-gut-microbiota-in-pediatric-oncology-patients
#1
Bryan T Nycz, Samuel R Dominguez, Deborah Friedman, Joanne M Hilden, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Daniel N Frank
Bloodstream infections (BSI) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in pediatric oncology/hematology/bone marrow transplant (BMT) populations are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to explore possible associations between altered microbiome composition and the occurrence of BSI and CDI in a cohort of pediatric oncology patients. Stool samples were collected from all patients admitted to the pediatric oncology floor from Oct.-Dec. 2012. Bacterial profiles from patient stools were determined by bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323617/differential-effects-of-early-palliative-care-based-on-the-age-and-sex-of-patients-with-advanced-cancer-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Ryan D Nipp, Areej El-Jawahri, Lara Traeger, Jamie M Jacobs, Emily R Gallagher, Elyse R Park, Vicki A Jackson, William F Pirl, Jennifer S Temel, Joseph A Greer
BACKGROUND: Early palliative care interventions enhance patient outcomes, including quality of life, mood, and coping, but it remains unclear whether certain subgroups of patients are more likely to benefit from early palliative care. We explored whether age and sex moderate the improved outcomes seen with early palliative care. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial of 350 patients with advanced lung and non-colorectal gastrointestinal cancer...
January 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320570/image-guided-whole-pelvic-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-for-biochemical-recurrence-following-radical-prostatectomy-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer-patients
#3
Sang Jun Byun, Young Seok Kim, Hanjong Ahn, Choung-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The optimal field size of salvage radiotherapy (SRT) for biochemical recurrence, particularly for patients with high-risk prostate cancer, remains undefined. This retrospective analysis was performed to investigate oncological outcomes as well as treatment-related toxicity following salvage intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to the whole pelvis and to compare the results with other studies implementing a small field size of the prostate bed. METHODS: The medical records of 170 patients with high-risk prostate cancer who received SRT for biochemical recurrence following prostatectomy were reviewed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306522/visceral-thromboses-in-pancreas-adenocarcinoma-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Angel Mier Hicks, Antonio DeRosa, Michael Raj, Richard Do, Kenneth H Yu, Maeve A Lowery, Anna Varghese, Eileen M O'Reilly
Within gastrointestinal malignancies, primary hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently associated with visceral thromboses (VT). Thrombus formation in the portal (PVT), mesenteric (MVT), or splenic vein (SVT) system leads to portal hypertension and intestinal ischemia. VT in PDAC may convey a risk of increased distal thrombosis and poses therapeutic uncertainty regarding the role of anticoagulation. An increasing number of reports describe VT associated with PDAC. It is possible that early diagnosis of these events may help reduce morbidity and speculatively improve oncologic outcomes...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299785/investigation-into-complementary-and-integrative-health-approaches-for-turkish-patients-with-gastrointestinal-cancer
#5
Seda Pehlivan, Ali Süner, Yasemin Yıldırım, Çiçek Fadıloğlu
The study was conducted to determine the levels of usage of complementary and integrative health (CIH) approaches and the symptoms experienced by Turkish patients with gastrointestinal cancer. A descriptive study was conducted on 81 patients with gastrointestinal cancer attending the medical oncology department of an oncology hospital. In the data collection stage, the patient description form that prepared by the researchers and the "Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale" were used. Data were evaluated via Chi-square and student t test...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290918/laparoscopic-vs-open-complete-mesocolic-excision-with-central-vascular-ligation-for-colon-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Ionut Negoi, Sorin Hostiuc, Ruxandra Irina Negoi, Mircea Beuran
AIM: To compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation (L-CME) with its open (O-CME) counterpart. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of the PubMed/MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database, Web of Science Core Collection, Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trails, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, SciELO, and Korean Journal databases from their inception until May 2017. We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) that included patients with colonic cancer comparing L-CME and O-CME...
December 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286027/-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-surgical-treatment-and-targeted-therapy
#7
D Yu Kanner, P V Kononets, A O Shveikin, A L Shestakov
AIM: To improve surgical and complex treatment of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our analysis included 97 GIST patients who were at Petrovsky Russian Research Center of Surgery and Moscow City Oncological Hospital #62 from January 2006 to September 2016. RESULTS: Advisability of surgery for GIST patients was confirmed. We have assessed surgical outcomes, defined the indications for adjuvant targeted therapy depending on GIST prognostic risk and additional factors for unfavorable course of disease...
