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Lung function infant preterm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765429/the-potentials-and-caveats-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-based-therapies-in-the-preterm-infant
#1
REVIEW
Judith Gronbach, Tayyab Shahzad, Sarah Radajewski, Cho-Ming Chao, Saverio Bellusci, Rory E Morty, Tobias Reicherzer, Harald Ehrhardt
Preponderance of proinflammatory signals is a characteristic feature of all acute and resulting long-term morbidities of the preterm infant. The proinflammatory actions are best characterized for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is the chronic lung disease of the preterm infant with lifelong restrictions of pulmonary function and severe consequences for psychomotor development and quality of life. Besides BPD, the immature brain, eye, and gut are also exposed to inflammatory injuries provoked by infection, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen toxicity...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758177/the-efficacy-of-antenatal-steroid-therapy-is-dependent-on-the-duration-of-low-concentration-fetal-exposure-evidence-from-a-sheep-model-of-pregnancy
#2
Matthew W Kemp, Masatoshi Saito, Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Shinichi Sato, Takushi Hanita, Yusaku Kumagai, Timothy J Molloy, Michael Clarke, Peter J Eddershaw, Gabrielle C Musk, Augusto Schmidt, Demelza Ireland, Lucy Furfaro, Matthew S Payne, John P Newnham, Alan H Jobe
OBJECTIVE: Antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) are among the most important and widely used interventions to improve outcomes for preterm infants. ANS dosing regimens remain un-optimized and without maternal weight-adjusted dosing. We, and others, have hypothesised that once a low concentration of materno-fetal steroid exposure is achieved and maintained, the duration of the steroid exposure determines treatment efficacy. Using a sheep model of pregnancy, we tested the relationship between steroid dose, and duration of exposure, and treatment efficacy...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752125/persistent-and-progressive-long-term-lung-disease-in-survivors-of-preterm-birth
#3
REVIEW
Rhea Urs, Sailesh Kotecha, Graham L Hall, Shannon J Simpson
Preterm birth accounts for approximately 11% of births globally, with rates increasing across many countries. Concurrent advances in neonatal care have led to increased survival of infants of lower gestational age (GA). However, infants born <32 weeks of GA experience adverse respiratory outcomes, manifesting with increased respiratory symptoms, hospitalisation and health care utilisation into early childhood. The development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) - the chronic lung disease of prematurity - further increases the risk of poor respiratory outcomes throughout childhood, into adolescence and adulthood...
April 13, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694992/respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-otherwise-healthy-prematurely-born-infants-a-forgotten-majority
#4
Bosco Paes
Healthy, premature infants ≤35 weeks' gestational age (wGA) are universally recognized to be at an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Serious respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection imposes an additional burden of illness on these infants following hospitalization. Incurred morbidities relative to term infants include longer lengths of hospital stay, admission to intensive care, and need for oxygen and mechanical ventilation, all of which are associated with increased hospital costs...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694991/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-can-we-agree-on-a-definition
#5
Eduardo Bancalari, Deepak Jain
The advances in obstetric and neonatal care over the last half century have resulted in changes in pathophysiology and clinical presentation of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In contrast to the original description of BPD by Northway et al as a severe lung injury in relatively mature preterm infants, the most common form of BPD currently is characterized by chronic respiratory insufficiency in extremely preterm infants. This evolution in the presentation of BPD, along with changes in respiratory support strategies such as increased use of nasal cannula oxygen, has presented a unique challenge to find a definition that describes the severity of lung damage and predict the long-term respiratory outcomes with some accuracy...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687665/effect-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-on-breathing-variability-in-early-preterm-lung-disease
#6
Emanuela Zannin, Chiara Veneroni, Raffaele L Dellacà, Roberta Corbetta, Bela Suki, Paolo E Tagliabue, Maria L Ventura
OBJECTIVES: In preterm infants, the application of nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (nCPAP) improves lung function through several mechanisms and may interact with the control of breathing. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of increasing/decreasing nCPAP on gas exchange, breathing pattern, and its variability in preterm infants. METHODS: Fifeteen infants with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were studied on the first day of life. Infants had a mean (SD) gestational age of 30 + 4 (3 + 4) weeks + day and body weight of 1405 (606) g...
