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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930491/fetal-and-infant-growth-patterns-and-risk-of-lower-lung-function-and-asthma-the-generation-r-study
#1
Herman T den Dekker, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Irwin K Reiss, Johan C de Jongste, Liesbeth Duijts
BACKGROUND: Children with lower birth weight are at increased risk of asthma symptoms. We examined associations of fetal and infant growth with childhood lung function and asthma. METHODS: This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5,635children. Growth was estimated by repeated ultrasounds in 2nd and 3th trimester, and measured at birth and at 3, 6 and 12 months. At age 10 years, spirometry was performed and asthma was assessed by parental questionnaire...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930487/emerging-roles-of-inflammasomes-in-acute-pneumonia
#2
Sangeetha Ravi Kumar, Sagar Paudel, Laxman Ghimire, Scott Bergeron, Shanshan Cai, Rachel L Zemans, Gregory P Downey, Samithamby Jeyaseelan
Pneumonia is responsible for a substantial burden on healthcare worldwide and the single largest cause for death of infants globally. Pneumonia is caused by a variety of pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and fungi. The lung has developed complex innate immune mechanisms to combat these infections while minimizing tissue damage. One essential mechanism that drives the initial innate immune response is sensing a broad spectrum of stimuli in the cytosol by inflammasomes. Inflammasomes are composed of NLR and non-NLR proteins, and activate caspase-1 that results in proinflammatory cytokine activation...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871575/inert-gas-washout-background-and-application-in-various-lung-diseases
#3
Jakob Usemann, Sophie Yammine, Florian Singer, Philipp Latzin
Multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) is a lung function technique to measure ventilation inhomogeneity. The technique was developed more than 60 years ago, but not much used for many decades. Technical improvements, easy protocols and higher sensitivity compared with standard lung function tests in some disease groups have led to a recent renaissance of MBW. The lung clearance index (LCI) is a common measure derived from MBW tests, and offers information on lung pathology complementary to that from conventional lung function tests such as spirometry...
September 5, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863023/evaluation-of-the-augmented-infant-resuscitator-a-monitoring-device-for-neonatal-bag-valve-mask-resuscitation
#4
Desmond J Bennett, Taiga Itagaki, Christopher T Chenelle, Edward A Bittner, Robert M Kacmarek
BACKGROUND: Annually, 6 million newborns require bag-valve-mask resuscitation, and providing live feedback has the potential to improve the quality of resuscitation. The Augmented Infant Resuscitator (AIR), a real-time feedback device, has been designed to identify leaks, obstructions, and inappropriate breath rates during bag-valve-mask resuscitation. However, its function has not been evaluated. METHODS: The resistance of the AIR was measured by attaching it between a ventilator and a ventilator tester...
August 31, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861941/early-follow-up-of-lung-disease-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis-using-the-raised-volume-rapid-thoracic-compression-technique-and-computed-tomography-during-quiet-breathing
#5
Rémi Gauthier, Yann Cabon, Marie Agnes Giroux-Metges, Cecile Du Boisbaudry, Phillipe Reix, Muriel Le Bourgeois, Raphael Chiron, Nicolas Molinari, Magali Saguintaah, Francis Amsallem, Stefan Matecki
BACKGROUND: Among the different techniques used to monitor lung disease progression in infants with CF diagnosed by Newborn screening (NBS), raised volume-rapid thoracic compression (RVRTC) remains a promising tool. However, the need of sedation and positive pressure ventilation considerably limits its clinical use. We recently described a semi-quantitative method to evaluate air trapping by chest tomography during quite breathing without sedation (CTqb score). This parameter is the radiological sign of airway obstruction and could be also used for lung disease follow-up in infants with CF...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860172/the-effect-of-inert-gas-choice-on-multiple-breath-washout-in-healthy-infants-differences-in-lung-function-outcomes-and-breathing-pattern
#6
Per Magnus Gustafsson, Lovisa Bengtsson, Anders Lindblad, Paul David Robinson
Detrimental effects on breathing pattern during multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) have been described with different inhaled gases (100% oxygen, O2, and sulfur hexafluoride, SF6) but detailed comparisons are lacking. N2 and SF6 based tests were performed during spontaneous quiet sleep in 10 healthy infants aged 0.7-1.3 years using identical hardware. Differences in breathing pattern pre and post 100% O2 and 4% SF6 exposure were investigated, and the results obtained compared (FRC and Lung Clearance Index, LCI)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857765/impact-of-diuretic-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-the-neonatal-population
#7
Alexandra Kesler Johnson, Natalie Lynch, Desi Newberry, Amy J Jnah
BACKGROUND: Diuretics are among the most frequently prescribed medications in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), despite minimal data regarding the safety and efficacy of their use in the neonatal population. Off-label diuretic therapy is used in preterm and full-term infants to both optimize kidney function and improve respiratory status. PURPOSE: This article examines the literature specific to the impact of diuretic therapy in the NICU and compares the benefits versus risks of utilization as they pertain to the prevention and treatment of renal and pulmonary dysfunction in this population...
