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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938494/supercritical-fluid-chromatography-in-natural-product-analysis-an-update
#1
Nora Gibitz Eisath, Sonja Sturm, Hermann Stuppner
The wide chemical diversity of natural products has challenged analysts all over the world and has been a driving force for the development of innovative technologies since decades. In the last years, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has finally emerged from the shadow of liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) and has become a powerful tool in modern natural product analysis. Whereas in the past the technique had mainly been restricted to a small group of nonpolar compounds, it has largely expanded its suitability in the last years and has demonstrated possibilities without boundaries...
September 22, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938157/adsorption-combined-with-superconducting-high-gradient-magnetic-separation-technique-used-for-removal-of-arsenic-and-antimony
#2
Zenglu Qi, Tista Prasai Joshi, Ruiping Liu, Yiran Li, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu
Manganese iron oxide (MnFe2O4), an excellent arsenic(As)/antimony(Sb) removal adsorbent, is greatly restricted for the solid-liquid separation. Through the application of superconducting high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) technique, we herein constructed a facility for the in situ solid-liquid separation of micro-sized MnFe2O4 adsorbent in As/Sb removal process. To the relative low initial concentration 50.0μgL(-1), MnFe2O4 material sorbent can still decrease As or Sb below US EPA's drinking water standard limit...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932108/cognitive-and-behavioral-evaluation-of-nutritional-interventions-in-rodent-models-of-brain-aging-and-dementia
#3
REVIEW
Devin Wahl, Sean Cp Coogan, Samantha M Solon-Biet, Rafael de Cabo, James B Haran, David Raubenheimer, Victoria C Cogger, Mark P Mattson, Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur
Evaluation of behavior and cognition in rodent models underpins mechanistic and interventional studies of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases, especially dementia. Commonly used tests include Morris water maze, Barnes maze, object recognition, fear conditioning, radial arm water maze, and Y maze. Each of these tests reflects some aspects of human memory including episodic memory, recognition memory, semantic memory, spatial memory, and emotional memory. Although most interventional studies in rodent models of dementia have focused on pharmacological agents, there are an increasing number of studies that have evaluated nutritional interventions including caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, and manipulation of macronutrients...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930645/spores-and-vegetative-cells-of-phenotypically-and-genetically-diverse-i-bacillus-cereus-sensu-lato-i-are-common-bacteria-in-fresh-water-of-northeastern-poland
#4
Marek Bartoszewicz, Urszula Czyzewska
Gram-positive rods named <i>B. cereus sensu lato</i> (<i>sl</i>), are common in natural habitats and food products. It is believed that they are restricted to spores, however their ecology in aquatic habitats is still poorly investigated. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the rain-dependent fluctuations of the concentration of <i>B. cereus sl</i> vegetative cells and spores with evaluation of their phylogenetic and population structure in relation to the toxicity and psychrotolerance...
September 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930435/new-triplet-sensitization-routes-for-photon-upconversion-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-molecules-inorganic-nanocrystals-and-singlet-to-triplet-absorption
#5
Nobuhiro Yanai, Nobuo Kimizuka
Photon upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC) has attracted much interest because of its possible applications to renewable energy production and biological fields. In particular, the UC of near-infrared (NIR) light to visible (vis) light is imperative to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit of single-junction photovoltaic cells, and the efficiency of photocatalytic hydrogen production from water can also be improved with the aid of vis-to-ultraviolet (UV) UC. However, both processes have met limitations in the wavelength range, efficiency, and sensitivity for weak incident light...
