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Lung function infant preterm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170341/the-effects-of-antenatal-glucocorticoid-exposure-on-fetal-and-neonatal-skin-maturation
#1
Deanne August, Yogavijayan Kandasamy
AIMS: The use of antenatal glucocorticoids in women with preterm labor has dramatically improved outcomes for premature infants. The most commonly used antenatal glucocorticoids are betamethasone and dexamethasone. Glucocorticoids accelerate fetal lung growth by several mechanisms, including the maturation of type II pneumocytes enabling surfactant production. Furthermore, the lipids in the lung share similarity with those in the skin. Therefore, antenatal administration of glucocorticoids may have effects on the structure and function of the developing epidermal barrier in fetuses and neonates...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121046/maternal-hypertensive-disorders-are-associated-with-increased-use-of-respiratory-support-but-not-chronic-lung-disease-or-poorer-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-preterm-neonates-at-29%C3%A2-weeks-of-gestation
#2
Mara Matić, Violet Inati, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif, Alison L Kent
AIM: To assess whether maternal hypertensive disorders in pregnancies result in higher respiratory requirements, risk of chronic lung disease (CLD) and poorer neurodevelopmental outcome in <29-week premature neonates. METHODS: This is a multicentre, retrospective cohort study, within a geographically defined area in Australia, served by a network of 10 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), consisting of infants <29 weeks of gestational age who were admitted to NICUs between 1998 and 2004...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118641/effects-of-breathing-and-apnoea-during-sustained-inflations-in-resuscitation-of-preterm-infants
#3
Gianluca Lista, Francesco Cavigioli, Paola Azzurra La Verde, Francesca Castoldi, Ilia Bresesti, Colin J Morley
BACKGROUND: A sustained inflation (SI) at birth in preterm babies may be ineffective unless the infants breathe. Gain in lung volume is associated with breathing during delivery room non-invasive management. OBJECTIVE: To describe the breathing patterns of preterm infants during an SI and correlate to a calculated gain in lung volume. METHODS: Retrospective observational study. Data collected from a respiratory function monitor during SI (25 cmH2O for 15 s then PEEP at 5 cmH2O) through a face mask in preterm infants (gestational age [GA] ≤31 weeks)...
January 25, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087725/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-low-birthweight-infants-randomised-to-different-pco2-targets-the-phelbi-follow-up-study
#4
Ulrich H Thome, Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczeny, Bettina Bohnhorst, Manuel Schmid, Hans Fuchs, Oliver Rohde, Stefan Avenarius, Hans-Georg Topf, Andrea Zimmermann, Dirk Faas, Katharina Timme, Barbara Kleinlein, Horst Buxmann, Wilfried Schenk, Hugo Segerer, Norbert Teig, Annett Bläser, Roland Hentschel, Matthias Heckmann, Rolf Schlösser, Jochen Peters, Rainer Rossi, Wolfgang Rascher, Ralf Böttger, Jürgen Seidenberg, Gesine Hansen, Maria Zernickel, Harald Bode, Jens Dreyhaupt, Rainer Muche, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Tolerating higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in mechanically ventilated extremely low birthweight infants to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury may have long-term neurodevelopmental side effects. This study analyses the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomised multicentre trial. METHODS: Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of birth were randomly assigned to high PCO2 or to a control group with mildly elevated PCO2 targets...
