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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672085/structural-and-functional-ventilatory-impairment-in-infants-with-severe-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#1
Esther van Mastrigt, Ellaha Kakar, Pierluigi Ciet, Herman T den Dekker, Koen F Joosten, Patricia Kalkman, Renate Swarte, André A Kroon, Harm A W M Tiddens, Johan C de Jongste, Irwin Reiss, Liesbeth Duijts, Mariëlle W Pijnenburg
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most frequent serious complication in preterm infants. We aimed to describe lung structure and ventilatory function of preterm infants with severe BPD and explored the association between early postnatal growth and these outcomes. METHODS: We included preterm infants born ≤32 weeks gestational age (GA) with severe BPD. Lung structure was assessed on chest CT with the PRAGMA-BPD scoring system and ventilatory function by polysomnography (PSG) at 6 months corrected age...
July 3, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656353/effect-of-low-tidal-volume-with-peep-on-respiratory-function-in-infants-undergoing-one-lung-ventilation
#2
Jing Liu, Xinfang Liao, Yongle Li, Hui Luo, Weijian Huang, Lingli Peng, Qin Fang, Zurong Hu
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have shown that low tidal volume (TV) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) offers lung protection during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Considering the unique physiological characteristics of infants, we aimed to determine the feasibility and effect of low TV with PEEP in infants undergoing OLV during thoracoscopy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We randomized 60 infants to a conventional group (group I: TV, 8-10 ml/kg; RR, 23-45 bpm; PEEP, 0 cmH2O) or a low TV with PEEP group (group II: TV, 5-7 ml/kg; RR, 23-45 bpm; PEEP, 4-6 cmH2O)...
June 27, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649564/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-an-update-on-clinical-aspects-genetics-diagnosis-and-future-treatment-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Virginia Mirra, Claudius Werner, Francesca Santamaria
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an orphan disease (MIM 244400), autosomal recessive inherited, characterized by motile ciliary dysfunction. The estimated prevalence of PCD is 1:10,000 to 1:20,000 live-born children, but true prevalence could be even higher. PCD is characterized by chronic upper and lower respiratory tract disease, infertility/ectopic pregnancy, and situs anomalies, that occur in ≈50% of PCD patients (Kartagener syndrome), and these may be associated with congenital heart abnormalities...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621890/reference-data-for-babybody-plethysmographic-measurements-in-chinese-neonates-and-infants
#4
Gaoli Jiang, Albert Li, Libo Wang, Liling Qian, Yun Cao, Jianfeng Huang, Chengzhou Wan, Xiaobo Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Population-specific pulmonary function reference data are essential to identify the nature and severity of respiratory diseases. However, there is a lack of reference data for Chinese neonates and infants. The objective of this study was to develop reference data for tidal breathing and plethysmographic measurements for Chinese subjects during the first 2 years of life. METHODS: Data of tidal breathing and plethysmography from healthy Chinese neonates (≤28 days) and infants (1-24 months) using the Jaeger MasterScreen BabyBody were collated...
June 16, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610460/vitamin-d-levels-in-newborns-and-association-with-neonatal-hypocalcemia
#5
Büşra Yılmaz, Canan Aygün, Erhan Çetinoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D has many important functions in our body. Especially in intrauterine and early infancy periods, Vitamin D plays a major role in bone development, growth, and the maturation of tissues such as lung and brain. Fetus is dependent on the mother in terms of Vitamin D and maternal Vitamin D deficiency results in a Vitamin D deficient newborn. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of Vitamin D in newborns and to investigate the association between Vitamin D status of the baby and neonatal hypocalcemia...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580865/the-association-between-environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-and-childhood-respiratory-disease-a-review
#6
A Vanker, R P Gie, H J Zar
Childhood respiratory illness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in low and middle-income countries. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a recognised risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory illness. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review the epidemiology of ETS exposure and impact on respiratory health in children. We conducted a search of 3 electronic databases of publications on ETS and childhood respiratory illness from 1990-2015. Key findings were that up to 70% of children are exposed to ETS globally, but under-reporting may mask the true prevalence...
August 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558308/age-predicts-cytokine-kinetics-and-innate-immune-cell-activation-following-intranasal-delivery-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-gm-csf-in-a-mouse-model-of-rsv-infection
#7
Katherine M Eichinger, Erin Resetar, Jacob Orend, Kacey Anderson, Kerry M Empey
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and is further associated with increased healthcare utilization and cost of care in the first years of life. Severe RSV disease during infancy has also been linked to the later development of allergic asthma, yet there remains no licensed RSV vaccine or effective treatment. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that disease severity and development of allergic asthma are associated with differences in cytokine production...
