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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785338/coarse-and-fine-scale-patterns-of-distribution-and-habitat-selection-places-an-amazonian-floodplain-curassow-in-double-jeopardy
#1
Gabriel A Leite, Izeni P Farias, André L S Gonçalves, Joseph E Hawes, Carlos A Peres
Patterns of habitat selection are influenced by local productivity, resource availability, and predation risk. Species have taken millions of years to hone the macro- and micro-habitats they occupy, but these may now overlap with contemporary human threats within natural species ranges. Wattled Curassow ( Crax globulosa ), an endemic galliform species of the western Amazon, is threatened by both hunting and habitat loss, and is restricted to white-water floodplain forests of major Amazonian rivers. In this study conducted along the Juruá River, Amazonas, Brazil, we quantified the ranging ecology and fine-scale patterns of habitat selection of the species...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785029/highly-bactericidal-macroporous-antimicrobial-polymeric-gel-for-point-of-use-water-disinfection
#2
Amit Kumar, Cyrille Boyer, Leena Nebhani, Edgar H H Wong
Access to clean and safe water supply remains inadequate in many developing countries. One of the key challenges is to remove pathogenic bacteria from the water supply via effective water disinfection technologies to prevent the spread of diseases and to ensure the safety of consumers. Herein, a highly effective point-of-use (on-demand) water disinfection technology, in the form of a polymeric scaffold called macroporous antimicrobial polymeric gel (MAPG), is demonstrated. MAPG is easy to fabricate, completely organic and possess inherent antimicrobial property which makes it non-reliant on inorganic compounds such as silver where the long-term toxicity remains unknown...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784379/comparison-of-chelex-based-resins-in-diffusive-gradients-in-thin-film-for-high-resolution-assessment-of-metals
#3
Chunyang Zhou, Sebastiaan van de Velde, Willy Baeyens, Yue Gao
The passive sampling technique of diffusive gradients in thin-film (DGT) is widely used to determine 1D profiles (using Chelex-100 resin) and 2D images (using suspended particulate reagent-iminodiacetate resin, abbreviated as SPR-IDA resin) of metals in sediment pore waters and in oxic/anoxic soils. However, when deployed in anoxic sediments with high metal concentrations, Fe and Mn concentrations determined with the Chelex-100 resin gel were ~ 5 times higher than concentrations measured with the SPR-IDA resin gel...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781418/waterborne-outbreak-of-gastroenteritis-on-the-kwazulu-natal-coast-south-africa-december-2016-january-2017
#4
P G Sekwadi, K G Ravhuhali, A Mosam, V Essel, G M Ntshoe, A M Shonhiwa, K McCarthy, J Mans, M B Taylor, N A Page, N Govender
An unexpected increase in gastroenteritis cases was reported by healthcare workers on the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa, January 2017 with >600 cases seen over a 3-week period. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source and risk factors associated with the outbreak so as to recommend control and prevention measures. Record review identified cases and controls and structured-telephonic interviews were conducted to obtain exposure history. Stool specimens were collected from 20 cases along with environmental samples and both screened for enteric pathogens...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781021/dynamical-crossover-of-water-confined-within-the-amphiphilic-nanocores-of-aggregated-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides
#5
Prabir Khatua, Sanjoy Bandyopadhyay
It is believed that the self-assembly of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain is the cause of Alzheimer's disease. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous solutions of Aβ protofilaments of different sizes at room temperature have been carried out to explore the dynamic properties of water confined within the core and at the exterior surface of the protofilaments. Attempts have been made to understand how the non-uniform distortion of the protofilaments associated with their structural crossover influences the diffusivity and the hydrogen bonding environment of the confined water molecules...
May 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778472/effects-of-ad-libitum-milk-replacer-feeding-and-butyrate-supplementation-on-behavior-immune-status-and-health-of-holstein-calves-in-the-postnatal-period
#6
C Gerbert, D Frieten, C Koch, G Dusel, K Eder, T Stefaniak, J Bajzert, P Jawor, A Tuchscherer, H M Hammon
Animal welfare in dairy calf husbandry depends on calf rearing and is probably improved by intensive milk feeding programs. In addition, butyrate supplementation in milk replacer (MR) stimulates postnatal growth and may affect the immune system in calves. We have investigated the combined effects of ad libitum MR feeding and butyrate supplementation on feeding behavior, health, and the immune responses in calves. Holstein calves (n = 64) were examined from birth until wk 11 of age. Calves received MR either ad libitum (Adl) or restrictively (Res) with (AdlB+, ResB+) or without (AdlB-, ResB-) 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777288/time-shifting-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-daily-rhythms-in-the-diurnal-rodent-arvicanthis-ansorgei
#7
Jorge Mendoza, Hester C van Diepen, Rob Rodrigues Pereira, Johanna H Meijer
People suffering of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) show sleep-wake cycle and daily rhythm alterations despite the beneficial effects of MPH on behavioral symptoms (i.e., hyperactivity, attention). In nocturnal rodents (i.e., mice), chronic exposure to MPH alters the neural activity of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), behavioral rhythms, and the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we studied the effects of MPH on daily rhythms of behavior and body temperature of the diurnal rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei...