January 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062481/sex-specific-effects-of-sex-steroids-on-alveolar-epithelial-na-transport
#5
Melanie Haase, Mandy Laube, Ulrich H Thome
Alveolar fluid clearance mediates perinatal lung transition to air breathing in newborn infants, which is accomplished by epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) and the Na,K-ATPase. Male sex represents a major risk factor for developing respiratory distress, especially in preterm infants. We previously showed that male sex is associated with reduced epithelial Na+ transport, possibly contributing to the sexual dimorphism in newborn respiratory distress. This study aimed to determine sex-specific effects of sex steroids on epithelial Na+ transport...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898687/effects-of-chronologic-age-and-young-child-exposure-on-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-among-us-preterm-infants-born-at-32-to-35-weeks-gestation
#6
Eric A F Simões, Evan J Anderson, Xionghua Wu, Christopher S Ambrose
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease as a function of chronologic age and exposure to young children in US preterm infants. METHODS: In the RSV Respiratory Events among Preterm Infants Outcomes and Risk Tracking (REPORT) study, preterm infants born at 32-35 weeks gestational age (wGA) were enrolled from 188 US clinics and followed September-May of 2009-2010 or 2010-2011. Infants with medically-attended acute respiratory illness had nasal/pharyngeal swabs collected for viral testing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861919/consequences-of-maternal-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-respiratory-function-in-rat-pups
#7
Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Cécile Baldy, Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Océane Mercier, Olivier Pothier-Piccinin, Tommy Seaborn, Vincent Joseph, Isabelle Marc, Richard Kinkead
KEY POINTS: Incomplete development of the neural circuits that control breathing contributes to respiratory disorders in pre-term infants. Manifestations include respiratory instability, prolonged apnoeas and poor ventilatory responses to stimuli. Based on evidence suggesting that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) improves brain development, we determined whether n-3 PUFA supplementation (via the maternal diet) improves respiratory function in 10-11-day-old rat pups. n-3 PUFA treatment prolonged apnoea duration but augmented the relative pulmonary surface area and the ventilatory response to hypoxia...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834669/a-translational-cellular-model-to-study-the-impact-of-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-on-human-epithelial-cell-function
#8
Anja Mowes, Beatriz E de Jongh, Timothy Cox, Yan Zhu, Thomas H Shaffer
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has been proposed as gentle ventilation strategy to prevent lung injury in the preterm infant. High-frequency jet ventilation leads to dimensional and mechanical airway deformation in animal airway models, which is consistent with translational studies demonstrating the impact of oxygen and biophysical stresses on normal airway cellular function. There is an overall paucity of clinical and cellular data on the impact of HFOV on the conducting airway. We developed an innovative method to test the impact of the clinical HFO Ventilator (SensorMedics 3100A) on human epithelial cell function...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832232/growth-lung-function-and-physical-activity-in-schoolchildren-who-were-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants
#9
Aline Dill Winck, João Paulo Heinzmann-Filho, Deise Schumann, Helen Zatti, Rita Mattiello, Marcus Herbert Jones, Renato Tetelbom Stein
Objective: To compare somatic growth, lung function, and level of physical activity in schoolchildren who had been very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (VLBWPIs) or normal-birth-weight full-term infants. Methods: We recruited two groups of schoolchildren between 8 and 11 years of age residing in the study catchment area: those who had been VLBWPIs (birth weight < 1,500 g); and those who had been normal-birth-weight full-term infants (controls, birth weight ≥ 2,500 g)...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796747/neonatal-dexamethasone-treatment-exacerbates-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-white-matter-injury
#10
Chia -Yu Yeh, Che-Ming Yeh, Ting-Hsuan Yu, Kan-Hsun Chang, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, has been widely used to prevent or ameliorate morbidity of chronic lung disease in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Despite its beneficial effect on neonatal lung function, growing concern has arisen about adverse effects of this clinical practice on fetal brain development. We demonstrated previously that neonatal dexamethasone (DEX) treatment may render the newborn brain to be more vulnerable to hypoxia/ischemia (HI)-induced gray matter injury...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693722/abnormal-findings-in-brainstem-auditory-evoked-response-at-36-37weeks-of-postconceptional-age-in-babies-with-neonatal-chronic-lung-disease
#11
Ze D Jiang, Cui Wang
AIM: To examine brainstem auditory function at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age in preterm infants who are diagnosed to have neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants, born at 31 and less weeks of gestation, were studied at 36-37weeks of postconceptional age when they were diagnosed to have neonatal CLD. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) was recorded and analyzed at different click rates. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls at the same postconceptional age, the CLD infants showed a slightly increase in BAER wave V latency...
