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Lung function infant

Jason Gien, Nancy Tseng, Gregory J Seedorf, Katherine Kuhn, Steven H Abman
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the chronic lung disease associated with premature birth, characterized by impaired vascular and alveolar growth. In neonatal rats bleomycin decreases lung growth and causes pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is poorly responsive to nitric oxide. In the developing lung, through rho-kinase (ROCK) activation, ET-1 impairs endothelial cell function, however, whether ET-1-ROCK interactions contribute to impaired vascular and alveolar growth in experimental BPD is unknown. Neonatal rats were treated daily with intra-peritoneal bleomycin with and without selective ETA (BQ123/BQ610) and ETB (BQ788) receptor blockers, non-selective ET receptor blocker (ETRB) (bosentan) or fasudil (ROCK inhibitor)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Sonia Halioui-Louhaichi, Ons Azzabi, Nadia Mattoussi, Hasna Labiadh, Khadija Bousseta, Neji Tebib, Taher Gargah, Sayda Ben Becher, Mohamed Ridha Barbouch, Mohamed Bejaoui, Ahmed Maherzi
Background Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a group of heterogeneous and relatively rare diseases. Aim to determine the clinical characteristics, outcome and genetic data of primary immunodeficiencies in pediatrics patients. Methods A retrospective, descriptive and multicentered study, enrolling 33 children presenting a PID in Tunis, during a period of 22 years (1991-2012). Resultats a masculine predominance has been noticed with a sex ratio at 2,3. Consanguinity was found in 71% of family cases. History of early infant deaths was found in 42% of cases...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Maureen A Lefton-Greif, Joan C Arvedson
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have played primary roles in the evaluation and management of children with feeding/swallowing disorders for more than five decades. Medical, surgical, and technological advances have improved the survival of young fragile infants and children, many of whom will present with feeding/swallowing problems. Regardless of their underlying etiologies, many of these children are at risk for aspiration-induced lung disease, undernutrition or malnutrition, developmental deficits, and stressful interactions with their caregivers...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Simon B Drysdale, Mireia Alcazar, Theresa Wilson, Melvyn Smith, Mark Zuckerman, Hennie M Hodemaekers, Riny Janssen, Louis Bont, Sebastian L Johnston, Anne Greenough
: Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants born less than 36 weeks of gestational age were recruited. Prior to neonatal/maternity unit discharge, lung function (functional residual capacity by helium gas dilution and multiple breath washout, lung clearance index and compliance (Crs), and resistance (Rrs) of the respiratory system) was assessed and DNA samples assessed for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes: ADAM33, IL10, MMP16 NFκB1A,SFTPC, VDR, and NOS2A...
October 1, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Ze D Jiang, Cui Wang
AIM: To examine brainstem auditory function at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age in preterm infants who are diagnosed to have neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants, born at 31 and less weeks of gestation, were studied at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age when they were diagnosed to have neonatal CLD. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) was recorded and analyzed at different click rates. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls at the same postconceptional age, the CLD infants showed a slightly increase in BAER wave V latency...
September 28, 2016: Early Human Development
Fernanda Cordoba Lanza, Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen, Amelia Miyashiro Dos Santos, Dirceu Solé
BACKGROUND: Bronchodilator response (BDR) analyzed by the raised volume rapid thoracic compression (RVRTC) in wheezing infants is not yet well described, although bronchodilators (BD) are routine in the treatment of this population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate BDR by RVRTC technique in infants with recurrent wheezing and compare to control group. METHOD: Cross sectional study, 45 infants, age 56 weeks (38-67 weeks). Two groups: wheezing group (WG: history of recurrent wheezing) and control group (CG)...
