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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228969/prevention-and-treatment-of-neonatal-nosocomial-infections
#1
REVIEW
Jayashree Ramasethu
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215759/impact-of-ageing-and-a-synbiotic-on-the-immune-response-to-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Sumia Enani, Agnieszka Przemska-Kosicka, Caroline E Childs, Catherine Maidens, Honglin Dong, Lorenza Conterno, Kieran Tuohy, Susan Todd, Margot Gosney, Parveen Yaqoob
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ageing increases risk of respiratory infections and impairs the response to influenza vaccination. Pre- and pro-biotics offer an opportunity to modulate anti-viral defenses and the response to vaccination via alteration of the gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of a novel probiotic, Bifidobacterium longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486, combined with a prebiotic, gluco-oligosaccharide, on the B and T cell response to seasonal influenza vaccination in young and older subjects ...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215066/how-to-modulate-gut-microbiota-diet-pre-probiotics-or-antibiotics
#3
Francesca R Ponziani, Cecilia Binda, Antonio Gasbarrini
The gut microbiota is involved in the maintenance of humans' health and its alterations have been associated to several intestinal and extra intestinal disorders. For this reason, there is increasing interest on gut microbiota modulation as both a preventive strategy or as a therapeutic option in different gastrointestinal, hepatic and systemic diseases. Many studies have tried to find out the impact of diet, prebiotic, probiotic and antibiotics on gut microbiota composition and function, obtaining very heterogeneous and sometimes conflicting results, especially as regards the effect on clinical outcomes...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204884/selection-of-bacillus-species-for-targeted-in-situ-release-of-prebiotic-galacto-rhamnogalacturonan-from-potato-pulp-in-piglets
#4
Carsten Jers, Mikael L Strube, Mette D Cantor, Bea K K Nielsen, Ole B Sørensen, Mette Boye, Anne S Meyer
We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs. In this study, we evaluated the option for further functionalizing Bacillus feed supplements by selecting strains possessing the enzymes required for extraction of the potentially prebiotic fibers. We established that it would require production and secretion of pectin lyase and/or polygalacturonase but no or limited secretion of galactanase and β-galactosidase...
February 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199749/physiological-changes-of-surface-membrane-in-lactobacillus-with-prebiotics
#5
Mingfang Pan, Kishore K Kumaree, Nagendra P Shah
Synbiotics are always considered to be beneficial in healthy manipulation of gut environment; however, the purpose of this research was to investigate the dominance of synbiotic over the individual potential of probiotics and prebiotics. Four different types of prebiotics, fructo-oligosaccharides, raffinose, inulin, and cellobiose, were evaluated based on their varying degree of polymerization, combined each with 2 different Lactobacilli strains, including Lactobacillus paracasei 276 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194099/gut-to-brain-dysbiosis-mechanisms-linking-western-diet-consumption-the-microbiome-and-cognitive-impairment
#6
REVIEW
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Scott E Kanoski
Consumption of a Western Diet (WD) that is high in saturated fat and added sugars negatively impacts cognitive function, particularly mnemonic processes that rely on the integrity of the hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences cognitive function via the gut-brain axis, and that WD factors significantly alter the proportions of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we review mechanisms through which consuming a WD negatively impacts neurocognitive function, with a particular focus on recent evidence linking the gut microbiome with dietary- and metabolic-associated hippocampal impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192108/timely-use-of-probiotics-in-hospitalized-adults-prevents-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-with-meta-regression-analysis
#7
Nicole T Shen, Anna Maw, Lyubov L Tmanova, Alejandro Pino, Kayley Ancy, Carl V Crawford, Matthew S Simon, Arthur T Evans
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systematic reviews have provided evidence for the efficacy of probiotics in preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but guidelines do not recommend probiotic use for prevention of CDI. We performed an updated systematic review to help guide clinical practice. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, and The Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials evaluating use of probiotics and CDI in hospitalized adults taking antibiotics...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186660/efficacy-of-a-probiotic-prebiotic-supplement-on-incidence-of-diarrhea-in-a-dog-shelter-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#8
