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Lung function infant

Francesca Ciuffini, Colin F Robertson, David G Tingay
Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Stephanie J Attarian, Sandra L Leibel, Ping Yang, Danielle N Alfano, Brian P Hackett, F Sessions Cole, Aaron Hamvas
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the NKX2-1 gene are associated with lung disease in infants and children. We hypothesize that disruption of normal surfactant gene expression with these mutations contributes to the respiratory phenotypes observed. METHODS: To assess transactivational activity, co-transfection of luciferase reporter vectors containing surfactant protein B or C (SFTPB or SFTPC) promoters with NKX2-1 plasmids was performed and luciferase activity measured...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Ahmed Moghieb, Geremy Clair, Hugh Mitchell, Joseph A Kitzmiller, Erika M Zink, Young-Mo Kim, Vladislav Petyuk, Anil K Shukla, Ronald J Moore, Thomas O Metz, James P Carson, Jason E McDermott, Richard A Corley, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Charles Ansong
Biochemical networks mediating normal lung morphogenesis and function have important implications for ameliorating morbidity and mortality in premature infants. While several transcript-level studies have examined normal lung development, corresponding protein-level analyses are lacking. Here we performed proteomics analysis of murine lungs from embryonic to early adult ages to identify the molecular networks mediating normal lung development. We identified 8,932 proteins providing a deep and comprehensive view of the lung proteome...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Nelida Olave, Colm Travers, Gabriel Rezonzew, Kalsang Dolma, Alexandra Simpson, Brian Halloran, Zubair Aghai, Pragnya Das, Nirmal Sharma, Xin Xu, Kristopher Genschmer, Derek Russell, Tomasz Szul, Nengjun Yi, J Edwin Blalock, Amit Gaggar, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
Premature infants are at high risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), characterized by chronic inflammation and inhibition of lung development, which we have recently identified as being modulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and alterations in the airway microbiome. Exosomes and exosomal miRNAs may regulate cell differentiation and tissue and organ development. We discovered that tracheal aspirates from infants with severe BPD had increased numbers of, but smaller, exosomes compared with term controls...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Cosby A Stone, Cindy T McEvoy, Judy L Aschner, Ashudee Kirk, Christian Rosas-Salazar, Joan M Cook-Mills, Paul E Moore, William F Walsh, Tina V Hartert
Vitamin E is obtained only through the diet and has a number of important biological activities, including functioning as an antioxidant. Evidence that free radicals may contribute to pathological processes such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a disease of prematurity associated with increased lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress, led to trials of the antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol) to prevent BPD with variable results. These trials were all conducted at supraphysiologic doses and 2 of these trials utilized a formulation containing a potentially harmful excipient...
March 7, 2018: Neonatology
Gianluca Lista, Fabio Meneghin, Ilia Bresesti, Francesco Cavigioli
The last decades have seen significant improvements in the care of premature infants. The introduction of new approaches, especially in the ventilatory management, have led to significant increase of survival rate of low and extremely low gestational age infants. These populations of neonates, however, often experience prolonged mechanical ventilation, which is widely recognized to be closely related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) development. The management of BPD, which is a multifactorial disease, requires a multidisciplinary approach and remains challenging for all the physicians involved...
December 22, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Daniela de Melo Miranda Gonçalves, Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen, Ana Sílvia Scavacini, Fernanda Cordoba Lanza, Ana Lucia Goulart, Dirceu Solé, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function in former preterm infants may be compromised during childhood. OBJECTIVES: To assess pulmonary function in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants at 6-12 months of corrected age and analyze the factors associated with abnormal pulmonary function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with preterm infants at 6-12 months of corrected age with birth weight <1500 g. Children with malformations or affected by neuromuscular and respiratory diseases were excluded...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Nienke M Scheltema, Elisabeth E Nibbelke, Juliëtte Pouw, Maarten O Blanken, Maroeska M Rovers, Christiana A Naaktgeboren, Natalie I Mazur, Joanne G Wildenbeest, Cornelis K van der Ent, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with subsequent wheeze and asthma. We previously reported on the causal relationship between prevention of RSV infection during infancy and reduced frequency of subsequent wheeze using a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial (MAKI). We continued follow-up and analysed the effect of RSV prevention during infancy on asthma and lung function at age 6 years. METHODS: We studied 429 infants born at 32-35 weeks of gestation between 2008-10 who had randomly received either palivizumab for RSV immunoprophylaxis or placebo during the RSV season of their first year of life...
