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Lung function infant preterm

Francesca Ciuffini, Colin F Robertson, David G Tingay
Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Nelida Olave, Colm Travers, Gabriel Rezonzew, Kalsang Dolma, Alexandra Simpson, Brian Halloran, Zubair Aghai, Pragnya Das, Nirmal Sharma, Xin Xu, Kristopher Genschmer, Derek Russell, Tomasz Szul, Nengjun Yi, J Edwin Blalock, Amit Gaggar, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
Premature infants are at high risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), characterized by chronic inflammation and inhibition of lung development, which we have recently identified as being modulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and alterations in the airway microbiome. Exosomes and exosomal miRNAs may regulate cell differentiation and tissue and organ development. We discovered that tracheal aspirates from infants with severe BPD had increased numbers of, but smaller, exosomes compared with term controls...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Cosby A Stone, Cindy T McEvoy, Judy L Aschner, Ashudee Kirk, Christian Rosas-Salazar, Joan M Cook-Mills, Paul E Moore, William F Walsh, Tina V Hartert
Vitamin E is obtained only through the diet and has a number of important biological activities, including functioning as an antioxidant. Evidence that free radicals may contribute to pathological processes such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a disease of prematurity associated with increased lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress, led to trials of the antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol) to prevent BPD with variable results. These trials were all conducted at supraphysiologic doses and 2 of these trials utilized a formulation containing a potentially harmful excipient...
March 7, 2018: Neonatology
Daniela de Melo Miranda Gonçalves, Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen, Ana Sílvia Scavacini, Fernanda Cordoba Lanza, Ana Lucia Goulart, Dirceu Solé, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function in former preterm infants may be compromised during childhood. OBJECTIVES: To assess pulmonary function in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants at 6-12 months of corrected age and analyze the factors associated with abnormal pulmonary function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with preterm infants at 6-12 months of corrected age with birth weight <1500 g. Children with malformations or affected by neuromuscular and respiratory diseases were excluded...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Nienke M Scheltema, Elisabeth E Nibbelke, Juliëtte Pouw, Maarten O Blanken, Maroeska M Rovers, Christiana A Naaktgeboren, Natalie I Mazur, Joanne G Wildenbeest, Cornelis K van der Ent, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with subsequent wheeze and asthma. We previously reported on the causal relationship between prevention of RSV infection during infancy and reduced frequency of subsequent wheeze using a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial (MAKI). We continued follow-up and analysed the effect of RSV prevention during infancy on asthma and lung function at age 6 years. METHODS: We studied 429 infants born at 32-35 weeks of gestation between 2008-10 who had randomly received either palivizumab for RSV immunoprophylaxis or placebo during the RSV season of their first year of life...
February 27, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Vanesa Stojanovska, Suzanne L Miller, Stuart B Hooper, Graeme R Polglase
Preterm birth is a major cause for neonatal morbidity and mortality, and is frequently associated with adverse neurological outcomes. The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life at birth is particularly challenging for preterm infants. The main physiological driver for extrauterine transition is the establishment of spontaneous breathing. However, preterm infants have difficulty clearing lung liquid, have insufficient surfactant levels, and underdeveloped lungs. Further, preterm infants have an underdeveloped brainstem, resulting in reduced respiratory drive...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ju-Lee Oei, Ola D Saugstad, Maximo Vento
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate current evidence for the use of lower or higher oxygen strategies for preterm infant resuscitation RECENT FINDINGS: The equipoise for using higher fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (>0.4) to initiate preterm infant respiratory stabilization has been lost. Recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials assessing outcomes after using higher (FiO2 ≥ 0.6) vs. lower (FiO2 ≤ 0.3) oxygen strategies to initiate preterm resuscitation shows no difference in the rates of death or major morbidities...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Susan M Scott, Susan R Rose
The soon-to-be-delivered fetus and preterm infant have been treated with glucocorticoids to prepare for postnatal life, historically for more than 40 years. The use of glucocorticoids is as much for replacement of cortisol in the setting of a poorly functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the preterm infant, as it is for prevention of long-term lung dysfunction. Potential negative effects of glucocorticoid treatment on brain development and function have been observed more often with dexamethasone therapy than with use of other glucocorticoids...