May 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775821/vermiremediation-of-metal-loid-s-via-eichornia-crassipes-phytomass-extraction-a-sustainable-technique-for-plant-amelioration
#8
Arnab Majumdar, Anil Barla, Munish Kumar Upadhyay, Dibyarpita Ghosh, Punarbasu Chaudhuri, Sudhakar Srivastava, Sutapa Bose
Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), imparts deficiency of soluble arsenic and other toxic metal (loid)s through rhizofiltration and phytoaccumulation. Without proper management strategy, this phytoremediation of metal (loid)s might fail and get reverted back to the environment, contaminating the nearby water bodies. This study, focused on bio-conversion of phytoremediating hyacinths, spiked with 100 times and greater arsenic, lead and cadmium concentrations than the average water contamination, ranging in 58...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775438/breakdown-of-water-super-permeation-in-electrically-insulating-graphene-oxide-films-role-of-dual-interlayer-spacing
#9
M K Kavitha, Tushar Sakorikar, Pramitha V, Manu Jaiswal
Conventional graphene oxide is characterized by low sp<sup>2</sup> content in a sp<sup>3</sup> rich matrix, which is responsible both for electrical insulation and water super-permeation. Upon reduction, electrical conduction is achieved at the expense of water permeation ability. Here, we demonstrate that charge conduction and water permeation can be simultaneously restricted in a functionalized form of graphene oxide. Gravimetric studies reveal that diffusion of water vapour through glassy polymer membranes is arrested by loading hydrophobic form of GO in the polymer matrix, even as such water inhibition cannot be realized by substantially increasing the thickness of the bare polymer...
May 18, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775280/fluorine-meets-amine-reducing-microenvironment-induced-amino-activatable-nanoprobes-for-19f-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-bio-thiols
#10
Pingsheng Huang, Weisheng Guo, Guang Yang, Huijuan Song, Yuqing Wang, Chun Wang, Deling Kong, Weiwei Wang
19F MRI is of great significance for non-invasive imaging and detection of various diseases. However, the main obstacle in the application of 19F MRI agents stems from the unmet signal sensitivity, due to the poor water-solubility and restricted mobility of segments with high numbers of fluorine atoms. Herein, we report a kind of intracellular reducing microenvironment-induced amino-activatable 19F MRI nanoprobe, which can be used for specific imaging of bio-thiols. In principle, the nanoprobe has an initial architecture of hydrophobic core, where the trifluoromethyl-containing segments are compactly packed and 19F NMR/MRI signals are quenched ("OFF" state)...
May 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774513/coordinated-effects-of-lead-toxicity-and-nutrient-deprivation-on-growth-oxidative-status-and-elemental-composition-of-primed-and-non-primed-rice-seedlings
#11
Fahad Khan, Saddam Hussain, Mohsin Tanveer, Sehrish Khan, Hafiz Athar Hussain, Biland Iqbal, Mingjian Geng
Rice crop is highly susceptible to the toxic levels of lead (Pb) during early growth stages. Moreover, a sufficient availability of mineral nutrients is critical for survival of plants particularly under stressful conditions. An experiment was carried out to unravel the coordinated effects of Pb stress (1-mM PbCl2 ) and different nutrient treatments (sufficient nutrient supply, nitrogen (N) deprivation, phosphorus (P) deprivation, and potassium (K) deprivation) on morphological growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidants, and nutrient status in primed and non-primed rice seedlings...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773982/training-rats-using-water-rewards-without-water-restriction
#12
Pamela Reinagel
High-throughput behavioral training of rodents has been a transformative development for systems neuroscience. Water or food restriction is typically required to motivate task engagement. We hypothesized a gap between physiological water need and hedonic water satiety that could be leveraged to train rats for water rewards without water restriction. We show that when Citric Acid (CA) is added to water, female rats drink less, yet consume enough to maintain long term health. With 24 h/day access to a visual task with water rewards, rats with ad lib CA water performed 84% ± 18% as many trials as in the same task under water restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773193/boron-intake-osteocalcin-polymorphism-and-serum-level-in-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#13
Olcay Boyacioglu, Seda Orenay-Boyacioglu, Hatice Yildirim, Mehmet Korkmaz
The relationship between daily boron intake and osteocalcin-mediated osteoporosis was studied in boron-exposed postmenopausal women. It is known that boron and osteocalcin are important in bone metabolism, however the effect of boron in bone metabolism has not been fully discovered. The study was performed on 53 postmenopausal women aged 55-60 living in parts of Balikesir, Turkey, where the subjects are naturally exposed to high (≥1 mg/L) or low (<1 mg/L) boron concentration in drinking water. 24-h urine samples were collected from all participants and creatinine clearance was detected...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772956/lumbar-muscle-structure-predicts-operational-postures-in-active-duty-marines
#14
David B Berry, Bahar Shahidi, Ana E Rodríguez-Soto, Jan M Hughes-Austin, Karen R Kelly, Samuel R Ward
