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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333693/pediatric-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#1
Cathleen M Courtney, Brad W Warner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333597/when-is-parenteral-nutrition-appropriate
#2
Patricia Worthington, Jane Balint, Matthew Bechtold, Angela Bingham, Lingtak-Neander Chan, Sharon Durfee, Andrea K Jevenn, Ainsley Malone, Maria Mascarenhas, Daniel T Robinson, Beverly Holcombe
Parenteral nutrition (PN) represents one of the most notable achievements of modern medicine, serving as a therapeutic modality for all age groups across the healthcare continuum. PN offers a life-sustaining option when intestinal failure prevents adequate oral or enteral nutrition. However, providing nutrients by vein is an expensive form of nutrition support, and serious adverse events can occur. In an effort to provide clinical guidance regarding PN therapy, the Board of Directors of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) convened a task force to develop consensus recommendations regarding appropriate PN use...
March 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295952/long-term-outcomes-of-living-related-small-intestinal-transplantation-in-children-a-single-center-experience
#3
Sandra Garcia Aroz, Ivo Tzvetanov, Elizabeth Anne Hetterman, Hoonbae Jeon, Jose Oberholzer, Giuliano Testa, Eunice John, Enrico Benedetti
Pediatric patients with irreversible intestinal failure present a significant challenge to meet the nutritional needs that promote growth. From 2002 to 2013, 13 living-related small intestinal transplantations were performed in 10 children, with a median age of 18 months. Grafts included isolated living-related intestinal transplantation (n=7), and living-related liver and small intestine (n=6). The immunosuppression protocol consisted of induction with thymoglobulin and maintenance therapy with tacrolimus and steroids...
March 12, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293969/teduglutide-for-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#4
Lore Billiauws, Julie Bataille, Vanessa Boehm, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
The European Society for Clinical Nutrition has published recommendations on the "definition and classification of intestinal failure (IF)". Two criteria must be present: a "decreased absorption of macronutrients and/or water and electrolytes due to a loss of gut function" and the "need for parenteral support". Home parenteral support (HPS) is the primary treatment for chronic IF but is associated with complications. Areas covered: The principal cause of chronic IF is short bowel syndrome (SBS). The aim of treatment is to maximize intestinal absorption and reduce or eliminate the need for HPS to achieve the best possible quality of life...
March 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282321/intestinal-transplantation-a-review
#5
Larry Loo, Georgio Vrakas, Srikanth Reddy, Philip Allan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature on the current indications, surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapy and outcomes following intestinal transplantation (ITx). RECENT FINDINGS: Over recent years, ITx has become a more common operation with approximately 2500 procedures carried out worldwide by 2014. It is reserved for patients with intestinal failure and who have developed complications of home parenteral nutrition or who have a high risk of dying from their underlying disease...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274657/bone-health-of-children-with-intestinal-failure-measured-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-digital-x-ray-radiogrammetry
#6
Esther Neelis, Noortje Rijnen, Johanna Sluimer, Joanne Olieman, Dimitris Rizopoulos, René Wijnen, Edmond Rings, Barbara de Koning, Jessie Hulst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Children with intestinal failure (IF) receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are at risk of developing low bone mineral density (BMD). Next to the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method, digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) using the BoneXpert software has become available to obtain the Bone Health Index (BHI) in hand radiographs. In this study we 1) evaluated the prevalence of low BMD in children with IF using DXA and DXR, 2) compared DXA and DXR results, and 3) aimed to identify factors associated with low BMD...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267037/intravenous-lipid-emulsions-in-pediatric-patients-with-intestinal-failure
#7
Olivier Goulet, Cécile Lambe
The incidence of cholestatic liver disease (CLD) in pediatric patients suffering intestinal failure (IF) is not well established. Due to persistent portal inflammation, about 20% of these patients will progress to end-stage intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD) leading to liver transplant or death. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Premature babies as well as infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and repeated sepsis (catheter or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth related) are at risk of developing CLD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265733/major-complex-abdominal-wall-repair-in-contaminated-fields-with-use-of-a-non-cross-linked-biologic-mesh-a-dual-institutional-experience
#8
J J Atema, E J Furnée, Y Maeda, J Warusavitarne, P J Tanis, W A Bemelman, C J Vaizey, M A Boermeester
BACKGROUND: Data on the use of biologic mesh in abdominal wall repair in complex cases remain sparse. Aim of this study was to evaluate a non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix for repair of complex contaminated abdominal wall defects. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing abdominal wall repair with use of Strattice™ Reconstructive Tissue Matrix (LifeCell Corporation, Oxford, UK) between January 2011 and February 2015 at two National Intestinal Failure Units...