December 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649372/the-improvement-of-respiratory-performance-after-phototherapy-induced-epc-mobilization-in-preterm-infants-with-rds
#12
Vahid Siavashi, Simin Asadian, Masoud Taheri-Asl, Homa Babaei, Samaneh Keshavarz, Mohammad Bazaei, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri
Many infants who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are born with serious respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which is associated with impaired vascular and alveolar growth. RDS is a breathing disorder that mostly affects preterm infants and occurs in infants whose lungs have not yet been fully developed. The use of surfactant in RDS treatment does not necessarily prevent BPD. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may contribute to lung angiogenesis for the prevention and treatment of BPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of phototherapy for EPC release in preterm infants born with RDS...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634820/development-and-preclinical-testing-of-an-adaptive-algorithm-for-automated-control-of-inspired-oxygen-in-the-preterm-infant
#13
Peter A Dargaville, Omid Sadeghi Fathabadi, Gemma K Plottier, Kathleen Lim, Kevin I Wheeler, Rohan Jayakar, Timothy J Gale
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of a novel algorithm for automated oxygen control using a simulation of oxygenation founded on in vivo data from preterm infants. METHODS: A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm was enhanced by (i) compensation for the non-linear SpO2-PaO2 relationship, (ii) adaptation to the severity of lung dysfunction and (iii) error attenuation within the target range. Algorithm function with and without enhancements was evaluated by iterative linking with a computerised simulation of oxygenation...
January 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603531/respiratory-outcome-after-preterm-birth-a-long-and-difficult-journey
#14
Elena Priante, Laura Moschino, Veronica Mardegan, Paolo Manzoni, Sabrina Salvadori, Eugenio Baraldi
Despite notable advances in the survival and management of preterm infants in recent decades, chronic lung disease remains a common complication. Approximately one in three infants born preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) are hospitalized with respiratory problems (mainly due to infections) in their first 2 years of life, and the risk of childhood wheezing is three times higher in this population. By comparison with infants born at term, there seems to be a higher incidence of respiratory morbidity in those born preterm, even in the absence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and in late-preterm babies...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538798/efficacy-of-a-new-technique-intubate-recruit-surfactant-extubate-in-rec-sur-e-in-preterm-neonates-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Giovanni Vento, Roberta Pastorino, Luca Boni, Francesco Cota, Virgilio Carnielli, Filip Cools, Carlo Dani, Fabio Mosca, Jane Pillow, Graeme Polglase, Paolo Tagliabue, Anton H van Kaam, Maria Luisa Ventura, Milena Tana, Chiara Tirone, Claudia Aurilia, Alessandra Lio, Cinzia Ricci, Alessandro Gambacorta, Chiara Consigli, Danila D'Onofrio, Camilla Gizzi, Luca Massenzi, Viviana Cardilli, Alessandra Casati, Roberto Bottino, Federica Pontiggia, Elena Ciarmoli, Stefano Martinelli, Laura Ilardi, Mariarosa Colnaghi, Piero Giuseppe Matassa, Valentina Vendettuoli, Paolo Villani, Francesca Fusco, Diego Gazzolo, Alberto Ricotti, Federica Ferrero, Ilaria Stasi, Rosario Magaldi, Gianfranco Maffei, Giuseppe Presta, Roberto Perniola, Francesco Messina, Giovanna Montesano, Chiara Poggi, Lucio Giordano, Enza Roma, Carolina Grassia, Gaetano Ausanio, Fabrizio Sandri, Giovanna Mescoli, Francesco Giura, Giampaolo Garani, Agostina Solinas, Maria Lucente, Gabriella Nigro, Antonello Del Vecchio, Flavia Petrillo, Luigi Orfeo, Lidia Grappone, Lorenzo Quartulli, Antonio Scorrano, Hubert Messner, Alex Staffler, Giancarlo Gargano, Eleonora Balestri, Stefano Nobile, Caterina Cacace, Valerio Meli, Sara Dallaglio, Betta Pasqua, Loretta Mattia, Eloisa Gitto, Marcello Vitaliti, Maria Paola Re, Stefania Vedovato, Alessandra Grison, Alberto Berardi, Francesco Torcetta, Isotta Guidotti, Sandra di Fabio, Eugenia Maranella, Isabella Mondello, Stefano Visentin, Francesca Tormena
BACKGROUND: Although beneficial in clinical practice, the INtubate-SURfactant-Extubate (IN-SUR-E) method is not successful in all preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, with a reported failure rate ranging from 19 to 69 %. One of the possible mechanisms responsible for the unsuccessful IN-SUR-E method, requiring subsequent re-intubation and mechanical ventilation, is the inability of the preterm lung to achieve and maintain an "optimal" functional residual capacity. The importance of lung recruitment before surfactant administration has been demonstrated in animal studies showing that recruitment leads to a more homogeneous surfactant distribution within the lungs...
