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Joseph DuChene, Giulia Tagliabue, Alex J Welch, Wen-Hui Cheng, Harry A Atwater
Harvesting non-equilibrium hot carriers from plasmonic-metal nanostructures offers unique opportunities for driving photochemical reactions at the nanoscale. While examples of hot electron-driven processes abound, the realization of plasmonic systems capable of harvesting hot holes from metal nanostructures has eluded the nascent field of plasmonic photocatalysis. Here, we fabricate gold/p-type gallium nitride (Au/p-GaN) Schottky junctions tailored for photoelectrochemical studies of plasmon-induced hot hole capture and conversion...
March 9, 2018: Nano Letters
Sebastián Duchêne, Edward C Holmes
Pithovirus sibericum is a giant (610 Kpb) double-stranded DNA virus discovered in a purportedly 30,000-year-old permafrost sample. A closely related virus, Pithovirus massiliensis , was recently isolated from a sewer in southern France. An initial comparison of these two virus genomes assumed that P. sibericum was directly ancestral to P. massiliensis and gave a maximum evolutionary rate of 2.60 × 10-5 nucleotide substitutions per site per year (subs/site/year). If correct, this would make pithoviruses among the fastest-evolving DNA viruses, with rates close to those seen in some RNA viruses...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
Silvia Corrochano, Gonzalo Blanco, Debbie Williams, Jessica Wettstein, Michelle Simon, Saumya Kumar, Lee Moir, Thomas Agnew, Michelle Stewart, Allison Landman, Vassilios N Kotiadis, Michael R Duchen, Henning Wackerhage, David C Rubinsztein, Steve D M Brown, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena
Polyglutamine expansions in the huntingtin gene cause Huntington's disease (HD). Huntingtin is ubiquitously expressed, leading to pathological alterations also in peripheral organs. Variations in the length of the polyglutamine tract explain up to 70% of the age-at-onset variance, with the rest of the variance attributed to genetic and environmental modifiers. To identify novel disease modifiers, we performed an unbiased mutagenesis screen on an HD mouse model, identifying a mutation in the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (Scn4a, termed 'draggen' mutation) as a novel disease enhancer...
March 2, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Marija Sajic, Keila Kazue Ida, Ryan Canning, Norman A Gregson, Michael R Duchen, Kenneth J Smith
BACKGROUND: Small-diameter, myelinated axons are selectively susceptible to dysfunction in several inflammatory PNS and CNS diseases, resulting in pain and degeneration, but the mechanism is not known. METHODS: We used in vivo confocal microscopy to compare the effects of inflammation in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), a model of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), on mitochondrial function and transport in large- and small-diameter axons. We have compared mitochondrial function and transport in vivo in (i) healthy axons, (ii) axons affected by experimental autoimmune neuritis, and (iii) axons in which mitochondria were focally damaged by laser induced photo-toxicity...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
David A Duchêne, Sebastian Duchêne, Simon Y W Ho
Summary: Statistical phylogenetic inference plays an important role in evolutionary biology. The accuracy of phylogenetic methods relies on having suitable models of the evolutionary process. Various tools allow comparisons of candidate phylogenetic models, but assessing the absolute performance of models remains a considerable challenge. We introduce PhyloMAd, a user-friendly application for assessing the adequacy of commonly used models of nucleotide substitution and among-lineage rate variation...
February 21, 2018: Bioinformatics
Fernanda Rossi Paolillo, Alessandra Rossi Paolillo, Jessica Patrícia João, Daniele Frascá, Marcelo Duchêne, Herbert Alexandre João, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato
This study evaluated the synergistic effects of ultrasound (US) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with or without therapeutic exercises (TE) in women with knee osteoarthritis. Forty-two Caucasian women with knee osteoarthritis were allocated into three groups: (1) the placebo group who did not perform TE, but the prototype without emitting light or ultrasonic waves was applied, (2) the US + LLLT group in which only the prototype was applied and (3) the TE + US + LLLT group that performed TE before the prototype was applied...
February 26, 2018: Rheumatology International
Christelle Clément-Duchêne, Amandine Luc, Jean-Matthieu Casse, Jean-Michel Vignaud, Stéphanie Lacomme, Valentine Anne, Joëlle Siat, Olivier Ménard, Yves Martinet
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of lung cancer remains poor; only 20% of patients can undergo surgery. N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease. We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the impact of N2 location on survival. METHODS: This study included 342 NSCLC with N2 involvement between 1988 and 2014. Patient-related data were collected through the CRB biobank and included demographic, therapeutic, and survival data. Survival was analyzed according to Kaplan-Maier method...