March 6, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261374/the-impact-on-quality-of-life-on-families-of-children-on-an-elimination-diet-for-non-immunoglobulin-e-mediated-gastrointestinal-food-allergies
#9
Rosan Meyer, Heather Godwin, Robert Dziubak, Julie A Panepinto, Ru-Xin M Foong, Mandy Bryon, Adriana Chebar Lozinsky, Kate Reeve, Neil Shah
BACKGROUND: The impact on health related quality of life (HRQL) has been well studied in children with Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy. However limited data exists on related quality of life (QOL) of families who have a child suffering from food protein induced non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal allergies. We aimed to establish the QOL of families with children at the beginning of following an elimination diet for non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergies. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209419/a-safety-and-pharmacokinetic-dosing-study-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-in-infants-with-intestinal-failure
#10
David L Sigalet, Mary E Brindle, Dana Boctor, Bryan Dicken, Viona Lam, Lily Sia Lu, Elaine de Heuvel, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analogues are approved for adults with intestinal failure (IF), but no studies have included infants. This study examined the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and nutritional effects of GLP-2 in infants with IF. METHODS: With parental consent (Health Canada Protocol:150,979), parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent infants were treated with 5-20-μg/kg/day GLP-2 for 3days (phase 1), and if tolerated continued for 42days (phase 2)...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201847/the-differentiation-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-from-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
Alan L Buchman, Bita V Naini, Bert Spilker
Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), formerly known as parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease has often been listed in textbooks as an example of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, histology, and progression differ substantially between the conditions defined as NAFLD and the disease, IFALD. Therefore, IFALD should not be defined or considered as a type or a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but rather as a distinct disease...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194723/teduglutide-a-review-in-short-bowel-syndrome
#12
Esther S Kim, Susan J Keam
Subcutaneous teduglutide (Revestive(®)), a glucagon-like peptide-2 analogue that increases intestinal absorption, is approved in the EU for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in patients aged ≥1 year who are stable following a period of postsurgical intestinal adaptation. In a phase III trial in adults with SBS intestinal failure (IF) dependent on parenteral support (PS), a significantly greater proportion of teduglutide 0.05 mg/kg/day than placebo recipients achieved a ≥20% reduction in weekly PS volume from baseline to week 20 and maintained it to week 24...