May 27, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555180/risk-factors-for-neurocognitive-functioning-in-children-with-autosomal-recessive-polycystic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Stephen R Hooper
This mini review provides an overview of the issues and challenges inherent in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), with a particular focus on the neurological factors and neurocognitive functioning of this population. ARPKD typically is discovered at the end of pregnancy or during the neonatal developmental period and occurs in approximately 1 in 20,000 live births. During the neonatal period, there is a relatively high risk of death, with many infants dying from respiratory failure. As the child ages, they experience progressive kidney disease and become increasingly vulnerable to liver disease, with many individuals eventually requiring dual organ transplants...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536728/neonatologist-performed-point-of-care-functional-echocardiography-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#9
Woei Bing Poon, Keng Yean Wong
Functional echocardiography (fECHO) refers to a bedside, limited assessment of the ductus arteriosus, myocardial performance and pulmonary or systemic haemodynamics that is brief in nature and addresses a specific clinical question or management dilemma. This point-of-care ultrasonography is increasingly used internationally and locally among neonatal units to assist with management of neonatal haemodynamic conditions. This article intends to explain the modality, its indications, interpretation and implications for management, and how it impacts long-term outcomes, particularly in chronic lung disease for premature infants born before 32 weeks of gestation...
May 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530117/combined-impact-of-smoking-and-early-life-exposures-on-adult-lung-function-trajectories
#10
James P Allinson, Rebecca Hardy, Gavin C Donaldson, Seif O Shaheen, Diana Kuh, Jadwiga A Wedzicha
BACKGROUND: Both adverse early life exposures and adult smoking can negatively influence adult lung function trajectory but few studies consider how the impact of early life exposures may be modified by subsequent smoking. METHODS: The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development is a nationally representative cohort, initially of 5362 individuals, followed since enrolment at birth in March 1946. Using data collected prospectively across life and multilevel modelling we investigated how the relationships between early life exposures (infant lower respiratory infection, manual social class, home overcrowding and pollution exposure) and FEV1 and FVC trajectories between ages 43 and 60-64 were influenced by smoking behaviour...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529001/a-single-intranasal-administration-of-virus-like-particle-vaccine-induces-an-efficient-protection-for-mice-against-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#11
Yue-Ying Jiao, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yi-Fei Yan, Ying Hua, Yao Ma, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Jing-Dong Song, Xiang-Lei Peng, Jiaqiang Huang, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully...
May 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495620/vitamin-c-to-decrease-the-effects-of-smoking-in-pregnancy-on-infant-lung-function-vcsip-rationale-design-and-methods-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-vitamin-c-supplementation-in-pregnancy-for-the-primary-prevention-of-effects-of-in-utero-tobacco-smoke-exposure
#12
Cindy T McEvoy, Kristin F Milner, Ashley J Scherman, Diane G Schilling, Christina J Tiller, Brittany Vuylsteke, Lyndsey E Shorey-Kendrick, Eliot R Spindel, Robert Schuff, Julie Mitchell, Dawn Peters, Jill Metz, David Haas, Keith Jackson, Robert S Tepper, Cynthia D Morris
Despite strong anti-smoking efforts, at least 12% of American women cannot quit smoking when pregnant resulting in >450,000 smoke-exposed infants born yearly. Smoking during pregnancy is the largest preventable cause of childhood respiratory illness including wheezing and asthma. Recent studies have shown a protective effect of vitamin C supplementation on the lung function of offspring exposed to in utero smoke in a non-human primate model and an initial human trial. Vitamin C to Decrease the Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function (VCSIP) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate pulmonary function at 3months of age in infants delivered to pregnant smokers randomized to 500mg/day of vitamin C versus placebo during pregnancy...
July 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485984/vascular-endothelial-mitochondrial-function-predicts-death-or-pulmonary-outcomes-in-preterm-infants
#13
Jegen Kandasamy, Nelida Olave, Scott W Ballinger, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
RATIONALE: Vascular endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of several oxidant stress associated disorders. Oxidant stress is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of prematurity that often leads to sequelae in adult survivors. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to identify whether differences in mitochondrial bioenergetic function and oxidant generation in HUVEC (human umbilical venous endothelial cells) obtained from extremely preterm infants were associated with risk for BPD or death before 36 weeks post-menstrual age...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479114/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-where-have-all-the-stem-cells-gone-origin-and-potential-function-of-resident-lung-stem-cells
#14
Marius Alexander Möbius, Bernard Thébaud
Celebrating its 50(th) anniversary in 2017, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) - the chronic lung disease of prematurity that follows ventilator and O2 therapy for acute respiratory failure - remains the most frequent complication of extreme prematurity. Survival of premature infants born at increasingly earlier stages of gestation has made the prevention of lung injury increasingly challenging. BPD is postulated to be a misdirection of many functions in the developing lung including growth factor signalling and matrix as well as cellular composition, resulting in impaired alveolar and lung vascular growth...