Study Design Cross-sectional. Background The relationship between lumbar spine posture and muscle structure is not well understood. Objectives Investigate the predictive capacity of muscle structure on lumbar spine posture in active duty Marines. Methods Fouty-three Marines were scanned using an upright magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while standing unloaded and standing, sitting, and prone on elbows with body armor. Cobb, horizontal, and sacral angles were measured. Marines were then scanned unloaded in supine using a supine MRI scanner...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768029/fungal-spoilage-in-food-processing
#15
Abigail B Snyder, Randy W Worobo
Food processing, packaging, and formulation strategies are often specifically designed to inhibit or control microbial growth to prevent spoilage. Some of the most restrictive strategies rely solely or on combinations of pH reduction, preservatives, water activity limitation, control of oxygen tension, thermal processing, and hermetic packaging. In concert, these strategies are used to inactivate potential spoilage microorganisms or inhibit their growth. However, for select microbes that can overcome these controls, the lack of competition from additional background microbiota helps facilitate their propagation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768005/a-versatile-aunp-synthetic-platform-for-decoupled-control-of-size-and-surface-composition
#16
Ye Yang, Luis Antonio Serrano González, Stefan Guldin
While a plethora of protocols exist for the synthesis of sub-10nm gold nanopar- ticles (AuNPs), the independent control over size and surface composition remains restricted. This poses a particular challenge for systematic studies of AuNP structure- function relationships and optimization of crucial design parameters. To this end, we report on a modular 2-step approach based on the synthesis of AuNPs in oleylamine (OAm) followed by the subsequent functionalization with thiol ligands and mixtures thereof. The synthesis of OAm-capped AuNPs enables fine tuning of the core size in the range of 2-7nm by varying the reaction temperature...
May 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763836/salicylic-acid-and-nitric-oxide-alleviate-high-temperature-induced-oxidative-damage-in-lablab-purpureus-l-plants-by-regulating-bio-physical-processes-and-dna-methylation
#17
Krishna Kumar Rai, Nagendra Rai, Shashi Pandey Rai
Salicylic acid (SA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) modulates plant growth and development processes and recent findings have also revealed their involvement in the regulation of epigenetic factors under stress condition. In the present study, some of these factors were comparatively studied in hyacinth bean plants subjected to high temperature (HT) environment (40-42 °C) with and without exogenous application of SA and SNP under field condition. Exogenous application of SA and SNP substantially modulated the growth and biophysical process of hyacinth bean plants under HT environment...
April 26, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763412/thermoacoustic-sound-projector-exceeding-the-fundamental-efficiency-of-carbon-nanotubes
#18
Ali E Aliev, Daniel Codoluto, Ray H Baughman, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Kanzan Inoue, Stepan A Romanov, Albert Nasibulin, Prashant Kumar, Shashank Priya, Nathanael K Mayo, John Blottman
The combination of smooth, continuous sound spectra produced by a sound source having no vibrating parts, a nanoscale thickness of a flexible active layer and the feasibility of creating large, conformal projectors provoke interest in thermoacoustic phenomena. However, at low frequencies, the sound pressure level and the sound generation efficiency of open carbon nanotube sheets (CNTS) is low. In addition, the nanoscale thickness of fragile heating elements, their high sensitivity to the environment and the high surface temperatures practical for thermoacoustic sound generation necessitate a protective encapsulation of freestanding CNTS in inert gases...
May 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762013/determination-of-hexavalent-chromium-fractions-in-plastics-using-laboratory-based-high-resolution-x-ray-emission-spectroscopy
#19
Evan P Jahrman, Gerald T Seidler, John R Sieber
Cr(VI) is a well-known human carcinogen with many water-soluble moieties. Its presence in both natural and man-made substances poses a risk to public health, especially when contamination of ground water is possible. This has led the European Union and other jurisdictions to include Cr(VI) in restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) regulations. However, for several important industrial and commercial purposes, analytical capability to characterize Cr(VI) is known to be insufficient for regulatory purposes...
May 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761810/novel-paramagnetic-clays-obtained-through-intercalation-of-gd-3-complexes
#20
Stefano Marchesi, Fabio Carniato, Chiara Bisio, Lorenzo Tei, Leonardo Marchese, Mauro Botta
Novel paramagnetic lanthanide-exchanged saponite clays, bearing in the interlamellar region positively charged Gd3+-complexes, were synthesized using a hydrothermal approach followed by a classical ion exchange reaction. A detailed characterization was performed to assess the physico-chemical properties of the samples, which showed a hydrodynamic diameter between 50 and 90 nm and good thermal stability. 1H-NMR relaxometric studies in aqueous solution as a function of magnetic field and temperature were carried out to evaluate the local chemical environment of the intercalated paramagnetic centres and their interaction with water molecules...
May 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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