October 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831038/caesarean-section-is-associated-with-reduced-perinatal-cytokine-response-increased-risk-of-bacterial-colonization-in-the-airway-and-infantile-wheezing
#8
Sui-Ling Liao, Ming-Han Tsai, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Man-Chin Hua, Kuo-Wei Yeh, Chih-Yung Chiu, Kuan-Wen Su, Shih-Yin Huang, Chuan-Chi Kao, Shen-Hao Lai, Jing-Long Huang
The relationship between cesarean section (CS) and allergic disorders such as asthma and wheezing has been inconsistent, and the mechanisms for their connection remained largely unknown. We aimed to investigate whether CS is associated with infantile wheeze and to explore the connection between CS and several risk factors known to correlate with allergy development. Mononuclear cells were isolated from cord blood and assessed for cytokine responses by ELISA. Bacteria from nasopharyngeal specimens were identified with traditional culture methods...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819007/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-therapy-on-lung-structure-in-growth-restricted-newborn-lambs
#9
Graeme R Polglase, Jade Barbuto, Beth J Allison, Tamara Yawno, Amy Elizabeth Sutherland, Atul Malhotra, Keith E Schulze, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Sharon D Ricardo, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress arising from suboptimal placental function contributes to a multitude of pathologies in infants compromised by fetal growth restriction (FGR). FGR infants are at high risk for respiratory dysfunction after birth and poor long-term lung function. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of oxidative stress to adverse lung development and the effects of melatonin administration, a powerful anti-oxidant, on lung structure in FGR lambs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815006/biomarkers-in-inflammometry-pediatric-asthma-utility-in-daily-clinical-practice
#10
REVIEW
Silvia Sánchez-García, Alicia Habernau Mena, Santiago Quirce
Asthma is a common disease in both high and lower income countries that starts early and persists often for life. A correct and accurate diagnosis, treatment and follow-up during childhood are essential for a better understanding of adult asthma and avoiding over- or under-treatment. Th2 inflammation in children with asthma symptoms is usually assessed by measuring with serum total IgE, blood eosinophilia and FeNO levels that may help to predict asthma, particularly in those infants and young children in whom lung function tests are difficult to perform...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813514/the-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system-promotes-il-8-synthesis-in-a-model-of-pediatric-airway-epithelium-via-p38-map-kinase
#11
Myra G Dela Pena-Ponce, Monica T Jimenez, Lori M Hansen, Jay V Solnick, Lisa A Miller
Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808223/metastasis-associated-protein-1-deficiency-results-in-compromised-pulmonary-alveolar-capillary-angiogenesis-in-mice
#12
Jun-Hui Qin, Zhen-Yu Ke, Qiang Zhou, Li Wang, Yuan Liang, Ying-Mei Wang, Tong Yang, Xing Gao, Jing Ye, Rekesh Kumar, Rui-An Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) deficiency during angiogenesis of pulmonary alveolar capillaries in mice and to determine the molecular mechanisms involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expressions of MTA1, CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and HIF-1α were analyzed in the lungs of MTA1-knockout (KO) and wild-type mice at embryonic day 18.5 and 2 months by quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry...
August 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798335/cd71-erythroid-suppressor-cells-impair-adaptive-immunity-against-bordetella-pertussis
#13
Afshin Namdar, Petya Koleva, Shima Shahbaz, Stacy Strom, Volker Gerdts, Shokrollah Elahi
Infant's immune system cannot control infection or respond to vaccination as efficiently as older individuals, a phenomenon that has been attributed to immunological immaturity. Recently, we challenged this notion and proposed the presence of actively immunosuppressive and physiologically enriched CD71(+) erythroid cells in neonates. Here we utilized Bordetella pertussis, a common neonatal respiratory tract pathogen, as a proof of concept to investigate the role of these cells in adaptive immunity. We observed that CD71(+) cells have distinctive immunosuppressive properties and prevent recruitment of immune cells to the mucosal site of infection...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795220/achieving-and-maintaining-lung-volume-in-the-preterm-infant-from-the-first-breath-to-the-nicu
#14
REVIEW
Gianluca Lista, Andrés Maturana, Fernando R Moya
The main goal for the neonatologist is to facilitate the adaptation to extra-uterine life during initial transition, while minimizing lung injury opening and protecting the premature lung from the first breath onwards. An appropriate management from birth should lead to the achievement of an early functional residual capacity (FRC), and the following steps should aim at maintaining an adequate lung volume. To date, different strategies are available to optimize fetal-neonatal transition and promote lung recruitment...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774314/surfactant-effects-on-the-viability-and-function-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment
#15
Chung-Ming Chen, Hsiu-Chu Chou, Willie Lin, Chris Tseng
BACKGROUND: Surfactant therapy has become the standard of care for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Preclinical studies have reported the therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This study investigated the effects of a surfactant on the in vitro viability and in vivo function of human MSCs. METHODS: The viability, phenotype, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of MSCs were assessed through flow cytometry...
