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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090763/sodium-and-fluid-management-in-the-conservative-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Morgan Marcuccilli, Jessica Kendrick, Michel Chonchol
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) imposes a significant global health burden. In the United States, one in three adults are at risk for CKD currently affecting over 28 million Americans. While several studies have demonstrated the benefit of treating traditional risk factors in CKD, including hypertension with pharmacologic agents such as blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAAS), there is scarce data on the advantages of sodium and fluid management in this population. Both experimental and observational studies have shown improvement in hypertension and cardiovascular outcomes with sodium restriction to < 2...
January 13, 2017: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089924/water-juice-or-soda-mothers-and-grandmothers-of-preschoolers-discuss-the-acceptability-and-accessibility-of-beverages
#2
Karin Eli, Agneta Hörnell, Mahnoush Etminan Malek, Paulina Nowicka
Intake of sugary beverages is strongly associated with weight gain and obesity among children; however, differences between mothers' and grandmothers' attitudes and practices concerning young children's beverage consumption remain unclear. This is notable since about a quarter of families in the US and the UK rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare. The aim of this study is to examine mothers' and maternal grandmothers' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding preschool-age children's beverage consumption...
January 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087896/eag-channels-expressed-in-microvillar-photoreceptors-are-unsuited-to-diurnal-vision
#3
Esa-Ville Immonen, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli, Hongxia Liu, Mikko Vähäsöyrinki, Roman V Frolov
The principles underlying evolutionary selection of ion channels for expression in sensory neurons are unclear. Among species possessing microvillar photoreceptors the major ionic conductances have only been identified in Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila depolarization is provided by light-activated TRP channels with a minor contribution from TRPL channels, while repolarization is mediated by sustained voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels of the Shab family. Bright light stimulates Shab channels, further restricting depolarization and improving membrane bandwidth...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081152/increased-serum-sodium-and-serum-osmolarity-are-independent-risk-factors-for-developing-chronic-kidney-disease-5-year-cohort-study
#4
Masanari Kuwabara, Ichiro Hisatome, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Koichiro Niwa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Thomas Jensen, Petter Bjornstad, Tamara Milagres, Christina Cicerchi, Zhilin Song, Gabriela Garcia, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada, Minoru Ohno, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078892/dynamical-transitions-at-low-temperatures-in-the-nearest-hydration-shell-of-phospholipid-bilayers
#5
Victoria N Syryamina, Sergei Andreevich Dzuba
For the so-called dynamical transition from harmonic to anharmonic (or diffusive) motions in biological systems, the presence of hydration water is important. To explain the molecular mechanism of this transition, the information on molecular motions in the nearest hydration shell would be helpful. In this work, to study molecular motions in the nearest hydration shell of spin-labeled model biological membranes, a pulsed version of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy-is employed...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077930/before-the-freeze-otoliths-from-the-eocene-of-seymour-island-antarctica-reveal-dominance-of-gadiform-fishes-teleostei
#6
Werner Schwarzhans, Thomas Mörs, Andrea Engelbrecht, Marcelo Reguero, Jürgen Kriwet
The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp...
2017: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077774/tropical-ancient-dna-reveals-relationships-of-the-extinct-bahamian-giant-tortoise-chelonoidis-alburyorum
#7
Christian Kehlmaier, Axel Barlow, Alexander K Hastings, Melita Vamberger, Johanna L A Paijmans, David W Steadman, Nancy A Albury, Richard Franz, Michael Hofreiter, Uwe Fritz
Ancient DNA of extinct species from the Pleistocene and Holocene has provided valuable evolutionary insights. However, these are largely restricted to mammals and high latitudes because DNA preservation in warm climates is typically poor. In the tropics and subtropics, non-avian reptiles constitute a significant part of the fauna and little is known about the genetics of the many extinct reptiles from tropical islands. We have reconstructed the near-complete mitochondrial genome of an extinct giant tortoise from the Bahamas (Chelonoidis alburyorum) using an approximately 1 000-year-old humerus from a water-filled sinkhole (blue hole) on Great Abaco Island...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076968/influence-of-southwest-monsoons-in-the-kashmir-valley-western-himalayas
#8
Ghulam Jeelani, Rajendrakumar D Deshpande, Rouf A Shah, Wasim Hassan
The regional climate of the Himalayas is predominated by the southwest monsoons and the western disturbances. The uplift of the Pir Panjal to its present height is believed to restrict the southwest monsoons from entering into the Kashmir Valley in the western Himalayas. In the present study, monthly precipitation samples were collected across the Kashmir Valley from June 2013 to May 2014 for δ(18)O and δ(2)H analyses to constrain the influence of southwest monsoons in the valley. Except in August, the precipitation is enriched in (18)O and (2)H from June to September and depleted from October to May...