April 23, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671605/effects-of-budesonide-and-surfactant-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#7
T Brett Kothe, Emily Royse, Matthew W Kemp, Augusto F Schmidt, Fabrizio Salomone, Masatoshi Saito, Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Gabrielle C Musk, Alan H Jobe, Noah H Hillman
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation causes lung injury and systemic inflammatory responses in preterm sheep, and is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Budesonide added to surfactant decreased BPD by 20% in infants. OBJECTIVE: Determine the effects of budesonide and surfactant on injury from high tidal volume (VT) ventilation in preterm lambs. METHODS: Ewes at 125 {plus minus} 1 day GA had fetal surgery to expose fetal head and chest with placental circulation intact...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667359/predicting-responses-to-mechanical-ventilation-for-preterm-infants-with-acute-respiratory-illness-using-artificial-neural-networks
#8
Katharine Brigham, Samir Gupta, John C Brigham
Infants born prematurely are particularly susceptible to respiratory illness due to underdeveloped lungs, which can often result in fatality. Preterm infants in acute stages of respiratory illness typically require mechanical ventilation assistance, and the efficacy of the type of mechanical ventilation and its delivery has been the subject of a number clinical studies. With recent advances in machine learning approaches, particularly deep learning, it may be possible to estimate future responses to mechanical ventilation in real-time, based on ventilation monitoring up to the point of analysis...
April 17, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662873/permissive-hypercapnia-results-in-decreased-functional-vessel-density-in-the-skin-of-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#9
Alexandra Francoise Puchwein-Schwepcke, Kristina Schottmayer, Zuzana Mormanová, Jens Dreyhaupt, Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczeny, Ulrich H Thome
Background: Ventilator-induced lung injury with subsequent bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains an important issue in the care of extremely low-birth-weight infants. Permissive hypercapnia has been proposed to reduce lung injury. Hypercapnia changes cerebral perfusion, but its influence on the peripheral microcirculation is unknown. Methods: Data were collected from 12 infants, who were randomized to a permissive high PCO2 target group (HTG) or a control group (CG)...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644893/activation-of-the-nfkb-pathway-alters-the-phenotype-of-mscs-in-the-tracheal-aspirates-of-preterm-infants-with-severe-bpd
#10
Tobias Reicherzer, Susanne Häffner, Tayyab Shahzad, Judith Gronbach, Josef Mysliwietz, Christoph Huebener, Uwe Hasbargen, Jan Gertheiss, Andreas Schulze, Saverio Bellusci, Rory E Morty, Anne Hilgendorff, Harald Ehrhardt
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are released into the airways of preterm infants following lung injury. These cells display a pro-inflammatory phenotype and are associated with development of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We aimed to characterize the functional properties of MSCs obtained from tracheal aspirates of 50 preterm infants who required invasive ventilation. Samples were separated by disease severity. The increased proliferative capacity of MSCs was associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation and higher severity of BPD...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628967/augmentation-of-respiratory-muscle-activities-in-preterm-infants-with-feeding-desaturation
#11
Dong Rak Kwon, Gi Young Park, Ji Eun Jeong, Woo Taek Kim, Eun Joo Lee
Purpose: Frequent desaturation due to immature incoordination of suck-swallow-breathing in preterm infants can influence multiple organs such as the heart, lungs, and brain, which can then affect growth and development. Most notably in preterm infants, feeding desaturation may even affect pulmonary function during gavage feeding. Because respiratory muscle activities may reflect the work required during respiration, we evaluated the differences in these activities between full-term and preterm infants with feeding desaturation, and investigated the correlations with clinical variables...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625733/evidence-of-echocardiographic-markers-of-pulmonary-vascular-disease-in-asymptomatic-infants-born-preterm-at-one-year-of-age
#12
Philip T Levy, Meghna D Patel, Swati Choudhry, Aaron Hamvas, Gautam K Singh
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that echocardiographic markers of pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) exist in asymptomatic infants born preterm at 1-year corrected age. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 80 infants born preterm (<29 weeks of gestation) and 100 age- and weight-matched infants born at term and compared broad-based conventional and quantitative echocardiographic measures of pulmonary hemodynamics at 1-year corrected age. Pulmonary artery acceleration time (PAAT), a validated index of pulmonary vascular resistance, arterial pressure, and compliance, was used to assess pulmonary hemodynamics...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618412/loss-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-exacerbates-intestinal-and-lung-injury-in-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#13
Natalie A Drucker, Amanda R Jensen, Jan P Te Winkel, Michael J Ferkowicz, Troy A Markel
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) continues to be a devastating condition among preterm infants. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized in the intestine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), acts as a potent vasodilator and antioxidant within the mesentery and may play a role in prevention of NEC. We hypothesized that loss of endothelial nitric oxide would worsen both intestinal and associated lung injury and increase local and systemic inflammation during experimental NEC...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610158/lung-volume-reduction-surgery-for-respiratory-failure-in-infants-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#14
Bongyeon Sohn, Samina Park, In Kyu Park, Young Tae Kim, June Dong Park, Sung-Hye Park, Chang Hyun Kang
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can be performed in patients with severe emphysematous disease. However, LVRS in pediatric patients has not yet been reported. Here, we report our experience with 2 cases of pediatric LVRS. The first patient was a preterm infant girl with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and hypothyroidism. The emphysematous portion of the right lung was removed via sternotomy and right hemiclamshell incision. The patient was discharged on full-time home ventilator support for 3 months after the surgery...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605813/association-between-asthma-and-lung-function-in-adolescents-born-very-preterm-results-of-the-epipage-cohort-study
#15
Alice Hadchouel, Jessica Rousseau, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Catherine Arnaud, Adèle Bellino, Laure Couderc, Stéphane Marret, Marie Mittaine, Didier Pinquier, Marie Verstraete, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Christophe Delacourt
Prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) affect long-term lung function. We studied the respiratory outcome of adolescents born very preterm and controls from the Etude EPIdémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels cohort and analysed their current lung function in relation to asthma symptoms (categorised in three age groups) from birth. In models including BPD, asthma at each age and confounding factors in the preterm group, BPD and preschool wheeze were the only independent variables associated with FEV1 Preschool wheeze is an independent factor associated with FEV1 impairment in adolescents born very preterm...