February 14, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Florent Vieux, Christophe Dubois, Christelle Duchêne, Nicole Darmon
In France, school meals must comply with 15 frequency criteria (FC) expressed as nutritional requirements (e.g., "starters containing more than 15% fat served no more than four times out of 20") in a series of 20 consecutive meals. The objective was to assess, for the first time, the nutritional impact of complying with French school food FC. Based on 40 series of meals actually served in primary schools ("observed series"), several scenarios (1600 series per scenario) of compliance or non-compliance with FC were simulated, and nutritional quality was assessed via the mean adequacy ratio (MAR/2000 kcal)...
February 13, 2018: Nutrients
Zoe Patterson Ross, Jennifer Klunk, Gino Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra, Sebastian Duchêne, Ana T Duggan, Debi Poinar, Mark W Douglas, John-Sebastian Eden, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006750.].
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Jemma L Geoghegan, Aldo F Saavedra, Sebastián Duchêne, Sheena Sullivan, Ian Barr, Edward C Holmes
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006780.].
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Tom T P Seijkens, Claudia M van Tiel, Pascal J H Kusters, Dorothee Atzler, Oliver Soehnlein, Barbara Zarzycka, Suzanne A B M Aarts, Marnix Lameijer, Marion J Gijbels, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Bram Slütter, Johan Kuiper, Johan Duchene, Maria Aslani, Remco T A Megens, Cornelis van 't Veer, Gijs Kooij, Roy Schrijver, Marten A Hoeksema, Louis Boon, Francois Fay, Jun Tang, Samantha Baxter, Aldo Jongejan, Perry D Moerland, Gert Vriend, Boris Bleijlevens, Edward A Fisher, Raphael Duivenvoorden, Norbert Gerdes, Menno P J de Winther, Gerry A Nicolaes, Willem J M Mulder, Christian Weber, Esther Lutgens
BACKGROUND: Disrupting the costimulatory CD40-CD40L dyad reduces atherosclerosis, but can result in immune suppression. The authors recently identified small molecule inhibitors that block the interaction between CD40 and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 6 (TRAF-STOPs), while leaving CD40-TRAF2/3/5 interactions intact, thereby preserving CD40-mediated immunity. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the potential of TRAF-STOP treatment in atherosclerosis...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Cédric Orelle, Claire Durmort, Khadija Mathieu, Benjamin Duchêne, Sandrine Aros, François Fenaille, François André, Christophe Junot, Thierry Vernet, Jean-Michel Jault
During the evolution of cellular bioenergetics, many protein families have been fashioned to match the availability and replenishment in energy supply. Molecular motors and primary transporters essentially need ATP to function while proteins involved in cell signaling or translation consume GTP. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the largest families of membrane proteins gathering several medically relevant members that are typically powered by ATP hydrolysis. Here, a Streptococcus pneumoniae ABC transporter responsible for fluoroquinolones resistance in clinical settings, PatA/PatB, is shown to challenge this concept...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Barzegar, Elnaz Niknam, Parinaz Habibi, Shadi Shiva, Sanaz Tahmasebi
Objective: Poor bone health with related morbidity is a major problem with Duchene Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Decreased mobility and long-term corticosteroid therapy are involved in poor bone health in DMD. We investigated bone mineral density and bone metabolism in 30 steroid treated DMD patients and also compared mentioned factors between ambulated and non-ambulated patients. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 30 boys (21 patients ambulate and 9 non-ambulate) with documented DMD, according to genetic analysis, were enrolled in 2015...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Stéphane Renaud, Joseph Seitlinger, Francesco Guerrera, Jérémie Reeb, Michèle Beau-Faller, Anne-Claire Voegeli, Joelle Siat, Christelle Clément-Duchêne, Angelica Tiotiu, Nicola Santelmo, Lorena Costardi, Enrico Ruffini, Pierre-Emmanuel Falcoz, Jean-Michel Vignaud, Gilbert Massard
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of exon 19 and 21 EGFR mutations in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is well established. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the mutations in surgically resected NSCLC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 1798 surgically resected NSCLC adenocarcinomas between 2007 and 2017 in three departments of thoracic surgery (Nancy/Strasbourg, France, and Torino, Italy) for whom mutational status was known...
