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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#1
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922565/a-perspective-on-brain-gut-communication-the-american-gastroenterology-association-and-american-psychosomatic-society-joint-symposium-on-brain-gut-interactions-and-the-intestinal-microenvironment
#2
Olga C Aroniadis, Douglas A Drossman, Magnus Simren
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain-gut communication and the intestinal microenvironment have been implicated in a variety of medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. Three central areas require basic and clinical research: (1) how the intestinal microenvironment interacts with the host immune system, central nervous system and enteric nervous system; (2) the role of the intestinal microenvironment in the pathogenesis of medical and neuropsychiatric disease; (3) the effects of diet, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation on the intestinal microenvironment and the treatment of disease...
December 2, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909795/altered-gut-microbiota-in-ra-implications-for-treatment
#4
Y Kang, Y Cai, X Zhang, X Kong, J Su
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with progressive joint disorder. The complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences is important for the development of the disease. A growing body of evidence has shed light on the association of dysbiosis of gut microbiota with RA. Certain gut microbial strains have been shown to inhibit or attenuate immune responses in RA experimental models, suggesting that specific species among intestinal commensal bacteria may play either a pathogenic or a protective role in the development of RA...
December 1, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904393/the-production-of-synbiotic-bread-by-microencapsulation
#6
Mojan Seyedain-Ardabili, Anousheh Sharifan, Babak Ghiassi Tarzi
Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893069/new-medical-and-surgical-insights-into-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-review
#7
Brandy L Frost, Biren P Modi, Tom Jaksic, Michael S Caplan
Importance: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has long remained a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. While the mainstay of treatment for this devastating condition remains largely supportive, research efforts continue to be directed toward understanding pathophysiology as well as how best to approach surgical management when indicated. Observations: In this review, we first examine recent medical observations, including overviews on the microbiome and a brief review of the use of probiotics...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892611/towards-a-bacterial-treatment-for-armpit-malodour
#8
Chris Callewaert, Jo Lambert, Tom Van de Wiele
Axillary malodour is a frustrating condition for many people. It can lead to significant discomforts and various psychological effects. The underarm microbiome generally plays a major role in axillary malodour formation. Not only the bacteria on the armpit epidermis, but especially those living in the sweat glands, sweat pores and hair follicles play a pivotal role in malodour development. In order to treat underarm malodour, this viewpoint paper envisions a bacterial treatment. Replacing the autochthonous malodour causing microbiome with a non-odour causing microbiome, through an armpit bacterial transplantation or direct application of probiotics/non-odour causing bacteria could resolve the condition...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886374/effect-of-different-aloe-fractions-on-the-growth-of-lactic-acid-bacteria
#9
Giulia Chiodelli, Marco Pellizzoni, Gabriela Ruzickova, Luigi Lucini
Several foods on the market, such as yogurt and fermented milk, include mixtures of prebiotics and probiotic microorganisms effective in promoting the proliferation and equilibrium of intestinal bacteria, thus improving gut health. Particularly, researchers and the public have shown increasing interest in the combination of probiotics with natural substances that promote health or that can act as substrates to promote bacterial growth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of different extracts of Aloe barbadensis and Aloe arborescens in fermented milk, taking into account both the prebiotic effect of aloe polysaccharides and the antimicrobial activity of several secondary metabolites...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876597/role-of-synbiotics-in-polysaccharide-assisted-colon-targeted-microspheres-of-mesalamine-for-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#10
Rupinderjeet Kaur, Monica Gulati, Sachin Kumar Singh
The present study explains the effect of concomitant administration of synbiotics with the polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery system. As the gut microflora get deranged on administration of mesalamine, drug release from such delivery systems is expected to be jeopardised because the release trigger is dependent solely on the colonic microbiota. To overcome this limitation, mesalamine was formulated as microspheres with guar gum and xanthan gum (prebiotics). These were combined with probiotics containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, L...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875964/bioengineering-for-microbial-inulinases-trends-and-applications
#11
Puneet Kumar Singh, Vishal Kumar, Ruby Yadav, Pratyoosh Shukla
Inulinase has attracted attention due to their number of applications in various industries viz. pharmaceuticals, food and bioethanol. Enzymes due to their unique properties and enormous power of catalysis at very wide range of temperature are always in demand in industries. There are certain techniques which are employed to improve the productivity of enzymes as well as enhancing their catalytic activity. Modeling of structure of inulinase will provide an overview of the catalytic domain and help in improvising catalytic potential...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869661/an-exploratory-investigation-of-endotoxin-levels-in-novice-long-distance-triathletes-and-the-effects-of-a-multi-strain-probiotic-prebiotic-antioxidant-intervention
#12
Justin D Roberts, Craig A Suckling, Georgia Y Peedle, Joseph A Murphy, Tony G Dawkins, Michael G Roberts
Gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB⁴ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day(-1) containing 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9...