October 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Insa Korten, Kathryn Ramsey, Philipp Latzin
Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Vahid Siavashi, Simin Asadian, Masoud Taheri-Asl, Homa Babaei, Samaneh Keshavarz, Mohammad Bazaei, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri
Many infants who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are born with serious respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which is associated with impaired vascular and alveolar growth. RDS is a breathing disorder that mostly affects preterm infants and occurs in infants whose lungs have not yet been fully developed. The use of surfactant in RDS treatment does not necessarily prevent BPD. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may contribute to lung angiogenesis for the prevention and treatment of BPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of phototherapy for EPC release in preterm infants born with RDS...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Louisa Owens, Ingrid A Laing, Guicheng Zhang, Peter N Le Souëf
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma in adults is associated with a persistent reduction in lung function from childhood, but this link has not been assessed back to infancy. Reduced infant lung function (ILF), a measure of antenatal and infant lung growth, is associated with asthma into adolescence. Our aim was to assess whether this link persists into adulthood and whether ILF can predict the remission of asthma symptoms in young adults. METHODS: The study cohort was an unselected full-term birth cohort of 253 subjects enrolled antenatally with lung function assessments at 1, 6 and 12 months (maximum expiratory flow at functional residual capacity, V'maxFRC), and 6, 11, 18 and 24 years (spirometry) of age...
September 16, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Peter A Dargaville, Omid Sadeghi Fathabadi, Gemma K Plottier, Kathleen Lim, Kevin I Wheeler, Rohan Jayakar, Timothy J Gale
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of a novel algorithm for automated oxygen control using a simulation of oxygenation founded on in vivo data from preterm infants. METHODS: A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm was enhanced by (i) compensation for the non-linear SpO2-PaO2 relationship, (ii) adaptation to the severity of lung dysfunction and (iii) error attenuation within the target range. Algorithm function with and without enhancements was evaluated by iterative linking with a computerised simulation of oxygenation...
September 15, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Eduardo Bancalari
The patency of the ductus arteriosus is very common in extremely premature infants. The increased pulmonary blood flow that results from left-to-right ductal shunting can produce an acute deterioration in lung function and some data suggest that it may increase the risk of chronic lung damage. However, there is no clear evidence that prophylactic or early closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) results in a clear reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. For this reason, and because of the side effects of the available therapies to close the ductus, there is a wide variation in the approach to the PDA in this population and most clinicians will intervene to close the ductus only in cases of significant shunt with hemodynamic decompensation...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Elena Priante, Laura Moschino, Veronica Mardegan, Paolo Manzoni, Sabrina Salvadori, Eugenio Baraldi
Despite notable advances in the survival and management of preterm infants in recent decades, chronic lung disease remains a common complication. Approximately one in three infants born preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) are hospitalized with respiratory problems (mainly due to infections) in their first 2 years of life, and the risk of childhood wheezing is three times higher in this population. By comparison with infants born at term, there seems to be a higher incidence of respiratory morbidity in those born preterm, even in the absence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and in late-preterm babies...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Maribel Casas, Herman T den Dekker, Claudia J Kruithof, Irwin K Reiss, Martine Vrijheid, Johan C de Jongste, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Liesbeth Duijts
BACKGROUND: Greater infant weight gain is associated with lower lung function and increased risk of childhood asthma. The role of early childhood peak growth patterns is unclear. We assessed the associations of individually derived early childhood peak growth patterns with respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, wheezing patterns, and asthma until school-age. METHODS: We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5364 children. Repeated growth measurements between 0 and 3 years of age were used to derive standard deviation scores (s...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Marwa Mostafa Mostafa, Mohammad Nassef, Amr Badr
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Salmonella and Escherichia coli are different types of bacteria that cause food poisoning in humans. In the elderly, infants and people with chronic conditions, it is very dangerous if Salmonella or E. coli gets into the bloodstream and then they must be treated by phage therapy. Treating Salmonella and E. coli by phage therapy affects the gut flora. This research paper presents a system for detecting the effects of virulent E. coli and Salmonella bacteriophages on human gut...
October 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Lacrecia J Britton, Gabriela R Oates, Robert A Oster, Staci T Self, Robert B Troxler, Wynton C Hoover, Hector H Gutierrez, William T Harris
OBJECTIVE: The clinical benefit of newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) has been primarily nutritional, with less overt respiratory impact. Identification of risk factors for infant CF lung disease could facilitate targeted interventions to improve pulmonary outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated socioeconomic information, clinical data, and results from routine infant pulmonary function testing (iPFT) of infants diagnosed with CF through NBS (N = 43) at a single CF center over a 4-year period (2008-2012)...
