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gastrointestinal oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723416/unravelling-the-pharmacologic-opportunities-and-future-directions-for-targeted-therapies-in-gastro-intestinal-cancers-part-2-neuroendocrine-tumours-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-gastro-intestinal-stromal-tumours
#1
REVIEW
Cindy Neuzillet, Louis de Mestier, Benoît Rousseau, Olivier Mir, Mohamed Hebbar, Hemant M Kocher, Philippe Ruszniewski, Christophe Tournigand
Until the 1990s, cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of medical therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Better understanding of the cancer cell molecular biology has led to the therapeutic revolution of targeted therapies, i.e. monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors directed against proteins that are specifically overexpressed or mutated in cancer cells. These agents, being more specific to cancer cells, were expected to be less toxic than conventional cytotoxic agents. However, their effects have sometimes been disappointing, due to intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, or to an activity restricted to some tumour settings, illustrating the importance of patient selection and early identification of predictive biomarkers of response to these therapies...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708791/self-reported-long-term-autonomic-function-after-laparoscopic-total-mesometrial-resection-for-early-stage-cervical-cancer-a-multicentric-study
#2
Alessandro Lucidi, Swetlana Windemut, Marco Petrillo, Margherita Dessole, Giulio Sozzi, Giuseppe Filiberto Vercellino, Kaven Baessler, Giuseppe Vizzielli, Jalid Sehouli, Giovanni Scambia, Vito Chiantera
OBJECTIVES: This multicentric retrospective study investigates the early and long-term self-reported urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunctions in early-stage cervical cancer patients who submitted to laparoscopic total mesometrial resection (L-TMMR), total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, vaginal-assisted laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, and laparoscopic-assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy. METHODS: Cervical cancer patients, FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage IA2-IB1/IIA1 who submitted to nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy were recruited...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702410/plasmablastic-lymphoma-in-immunocompetent-and-in-immunocompromised-patients-experience-at-a-regional-cancer-centre-in-india
#3
A H Rudresha, K C Lakshmaiah, Ankit Agarwal, K Govind Babu, D Loknatha, Linu Abraham Jacob, Suresh Babu, K N Lokesh, L K Rajeev
INTRODUCTION: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare lymphoma associated with immunosuppression. It is strongly associated with immunosuppression (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) and often occurs within the oral cavity. PBL is also seen in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy; however, despite its predisposition for the immunocompromised patients, PBL has been diagnosed in immunocompetent patients. AIM: This study aims to prognostic factors and outcome of PBL in immunocompromised and in immunocompetent patients...
April 2017: South Asian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698051/effects-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-on-small-intestinal-int-407-cells
#4
A Illes, B Opper, D Reglodi, M Kerenyi, P Czetany, A Boronkai, E Schafer, G Toth, E Fabian, G Horvath
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide having a widespread distribution both in the nervous system and peripheral organs including the gastrointestinal tract. It has been shown to exert actions on intestinal functions, mainly affecting glandular secretion and motility. PACAP has several different effects on cell survival depending on the cell type and the applied stimulus. Its influences on small intestinal epithelial cells are not yet elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PACAP on intestinal epithelial cells having high turnover (INT 407) against different harmful stimuli, such as oxidative stress, in vitro hypoxia and gamma radiation...
July 4, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696047/a-randomized-trial-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-neutropenic-diet-versus-food-safety-guidelines-on-infection-rate-in-pediatric-oncology-patients
#5
Karen M Moody, Rebecca A Baker, Ruth O Santizo, Inan Olmez, Jeanie M Spies, Amanda Buthmann, Linda Granowetter, Robin Y Dulman, Kanyalakshmi Ayyanar, Jonathan B Gill, Aaron E Carroll
BACKGROUND: The neutropenic diet (ND) is prescribed to avoid introduction of bacteria into a host's gastrointestinal tract and reduce infection. Due to a lack of evidence to support the ND, there continues to be debate among pediatric oncologists regarding its usefulness. This prospective randomized controlled trial evaluated the difference in neutropenic infection rates in pediatric oncology patients randomized to Food and Drug Administration approved food safety guidelines (FSGs) versus the ND plus FSGs during one cycle of chemotherapy...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690767/endoscopic-ultrasound-in-oncology-an-update-of-clinical-applications-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#6
REVIEW
Manuel Valero, Carlos Robles-Medranda
An accurate staging is necessary to select the best treatment and evaluate prognosis in oncology. Staging usually begins with noninvasive imaging such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. In the absence of distant metastases, endoscopic ultrasound plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal tumors, being the most accurate modality for local-regional staging. Its use for tumor and nodal involvement in pre-surgical evaluation has proven to reduce unnecessary surgeries...