May 4, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473324/mir-29b-supplementation-decreases-expression-of-matrix-proteins-and-improves-alveolarization-in-mice-exposed-to-maternal-inflammation-and-neonatal-hyperoxia
#15
Shaheen Durrani-Kolarik, Caylie A Pool, Ashley Gray, Kathryn Marie Heyob, Mary J Cismowski, Gloria S Pryhuber, L James Lee, Zhaogang Yang, Trent E Tipple, Lynette K Rogers
Even with advances in the care of preterm infants, chronic lung disease or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) continues to be a significant pulmonary complication. Among those diagnosed with BPD, a subset of infants develop severe BPD with disproportionate pulmonary morbidities. In addition to decreased alveolarization, these infants develop obstructive and/or restrictive lung function due to increases in or dysregulation of extracellular matrix proteins. Analyses of plasma obtained from preterm infants during the first week of life indicate that circulating miR-29b is suppressed in infants that subsequently develop BPD, and that decreased circulating miR-29b is inversely correlated with BPD severity...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458035/vitamin-a-and-retinoic-acid-combination-attenuates-neonatal-hyperoxia-induced-neurobehavioral-impairment-in-adult-mice
#16
Manimaran Ramani, Thomas van Groen, Inga Kadish, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Lori L McMahon
Preterm infants exposed to supra-physiological levels of oxygen often have poor executive and memory function associated with reductions in hippocampal volume later in life. We recently showed that adult mice exposed to neonatal hyperoxia have deficits in spatial navigation and increased exploratory behavior associated with hippocampal shrinkage. Retinoids attenuate hyperoxia-induced lung injury in animal models and reduce neonatal chronic lung disease in preterm infants. We hypothesized that retinoid (combination of Vitamin A+Retinoic Acid [VARA]) administration in mice during neonatal hyperoxia would attenuate oxygen-induced cognitive impairment when assessed in adult life...
April 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457522/lung-transplantation-for-flna-associated-progressive-lung-disease
#17
Lindsay C Burrage, R Paul Guillerman, Shailendra Das, Shipra Singh, Deborah A Schady, Shaine A Morris, Magdalena Walkiewicz, Marc G Schecter, Jeffrey S Heinle, Timothy E Lotze, Seema R Lalani, George B Mallory
OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of patients with pathogenic variants in FLNA and progressive lung disease necessitating lung transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 6 female infants with heterozygous presumed loss-of-function pathogenic variants in FLNA whose initial presentation was early and progressive respiratory failure. RESULTS: Each patient received lung transplantation at an average age of 11 months (range, 5-15 months)...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422514/vitamin-c-prevents-offspring-dna-methylation-changes-associated-with-maternal-smoking-in-pregnancy
#18
Lyndsey E Shorey-Kendrick, Cindy T McEvoy, Betsy Ferguson, Julja Burchard, Byung S Park, Lina Gao, Brittany H Vuylsteke, Kristin F Milner, Cynthia D Morris, Eliot R Spindel
BACKGROUND: Infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy demonstrate lifelong decreases in pulmonary function. DNA methylation changes associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy have been described in placenta and cord blood at delivery, in fetal lung, and in buccal epithelium and blood during childhood. We recently demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial (NCT00632476) that vitamin C supplementation to pregnant smokers can lessen the impact of maternal smoking on offspring pulmonary function and decrease the incidence of wheeze at one year of age...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417451/prophylactic-anti-staphylococcal-antibiotics-for-cystic-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Alan R Smyth, Margaret Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested these hypotheses...
April 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399119/caffeine-ameliorates-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury-by-protecting-gch1-function-in-neonatal-rat-pups
#20
Xigang Jing, Yi-Wen Huang, Jason Jarzembowski, Yang Shi, Girija G Konduri, Ru-Jeng Teng
BackgroundBronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major morbidity in premature infants, and impaired angiogenesis is considered a major contributor to BPD. Early caffeine treatment decreases the incidence of BPD; the mechanism remains incompletely understood.MethodsSprague-Dawley rat pups exposed to normoxia or hyperoxia since birth were treated daily with either 20 mg/kg caffeine or normal saline by an intraperitoneal injection from day 2 of life. The lungs were obtained for studies at days 10 and 21.ResultsHyperoxia impaired somatic growth and lung growth in the rat pups...
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Research
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