February 14, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191783/concise-review-the-potential-use-of-intestinal-stem-cells-to-treat-patients-with-intestinal-failure
#13
Sung Noh Hong, James C Y Dunn, Matthias Stelzner, Martín G Martín
Intestinal failure is a rare life-threatening condition that results in the inability to maintain normal growth and hydration status by enteral nutrition alone. Although parenteral nutrition and whole organ allogeneic transplantation have improved the survival of these patients, current therapies are associated with a high risk for morbidity and mortality. Development of methods to propagate adult human intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and pluripotent stem cells raises the possibility of using stem cell-based therapy for patients with monogenic and polygenic forms of intestinal failure...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190552/use-of-balloon-dilatation-for-management-of-postoperative-intestinal-strictures-in-children-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#14
Christina Belza, Kevin Fitzgerald, Joao Amaral, Karen Steinberg, Yaron Avitzur, Paul W Wales
PURPOSE: Children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) often require numerous operations to optimize intestinal function. Postoperative intestinal strictures are a complication that inhibits enteral feeding advancement and prolongs parenteral nutrition dependency, often requiring reoperation. Our objective was to review our experience with fluoroscopic balloon dilatation to treat intestinal strictures. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of intestinal failure patients with SBS was completed...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172693/p541-intestinal-failure-a-rare-but-significant-outcome-of-restorative-proctocolectomy
#15
J Segal, S Oke, S Clark, A Hart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168988/a-comparison-of-broviac-%C3%A2-and-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-in-children-with-intestinal-failure
#16
Carolina Blotte, Jennifer Styers, Hong Zhu, Nandini Channabasappa, Hannah G Piper
PURPOSE: Central venous catheters (CVCs) are a source of morbidity for children with intestinal failure (IF). Complications include infection, breakage, occlusion, and venous thrombosis. Broviacs® have traditionally been preferred, but peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are gaining popularity. This study compares complications between Broviacs® and PICCs in children with IF. METHODS: After IRB approval, children with IF receiving parenteral nutrition (2012-2016) were reviewed...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159115/william-hunter-harridge-lecture-the-changing-face-of-short-gut-syndrome-management
#17
REVIEW
John J Fung
The evolution of managing short gut syndrome optimizes management and decision making of intestinal failure by way of a multidisciplinary team utilizing the latest advances in therapeutic options. Only the minority of patients referred for small bowel transplantation will actually need a transplant. Many of these patients can be rehabilitated without the need for transplant, by way of early referral, and thus the likelihood of medical therapy increases. On the other hand, in those patients with little likelihood of success with medical therapy, early referral decreases the morbidity and mortality associated with long-term total parenteral nutrition and associated complications and will improve their overall survival outcomes...
March 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147371/crohn-s-disease-and-intestinal-transplantation
#18
Pavel Drastich, Martin Oliverius
BACKGROUND: Most patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require one or more operations during their lifetime. Repeated resections and surgical complications may result in short gut in a subset of patients, typically those with extensive small bowel disease or a penetrating CD phenotype. The effects of short bowel syndrome (SBS) can range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening advanced intestinal failure. Worldwide, CD is the second leading indication for intestinal transplantation (ITx) in SBS, but the overall incidence of ITx is quite low...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130374/current-status-of-intestinal-and-multivisceral-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Shishira Bharadwaj, Parul Tandon, Tushar D Gohel, Jill Brown, Ezra Steiger, Donald F Kirby, Ajai Khanna, Kareem Abu-Elmagd
Clinical-nutritional autonomy is the ultimate goal of patients with intestinal failure (IF). Traditionally, patients with IF have been relegated to lifelong parenteral nutrition (PN) once surgical and medical rehabilitation attempts at intestinal adaptation have failed. Over the past two decades, however, outcome improvements in intestinal transplantation have added another dimension to the therapeutic armamentarium in the field of gut rehabilitation. This has become possible through relentless efforts in the standardization of surgical techniques, advancements in immunosuppressive therapies and induction protocols and improvement in postoperative patient care...
January 26, 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104121/liver-failure-from-ultra-short-bowel-syndrome-on-the-intestinal-transplant-waiting-list-a-retrospective-study
#20
Y Noguchi, T Ueno, R Matsuura, T Kodama, K Deguchi, S Umeda, T Yamamichi, K Nakahata, M Zenitani, Y Takama, H Yamanaka, Y Tazuke, H Okuyama
BACKGROUND: Patients with intestinal failure (IF) are candidates for intestinal transplantation (ITx). In Japan, these patients have few opportunities to undergo cadaveric ITx because of low rates of organ donation. The donor criteria and recipient priority for ITx are still unknown. We reviewed our cases of IF to investigate which patients should be prioritized for ITx. METHODS: Patients with IF who were registered as candidates for cadaveric ITx between January 2010 and November 2015 in our institute were included in this retrospective study...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
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