November 17, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866040/in-vitro-fermentation-of-different-fructo-oligosaccharides-by-bifidobacterium-strains-for-the-selection-of-synbiotic-combinations
#13
Lorena Valdés-Varela, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Miguel Gueimonde
The use of selected probiotics, prebiotics and/or synbiotics, constitute an interesting dietary strategy for intestinal microbiota modulation in case of dysbiosis. Species of the genus Bifidobacterium are among the most currently used probiotics for human consumption since they have shown beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of some disorders. Bifidobacteria are saccharolytic microorganisms, but their ability to use different carbohydrates varies among strains. In this study, we investigate the utilization of three prebiotic substrates (two different short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides [scFOS] and inulin) by strains of Bifidobacterium, in order to determine the synbiotic potential of the different probiotic/prebiotic combinations...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#14
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852545/effects-of-zinc-or-synbiotic-on-the-duration-of-diarrhea-in-children-with-acute-infectious-diarrhea
#15
Ahmet Sami Yazar, Şirin Güven, Ener Çağrı Dinleyici
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Probiotic effects on acute infectious diarrhea are strain(s) specific, and all formulations should be evaluated by clinical trials. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a synbiotic preparation on the duration of diarrhea in children compared to a zinc suspension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center, randomized, and controlled clinical trial in children with acute infectious diarrhea. The first group received a synbiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus casei, L...
November 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848096/the-gut-kidney-axis
#16
REVIEW
Pieter Evenepoel, Ruben Poesen, Björn Meijers
The host-gut microbiota interaction has been the focus of increasing interest in recent years. It has been determined that this complex interaction is not only essential to many aspects of normal "mammalian" physiology but that it may also contribute to a multitude of ailments, from the obvious case of inflammatory bowel disease to (complex) diseases residing in organs outside the gut. An increasing body of evidence indicates that crosstalk between host and microbiota is pathophysiologically relevant in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836763/weight-gain-by-gut-microbiota-manipulation-in-productive-animals
#17
REVIEW
Emmanouil Angelakis
Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are widely used as growth promoters in agriculture. In the 1940s, use of Streptomyces aureofaciens probiotics resulted in weight gain in animals, which led to the discovery of chlortetracycline. Tetracyclines, macrolides, avoparcin and penicillins have been commonly used in livestock agriculture to promote growth through increased food intake, weight gain, and improved herd health. Prebiotic supplements including oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, and galactosyl-lactose improve the growth performance of animals...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833747/microbiota-host-interplay-at-the-gut-epithelial-level-health-and-nutrition
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Paul Lallès
Growing evidence suggests the implication of the gut microbiota in various facets of health and disease. In this review, the focus is put on microbiota-host molecular cross-talk at the gut epithelial level with special emphasis on two defense systems: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and inducible heat shock proteins (iHSPs). Both IAP and iHSPs are induced by various microbial structural components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, CpG DNA motifs), metabolites (e.g. n-butyrate) or secreted signal molecules (e...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815279/comparative-proteogenomics-and-metabolic-profiling-identify-an-inducible-operon-involved-in-inulin-utilization-in-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains
#19
Nirunya Buntin, Tipparat Hongpattarakere, Jarmo Ritari, François P Douillard, Lars Paulin, Sjef Boeren, Sudarshan A Shetty, Willem M de Vos
: The draft genome of L. plantarum isolated from Asian fermented foods, infant feces and shrimp intestines were sequenced and compared to those of well-studied strains. Among twenty-eight strains of L. plantarum, the variation of genomic features involved in the ecological adaptation were elucidated. The genome sizes ranged from approximately 3.1 to 3.5 Mb, of which about 2,932 to 3,345 of protein-coding sequences (CDS) were predicted. The food derived isolates contained higher number of carbohydrate metabolism associated genes than those from infant feces...
November 4, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811108/draft-genome-sequences-of-lactobacillus-animalis-strain-p38-and-lactobacillus-reuteri-strain-p43-isolated-from-chicken-cecum
#20
Morvarid Rezvani, Mary Mendoza, Matthew D Koci, Caitlyn Daron, Josh Levy, Hosni M Hassan
Here, we present the genome sequence of Lactobacillus animalis strain P38 and Lactobacillus reuteri strain P43, both isolated from the cecum content of a 4-week old chicken fed a diet supplemented with the prebiotic β(1-4)galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS). These indigenous Lactobacillus isolates are potential probiotic organisms for poultry.
November 3, 2016: Genome Announcements
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