June 16, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676359/office-evaluation-of-pelvic-pain
#7
REVIEW
Stacey Bennis, Sarah Hwang
The history and physical examination are important keys to diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic pelvic pain. The comprehensive history should include questioning regarding patient's pain complaint and a thorough history and review of any body system that may be involved, including neuromusculoskeletal, obstetric, gynecologic, gastrointestinal, urologic, dermatologic, infectious, oncologic, and psychiatric. The physical examination should also follow a focused systems-based approach and includes examination of gastrointestinal, dermatologic, neurologic, and musculoskeletal (including lumbosacral spine, sacroiliac joints, pelvis, and hips) systems, and the pelvic floor (internal and external examination, including neuromuscular anatomy)...
August 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674119/cancer-screening-recommendations-and-clinical-management-of-inherited-gastrointestinal-cancer-syndromes-in-childhood
#8
REVIEW
Maria Isabel Achatz, Christopher C Porter, Laurence Brugières, Harriet Druker, Thierry Frebourg, William D Foulkes, Christian P Kratz, Roland P Kuiper, Jordan R Hansford, Hector Salvador Hernandez, Katherine L Nathanson, Wendy K Kohlmann, Leslie Doros, Kenan Onel, Kami Wolfe Schneider, Sarah R Scollon, Uri Tabori, Gail E Tomlinson, D Gareth R Evans, Sharon E Plon
Hereditary gastrointestinal cancer predisposition syndromes have been well characterized, but management strategies and surveillance remain a major challenge, especially in childhood. In October 2016, the American Association for Cancer Research organized the AACR Childhood Cancer Predisposition Workshop in which international experts in care of children with a hereditary risk of cancer met to define surveillance strategies and management of children with cancer predisposition syndromes. In this article, we review the current literature in polyposis syndromes that can be diagnosed in childhood and may be associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal neoplasms and other cancer types...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669651/frailty-in-major-oncologic-surgery-of-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-how-to-improve-postoperative-outcomes
#9
M Mazzola, C Bertoglio, M Boniardi, C Magistro, P De Martini, P Carnevali, L Morini, G Ferrari
INTRODUCTION: Certain surgical interventions, especially those involving upper GI tract remain challenging, due to high morbidity and mortality rates. The study of frailty in the surgical population has allowed the identification of those patients with a higher risk of poor postoperative outcomes. There remains a lack of evidence regarding the possibility of improving these results through a preoperative holistic management of the patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether preoperative treatment, in carefully selected patients, can improve the outcome following surgery...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666906/craniospinal-irradiation-prior-to-stem-cell-transplant-for-hematologic-malignancies-with-cns-involvement-effectiveness-and-toxicity-after-photon-or-proton-treatment
#10
Jillian R Gunther, Ahmad R Rahman, Wenli Dong, Zeinab Abou Yehia, Partow Kebriaei, Gabriela Rondon, Chelsea C Pinnix, Sarah A Milgrom, Pamela K Allen, Bouthaina S Dabaja, Grace L Smith
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) improves local control of leukemia/lymphoma with central nervous system (CNS) involvement; however, for adult patients anticipating stem cell transplant (SCT), cumulative treatment toxicity is a major concern. We evaluated toxicities and outcomes for patients receiving proton or photon CSI before SCT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 37 consecutive leukemia/lymphoma patients with CNS involvement who received CSI before SCT at our institution...