August 3, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757230/vitamin-d-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-and-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-infants-with-recurrent-respiratory-symptoms
#16
Anette M Määttä, Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Kristiina Malmström, L Pekka Malmberg, Jouko Sundvall, Anna S Pelkonen, Mika J Mäkelä
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency might be associated with biased T-cell responses resulting in inflammatory conditions such as atopy and asthma. Little is known about the role of vitamin D in low-grade systemic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in young children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether vitamin D insufficiency and increased serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are linked to AHR in symptomatic infants. METHODS: Seventy-nine infants with recurrent or persistent lower respiratory tract symptoms underwent comprehensive lung function testing and a bronchial methacholine challenge test...
September 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745986/ventilation-in-extremely-preterm-infants-and-respiratory-function-at-8-years
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lex W Doyle, Elizabeth Carse, Anne-Marie Adams, Sarath Ranganathan, Gillian Opie, Jeanie L Y Cheong
BACKGROUND: Assisted ventilation for extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks of gestation) has become less invasive, but it is unclear whether such developments in care are associated with improvements in short-term or long-term lung function. We compared changes over time in the use of assisted ventilation and oxygen therapy during the newborn period and in lung function at 8 years of age in children whose birth was extremely premature. METHODS: We conducted longitudinal follow-up of all survivors of extremely preterm birth who were born in Victoria, Australia, in three periods - the years 1991 and 1992 (225 infants), 1997 (151 infants), and 2005 (170 infants)...
July 27, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740164/raised-volume-forced-expiratory-flow-volume-curve-in-healthy-taiwanese-infants
#18
Shen-Hao Lai, Sui-Ling Liao, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Ming-Han Tsai, Man-Chin Hua, Chih-Yung Chiu, Kuo-Wei Yeh, Jing-Long Huang
The raised-volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RVRTC) manoeuvre has been applied to obtain full forced expiratory flow-volume curves in infants. No reference data are available for Asian populations. This study was conducted to establish predictive reference equations for Taiwanese infants. Full-term infants without any chronic disease or major anomaly were enrolled from this cohort study. Full forced expiratory flow-volume curves were acquired using RVRTC manoeuvres through Jaeger's system. Tidal breath analysis, passive respiratory mechanics, and tidal forced expiratory flow-volume curves were performed and collected at the same measurement...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672085/structural-and-functional-ventilatory-impairment-in-infants-with-severe-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#19
Esther van Mastrigt, Ellaha Kakar, Pierluigi Ciet, Herman T den Dekker, Koen F Joosten, Patricia Kalkman, Renate Swarte, André A Kroon, Harm A W M Tiddens, Johan C de Jongste, Irwin Reiss, Liesbeth Duijts, Mariëlle W Pijnenburg
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most frequent serious complication in preterm infants. We aimed to describe lung structure and ventilatory function of preterm infants with severe BPD and explored the association between early postnatal growth and these outcomes. METHODS: We included preterm infants born ≤32 weeks gestational age (GA) with severe BPD. Lung structure was assessed on chest CT with the PRAGMA-BPD scoring system and ventilatory function by polysomnography (PSG) at 6 months corrected age...
August 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656353/effect-of-low-tidal-volume-with-peep-on-respiratory-function-in-infants-undergoing-one-lung-ventilation
#20
Jing Liu, Xinfang Liao, Yongle Li, Hui Luo, Weijian Huang, Lingli Peng, Qin Fang, Zurong Hu
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have shown that low tidal volume (TV) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) offers lung protection during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Considering the unique physiological characteristics of infants, we aimed to determine the feasibility and effect of low TV with PEEP in infants undergoing OLV during thoracoscopy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We randomized 60 infants to a conventional group (group I: TV, 8-10 ml/kg; RR, 23-45 bpm; PEEP, 0 cmH2O) or a low TV with PEEP group (group II: TV, 5-7 ml/kg; RR, 23-45 bpm; PEEP, 4-6 cmH2O)...
June 27, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
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