September 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928507/characteristics-of-xanthosoma-sagittifolium-roots-during-cooking-using-physicochemical-analysis-uniaxial-compression-multispectral-imaging-and-low-field-nmr-spectroscopy
#6
Abena Achiaa Boakye, María Gudjónsdóttir, Jacob Lercke Skytte, Ioannis S Chronakis, Faustina Dufie Wireko-Manu, Ibok Oduro
To effectively promote the industrial utilization of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) roots for enhanced food sustainability and security, there is a need to study their molecular, mechanical and physicochemical properties in detail. The physicochemical and textural characteristics of the red and white varieties of cocoyam roots were thus analysed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, multispectral imaging, uniaxial compression testing, and relevant physicochemical analysis in the current study...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924144/south-atlantic-paleobathymetry-since-early-cretaceous
#7
Lucía Pérez-Díaz, Graeme Eagles
We present early Cretaceous to present paleobathymetric reconstructions and quantitative uncertainty estimates for the South Atlantic, offering a strong basis for studies of paleocirculation, paleoclimate and paleobiogeography. Circulation in an initially salty and anoxic ocean, restricted by the topography of the Falkland Plateau, Rio Grande Ridge and Walvis Rise, favoured deposition of thick evaporites in shallow water of the Brazilian-Angolan margins. This ceased as seafloor spreading propagated northwards, opening an equatorial gateway to shallow and intermediate circulation...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923739/droplet-impact-on-superhydrophobic-surfaces-fully-decorated-with-cylindrical-macrotextures
#8
Mehran Abolghasemibizaki, Reza Mohammadi
HYPOTHESIS: Impacting on a superhydrophobic surface, water droplet spreads to a pancake shape and then retracts and bounces off. Although the collision time is mostly in the order of couple of 10ms for millimetric droplets, researchers have shown recently that decorating the superhydrophobic surface with a single macrotexture or intersecting ridge reduces this contact time if the droplet hits the texture or the intersection exactly in the center. Hence, covering the surface with ridges should address this hitting point restriction...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923577/quality-index-of-the-surface-water-of-amazonian-rivers-in-industrial-areas-in-par%C3%A3-brazil
#9
Adaelson Campelo Medeiros, Kleber Raimundo Freitas Faial, Kelson do Carmo Freitas Faial, Iris Danielly da Silva Lopes, Marcelo de Oliveira Lima, Raphael Mendonça Guimarães, Neyson Martins Mendonça
In this study was to evaluate the waters quality of the Murucupi River, located in urban agglomerate area and intense industrial activity in Barcarena City, Pará State. The Arapiranga River in Abaetetuba City was used as control area (Background), next to Barcarena. Was used the Water Quality Index (WQI) based on nine variables analized. Waters quality of the Arapiranga and Murucupi rivers were regular to good and bad to good, respectively. Anthropogenic influence on the Murucupi River was higher, mainly by the disposal of domestic effluents from the urban agglomerate and of the industrial waste tailing basins upstream of this river...
September 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922509/molecular-switching-in-confined-spaces-effects-of-encapsulating-the-dha-vhf-photo-switch-in-cucurbiturils
#10
Michael Å Petersen, Brian Rasmussen, Nicolaj N Andersen, Stephan P A Sauer, Mogens Brøndsted Nielsen, Sophie R Beeren, Michael Pittelkow
Confinement of reactive chemical species uniquely affects chemical reactivity by restricting the physical space available and by restricting access to interactions with the solvent. In Nature, for example, confined protein binding pockets govern processes following photoisomerization reactions and the isomerizations themselves. Here we describe the first example of a dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo-switch functioning in water, and we show how its switching behavior is strongly influenced by supramolecular interactions with a series of cucurbit[n]uril (CB) host molecules...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922262/sugar-in-infants-children-and-adolescents-a-position-paper-of-the-european-society-for-paediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-committee-on-nutrition
#11
Nataša Fidler Mis, Christian Braegger, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas D Embleton, Iva Hojsak, Jessie Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Walter Mihatsch, Christian Molgaard, Rakesh Vora, Mary Fewtrell
The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921965/mycelium-enhanced-bacterial-degradation-of-organic-pollutants-under-bioavailability-restrictions
#12
Rungroch Sungthong, Margalida Tauler, Magdalena Grifoll, Jose-Julio Ortega-Calvo
This work examines the role of mycelia in enhancing the degradation by attached bacteria of organic pollutants that have poor bioavailability. Two oomycetes, Pythium oligandrum and Pythium aphanidermatum, were selected as producers of mycelial networks, while Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 served as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium. The experiments consisted of bacterial cultures exposed to a non-disturbed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) layer containing a heavy fuel spiked with 14C-labeled phenanthrene that were incubated in the presence or absence of the mycelia of the oomycetes in both shaking and static conditions...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918950/power-transfer-to-a-human-during-an-electric-eel-s-shocking-leap
#13
Kenneth C Catania
Electric eels have been the subject of investigation and curiosity for centuries [1]. They use high voltage to track [2] and control [3] prey, as well as to exhaust prey by causing involuntary fatigue through remote activation of prey muscles [4]. But their most astonishing behavior is the leaping attack, during which eels emerge from the water to directly electrify a threat [5, 6]. This unique defense has reportedly been used against both horses [7] and humans [8]. Yet the dynamics of the circuit that develops when a living animal is contacted and the electrical power transmitted to the target have not been directly investigated...