May 10, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664426/laparoscopic-and-endoscopic-cooperative-surgery-is-a-feasible-treatment-procedure-for-intraluminal-gastric-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-compared-to-endoscopic-intragastric-surgery
#11
Toshiyasu Ojima, Masaki Nakamura, Mikihito Nakamori, Katsunari Takifuji, Keiji Hayata, Masahiro Katsuda, Yoh Takei, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach is an ideal procedure if the gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are located in the extraluminal stomach. When the tumor is located in the intraluminal stomach, two minimally invasive surgical procedures involving laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) or endoscopic intragastric surgery (EIGS) are frequently performed. To date, there have been no comparative studies of LECS and EIGS in patients with intraluminal gastric GISTs regarding short-term and long-term outcomes...
June 29, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661595/-possibilities-of-laparoscopic-gastric-resection-for-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#12
V V Grubnik, A L Kovahichuk, A V Malinovskiy, K V Barannikov
Possibilities of laparoscopic technologies application while surgical excision of gas- trointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) were analyzed. In 2000 - 2015 yrs in the clinic 28 patients were operated on for gastric GIST. In 10 of them laparoscopic gastric resec- tion with tumor (in 3 - the tumor excision in borders of nonaffected tissues, in 4 - gas- tric fundus resection or stapler resection of a great curvature together with tumor, in 3 - transgastric excision of the tumor, using staplers) surgery was done. The disease recurrence in 2-5 yrs follow-up was absent...
August 2016: Klinichna Khirurhiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660314/nicotine-chewing-gum-for-the-prevention-of-postoperative-ileus-after-colorectal-surgery-a-multicenter-double-blind-randomised-controlled-pilot-study
#13
Daniël P V Lambrichts, Geesien S A Boersema, Buket Tas, Zhouqiao Wu, Wietske W Vrijland, Gert-Jan Kleinrensink, Johannes Jeekel, Johan F Lange, Anand G Menon
PURPOSE: When postoperative ileus is not resolved after 5 days or recurs after resolution, prolonged POI (PPOI) is diagnosed. PPOI increases discomfort, morbidity and hospitalisation length, and is mainly caused by an inflammatory response following intestinal manipulation. This response can be weakened by targeting the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, with nicotine as essential regulator. Chewing gum, already known to stimulate gastrointestinal motility itself, combined with nicotine is hypothesised to improve gastrointestinal recovery and prevent PPOI...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654022/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-insights-from-the-2017-asco-gastrointestinal-cancers-symposium
#14
Renuka Iyer, Alexandria T Phan, J Philip Boudreaux
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rare malignancies that originate in the gastrointestinal system. GEP-NETs are typically indolent, but tumors known as "functional" secrete hormones that can lead to a complex of symptoms, including flushing, diarrhea, bronchospasm, and valvular heart disease. Management of patients with GEP-NETs requires a multidisciplinary approach, as treatment modalities include surgery, radiology, and pharmacotherapy. The available pharmacologic agents have increased in recently, and now include cytotoxic chemotherapies, somatostatin analogues, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and radioisotopic radiotherapies...
April 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648803/sorafenib-in-combination-with-transarterial-chemoembolisation-in-patients-with-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tace-2-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-phase-3-trial
#15
Tim Meyer, Richard Fox, Yuk Ting Ma, Paul J Ross, Martin W James, Richard Sturgess, Clive Stubbs, Deborah D Stocken, Lucy Wall, Anthony Watkinson, Nigel Hacking, T R Jeffry Evans, Peter Collins, Richard A Hubner, David Cunningham, John Neil Primrose, Philip J Johnson, Daniel H Palmer
BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) is the standard of care for patients with intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma, while the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib improves survival in patients with advanced disease. We aimed to determine whether TACE with sorafenib improves progression-free survival versus TACE with placebo. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (TACE 2) in 20 hospitals in the UK for patients with unresectable, liver-confined hepatocellular carcinoma...