January 12, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076392/arthropod-pest-control-for-uk-oilseed-rape-comparing-insecticide-efficacies-side-effects-and-alternatives
#9
Han Zhang, Tom Breeze, Alison Bailey, David Garthwaite, Richard Harrington, Simon G Potts
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074368/evaluation-of-2d-resistivity-imaging-technique-for-delineating-subsurface-seepage-of-hydrocarbon-contaminated-water-southeast-of-karbala-city-iraq
#10
Firas H Al-Menshed, Jassim M Thabit
2D imaging technique was applied in (8) transects near a pit of contaminated water near contaminated well southeast of Karbala city, Iraq. Each transect was 30 m long with 1 m electrode spacing. Data acquisition was fulfilled by using Wenner electrode array. The resistivity of water-contaminated zone is found less than 3Ω.m and the top dry zone recorded relatively high resistivity (more than 170Ω.m). It is found that the greatest amount of seepage was found moving towards northeast direction coincided with groundwater movement direction, whereas there was no movement towards northwest and southeast directions and restricted on the closest areas to the pit location...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074366/improved-slant-drilling-well-for-in-situ-remediation-of-groundwater-and-soil-at-contaminated-sites
#11
Yasuhide Furukawa, Kazuhiro Mukai, Keisuke Ohmura, Takeshi Kobayashi
Soil contamination has become a crucial issue in urban redevelopment. Japan has many contaminated sites on which manufacturing has been conducted over several decades. Site holders are now under pressure to manage chemical contamination; however, the use of heavy machinery is difficult in remedial operations on restricted sites, especially where there are still working factories. The slant well is a potentially useful technique in such settings, but its use is technically challenging because of the need for high drilling accuracy and the difficulty in sealing the slanted bores...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073630/adona-and-perfluoroalkylated-substances-in-plasma-samples-of-german-blood-donors-living-in-south-germany
#12
Hermann Fromme, Mandy Wöckner, Eike Roscher, Wolfgang Völkel
Perfluorinated compounds are fully fluorinated anthropogenic substances that have been used in various products, applications, and industrial processes. Due to their persistence and toxic effects, some of them are restricted, and therefore replacement products have been developed. The aim of the study was to quantify the body burden of different perfluorinated substances in two adult populations living close to or about 80km apart from a former perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) production plant who are exposed via drinking water, and in a control population...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073483/the-dual-role-of-nitrogen-supply-in-controlling-the-growth-and-toxicity-of-cyanobacterial-blooms
#13
REVIEW
Christopher J Gobler, JoAnn M Burkholder, Timothy W Davis, Matthew J Harke, Tom Johengen, Craig A Stow, Dedmer B Van de Waal
Historically, phosphorus (P) has been considered the primary limiting nutrient for phytoplankton assemblages in freshwater ecosystems. This review, supported by new findings from Lake Erie, highlights recent molecular, laboratory, and field evidence that the growth and toxicity of some non-diazotrophic blooms of cyanobacteria can be controlled by nitrogen (N). Cyanobacteria such as Microcystis possess physiological adaptations that allow them to dominate low-P surface waters, and in temperate lakes, cyanobacterial densities can be controlled by N availability...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073458/the-ichthyotoxic-genus-pseudochattonella-dictyochophyceae-distribution-toxicity-enumeration-ecological-impact-succession-and-life-history-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Lisa Eckford-Soper, Niels Daugbjerg
The marine genus Pseudochattonella is a recent addition to the list of fish killing microalgae. Currently two species are recognised (viz. P. verruculosa and P. farcimen) which both form recurrent coastal blooms sometimes overlapping in space and time. These events and their ecological and economic consequences have resulted in great interest and concern from marine biologists and the aquaculture industry. Since the first recorded blooms in Japanese (late 1980s), Scandinavian (1993) and Chilean (2004) waters numerous studies have focused on understanding the causative means of the fish killing...