March 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
Julio Jiménez, Flore Lesage, Jute Richter, Taro Nagatomo, Thomas Salaets, Silvia Zia, Marina Gabriela Mori Da Cunha, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Jan A Deprest, Jaan Toelen
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that affects extremely preterm infants and remains - despite improvements in neonatal intensive care - a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Cell-therapeutic strategies employing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to modulate lung development in BPD models. OBJECTIVE: Herein, we evaluate the potential of human amniotic fluid (hAF)-SC and hAF-SC with upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as cell-therapeutic agents for BPD...
February 1, 2018: Neonatology
Ayla Gunlemez, İlkay Er, Canan Baydemir, Ayse Arisoy
OBJECTIVE: Late-preterm delivery is known to be associated with potential adverse effects on lung development. Passive smoking may result in alterations of pulmonary function in infants born late-preterm. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a noninvasive, rapid, and practicable technique that can assess lung function. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of passive smoking on lung function tests in preschool children born late-preterm using IOS. METHODS: The study population consisted of a total of 139 children between 3 and 7 years of age born late-preterm who were being followed-up at our outpatient unit at the time of study period...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sarah J Kotecha, John Lowe, Sailesh Kotecha
Body composition and growth outcomes of preterm-born subjects have been studied by many researchers. In general, preterm-born children have lower height and weight especially in infancy. Despite showing potential for catch-up growth, they continue to lag behind their term counterparts in adolescence and adulthood. The various methods of studying body composition and the differing gestations and ages at which it is assessed may go some way to explaining the inconsistent results observed in different studies...
December 20, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Abhijeet Rakshasbhuvankar, Sanjay Patole, Karen Simmer, J Jane Pillow
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular vitamin A supplementation decreases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants without significant adverse effects. However, intramuscular vitamin A supplementation is not widely accepted because of the discomfort and risk of trauma associated with repeated injections. Enteral vitamin A supplementation has not been studied adequately in the clinical trials. Enterally administered water-soluble vitamin A is absorbed better than the fat-soluble form...
December 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
Mariann Haavik Bentsen, Trond Markestad, Knut Øymar, Thomas Halvorsen
OBJECTIVES: To compare lung function of extremely preterm (EP)-born infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with that of healthy term-born infants, and to determine which perinatal characteristics were associated with lung function at term and how predictive these measurements were for later respiratory health in EP-born infants. METHODS: Perinatal variables were recorded prospectively, and tidal breathing parameters were measured at term-equivalent age using electromagnetic inductance plethysmography...
October 25, 2017: BMJ Open
Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Cheong, Richard A Ehrenkranz, Henry L Halliday
BACKGROUND: Many preterm infants who survive go on to develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia, probably as the result of persistent inflammation in the lungs. Corticosteroids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects and have been used to treat individuals with established bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, it is unclear whether any beneficial effects outweigh the adverse effects of these drugs. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of late systemic postnatal corticosteroid treatment (> 7 days) for preterm infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
October 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Cheong, Richard A Ehrenkranz, Henry L Halliday
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is the most likely underlying pathogenesis. Corticosteroids have been used to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of systemic postnatal corticosteroids commenced within the first seven days of life for preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
October 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lex W Doyle, Sarath Ranganathan, Jeanie L Y Cheong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Imad R Makhoul, Tanya Mashiach, Tatiana Smolkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Roos J Vliegenthart, Wes Onland, Anton H van Kaam
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 377, Issue 16, Page 1599-1602, October 2017.
October 19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
Daniel T Malleske, Olena Chorna, Nathalie L Maitre
Preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) often suffer from life-long pulmonary impairments in pulmonary physical function. This review summarizes our current understanding of the chronic pulmonary impairments and physical functional limitations associated with BPD from preterm birth to adulthood. It also identifies opportunities for intervention in children and adults living with chronic lung disease (CLD) after preterm birth.
August 24, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
David E Surate Solaligue, José Alberto Rodríguez-Castillo, Katrin Ahlbrecht, Rory E Morty
The objective of lung development is to generate an organ of gas exchange that provides both a thin gas diffusion barrier and a large gas diffusion surface area, which concomitantly generates a steep gas diffusion concentration gradient. As such, the lung is perfectly structured to undertake the function of gas exchange: a large number of small alveoli provide extensive surface area within the limited volume of the lung, and a delicate alveolo-capillary barrier brings circulating blood into close proximity to the inspired air...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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