February 27, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
David K Meyerholz, David A Stoltz, Nick D Gansemer, Sarah E Ernst, Daniel P Cook, Matthew D Strub, Erica N LeClair, Carrie K Barker, Ryan J Adam, Mariah R Leidinger, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Philip H Karp, Michael J Welsh, Paul B McCray
Loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function causes cystic fibrosis (CF), predisposing the lungs to chronic infection and inflammation. In young infants with CF, structural airway defects are increasingly recognized before the onset of significant lung disease, which suggests a developmental origin and a possible role in lung disease pathogenesis. The role(s) of CFTR in lung development is unclear and developmental studies in humans with CF are not feasible. Young CF pigs have structural airway changes and develop spontaneous postnatal lung disease similar to humans; therefore, we studied lung development in the pig model (non-CF and CF)...
February 21, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Vanesa Stojanovska, Suzanne L Miller, Stuart B Hooper, Graeme R Polglase
Preterm birth is a major cause for neonatal morbidity and mortality, and is frequently associated with adverse neurological outcomes. The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life at birth is particularly challenging for preterm infants. The main physiological driver for extrauterine transition is the establishment of spontaneous breathing. However, preterm infants have difficulty clearing lung liquid, have insufficient surfactant levels, and underdeveloped lungs. Further, preterm infants have an underdeveloped brainstem, resulting in reduced respiratory drive...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Helong Dai, Longkai Peng, Fenghua Peng, Gongbin Lan, Yu Wang, Jingjing Chen, Lei Liu, Chen Gao, Yong Guo, Chunhua Fang, Manhua Nie, Wang Long, Shaojie Yu
Pediatric kidney donors remain underutilized due to the high risk of postoperative thrombosis. To address this problem, we developed a novel en bloc kidney transplantation technique using donor thoracic aorta and the distal abdominal aorta as inflow and outflow tracts, respectively. Briefly, 8 kidneys from deceased infant donors under 5 months old and with low body weight (1.9-4.9 kg) were transplanted en bloc into 4 pediatric and 4 adult patients. The donor's common iliac artery or external iliac artery was anastomosed to the recipient's distal external iliac artery or inferior epigastric artery, respectively, as an outflow tract...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Anne-Christianne Kentgens, Marisa Guidi, Insa Korten, Lena Kohler, Severin Binggeli, Florian Singer, Philipp Latzin, Pinelopi Anagnostopoulou
INTRODUCTION: Multiple breath washout (MBW) is a sensitive test to measure lung volumes and ventilation inhomogeneity from infancy on. The commonly used setup for infant MBW, based on ultrasonic flowmeter, requires extensive signal processing, which may reduce robustness. A new setup may overcome some previous limitations but formal validation is lacking. AIM: We assessed the feasibility of infant MBW testing with the new setup and compared functional residual capacity (FRC) values of the old and the new setup in vivo and in vitro...
February 8, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Ju-Lee Oei, Ola D Saugstad, Maximo Vento
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate current evidence for the use of lower or higher oxygen strategies for preterm infant resuscitation RECENT FINDINGS: The equipoise for using higher fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (>0.4) to initiate preterm infant respiratory stabilization has been lost. Recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials assessing outcomes after using higher (FiO2 ≥ 0.6) vs. lower (FiO2 ≤ 0.3) oxygen strategies to initiate preterm resuscitation shows no difference in the rates of death or major morbidities...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Susan M Scott, Susan R Rose
The soon-to-be-delivered fetus and preterm infant have been treated with glucocorticoids to prepare for postnatal life, historically for more than 40 years. The use of glucocorticoids is as much for replacement of cortisol in the setting of a poorly functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the preterm infant, as it is for prevention of long-term lung dysfunction. Potential negative effects of glucocorticoid treatment on brain development and function have been observed more often with dexamethasone therapy than with use of other glucocorticoids...
