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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536728/neonatologist-performed-point-of-care-functional-echocardiography-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#1
Woei Bing Poon, Keng Yean Wong
Functional echocardiography (fECHO) refers to a bedside, limited assessment of the ductus arteriosus, myocardial performance and pulmonary or systemic haemodynamics that is brief in nature and addresses a specific clinical question or management dilemma. This point-of-care ultrasonography is increasingly used internationally and locally among neonatal units to assist with management of neonatal haemodynamic conditions. This article intends to explain the modality, its indications, interpretation and implications for management, and how it impacts long-term outcomes, particularly in chronic lung disease for premature infants born before 32 weeks of gestation...
May 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530117/combined-impact-of-smoking-and-early-life-exposures-on-adult-lung-function-trajectories
#2
James P Allinson, Rebecca Hardy, Gavin C Donaldson, Seif O Shaheen, Diana Kuh, Jadwiga A Wedzicha
BACKGROUND: Both adverse early life exposures and adult smoking can negatively influence adult lung function trajectory but few studies consider how the impact of early life exposures may be modified by subsequent smoking. METHODS: The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development is a nationally representative cohort, initially of 5362 individuals, followed since enrolment at birth in March 1946. Using data collected prospectively across life and multilevel modelling we investigated how the relationships between early life exposures (infant lower respiratory infection, manual social class, home overcrowding and pollution exposure) and FEV1 and FVC trajectories between ages 43 and 60-64 were influenced by smoking behaviour...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529001/a-single-intranasal-administration-of-virus-like-particle-vaccine-induces-an-efficient-protection-for-mice-against-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#3
Yue-Ying Jiao, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yi-Fei Yan, Ying Hua, Yao Ma, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Jing-Dong Song, Xiang-Lei Peng, Jiaqiang Huang, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully...
May 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495620/vitamin-c-to-decrease-the-effects-of-smoking-in-pregnancy-on-infant-lung-function-vcsip-rationale-design-and-methods-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-vitamin-c-supplementation-in-pregnancy-for-the-primary-prevention-of-effects-of-in-utero-tobacco-smoke-exposure
#4
Cindy T McEvoy, Kristin F Milner, Ashley J Scherman, Diane G Schilling, Christina J Tiller, Brittany Vuylsteke, Lyndsey E Shorey-Kendrick, Eliot R Spindel, Robert Schuff, Julie Mitchell, Dawn Peters, Jill Metz, David Haas, Keith Jackson, Robert S Tepper, Cynthia D Morris
Despite strong anti-smoking efforts, at least 12% of American women cannot quit smoking when pregnant resulting in >450,000 smoke-exposed infants born yearly. Smoking during pregnancy is the largest preventable cause of childhood respiratory illness including wheezing and asthma. Recent studies have shown a protective effect of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function of offspring exposed to in utero smoke in a non-human primate model and an initial human trial. Vitamin C to Decrease the Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function (VCSIP) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate pulmonary function at 3months of age in infants delivered to pregnant smokers randomized to 500mg/day of vitamin C versus placebo during pregnancy...
May 8, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485984/vascular-endothelial-mitochondrial-function-predicts-death-or-pulmonary-outcomes-in-preterm-infants
#5
Jegen Kandasamy, Nelida Olave, Scott W Ballinger, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
RATIONALE: Vascular endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of several oxidant stress associated disorders. Oxidant stress is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of prematurity that often leads to sequelae in adult survivors. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to identify whether differences in mitochondrial bioenergetic function and oxidant generation in HUVEC (human umbilical venous endothelial cells) obtained from extremely preterm infants were associated with risk for BPD or death before 36 weeks post-menstrual age...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479114/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-where-have-all-the-stem-cells-gone-origin-and-potential-function-of-resident-lung-stem-cells
#6
Marius Alexander Möbius, Bernard Thébaud
Celebrating its 50(th) anniversary in 2017, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) - the chronic lung disease of prematurity that follows ventilator and O2 therapy for acute respiratory failure - remains the most frequent complication of extreme prematurity. Survival of premature infants born at increasingly earlier stages of gestation has made the prevention of lung injury increasingly challenging. BPD is postulated to be a misdirection of many functions in the developing lung including growth factor signalling and matrix as well as cellular composition, resulting in impaired alveolar and lung vascular growth...