August 18, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402562/effect-of-betamethasone-surfactant-and-positive-end-expiratory-pressures-on-lung-aeration-at-birth-in-preterm-rabbits
#16
Jessica R Crawshaw, Stuart B Hooper, Arjan B Te Pas, Beth A Allison, Megan J Wallace, Lauren Kerr, Robert A Lewis, Colin J Morley, Andrew F Leong, Marcus John Kitchen
Antenatal glucocorticoids, exogenous surfactant and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ventilation are commonly provided to preterm infants to enhance respiratory function after birth. It is unclear how these treatments interact to improve the transition to air-breathing at birth. We investigated the relative contribution of antenatal betamethasone, prophylactic surfactant and PEEP (3 cmH2O) on functional residual capacity (FRC) and dynamic lung compliance (CDL) in preterm (28d GA) rabbit kittens at birth...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379219/bpd-following-preterm-birth-a-model-for-chronic-lung-disease-and-a-substrate-for-ards-in-childhood
#17
REVIEW
Anita Bhandari, Christopher Carroll, Vineet Bhandari
It has been suggested that pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) may be a different entity, vis-à-vis adult acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), based on its epidemiology and outcomes. A more pediatric-specific definition of PARDS to include the subgroup of patients with underlying lung (and heart) disease has been proposed. Epidemiological data suggest that up to 13% of the children with ARDS have a history of prematurity and/or underlying chronic lung disease. However, the specific contribution of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the most common chronic lung disease in infants, to the development of PARDS is not known...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374344/functional-characterization-of-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-a3-mutations-from-infants-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
Jennifer A Wambach, Ping Yang, Daniel J Wegner, Hillary B Heins, Lyudmila N Kaliberova, Sergey A Kaliberov, David T Curiel, Frances V White, Aaron Hamvas, Brian P Hackett, F Sessions Cole
Mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A3 gene (ABCA3) result in severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and childhood interstitial lung disease. As most ABCA3 mutations are rare or private, determination of mutation pathogenicity is often based on results from in silico prediction tools, identification in unrelated diseased individuals, statistical association studies, or expert opinion. Functional biologic studies of ABCA3 mutations are needed to confirm mutation pathogenicity and inform clinical decision making...
November 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357257/pathogenesis-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-when-inflammation-meets-organ-development
#19
REVIEW
Tayyab Shahzad, Sarah Radajewski, Cho-Ming Chao, Saverio Bellusci, Harald Ehrhardt
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a chronic lung disease of preterm infants. It is caused by the disturbance of physiologic lung development mainly in the saccular stage with lifelong restrictions of pulmonary function and an increased risk of abnormal somatic and psychomotor development. The contributors to this disease's entity are multifactorial with pre- and postnatal origin. Central to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary is the induction of a massive pulmonary inflammatory response due to mechanical ventilation and oxygen toxicity...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27331352/effect-of-time-and-body-position-on-ventilation-in-premature-infants
#20
Judith Hough, Anthony Trojman, Andreas Schibler
BACKGROUND: Infants with respiratory dysfunction undergo regular position changes to improve lung function however it is not known how often a position change should occur. This study measured changes in lung function occurring over time after repositioning in preterm infants. METHODS: Changes in end-expiratory level (EEL) and ventilation distribution were measured 30 mins, 2 h, and 4 h after repositioning into either prone, quarter turn from prone, or supine using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)...
October 2016: Pediatric Research
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