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probiotics and prebiotics

Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Edith Lahner, Bruno Annibale
Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal condition. Clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic uncomplicated or complicated DD. Symptoms related to uncomplicated DD are not specific and may be indistinguishable from those of irritable bowel syndrome. Low-grade inflammation, altered intestinal microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, and abnormal colonic motility have been identified as factors potentially contributing to symptoms. Probiotics may modify the gut microbial balance leading to health benefits...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Massimo Marzorati, Tom Van de Wiele
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) hosts the most complex microbial community in the human body. Given the extensive metabolic potential which is present in this community, this additional organ is of key importance to maintain a healthy status and several diseases are frequently correlated with an alteration of the composition/functionality of the gut microbiota. Consequently, there is a great interest in identifying potential approaches that could modulate the microbiota and its metabolism to bring about a positive health effect...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Yvan Vandenplas, Muath Abdurrahman Alturaiki, Wafaa Al-Qabandi, Fawaz AlRefaee, Ziad Bassil, Bassam Eid, Ahmed El Beleidy, Ali Ibrahim Almehaidib, Pierre Mouawad, Maroun Sokhn
This paper covers algorithms for the management of regurgitation, constipation and infantile colic in infants. Anti-regurgitation formula may be considered in infants with troublesome regurgitation, while diagnostic investigations or drug therapy are not indicated in the absence of warning signs. Although probiotics have shown some positive evidence for the management of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the evidence is not strong enough to make a recommendation. A partially hydrolyzed infant formula with prebiotics and β-palmitate may be considered as a dietary intervention for functional constipation in formula fed infants...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
OBJECTIVES: Gut dysbiosis has been associated with several clinically relevant conditions, including alterations of central nervous system (CNS) structure and function development. This review discussed aspects of the relationship between gut microbiota and the CNS during development. METHODS: PubMed was used to search for all of the studies published over the last 15 years using the key word "microbiota" and "gut" or "intestinal" and "nervous system". More than 350 articles were found, and only those published in English and providing data on aspects related to neurologic diseases were included in the evaluation...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Infection
Alireza Chackoshian Khorasani, Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati
Incorporation of nanofibers of chitin (NC), lignocellulose (NLC) and bacterial cellulose (BNC) in pectin was studied to improve prebiotic activity and gastrointestinal resistance of the pectin-nanofibers biocomposites for protection of probiotics under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The biocomposites were prepared using various compositions of pectin and nanofibers, which were designed using D-optimal mixture method. The incorporation of the nanofibers in pectin led to a slow degradation of the pectin-nanofibers biocomposites in contrast to their rapid swelling...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Parisa Shokryazdan, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Bahman Navidshad, Juan Boo Liang
Nowadays, use of prebiotics as feed and food additives has received increasing interest because of the beneficial effects of prebiotics on the health of animals and humans. One of the beneficial effects of prebiotics is stimulation of immune system, which can be direct or indirect through increasing population of beneficial microbes or probiotics, especially lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, in the gut. An important mechanism of action of probiotics and prebiotics, by which they can affect the immune system, is changing the expression of cytokines...
October 4, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Afshin Shafaghi, Aydin Pourkazemi, Mohsen Khosravani, Saba Fakhrie Asl, Alireza Amir Maafi, Zahra Atrkar Roshan, Jafar Abaspour Rahimabad
BACKGROUND Standard anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment fails in the eradication of the organism in almost 10-35% of the patients and has different side effects. Recent studies have proposed that probiotic supplementations with or without prebiotic may improve the eradication rate and diminish the side effects, although it is still a controversial issue. We aimed to investigate the effect of probiotic with prebiotic supplementation on the eradication rate and side effects of anti H. pylori quadruple therapy...
July 2016: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
Himaja N, Hemalatha R, K Narendra Babu, Shujauddin Mohd
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics from various regularly consumed cereals and novel substrates are currently being utilized as functional foods. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of synbiotic, formulated with prebiotic extracted from natural resources like green gram (Vigna radiata) along with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in modulating immune responses in the offspring when supplemented during gestation and lactation. RESULTS: Synbiotic supplementation was effective in improving cell mediated immunity (CMI) and humoral immunity among F0 dams...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Diego Currò, Gianluca Ianiro, Silvia Pecere, Stefano Bibbò, Giovanni Cammarota
Functional bowel disorders (FBDs), mainly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC, also called chronic idiopathic constipation), are highly diffused worldwide. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, although less common, has a strong impact on patients' quality of life, as well as is highly expensive for our healthcare. A definite cure for those disorders is still yet to come. Over the years, several therapeutic approaches complementary or alternative to traditional pharmacological treatments, including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fiber and herbal medicinal products, have been investigated for the management of both groups of diseases...