March 31, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540497/how-best-to-capture-the-respiratory-consequences-of-prematurity
#16
REVIEW
Francesca Ciuffini, Colin F Robertson, David G Tingay
Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515035/exosomal-microrna-predicts-and-protects-against-severe-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-extremely-premature-infants
#17
Charitharth Vivek Lal, Nelida Olave, Colm Travers, Gabriel Rezonzew, Kalsang Dolma, Alexandra Simpson, Brian Halloran, Zubair Aghai, Pragnya Das, Nirmal Sharma, Xin Xu, Kristopher Genschmer, Derek Russell, Tomasz Szul, Nengjun Yi, J Edwin Blalock, Amit Gaggar, Vineet Bhandari, Namasivayam Ambalavanan
Premature infants are at high risk for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), characterized by chronic inflammation and inhibition of lung development, which we have recently identified as being modulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and alterations in the airway microbiome. Exosomes and exosomal miRNAs may regulate cell differentiation and tissue and organ development. We discovered that tracheal aspirates from infants with severe BPD had increased numbers of, but smaller, exosomes compared with term controls...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514147/update-on-vitamin-e-and-its-potential-role-in-preventing-or-treating-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#18
Cosby A Stone, Cindy T McEvoy, Judy L Aschner, Ashudee Kirk, Christian Rosas-Salazar, Joan M Cook-Mills, Paul E Moore, William F Walsh, Tina V Hartert
Vitamin E is obtained only through the diet and has a number of important biological activities, including functioning as an antioxidant. Evidence that free radicals may contribute to pathological processes such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a disease of prematurity associated with increased lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress, led to trials of the antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol) to prevent BPD with variable results. These trials were all conducted at supraphysiologic doses and 2 of these trials utilized a formulation containing a potentially harmful excipient...
March 7, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501252/pulmonary-function-in-former-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants-in-the-first-year-of-life
#19
Daniela de Melo Miranda Gonçalves, Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen, Ana Sílvia Scavacini, Fernanda Cordoba Lanza, Ana Lucia Goulart, Dirceu Solé, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function in former preterm infants may be compromised during childhood. OBJECTIVES: To assess pulmonary function in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants at 6-12 months of corrected age and analyze the factors associated with abnormal pulmonary function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with preterm infants at 6-12 months of corrected age with birth weight <1500 g. Children with malformations or affected by neuromuscular and respiratory diseases were excluded...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500030/respiratory-syncytial-virus-prevention-and-asthma-in-healthy-preterm-infants-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Nienke M Scheltema, Elisabeth E Nibbelke, Juliëtte Pouw, Maarten O Blanken, Maroeska M Rovers, Christiana A Naaktgeboren, Natalie I Mazur, Joanne G Wildenbeest, Cornelis K van der Ent, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with subsequent wheeze and asthma. We previously reported on the causal relationship between prevention of RSV infection during infancy and reduced frequency of subsequent wheeze using a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial (MAKI). We continued follow-up and analysed the effect of RSV prevention during infancy on asthma and lung function at age 6 years. METHODS: We studied 429 infants born at 32-35 weeks of gestation between 2008-10 who had randomly received either palivizumab for RSV immunoprophylaxis or placebo during the RSV season of their first year of life...
April 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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