June 22, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644156/clinical-case-of-the-month-a-57-year-old-man-with-an-axillary-mass
#16
Palak Desai, Andrew Myers, Brian Boulmay, Fred A Lopez
A 57-year-old man presented to the surgical oncology clinic with a mildly tender mass under his right arm. Four years prior, the patient had a melanoma removed from his right shoulder along with an ipsilateral right axillary sentinel lymph sampling. Computed tomography (CT) scan was negative for metastatic disease at that time. The patient did not undergo completion axillary node dissection and was lost to follow-up. The patient was originally from Australia, did not tan but reported multiple sunburns before age 18...
May 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639576/laparoscopic-versus-open-resection-of-small-bowel-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Ke Chen, Bin Zhang, Yue-Long Liang, Lin Ji, Shun-Jie Xia, Yu Pan, Xue-Yong Zheng, Xian-Fa Wang, Xiu-Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic resection (LAP) for small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is not as common as for stomach. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of LAP for small bowel GISTs with systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, and PubMed databases before December 2016 were comprehensively searched to retrieve comparative trials of LAP and conventional open resection (OPEN) for GISTs of small bowel with a relevance of review object...
July 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632238/attitudes-among-nurses-toward-the-integration-of-complementary-medicine-into-supportive-cancer-care
#18
Eran Ben-Arye, Bella Shulman, Yael Eilon, Rachel Woitiz, Victoria Cherniak, Ilanit Shalom Sharabi, Osnat Sher, Hiba Reches, Yfat Katz, Michal Arad, Elad Schiff, Noah Samuels, Ofer Caspi, Shahar Lev-Ari, Moshe Frenkel, Abed Agbarya, Hana Admi
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the attitudes of nurses treating patients with cancer regarding the use of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life (QOL). 
. DESIGN: Prospective and descriptive.
 
. SETTING: 12 hospital and community care settings in Israel. 
. SAMPLE: 973 nurses working in oncology and non-oncology departments.
. METHODS: A 26-item questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of nurses treating patients with cancer...
July 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622691/prospective-randomized-phase-ii-study-of-folfiri-versus-folfox7-in-advanced-gastric-adenocarcinoma-a-chinese-western-cooperative-gastrointestinal-oncology-group-study
#19
Qiu Li, Feng Wen, Chengya Zhou, Meng Qiu, Jiyan Liu, Jing Chen, Cheng Yi, Zhiping Li, Deyun Luo, Feng Xu, Xiaohong Cai, Feng Bi
Until now, no standard chemotherapy has been widely accepted for advanced gastric cancer (GC). The current research aimed to compare folinic acid, fluorouracil with irinotecan (mFOLFIRI) or with oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX7) as first-line treatments in patients with locally advanced GC in an open, randomized, phase II study. Previously untreated metastatic or recurrent GC patients with measurable disease received mFOLFIRI (arm A) or mFOLFOX7 (arm B) every 2 weeks. The defined second-line treatment was mFOLFOX7 for arm A and mFOLFIRI for arm B...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620007/von-hippel-lindau-and-hereditary-pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma-syndromes-clinical-features-genetics-and-surveillance-recommendations-in-childhood
#20
REVIEW
Surya P Rednam, Ayelet Erez, Harriet Druker, Katherine A Janeway, Junne Kamihara, Wendy K Kohlmann, Katherine L Nathanson, Lisa J States, Gail E Tomlinson, Anita Villani, Stephan D Voss, Joshua D Schiffman, Jonathan D Wasserman
Von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL) is a hereditary tumor predisposition syndrome that places affected individuals at risk for multiple tumors, which are predominantly benign and generally occur in the central nervous system or abdomen. Although the majority of tumors occur in adults, children and adolescents with the condition develop a significant proportion of vHL manifestations and are vulnerable to delayed tumor detection and their sequelae. Although multiple tumor screening paradigms are currently being utilized for patients with vHL, surveillance should be reassessed as the available relevant clinical information continues to expand...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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