March 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
Julio Jiménez, Flore Lesage, Jute Richter, Taro Nagatomo, Thomas Salaets, Silvia Zia, Marina Gabriela Mori Da Cunha, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Jan A Deprest, Jaan Toelen
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that affects extremely preterm infants and remains - despite improvements in neonatal intensive care - a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Cell-therapeutic strategies employing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to modulate lung development in BPD models. OBJECTIVE: Herein, we evaluate the potential of human amniotic fluid (hAF)-SC and hAF-SC with upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as cell-therapeutic agents for BPD...
February 1, 2018: Neonatology
Vasantha H S Kumar, Huamei Wang, Lori Nielsen
Premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), are at risk for frequent respiratory infections and reduced pulmonary function. We studied whether neonatal hyperoxia disrupts adaptive immune responses in adult mice, contributing to higher respiratory-related morbidities seen in these infants. Newborn mice litters were randomized at 3 days to 85% O2 or room air (RA) for 12 days. Whole lung mRNA was isolated in both the groups at 2 weeks and 3 months. Gene expression for T-cell and B-cell adaptive immune response was performed by real-time PCR and qRT-PCR; protein expression (p21, IL4, IL10, IL27, cd4) was performed by enzyme immunoassay along with p21 immunohistochemistry...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
Ayla Gunlemez, İlkay Er, Canan Baydemir, Ayse Arisoy
OBJECTIVE: Late-preterm delivery is known to be associated with potential adverse effects on lung development. Passive smoking may result in alterations of pulmonary function in infants born late-preterm. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a noninvasive, rapid, and practicable technique that can assess lung function. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of passive smoking on lung function tests in preschool children born late-preterm using IOS. METHODS: The study population consisted of a total of 139 children between 3 and 7 years of age born late-preterm who were being followed-up at our outpatient unit at the time of study period...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sarah J Kotecha, John Lowe, Sailesh Kotecha
Body composition and growth outcomes of preterm-born subjects have been studied by many researchers. In general, preterm-born children have lower height and weight especially in infancy. Despite showing potential for catch-up growth, they continue to lag behind their term counterparts in adolescence and adulthood. The various methods of studying body composition and the differing gestations and ages at which it is assessed may go some way to explaining the inconsistent results observed in different studies...
December 20, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Avigdor Hevroni, Aliza Goldman, Miriam Blank-Brachfeld, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Lior Ben-Dov, Chaim Springer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tidal breathing (TB) flow-volume and flow-time curves for identification of expiratory airway obstruction in infants. METHODS: Pulmonary function tests were analyzed retrospectively in 156 infants aged 3-24 months with persistent or recurrent respiratory complaints. Parameters derived from TB curves were compared to maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity ([Formula: see text]maxFRC) measured by rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Koji Kato, Taichi Kato, Satoshi Hayano, Yoshie Fukasawa, Atsushi Numaguchi, Tetsuo Hattori, Akiko Saito, Yoshiaki Sato, Masahiro Hayakawa
The use of unilateral pulmonary artery occlusion (UPAO) test for the preoperative evaluation of pneumonectomy was reported in adult patients. On the contrary, in infants, no strategies have yet been recommended to predict hemodynamics after pneumonectomy, nor has use of the UPAO test been reported. We describe the first case of infant with abnormal pulmonary circulation in whom successful pneumonectomy was performed after preoperative evaluation using UPAO test. Right pneumonectomy was planned for an 8-month-old girl, because of decreased right pulmonary function, high risk of pneumothorax, and impaired left lung expansion due to overexpansion caused by severe left bronchial stenosis and bronchomalacia...
January 15, 2018: International Heart Journal
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