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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521317/mechanisms-of-tolerance-induction
#2
Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn, Pantipa Chatchatee
Food allergy results from failure in oral tolerance that usually occurs in infancy or early childhood. Exposure to peanut and hen's egg via the inflamed and disrupted epithelial barrier in children with severe atopic dermatitis is a risk factor for the development of allergy to these foods and supports the hypothesis that epicutaneous exposure in the absence of oral feeding is an important pathway of allergic IgE sensitization in infants. In recent years, the collective evidence has pointed toward the protective effect of an early feeding with peanut and egg in children with eczema, taking advantage of the pathways underlying oral tolerance to counteract epicutaneous exposure...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514886/physiological-effects-of-prebiotics-and-its-role-in-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-neonates
#3
Bhawan Deep Garg, Haribalakrishna Balasubramanian, Nandkishor S Kabra
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most serious gastrointestinal emergencies in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates, affecting 7% to 14% of these neonates. Due to seriousness of disease, prevention of NEC is the most important goal. Current evidence from systematic review and meta-analysis revealed probiotics are the most promising intervention in reduction of the incidence of NEC in VLBW neonates. As per the evidence, prebiotics modulate the composition of human intestine microflora to the benefit of the host by suppression of colonization of harmful microorganism and/or the stimulation of bifidobacterial growth, decreased stool viscosity, reduced gastrointestinal transit time and better feed tolerance...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507766/effect-of-dietary-mannanoligosaccharide-supplementation-on-nutrient-digestibility-hindgut-fermentation-immune-response-and-antioxidant-indices-in-dogs
#4
Mahesh M Pawar, Ashok K Pattanaik, Dharmendra K Sinha, Tapas K Goswami, Kusumakar Sharma
BACKGROUND: Use of prebiotics in companion animal nutrition is often considered advantageous over probiotics because of the ease of handling, ability to withstand processing and storage etc. While most of the studies on prebiotic use in dogs have been done with processed food as basal diet, the response in relation to homemade diet feeding is not very well explored. METHODS: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, hindgut fermentation, immune response and antioxidant indices in dogs...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503170/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-high-throughput-model-for-host-microbiota-interactions
#5
Mark Trinder, Brendan A Daisley, Josh S Dube, Gregor Reid
Microbiota research often assumes that differences in abundance and identity of microorganisms have unique influences on host physiology. To test this concept mechanistically, germ-free mice are colonized with microbial communities to assess causation. Due to the cost, infrastructure challenges, and time-consuming nature of germ-free mouse models, an alternative approach is needed to investigate host-microbial interactions. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) can be used as a high throughput in vivo screening model of host-microbiome interactions as they are affordable, convenient, and replicable...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488210/food-additives-contaminants-and-other-minor-components-effects-on-human-gut-microbiota-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Paula Roca-Saavedra, Veronica Mendez-Vilabrille, Jose Manuel Miranda, Carolina Nebot, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas, Carlos M Franco, Alberto Cepeda
Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485263/alternatives-to-antibiotics-for-maximizing-growth-performance-and-feed-efficiency-in-poultry-a-review
#7
U Gadde, W H Kim, S T Oh, Hyun S Lillehoj
With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from 'Raised Without Antibiotics' or 'No Antibiotics Ever' flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great deal of research has focused on the development of antibiotic alternatives to maintain or improve poultry health and performance. This review describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial conditions...
May 9, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476670/functional-diets-modulate-the-acute-phase-protein-response-in-oncorhynchus-mykiss-subjected-to-chronic-stress-and-challenged-with-vibrio-anguillarum
#8
Darlyng Castro-Osses, Crisleri Carrera-Naipil, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, Ana Teresa Gonçalves
The acute phase response to pathogens alters the production of proinflammatory cytokines that, in turn, activate the synthesis of acute phase proteins. These proteins neutralize, prevent, and indicate tissue damage, thereby influencing the specific immune response and allowing the organism to regain homeostasis. Functional diets based in pre- and probiotics are used in aquaculture to improve fish health and resistance to diseases, but there is an information gap on the mechanisms involved in these effects and if these diets are efficient when fish are raised under high stocking densities...