L Rose, J Rose, S Gosling, M Holmes
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the most frequent morbidity affecting kenneled dogs in animal shelters. Diarrhea impacts animal welfare and the finances of the shelter as they must treat, clean, and house affected animals until recovered. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Supplementing dogs entering an animal shelter with a probiotic-prebiotic, known as a synbiotic, will decrease the incidence of diarrhea. ANIMALS: Seven hundred and seventy-three dogs entering an animal shelter in the United Kingdom...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185614/current-status-of-the-preharvest-application-of-pro-and-prebiotics-to-farm-animals-to-enhance-the-microbial-safety-of-animal-products
#9
Rolf D Joerger, Arpeeta Ganguly
The selection of microorganisms that act as probiotics and feed additives that act as prebiotics is an ongoing research effort, but a sizable range of commercial pro-, pre- and synbiotic (combining pro- and prebiotics) products are already available and being used on farms. A survey of the composition of commercial products available in the United States revealed that Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium, and Bacillus subtilis were the three most common species in probiotic products. Of the nearly 130 probiotic products (also called direct-fed microbials) for which information was available, about 50 also contained yeasts or molds...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185076/prebiotic-effects-of-bovine-lactoferrin-on-specific-probiotic-bacteria
#10
Po-Wen Chen, Zhen-Shu Liu, Tai-Chen Kuo, Min-Chi Hsieh, Zhe-Wei Li
Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) is a natural iron-binding protein and it has been suggested to be a prebiotic agent, but this finding remains inconclusive. This study explores the prebiotic potential of bLf in 14 probiotics. Initially, bLf (1-32 mg/mL) treatment showed occasional and slight prebiotic activity in several probiotics only during the late experimental period (48, 78 h) at 37 °C. We subsequently supposed that bLf exerts stronger prebiotic effects when probiotic growth has been temperately retarded...
February 9, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168883/foreword-probiotics-and-prebiotics-important-dietary-components-for-health
#11
Koen Venema
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164854/the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. Evidence is accumulating to support the view that gut microbes influence central neurochemistry and behavior. Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis that can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may have an impact on stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics, or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders, such as depression and autism...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119466/effects-of-the-dietary-protein-and-carbohydrate-ratio-on-gut-microbiomes-in-dogs-of-different-body-conditions
#13
Qinghong Li, Christian L Lauber, Gail Czarnecki-Maulden, Yuanlong Pan, Steven S Hannah
: Obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. High-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. Sixty-three obese and lean Labrador retrievers and Beagles (mean age, 5.72 years) were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifically, the HPLC diet (49...
January 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116928/assessment-of-the-synbiotic-properites-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-infantis-in-vitro-and-in-humanised-mice
#14
S Musilova, N Modrackova, P Hermanova, T Hudcovic, R Svejstil, V Rada, V Tejnecky, V Bunesova
The mode of delivery plays a crucial role in infant gastrointestinal tract colonisation, which in the case of caesarean section is characterised by the presence of clostridia and low bifidobacterial counts. Gut colonisation can be modified by probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are infant prebiotics that show a bifidogenic effect. Moreover, genome sequencing of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis within the infant microbiome revealed adaptations for milk utilisation. This study aimed to evaluate the synbiotic effect of B...
January 24, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115383/mechanistic-study-of-water-insoluble-yeast-glucans-utilization-in-bifidobacterium-breve-strain-jcm1192
#15
Hoi Yee Keung, Tsz Kai Li, Lok To Sham, Man Kit Cheung, Peter Chi Keung Cheung, Hoi Shan Kwan
: Bifidobacteria exert beneficial effects on hosts and are extensively used as probiotics. However, due to their genetic inaccessibility, little is known about their mechanism of carbohydrate utilization and regulation. Bifidobacterium breve strain JCM1192 can grow on water insoluble yeast cell wall glucans (YCWG), which are recently considered as potential prebiotics. From the result of (1)H NMR spectrometry, the YCWG were composed of highly branched (1→3)(1→6)-β-glucan and (1→4)(1→6)-α-glucan...