May 4, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473324/mir-29b-supplementation-decreases-expression-of-matrix-proteins-and-improves-alveolarization-in-mice-exposed-to-maternal-inflammation-and-neonatal-hyperoxia
#7
Shaheen Durrani-Kolarik, Caylie A Pool, Ashley Gray, Kathryn Marie Heyob, Mary J Cismowski, Gloria S Pryhuber, L James Lee, Zhaogang Yang, Trent E Tipple, Lynette K Rogers
Even with advances in the care of preterm infants, chronic lung disease or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) continues to be a significant pulmonary complication. Among those diagnosed with BPD, a subset of infants develop severe BPD with disproportionate pulmonary morbidities. In addition to decreased alveolarization, these infants develop obstructive and/or restrictive lung function due to increases in or dysregulation of extracellular matrix proteins. Analyses of plasma obtained from preterm infants during the first week of life indicate that circulating miR-29b is suppressed in infants that subsequently develop BPD, and that decreased circulating miR-29b is inversely correlated with BPD severity...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458035/vitamin-a-and-retinoic-acid-combination-attenuates-neonatal-hyperoxia-induced-neurobehavioral-impairment-in-adult-mice
#8
Manimaran Ramani, Thomas van Groen, Inga Kadish, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Lori L McMahon
Preterm infants exposed to supra-physiological levels of oxygen often have poor executive and memory function associated with reductions in hippocampal volume later in life. We recently showed that adult mice exposed to neonatal hyperoxia have deficits in spatial navigation and increased exploratory behavior associated with hippocampal shrinkage. Retinoids attenuate hyperoxia-induced lung injury in animal models and reduce neonatal chronic lung disease in preterm infants. We hypothesized that retinoid (combination of Vitamin A+Retinoic Acid [VARA]) administration in mice during neonatal hyperoxia would attenuate oxygen-induced cognitive impairment when assessed in adult life...
April 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457522/lung-transplantation-for-flna-associated-progressive-lung-disease
#9
Lindsay C Burrage, R Paul Guillerman, Shailendra Das, Shipra Singh, Deborah A Schady, Shaine A Morris, Magdalena Walkiewicz, Marc G Schecter, Jeffrey S Heinle, Timothy E Lotze, Seema R Lalani, George B Mallory
OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of patients with pathogenic variants in FLNA and progressive lung disease necessitating lung transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 6 female infants with heterozygous presumed loss-of-function pathogenic variants in FLNA whose initial presentation was early and progressive respiratory failure. RESULTS: Each patient received lung transplantation at an average age of 11 months (range, 5-15 months)...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422514/vitamin-c-prevents-offspring-dna-methylation-changes-associated-with-maternal-smoking-in-pregnancy
#10
Lyndsey E Shorey-Kendrick, Cindy T McEvoy, Betsy Ferguson, Julja Burchard, Byung S Park, Lina Gao, Brittany H Vuylsteke, Kristin F Milner, Cynthia D Morris, Eliot R Spindel
BACKGROUND: Infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy demonstrate lifelong decreases in pulmonary function. DNA methylation changes associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy have been described in placenta and cord blood at delivery, in fetal lung, and in buccal epithelium and blood during childhood. We recently demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial (NCT00632476) that vitamin C supplementation to pregnant smokers can lessen the impact of maternal smoking on offspring pulmonary function and decrease the incidence of wheeze at one year of age...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417451/prophylactic-anti-staphylococcal-antibiotics-for-cystic-fibrosis
#11
REVIEW
Alan R Smyth, Margaret Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested these hypotheses...
April 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399119/caffeine-ameliorates-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury-by-protecting-gch1-function-in-neonatal-rat-pups
#12
Xigang Jing, Yi-Wen Huang, Jason Jarzembowski, Yang Shi, Girija G Konduri, Ru-Jeng Teng
BackgroundBronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major morbidity in premature infants, and impaired angiogenesis is considered a major contributor to BPD. Early caffeine treatment decreases the incidence of BPD; the mechanism remains incompletely understood.MethodsSprague-Dawley rat pups exposed to normoxia or hyperoxia since birth were treated daily with either 20 mg/kg caffeine or normal saline by an intraperitoneal injection from day 2 of life. The lungs were obtained for studies at days 10 and 21.ResultsHyperoxia impaired somatic growth and lung growth in the rat pups...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389088/pulmonary-diagnostics
#13
REVIEW
Steven M Donn, Sunil K Sinha
Term infants with respiratory distress may have extremely varied etiologies of their illnesses. These range from anatomical malformations to infectious or inflammatory conditions to genetic, metabolic, or neurological abnormalities. This article reviews the present array of diagnostic studies available to the clinician, including the physical examination, imaging (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and nuclear scanning techniques), lung mechanics and function testing, evaluation of gas exchange (blood gases, pulse oximetry, transcutaneous monitoring, and end-tidal carbon monoxide measurements), and anatomical studies (bronchoscopy and lung biopsy)...