September 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063952/transcriptome-profiling-of-spleen-provides-insights-into-the-antiviral-mechanism-in-schizothorax-prenanti-after-poly-i-c-challenge
#15
Xiaogang Du, Yunkun Li, Dong Li, Fangliang Lian, Shiyong Yang, Jiayun Wu, Hanmei Liu, Guixian Bu, Fengyan Meng, Xiaohan Cao, Xianyin Zeng, Huaiyu Zhang, Zhiyu Chen
Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti) is an important economical cold-water fish species in southwestern China, but it is susceptible to various pathogens infection. In order to clearly elucidate the antiviral mechanism, in this study, we have analyzed the transcriptome of S. prenanti spleen after challenge with the virus mimic, poly (I:C) (pIC), using next generation sequencing technology (RNA-seq). A total of 313 differential expressed genes (DEGs) in spleen at 24 h were obtained after pIC treatment, including 268 significantly up-regulated unigenes (fold change > 2) and 45 significantly down-regulated unigenes (fold change > 2)...
January 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061934/dynamic-modeling-of-hydrogen-sulfide-within-enclosed-environments-in-biosolids-recovery-facilities
#16
Rita Ventura Matos, Natércia Matias, Filipa Ferreira, José Saldanha Matos
  Hydrogen sulfide emissions from wastewater affect human health and equipment durability, thus presenting a complex issue for utilities. Several VOC emission models have been used before to predict H2S in collection systems and water resources recovery operations, even if with restrictions. By contrast, fewer studies focus on biosolids emissions and modelling. This paper presents a dynamic modelling approach to predict H2S concentration in a tank headspace of a wastewater biosolids recovery facility. Data from one of the largest Portuguese water resources recovery facilities was collected under different facility operating modes...
December 1, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060513/water-induced-phase-transition-in-cyclohexane-n-hexanol-triton-x-100-mixtures-at-a-molar-composition-of-1-16-74-studied-by-nmr
#17
Mario E Flores, Francisco Martinez, Andres F Olea, Toshimichi Shibue, Natsuhiko Sugimura, Hiroyuki Nishide, Ignacio Moreno-Villoslada
Molecular aggregation in a mixture of Triton X-100 / n-hexanol / cyclohexane at a molar ratio of 1 / 16 / 74 is studied upon addition of small amounts of water. The composition of organic components has been chosen at a ratio n-hexanol / cyclohexane where a well-formed hydrogen bond network has been described. The ratio Triton X-100 / n-hexanol has been chosen to afford a stoichiometry of ethylene oxide (EO) residues / n-hexanol of 1 / 2. At these conditions the addition of water consecutively produces the appearance of three defined phases: a clear solution, a lamellar phase, and a microemulsion...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058717/deletional-tolerance-prevents-aqp4-directed-autoimmunity-in-mice
#18
Anna-Lena Vogel, Benjamin Knier, Katja Lammens, Sudhakar Reddy Kalluri, Tanja Kuhlmann, Jeffrey L Bennett, Thomas Korn
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) mediated by antibodies to water channel protein AQP4 expressed in astrocytes. The contribution of AQP4-specific T cells to the class switch recombination of pathogenic AQP4-specific antibodies and to the inflammation of the blood-brain-barrier is incompletely understood, as immunogenic naturally processed T-cell epitopes of AQP4 are unknown. By immunizing Aqp4(-/-) mice with full length murine AQP4 protein followed by recall with overlapping peptides, we here identify AQP4(201-220) as the major immunogenic IA(b) -restricted epitope of AQP4...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057806/12-15-lipoxygenase-inhibition-or-knockout-reduces-warfarin-associated-hemorrhagic-transformation-after-experimental-stroke
#19
Yu Liu, Yi Zheng, Hulya Karatas, Xiaoying Wang, Christian Foerch, Eng H Lo, Klaus van Leyen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: For stroke prevention, patients with atrial fibrillation typically receive oral anticoagulation. The commonly used anticoagulant warfarin increases the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) when a stroke occurs; tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment is therefore restricted in these patients. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) inhibition would reduce HT in warfarin-treated mice subjected to experimental stroke...
January 5, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057465/core-shell-nanofibers-of-curcumin-cyclodextrin-inclusion-complex-and-polylactic-acid-enhanced-water-solubility-and-slow-release-of-curcumin
#20
Zeynep Aytac, Tamer Uyar
Core-shell nanofibers were designed via electrospinning using inclusion complex (IC) of model hydrophobic drug (curcumin, CUR) with cyclodextrin (CD) in the core and polymer (polylactic acid, PLA) in the shell (cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF). CD-IC of CUR and HPβCD was formed at 1:2 molar ratio. The successful formation of core-shell nanofibers was revealed by TEM and CLSM images. cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF released CUR slowly but much more in total than PLA-CUR-NF at pH 1 and pH 7.4 due to the restriction of CUR in the core of nanofibers and solubility improvement shown in phase solubility diagram, respectively...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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