January 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111775/effects-of-synbiotic-supplementation-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-meat-quality-and-muscular-antioxidant-capacity-and-mineral-contents-in-broilers
#16
Y F Cheng, Y P Chen, X H Li, W L Yang, C Wen, Y R Kang, A Q Wang, Y M Zhou
BACKGROUD: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, carcass composition, meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity and mineral contents in broilers. 96 day-old male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres Plus) were randomly allocated to 2 groups, and each group consisted of 6 replicates with 8 chicks each. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with either 0 or 1.5 g · kg(-1) synbiotic consisted of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Clostridium butyricum) and prebiotics (yeast cell wall and xylooligosaccharide) from 1 to 42 days of age...
January 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111773/potential-prebiotic-properties-of-cashew-apple-anacardium-occidentale-l-agro-industrial-byproduct-on-lactobacillus-species
#17
Francisca Nayara Dantas Duarte, Jéssica Bezerra Rodrigues, Maiara da Costa Lima, Marcos Dos Santos Lima, Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco, Maria Manuela Estevez Pintado, Jailane de Souza Aquino, Evandro Leite de Souza
BACKGROUND: The prebiotic effects of a cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) agro-industrial byproduct powder (CAP) on different potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains, namely L. acidophilus LA-05, L. casei L-26 and L. paracasei L-10, was assessed using in vitro experimental models. For this, the growth of the Lactobacillus strains when cultivated in a broth containing CAP (20 or 30 g L(-1) ), glucose (20 g L(-1) ) or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (20 g L(-1) ) were monitored during 48 h; the prebiotic activity scores of CAP were determined; and the changes in pH values, production of organic acids and consumption of sugars in growth media were verified...
January 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104104/role-of-gastrointestinal-microbiota-on-kidney-injury-and-the-obese-condition
#18
REVIEW
Keerati Wanchai, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn, Anusorn Lungkaphin
Obesity is associated with kidney disease, probably due to obesity-mediated inflammation, podocyte injury and oxidative stress in the kidney It is also linked to other diseases, for example, diabetes and hypertension, which are associated with the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, gastrointestinal dysbiosis has been demonstrated in cases of obesity with the development and progression of kidney disease. Thus, modification of gastrointestinal microbiota using probiotics or prebiotics or both to improve the balance of bacterial flora is a potential approach for the management of obesity-associated kidney disease...
January 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096139/potential-health-benefits-of-combining-yogurt-and-fruits-based-on-their-probiotic-and-prebiotic-properties
#19
REVIEW
Melissa Anne Fernandez, André Marette
Fruit and yogurt have been identified individually as indicators of healthy dietary patterns. Fruits are relatively low in energy density and are an excellent source of antioxidants and prebiotic fibers and polyphenols, which can promote digestive health. Yogurt, on the other hand, is a nutrient-dense food that is a good source of dairy protein, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B-12, conjugated linoleic acid, and other key fatty acids. In addition, it contains beneficial bacterial cultures, making it a potential source of probiotics...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096137/introduction-to-the-yogurt-in-nutrition-initiative-at-the-first-symposium-of-yogurt-in-mexico-the-balanced-diet-initiative
#20
REVIEW
Armando R Tovar, Guadalupe Herrera
In some European countries, yogurt consumption is common. However, such consumption is not common in Latin America, particularly in Mexico, partially because of the lack of a cultural tradition of consuming yogurt. Moreover, we also know that little information about the health benefits associated with yogurt consumption has been provided to the Mexican population. Thus, there is an immediate need to provide, at least to the nutrition community in the country, current scientific evidence about the health benefits of yogurt, with the aim that yogurt be included as part of the functional foods recommended to the population...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
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