May 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475793/effectiveness-of-probiotic-prebiotic-and-synbiotic-therapies-in-reducing-postoperative-complications-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#9
Nongyao Kasatpibal, JoAnne D Whitney, Surasak Saokaew, Kirati Kengkla, Margaret M Heitkemper, Anucha Apisarnthanarak
Background: Microbiome-directed therapies are increasingly used preoperatively and postoperatively to improve postoperative outcomes. Recently, the effectiveness of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in reducing postoperative complications (POCs) has been questioned. This systematic review aimed to examine and rank the effectiveness of these therapies on POCs in adult surgical patients. Methods: We searched for articles from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, and CINAHL plus...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473897/determination-of-the-optimal-enrichment-artemia-franciscana-with-a-synbiotic-combination-of-probiotics-pediococcus-acidilactici-and-prebiotic-fructooligosaccharide
#10
(no author information available yet)
In this study the optimal amount of enriching Artemia franciscana with a synbiotic combination of Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide (FOS( was investigated. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in ten treatments: multi-level probiotics P. acidilactici (1×10(9), 1×10(8) and 1× 10(7) CFU per L) and multi-level enriched prebiotic FOS (1, 2 and 5) g per L of solution and control. To evaluate the enrichment of adult artemia with each treatment, sampling was performed at 2, 4 and 6 hr after initiation of enrichment...
2017: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469606/development-of-a-synbiotic-beverage-enriched-with-bifidobacteria-strains-and-fortified-with-whey-proteins
#11
Federico Baruzzi, Silvia de Candia, Laura Quintieri, Leonardo Caputo, Francesca De Leo
The objective of this study was to develop a new synbiotic beverage evaluating the ability of some bifidobacteria strains to grow in this beverage which was fortified with whey proteins up to 20 g L(-1), and enriched with 10 g L(-1) of prebiotic inulin or resistant starch. The ability of Bifidobacterium strains to survive for 30 days at 4°C was evaluated in two synbiotic whey protein fortified beverages formulated with 2% of whey proteins and 1% of inulin or resistant starch. Microbial growth was significantly affected by the whey protein amount as well as by the kind of prebiotic fiber...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466641/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharide-metabolism-by-probiotic-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria
#12
Taksawan Thongaram, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, Jo May Chow, Michael Miller
Galactooligosaccharide (GOS) are bifidogenic and lactogenic prebiotics; however, GOS utilization is strain-dependent. In this study, commercially-available bifidobacteria and lactobacilli probiotic strains were evaluated for growth in the presence of GOS. Several bifidobacteria and lactobacilli grew on GOS; however, the specific GOS oligomers utilized for growth differed. A subset of probiotic bifidobacteria and lactobacilli revealed three different GOS utilization profiles delineated by the degrees of polymerization (DP) of GOS: 1) utilization of 2 DP GOS, 2) utilization of ≤ 3 DP GOS, and 3) utilization of all DP GOS...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465256/a-combination-of-the-probiotic-and-prebiotic-product-can-prevent-the-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores-and-infection
#13
M Rätsep, S Kõljalg, E Sepp, I Smidt, K Truusalu, E Songisepp, J Stsepetova, P Naaber, R H Mikelsaar, M Mikelsaar
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most prevalent healthcare associated infections in hospitals and nursing homes. Different approaches are used for prevention of CDI. Absence of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been associated with C. difficile colonization in hospitalized patients. Our aim was to test a) the susceptibility of C. difficile strains of different origin and the intestinal probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Inducia (DSM 21379) to various antimicrobial preparations incl...