2017: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284773/phenotypic-features-of-endometrial-tumors-in-patients-with-family-history-of-cancer
#8
L G Buchynska, N P Iurchenko, N M Glushchenko, I P Nesina
AIM: To determine the peculiarities of expression of a number of proteins-regulators of the cell cycle in endometrial cancer (EC) cells in patients with a family history of oncological pathologies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 95 EC patients (stage І-ІІ) were included into the study. Clinical-genealogical analysis was performed. 54 patients (group I) had healthy relatives, and in families of 41 patients (group II) an aggregation of malignant tumors of different genesis (mainly tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and the female reproductive system) was recorded...
December 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276214/new-perspective-on-the-treatment-of-intractable-gastrointestinal-cancers-role-of-combination-therapies
#9
Dan G Duda
Unresectable gastrointestinal cancers, such as gastric, hepatocellular, biliary tract or pancreatic carcinomas, are often resistant to anti-cancer systemic therapies, and often recur locally or even after aggressive local therapies leading to dismal survival rates. Recent developments in oncology, have offered renewed hoped for the development of more efficacious therapies. For example, our understanding of the oncogenic drivers in carcinogenesis has increased exponentially, and may potentially allow personalization of therapy...
2017: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274145/review-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-oncology
#10
Jianfeng Wang, Yang Xu, Stephen A Boppart
The application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the field of oncology has been prospering over the past decade. OCT imaging has been used to image a broad spectrum of malignancies, including those arising in the breast, brain, bladder, the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts, the skin, and oral cavity, among others. OCT imaging has initially been applied for guiding biopsies, for intraoperatively evaluating tumor margins and lymph nodes, and for the early detection of small lesions that would often not be visible on gross examination, tasks that align well with the clinical emphasis on early detection and intervention...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274028/a-cross-sectional-study-examining-the-prevalence-of-cachexia-and-areas-of-unmet-need-in-patients-with-cancer
#11
Ola Magne Vagnildhaug, Trude Rakel Balstad, Sigrun Saur Almberg, Cinzia Brunelli, Anne Kari Knudsen, Stein Kaasa, Morten Thronæs, Barry Laird, Tora Skeidsvoll Solheim
PURPOSE: The semantics of defining cancer cachexia over the last decade has resulted in uncertainty as to the prevalence. This has further hindered the recognition and subsequent treatment of this condition. Following the consensus definition for cancer cachexia in 2011, there is now a need to establish estimates of prevalence. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of cachexia in an unselected cancer population. A secondary aim was to assess patient-perceived need of attention to cachexia...
December 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273940/investigation-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-in-symptomatic-patients-of-a-german-pediatric-oncology-center
#12
Arne Simon, Markus Mock, Norbert Graf, Lutz von Müller
In a German pediatric oncology unit, the attending physicians diagnosed 27 cases of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDI) from January 01, 2010 to October 31, 2013. This refers to a CDI incidence density of 2.0/1000 inpatient days. According to the hospital hygiene standard, symptomatic patients with CDI were kept in contact isolation. Most patients (median age 8.2 years) suffered from acute lymphoblastic leukemia; 88.9% were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics during the preceding 4 weeks. 29...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250970/-image-guided-radiotherapy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-with-intravesical-lipiodol-injection-a-new-option-for-bladder-sparing-treatment
#13
Jorgo Kliton, Csaba Polgár, Péter Tenke, Gábor Kovács, Tibor Major, Gábor Stelczer, Péter Ágoston
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: To implement lipiodol as a fiducial marker of the tumor bed for image-guided radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost technique as part of radiochemotherapy for muscle invasive bladder tumors. METHOD: Since April 2016, radiochemotherapy was performed in 3 male patients with muscle invasive, transitional cell bladder carcinoma. Prior to radiochemotherapy, tumor bed resection was performed for each patient, at the same time 10 ml of lipiodol solution was injected submucosally into the resection site, thus marking the tumor bed for escalated dose irradiation...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250474/the-most-recent-oncologic-emergency-what-emergency-physicians-need-to-know-about-the-potential-complications-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#14
REVIEW
Duncan Simmons, Eddy Lang
Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmable cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 have shown antitumor activity in cancers such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and urothelial cancer. Certain checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for use in Canada, and are becoming a mainstay in the treatment of melanoma and other malignancies. These drugs have a unique side effect profile and are known to cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs)...