April 4, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385808/does-lack-of-glutathione-peroxidase-1-gene-expression-exacerbate-lung-injury-induced-by-neonatal-hyperoxia-in-mice
#14
Sheena Bouch, Megan O'Reilly, Judy B de Haan, Richard Harding, Foula Sozo
Supplemental oxygen (O2) increases the risk of lung injury in preterm infants owing to an immature antioxidant system. Our objective was to determine whether impairing antioxidant defense by decreasing glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) gene expression increases the injurious effects of hyperoxia. GPx1(+/+) and GPx1(-/-) C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to 21% O2 (Air) or 40% O2 (Hyperoxia; Hyp) from birth to postnatal day 7 (P7d); they were killed at P7d or maintained in air until adulthood (P56d) to assess short-term and long-term effects, respectively...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382490/silencing-of-y-box-binding-protein-1-by-rna-interference-inhibits-proliferation-invasion-and-metastasis-and-enhances-sensitivity-to-cisplatin-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#15
Hong Wang, Ruowen Sun, Zuofei Chi, Shuang Li, Liangchun Hao
Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), a member of Y-box protein family binding DNA and RNA, has been proposed as a novel marker in multiple malignant tumors and found to be associated with tumor malignancy. Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor arising from neuroblast cells of the autonomic nervous system, which is the most common cancer diagnosed in infants. It has been reported that YB-1 is highly expressing in various human tumors including nasopharynx, thyroid, lung, breast, colon, ovary, and prostate cancers. This study aimed to investigate the functional role of YB-1 in neuroblastoma by silencing YB-1 using RNA interference (shRNA) in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
April 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370347/velocity-vector-imaging-shows-normal-cardiac-systolic-function-in-survivors-of-severe-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-at-6-16-years-of-age
#16
Piia Suursalmi, Tiina Ojala, Tuija Poutanen, Anneli Eerola, Päivi Korhonen, Tarja Kopeli, Outi Tammela
AIM: This study evaluated global myocardial function and associations between cardiac function and lung function in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, with and without severe radiographic bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), at 6-14 years of age. METHODS: We studied 34 VLBW and 19 term-born controls and the VLBW group was further divided into a BPD group with severe radiographic BPD and those without radiographic BPD in infancy. Detailed right and left ventricular myocardial function was analysed by velocity vector imaging and the left ventricular mass was calculated...
March 31, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352342/different-ventilation-modes-combined-with-ambroxol-in-the-treatment-of-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-premature-infants
#17
Bin Zhou, Jing-Fang Zhai, Jie-Bin Wu, Bao Jin, Yan-Yan Zhang
The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different modes of mechanical ventilation in combination with secretolytic therapy with ambroxol in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Seventy-three premature infants with hyaline membrane disease (HMD) (stage III-IV), also known as respiratory distress syndrome, who were supported by mechanical ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Xuzhou Central Hospital, were involved in the present study, between January 2013 and February 2015...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325055/-experience-with-hepatoblastoma-treatment-in-small-children-the-use-of-preoperative-3d-virtual-analysis-mevis-for-liver-resections
#18
J Janek, P Bician, P Kenderessy, P Kothaj, K Novotná, J Koňarčík, Ľ Laca, J Ulianko, I Dedinská
INTRODUCTION: Hepatoblastoma is an uncommon but most frequent liver cancer in infants and children. The therapy is complex, including neoadjuvant, surgical, and adjuvant therapy. For surgery, the presence of a specialized surgeon and an anaesthesiologist is required. For planning the surgery, the 3D analysis MeVis is currently available. The objective of the work is the assessment of a group of children operated for a liver hepatoblastoma and the assessment of contribution of a pre-surgery virtual 3D analysis MeVis for a surgeon...
2017: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277913/observed-to-expected-mri-fetal-lung-volume-can-predict-long-term-lung-morbidity-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#19
Hiroyuki Tsuda, Tomomi Kotani, Mayo Miura, Yumiko Ito, Shima Hirako, Tomoko Nakano, Kenji Imai, Fumitaka Kikkawa
OBJECTIVE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) causes pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension, which are associated with long-term respiratory problems in infants. The aim of this study was to establish a marker for predicting lung function at 1 year of age in infants with CDH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infants with isolated CDH who were delivered after 35 weeks of gestation from April 2008 to June 2016 at Nagoya University Hospital were registered. Regarding alive infants with CDH, only those who underwent follow-up for at least 1 year were registered...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275186/cpg-in-combination-with-an-inhibitor-of-notch-signaling-suppresses-formalin-inactivated-respiratory-syncytial-virus-enhanced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-inflammation-by-inhibiting-th17-memory-responses-and-promoting-tissue-resident-memory-cells-in-lungs
#20
Lei Zhang, Hongyong Li, Yan Hai, Wei Yin, Wenjian Li, Boyang Zheng, Xiaomin Du, Na Li, Zhengzheng Zhang, Yuqing Deng, Ruihong Zeng, Lin Wei
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of childhood hospitalizations. The formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) has been an obstacle to the development of a safe and effective killed RSV vaccine. Agonists of Toll-like receptor (TLR) have been shown to regulate immune responses induced by FI-RSV. Notch signaling plays critical roles during the differentiation and effector function phases of innate and adaptive immune responses. Cross talk between TLR and Notch signaling pathways results in fine-tuning of TLR-triggered innate inflammatory responses...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
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