April 29, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457445/emerging-concepts-in-the-nutraceutical-and-functional-properties-of-pectin-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Farah Naqash, F A Masoodi, Sajad Ahmad Rather, S M Wani, Adil Gani
Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide found ubiquitously in terrestrial plants. It finds diverse food applications such as that of a gelling agent, stabilizer, and fat replacer. In the pharmaceutical arena, pectin exhibits a number of functions, from decreasing blood fat to combating various types of cancers. This review shows the shift of pectin from its conventional roles to its progressive applications. Insights into the advances in the production of pectin, the role it plays as a nutraceutical, possible prebiotic potential and a delivery vehicle for probiotics, and food applications are highlighted...
July 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453774/effect-of-dietary-bacteriophage-supplementation-on-internal-organs-fecal-excretion-and-ileal-immune-response-in-laying-hens-challenged-by-salmonella-enteritidis
#15
P A Adhikari, D E Cosby, N A Cox, J H Lee, W K Kim
With the current researches on replacing antibiotics with different dietary interventions, bacteriophages (BP) are potential antimicrobial intervention because of their ability to affect specific bacteria. A study was conducted to evaluate the role of BP against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) on SE internal organs colonization and ileum immune response in laying hens. Hens were challenged both orally and intracloacally with 108 cfu/mL cells of nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SENAR)...
April 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453589/-effects-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics-on-gastrointestinal-tract-lymphoid-tissue-in-hiv-infected-patients
#16
Manuel G Feria, Natalia A Taborda, Juan C Hernandez, María T Rugeles
HIV infection induces alterations in almost all immune cell populations, mainly in CD4+ T cells, leading to the development of opportunistic infections. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) constitutes the most important site for viral replication, because the main target cells, memory T-cells, reside in this tissue. It is currently known that alterations in GALT are critical during the course of the infection, as HIV-1 induces loss of tissue integrity and promotes translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation, leading to a persistent immune activation state and immune exhaustion...
February 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437458/isomalto-oligosaccharides-ameliorate-visceral-hyperalgesia-with-repair-damage-of-ileal-epithelial-ultrastructure-in-rats
#17
Weida Wang, Haiwei Xin, Xiucai Fang, Hongtao Dou, Fangyi Liu, Dan Huang, Shaomei Han, Guijun Fei, Liming Zhu, Shenghua Zha, Hong Zhang, Meiyun Ke
BACKGROUND: Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with probiotics has achieved effectiveness to a certain extent. Whether prebiotics will work is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of the prebiotic isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) on visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) in rats and to explore potential mechanism. METHODS: Water avoidance stress (WAS) was used to induce VHS in rats. The score for the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) was determined while colorectal distension and compared between VHS group and control group in order to validate VHS preparation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434881/muramyl-dipeptide-based-postbiotics-mitigate-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance-via-irf4
#18
Joseph F Cavallari, Morgan D Fullerton, Brittany M Duggan, Kevin P Foley, Emmanuel Denou, Brennan K Smith, Eric M Desjardins, Brandyn D Henriksbo, Kalvin J Kim, Brian R Tuinema, Jennifer C Stearns, David Prescott, Philip Rosenstiel, Brian K Coombes, Gregory R Steinberg, Jonathan D Schertzer
Intestinal dysbiosis contributes to obesity and insulin resistance, but intervening with antibiotics, prebiotics, or probiotics can be limited by specificity or sustained changes in microbial composition. Postbiotics include bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, which have been shown to promote insulin resistance during metabolic endotoxemia. We found that bacterial cell wall-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is an insulin-sensitizing postbiotic that requires NOD2. Injecting MDP lowered adipose inflammation and reduced glucose intolerance in obese mice without causing weight loss or altering the composition of the microbiome...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429701/-microbiota-and-metabolic-syndrome
#19
Yüksel Altuntaş, Adnan Batman
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421057/gut-microbiota-modulation-and-its-relationship-with-obesity-using-prebiotic-fibers-and-probiotics-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Dinesh K Dahiya, Renuka, Monica Puniya, Umesh K Shandilya, Tejpal Dhewa, Nikhil Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Anil K Puniya, Pratyoosh Shukla
In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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