October 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238109/present-and-future-roles-of-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-in-the-management-of-gastrointestinal-cancer-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Kitajima, Masatoyo Nakajo, Hayato Kaida, Ryogo Minamimoto, Kenji Hirata, Masakatsu Tsurusaki, Hiroshi Doi, Yoshiko Ueno, Keitaro Sofue, Yukihisa Tamaki, Koichiro Yamakado
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) integrated with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is a useful tool for acquisition of both glucose metabolism and anatomic imaging data, as only a single device and one diagnostic session is required, thus opening a new field in clinical oncologic imaging. FDG-PET/CT has been successfully used for initial staging, restaging, assessment of early treatment response, evaluation of metastatic disease response, and prognostication of intestinal cancer as well as various malignant tumors...
November 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234924/a-new-direction-in-anastomotic-research-should-we-redesign-the-angle-of-sorrow
#16
Omar E Aly
INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in oncological outcomes in colo-rectal surgery, rates of anastomotic leak have not improved. The precise mechanisms of anastomotic leak remain poorly understood. Current research has focused on anastomotic reinforcement to tackle anastomotic leak with little success. The 'Angle of Sorrow', the corner of the anastomosis is prone to anastomotic leak, but remains a persistent feature in the gastrointestinal anastomosis. The tendency for stress forces to concentrate in the vulnerable 'Angle of Sorrow' prompts the need for anastomotic design research...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234525/invasive-candida-infection-after-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-surgery-for-gastric-cancer
#17
Evgeni Brotfain, Gilbert Sebbag, Michael Friger, Boris Kirshtein, Abraham Borer, Leonid Koyfman, Dmitry Frank, Yoav Bichovsky, Jochanan G Peiser, Moti Klein
Upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) surgical procedures are more likely to cause nosocomial Candida peritonitis than lower GIT procedures and they thus constitute an independent risk factor for mortality. Because of the severity of postsurgical fungal infections complications, intensivists and surgeons need to be extremely aware of their clinical importance in critically ill postsurgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We analyzed the clinical and microbiological data of 149 oncologic patients who were hospitalized in the ICU at Soroka Medical Center between January 2010 and January 2015 after undergoing upper GIT surgery for gastric cancer...
2017: International Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228659/prospective-randomized-phase-ii-study-of-folfiri-versus-folfox7-in-advanced-gastric-adenocarcinoma-a-chinese-western-cooperative-gastrointestinal-oncology-group-study
#18
Qiu Li, Feng Wen, Chengya Zhou, Meng Qiu, Jiyan Liu, Jing Chen, Cheng Yi, Zhiping Li, Deyun Luo, Feng Xu, Xiaohong Cai, Feng Bi
Until now, no standard chemotherapy has been widely accepted for advanced gastric cancer (GC). The current research aimed to compare folinic acid, fluorouracil with irinotecan (mFOLFIRI) or with oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX7) as first-line treatments in patients with locally advanced GC in an open, randomized, phase II study. Previously untreated metastatic or recurrent GC patients with measurable disease received mFOLFIRI (arm A) or mFOLFOX7 (arm B) every 2 weeks. The defined second-line treatment was mFOLFOX7 for arm A and mFOLFIRI for arm B...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222881/development-and-validation-of-a-pediatric-nutritional-screening-score-pnss-for-hospitalized-children
#19
Lina Lu, Xiaomeng Mao, Jinye Sheng, Jianhu Huang, Ying Wang, Qingya Tang, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is no evidence on the most effective nutritional screening tool for hospitalized children. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a pediatric nutritional screening tool to assess undernutrition risk upon hospital admission. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The study had a two-phase prospective observational design. A novel pediatric nutritional screening score (PNSS) was developed and sensitivity, specificity, and reliability were evaluated by comparing with a complete dietetic assessment...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219280/transperitoneal-vs-extraperitoneal-radical-cystectomy-for-bladder-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#20
Jagdeesh N Kulkarni, Himanshu Agarwal
PURPOSE: Conventional transperitoneal radical cystectomy (TPRC) is the standard approach for muscle invasive bladder cancer. But, the procedure is associated with significant morbidities like urinary leak, ileus, and infection. To reduce these morbidities, the technique of extraperitoneal radical cystectomy (EPRC) was described by us in 1999. We compared these two approaches and the data accrued forms the basis of this report. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer by the author (JNK) with follow-up for at least 5 years were included...
December 11, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
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