October 3, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Mohammad Bodrul Munir, Roshada Hashim, Mohammad Suhaimee Abdul Manaf, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor
This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Shyh-Hsiang Lin, Liang-Mao Chou, Yi-Wen Chien, Jung-Su Chang, Ching-I Lin
It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS-) enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Megan J Schlichte, Abbey Vandersall, Rajani Katta
In the context of increasing popularity of "natural" alternatives to conventional medicine, several dietary supplements have gained the attention of researchers and consumers alike in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Readily available without a prescription and frequently perceived to have fewer side effects than traditional medications, these "natural" remedies may be featured in discussions with patients, and clinicians should therefore be familiar with their efficacy and safety. Based on trials to date, no dietary supplements can be recommended for routine use in the treatment of AD...
July 2016: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
M Camilleri, S-Y Park, E Scarpato, A Staiano
BACKGROUND: Infantile colic is a frequent problem in neonates and infants. This review addresses current management including the results for nutrient modifications; soy-based formulas; and prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. PURPOSE: Given the evidence that there is still an unmet clinical need, as current treatments are incompletely efficacious, we have examined the evidence around three hypothetical mechanisms that could potentially be involved in etiopathogenesis of infantile colic: immaturity of bile acid mechanisms that alter intraluminal and absorptive mechanisms, immaturity in motility and alterations in the microbiome...
September 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Kelly Green Corkins, Teresa Shurley
Infant formulas are designed to be a substitute for breast milk. Since they are sole source of nutrition for growing and developing infants, they are highly regulated by the government. All ingredients in infant formulas must be considered "generally recognized as safe." Manufacturers are continually modifying their products to make them more like breast milk. Functional ingredients added to infant formula include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nucleotides, prebiotics, and probiotics. The most common breast milk substitutes are standard cow's milk-based term infant formulas, which include subcategories of organic and breast milk supplementation, and come in standard dilutions of 19 or 20 calories per ounce...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Gabriel Olveira, Inmaculada González-Molero
The concept of prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics and their use in different situations of daily clinical practice related to clinical nutrition is reviewed, as well as their role in the treatment/prevention of diarrhea (acute, induced by antibiotics, secondary to radiotherapy), inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and pouchitis), in colonic health (constipation, irritable bowel), in liver disease (steatosis and minimum encephalopathy), and in intensive care, surgical, and liver transplantation...
November 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard You Wu, Philip M Sherman
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother's milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Sara Vidal, Silvana Teresa Tapia-Paniagua, Jesús Miguel Moriñigo, Carmen Lobo, Inés García de la Banda, María Del Carmen Balebona, Miguel Ángel Moriñigo
The interaction host-intestinal microbiota is essential for the immunological homeostasis of the host. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics are promising tools for the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota towards beneficial effects to the host. The objective of this study was to evaluate the modulation effect on the intestinal microbiota and the transcription of genes involved in the immune response in head kidney of Solea senegalensis after administration of diet supplemented with the prebiotic alginate and the probiotic Shewanella putrefaciens Pdp11 CECT 7627 (SpPdp11)...
September 10, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Antonella Gallo, Giovanna Passaro, Antonio Gasbarrini, Raffaele Landolfi, Massimo Montalto
Alterations of intestinal microflora may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. There is emerging interest on the role of selective modulation of microflora in inducing benefits in inflammatory intestinal disorders, by as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). To summarize recent evidences on microflora modulation in main intestinal inflammatory disorders, PubMed was searched using terms microbiota, intestinal flora, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal transplantation...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hassan Abdel-Hafeez, Elham Saleh, Samar Tawfeek, Ibrahim Youssef, Asmaa Abdel-Daim
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic with and without feed restriction on broilers performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, and feed cost of production from 1 to 56 days of age. Two hundred and forty unsexed one day-old chicks of Arbor Acres breed were used. Two trials, I & II, were conducted, with 120 birds in every one. Each trial was divided into 4 equal groups. The birds in trial I were fed ad libitum throughout the experiment, while the chicks in trial II were fed ad libitum during the first week of age, then subjected to 5 hours / day of feed restriction from the beginning of the second week up to the end of the experiment...
September 12, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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