November 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Winston M Manimtim, Douglas C Rivard, Ashley K Sherman, Brent E Cully, Brenton D Reading, Charisse I Lachica, Linda L Gratny
BACKGROUND: Tracheobronchomalacia prevalence in premature infants on prolonged mechanical ventilation is high. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of tracheobronchomalacia diagnosed by tracheobronchography in ventilator-dependent infants, and describe the demographic, clinical and dynamic airway characteristics of those infants with tracheobronchomalacia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective review studies 198 tracheobronchograms performed from 1998 to 2011 in a cohort of 158 ventilator-dependent infants <2 years of age...
August 19, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Karen Whitfield, Claudia Barkeij, Angela North
AIM: To present a case of an extremely premature infant and the role that the specialist neonatal pharmacist has on the quality of care of these patients. METHOD: Interventions and recommendations made by the pharmacists over the admission of a triplet born at 23 weeks and 5 days gestation were recorded. The type of interventions were categorised and classified for risk using a consequence/probability matrix.1 RESULTS: The patient required admission to the intensive care unit and subsequently the special care unit for a period of 163 days before discharge home...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Giovanni Vento, Roberta Pastorino, Luca Boni, Francesco Cota, Virgilio Carnielli, Filip Cools, Carlo Dani, Fabio Mosca, Jane Pillow, Graeme Polglase, Paolo Tagliabue, Anton H van Kaam, Maria Luisa Ventura, Milena Tana, Chiara Tirone, Claudia Aurilia, Alessandra Lio, Cinzia Ricci, Alessandro Gambacorta, Chiara Consigli, Danila D'Onofrio, Camilla Gizzi, Luca Massenzi, Viviana Cardilli, Alessandra Casati, Roberto Bottino, Federica Pontiggia, Elena Ciarmoli, Stefano Martinelli, Laura Ilardi, Mariarosa Colnaghi, Piero Giuseppe Matassa, Valentina Vendettuoli, Paolo Villani, Francesca Fusco, Diego Gazzolo, Alberto Ricotti, Federica Ferrero, Ilaria Stasi, Rosario Magaldi, Gianfranco Maffei, Giuseppe Presta, Roberto Perniola, Francesco Messina, Giovanna Montesano, Chiara Poggi, Lucio Giordano, Enza Roma, Carolina Grassia, Gaetano Ausanio, Fabrizio Sandri, Giovanna Mescoli, Francesco Giura, Giampaolo Garani, Agostina Solinas, Maria Lucente, Gabriella Nigro, Antonello Del Vecchio, Flavia Petrillo, Luigi Orfeo, Lidia Grappone, Lorenzo Quartulli, Antonio Scorrano, Hubert Messner, Alex Staffler, Giancarlo Gargano, Eleonora Balestri, Stefano Nobile, Caterina Cacace, Valerio Meli, Sara Dallaglio, Betta Pasqua, Loretta Mattia, Eloisa Gitto, Marcello Vitaliti, Maria Paola Re, Stefania Vedovato, Alessandra Grison, Alberto Berardi, Francesco Torcetta, Isotta Guidotti, Sandra di Fabio, Eugenia Maranella, Isabella Mondello, Stefano Visentin, Francesca Tormena
BACKGROUND: Although beneficial in clinical practice, the INtubate-SURfactant-Extubate (IN-SUR-E) method is not successful in all preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, with a reported failure rate ranging from 19 to 69 %. One of the possible mechanisms responsible for the unsuccessful IN-SUR-E method, requiring subsequent re-intubation and mechanical ventilation, is the inability of the preterm lung to achieve and maintain an "optimal" functional residual capacity. The importance of lung recruitment before surfactant administration has been demonstrated in animal studies showing that recruitment leads to a more homogeneous surfactant distribution within the lungs...
2016: Trials
Yashoda M Hosakote, Allan R Brasier, Antonella Casola, Roberto P Garofalo, Alexander Kurosky
: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infant and elderly populations worldwide. Currently, there is no efficacious vaccine or therapy available for RSV infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying RSV-induced acute airway disease and associated long-term consequences remain largely unknown; however, experimental evidence suggests that the lung inflammatory response plays a fundamental role in the outcome of RSV infection. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that triggers inflammation when released from activated immune or necrotic cells and drives the pathogenesis of various infectious agents...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
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