January 23, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Julie A Lynch, Megan P Rothney, Raoul R Salup, Cesar E Ercole, Sharad C Mathur, David A Duchene, Joseph W Basler, Javier Hernandez, Michael A Liss, Michael P Porter, Jonathan L Wright, Michael C Risk, Mark Garzotto, Olga Efimova, Laurie Barrett, Brygida Berse, Michael J Kemeter, Phillip G Febbo, Atreya Dash
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance (AS) has been widely implemented within Veterans Affairs' medical centers (VAMCs) as a standard of care for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Patient characteristics such as age, race, and Agent Orange (AO) exposure may influence advisability of AS in veterans. The 17-gene assay may improve risk stratification and management selection. OBJECTIVES: To compare management strategies for PCa at 6 VAMCs before and after introduction of the Oncotype DX Genomic Prostate Score (GPS) assay...
January 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Jemma L Geoghegan, Aldo F Saavedra, Sebastián Duchêne, Sheena Sullivan, Ian Barr, Edward C Holmes
The factors that determine the pattern and rate of spread of influenza virus at a continental-scale are uncertain. Although recent work suggests that influenza epidemics in the United States exhibit a strong geographical correlation, the spatiotemporal dynamics of influenza in Australia, a country and continent of approximately similar size and climate complexity but with a far smaller population, are not known. Using a unique combination of large-scale laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance comprising >450,000 entries and genomic sequence data we determined the local-level spatial diffusion of this important human pathogen nationwide in Australia...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
María Dolores Martin-de-Saavedra, Elisa Navarro, Ana J Moreno-Ortega, Mauricio P Cunha, Izaskun Buendia, Pablo Hernansanz-Agustín, Rafael León, María F Cano-Abad, Antonio Martínez-Ruiz, Ricardo Martínez-Murillo, Michael R Duchen, Manuela G López
Growing evidence suggests a close relationship between Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and cerebral hypoxia. Astrocytes play a key role in brain homeostasis and disease states, while some of the earliest changes in AD occur in astrocytes. We have therefore asked whether mutations associated with AD increase astrocyte vulnerability to ischemia. Two astroglioma cell lines derived from APPSWE /PS1A246E (APP, amyloid precursor protein; PS1, presenilin 1) transgenic mice and controls from normal mice were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of ischemia...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Zoe Patterson Ross, Jennifer Klunk, Gino Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra, Sebastian Duchêne, Ana T Duggan, Debi Poinar, Mark W Douglas, John-Sebastian Eden, Edward C Holmes, Hendrik N Poinar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a ubiquitous viral pathogen associated with large-scale morbidity and mortality in humans. However, there is considerable uncertainty over the time-scale of its origin and evolution. Initial shotgun data from a mid-16th century Italian child mummy, that was previously paleopathologically identified as having been infected with Variola virus (VARV, the agent of smallpox), showed no DNA reads for VARV yet did for hepatitis B virus (HBV). Previously, electron microscopy provided evidence for the presence of VARV in this sample, although similar analyses conducted here did not reveal any VARV particles...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Thalia Salinas-Giegé, Marina Cavaiuolo, Valérie Cognat, Elodie Ubrig, Claire Remacle, Anne-Marie Duchêne, Olivier Vallon, Laurence Maréchal-Drouard
The unicellular photosynthetic organism, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, represents a powerful model to study mitochondrial gene expression. Here, we show that the 5'- and 3'-extremities of the eight Chlamydomonas mitochondrial mRNAs present two unusual characteristics. First, all mRNAs start primarily at the AUG initiation codon of the coding sequence which is often marked by a cluster of small RNAs. Second, unusual tails are added post-transcriptionally at the 3'-extremity of all mRNAs. The nucleotide composition of the tails is distinct from that described in any other systems and can be partitioned between A/U-rich tails, predominantly composed of Adenosine and Uridine, and C-rich tails composed mostly of Cytidine...
December 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Lindell Bromham, Sebastián Duchêne, Xia Hua, Andrew M Ritchie, David A Duchêne, Simon Y W Ho
Molecular dating analyses allow evolutionary timescales to be estimated from genetic data, offering an unprecedented capacity for investigating the evolutionary past of all species. These methods require us to make assumptions about the relationship between genetic change and evolutionary time, often referred to as a 'molecular clock'. Although initially regarded with scepticism, molecular dating has now been adopted in many areas of biology. This broad uptake has been due partly to the development of Bayesian methods that allow complex aspects of molecular evolution, such as variation in rates of change across lineages, to be taken into account...
December 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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