September 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915739/many-body-expansion-of-the-fock-matrix-in-the-fragment-molecular-orbital-method
#14
Dmitri G Fedorov, Kazuo Kitaura
A many-body expansion of the Fock matrix in the fragment molecular orbital method is derived up to three-body terms for restricted Hartree-Fock and density functional theory in the atomic orbital basis and compared to the expansion in the basis of fragment molecular orbitals (MOs). The physical nature of many-body corrections is revealed in terms of charge transfer terms. An improvement of the fragment MO expansion is proposed by adding exchange to the embedding. The accuracy of all developed methods is demonstrated in comparison to unfragmented results for polyalanines, a water cluster, Trp-cage (PDB: 1L2Y) and crambin (PDB: 1CRN) proteins, a zeolite cluster, a Si nano-wire, and a boron nitride ribbon...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914360/adaptive-variation-in-vein-placement-underpins-diversity-in-a-major-neotropical-plant-radiation
#15
Jamie Males
Vein placement has been hypothesised to control leaf hydraulic properties, but the ecophysiological significance of variation in vein placement in the angiosperms has remained poorly understood. The highly diverse Neotropical Bromeliaceae offers an excellent system for exploring understudied relationships between leaf vein placement, physiological functions, and species ecology. To test key hypotheses regarding the links between vein placement, functional type divergences, and ecological diversity in the Bromeliaceae, I characterised the ratio of interveinal distance (IVD) to vein-epidermis distance (VED) in 376 species, representing all major functional types and 10% of the species diversity in the family, as well as bioclimatic properties and key leaf traits for subsets of species...
September 15, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912757/in-situ-occurrence-prevalence-and-dynamics-of-parvilucifera-parasitoids-during-recurrent-blooms-of-the-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-minutum
#16
Elisabet Alacid, Albert Reñé, Jordi Camp, Esther Garcés
Dinoflagellate blooms are natural phenomena that often occur in coastal areas, which in addition to their large number of nutrient-rich sites are characterized by highly restricted hydrodynamics within bays, marinas, enclosed beaches, and harbors. In these areas, massive proliferations of dinoflagellates have harmful effects on humans and the ecosystem. However, the high cell density reached during blooms make them vulnerable to parasitic infections. Under laboratory conditions parasitoids are able to exterminate an entire host population...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905203/adaptive-resolution-simulations-of-biomolecular-systems
#17
Julija Zavadlav, Staš Bevc, Matej Praprotnik
In this review article, we discuss and analyze some recently developed hybrid atomistic-mesoscopic solvent models for multiscale biomolecular simulations. We focus on the biomolecular applications of the adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS), which allows solvent molecules to change their resolution back and forth between atomistic and coarse-grained representations according to their positions in the system. First, we discuss coupling of atomistic and coarse-grained models of salt solution using a 1-to-1 molecular mapping-i...
September 13, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904515/psychogenic-polydipsia-management-challenges
#18
M S Bhatia, Aparna Goyal, Rashmita Saha, Nimisha Doval
Compulsive water drinking or psychogenic polydipsia is now increasingly seen in psychiatric populations. Effects of increased water intake can lead to hyponatremia causing symptoms of nausea, vomiting, seizures, delirium and can even be life threatening if not recognized and managed early. Here we present a 35-year old adult who was diagnosed with psychogenic polydipsia and was successfully managed with a combination of pharmacotherapy, fluid restriction and psychosocial management.
June 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900252/profiling-of-the-metabolic-transcriptome-via-single-molecule-molecular-inversion-probes
#19
Tessa de Bitter, Carlijn van de Water, Corina van den Heuvel, Carolien Zeelen, Astrid Eijkelenboom, Bastiaan Tops, Egbert Oosterwijk, Dimitar Kolev, Peter Mulders, Mark Ter Laan, Sanne van Lith, William Leenders
Cancer-specific metabolic alterations are of high interest as therapeutic targets. These alterations vary between tumor types, and to employ metabolic targeting to its fullest potential there is a need for robust methods that identify candidate targetable metabolic pathways in individual cancers. Currently, such methods include (13)C-tracing studies and mass spectrometry/ magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Due to high cost and complexity, such studies are restricted to a research setting. We here present the validation of a novel technique of metabolic profiling, based on multiplex targeted next generation sequencing of RNA with single molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs), designed to measure activity of and mutations in genes that encode metabolic enzymes...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898598/crossing-the-divide-admixture-across-the-antarctic-polar-front-revealed-by-the-brittle-star-astrotoma-agassizii
#20
Matthew P Galaska, Chester J Sands, Scott R Santos, Andrew R Mahon, Kenneth M Halanych
The Antarctic Polar Front (APF) is one of the most well-defined and persistent oceanographic features on the planet and serves as a barrier to dispersal between the Southern Ocean and lower latitudes. High levels of endemism in the Southern Ocean have been attributed to this barrier, whereas the accompanying Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) likely promotes west-to-east dispersal. Previous phylogeographic work on the brittle star Astrotoma agassizii Lyman, 1875 based on mitochondrial genes suggested isolation across the APF, even though populations in both South American waters and the Southern Ocean are morphologically indistinguishable...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
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