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water restriction

Wen-Hsin Lu, Nai-Hsing Yeh, Yi-Shuian Huang
Activity-dependent synthesis of plasticity-related proteins is necessary to sustain long-lasting synaptic modifications and consolidate memory. We investigated the role of the translational regulator cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) in learning and memory because regulated mRNA translation contributes to synaptic plasticity. Forebrain-restricted CPEB2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited impaired hippocampus-dependent memory in contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze tests...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
Lei Bi, Gang Pan
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) induced by eutrophication is becoming a serious global environmental problem affecting public health and aquatic ecological sustainability. A novel strategy for the utilization of biomass from HABs was developed by converting the algae cells into hollow mesoporous bio-hydrochar microspheres via hydrothermal carbonization method. The hollow microspheres were used as microreactors and carriers for constructing CaO2 core-mesoporous shell-CaO2 shell microspheres (OCRMs). The CaO2 shells could quickly increase dissolved oxygen to extremely anaerobic water in the initial 40 min until the CaO2 shells were consumed...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Christina Andica, Masaaki Hori, Kouhei Kamiya, Saori Koshino, Akifumi Hagiwara, Koji Kamagata, Issei Fukunaga, Nozomi Hamasaki, Michimasa Suzuki, Thorsten Feiweier, Katsutoshi Murata, Atsushi Arakawa, Kondo Akihide, Osamu Akiyama, Shigeki Aoki
We report two cases of pathologically proven intracranial epidermoid cysts. Both cases were scanned with diffusion-weighted imaging using pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) and oscillating gradient spin-echo (OGSE; 50 Hz) prototype sequences with diffusion times of 47.3 ms and 8.5 ms, respectively. The apparent diffusion coefficient measured by OGSE was higher than that measured by PGSE, indicating the spatial restriction of water diffusion in the laminated keratin layers within the cyst as demonstrated by histopathology...
November 13, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Bibek Dhital, Elias Kellner, Valerij G Kiselev, Marco Reisert
Understanding diffusion-weighted MR signal in brain white matter (WM) has been a long-sought-after goal. Modern research pursuits this goal by focusing on the biological compartments that contributes essentially to the signal. In this study, we experimentally address the apparent presence of a compartment in which water motion is restricted in all spatial directions. Using isotropic diffusion encoding, we establish an upper bound on the fraction of such a compartment, which is shown to be about 2% of the unweighted signal for moderate diffusion times...
November 9, 2017: NeuroImage
Nicolas M B Brancucci, Joseph P Gerdt, ChengQi Wang, Mariana De Niz, Nisha Philip, Swamy R Adapa, Min Zhang, Eva Hitz, Igor Niederwieser, Sylwia D Boltryk, Marie-Claude Laffitte, Martha A Clark, Christof Grüring, Deepali Ravel, Alexandra Blancke Soares, Allison Demas, Selina Bopp, Belén Rubio-Ruiz, Ana Conejo-Garcia, Dyann F Wirth, Edyta Gendaszewska-Darmach, Manoj T Duraisingh, John H Adams, Till S Voss, Andrew P Waters, Rays H Y Jiang, Jon Clardy, Matthias Marti
Transmission represents a population bottleneck in the Plasmodium life cycle and a key intervention target of ongoing efforts to eradicate malaria. Sexual differentiation is essential for this process, as only sexual parasites, called gametocytes, are infective to the mosquito vector. Gametocyte production rates vary depending on environmental conditions, but external stimuli remain obscure. Here, we show that the host-derived lipid lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) controls P. falciparum cell fate by repressing parasite sexual differentiation...
November 2, 2017: Cell
Qinguo Wei, Jiakuo Yan, Yao Chen, Lei Zhang, Xiaoyang Wu, Shuai Shang, Shisheng Ma, Tian Xia, Shuyu Xue, Honghai Zhang
The metalloregulatory protein MerR which plays important roles in mer operon system exhibits high affinity and selectivity toward mercury (II) (Hg(2+)). In order to improve the adsorption ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Hg(2+), MerR was displayed on the surface of S. cerevisiae for the first time with an α-agglutinin-based display system in this study. The merR gene was synthesized after being optimized and added restriction endonuclease sites EcoR I and Mlu I. The display of MerR was indirectly confirmed by the enhanced adsorption ability of S...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
Min Liu, Haowen Yin, Xiaoqian Chen, Jing Yang, Yihuai Liang, Jingji Zhang, Fan Yang, Yunyun Deng, Shen Lu
Recent regulatory and environmental pressures have led to increasing demands for environmentally friendly flame retardants as alternatives to halogenated flame retardants (HFRs). A new flame retardant alternative, 10-(2, 5-dihydroxyl phenyl)-9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10- phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO-HQ), was applied due to its high thermal stability and glass transition temperature. However, there is little information available for its ecotoxicology. For this purpose, the preliminary ecotoxicity of DOPO-HQ was investigated and evaluated, using aquatic, terrestrial and microorganism toxicity according to Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines under the framework of the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) regulation...
November 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Nika Stagličić, Tanja Šegvić-Bubić, Pero Ugarković, Igor Talijančić, Iva Žužul, Vjekoslav Tičina, Leon Grubišić
The ecological effects of tuna fish farms are largely undocumented. This study confirmed their high capacity to attract surrounding wild fish. The aggregation effect persisted year round, without detectable seasonal differences. Farm impact was restricted to close proximity of the sea cages, and was more prominent over the bottom than in the water column strata. Tuna fish farms proved to be high energy trophic resources, as indicated by the enhanced fitness status of two focal species, bogue and seabream. Under abundant food supply, seabream appear to allocate the majority of energy reserves to gonad development...
November 1, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Jia Xue, Siyu Lin, Frederica G Lamar, Jennifer G Lamori, Samendra Sherchan
Water quality in Lake Pontchartrain was deteriorating and recreational activities along the beach were restricted by the end of the 20th Century. A microbial source tracking (MST) study was conducted to determine the fecal contamination sources at public beach of the lake, so that effective pollution control strategies can be developed. Water samples were collected over an eight-month period at ten locations along the lake in 2016 and 2017. E. coli and Enterococcus were detected in 90.6% (culture) and 97.5% (qPCR), 95...
November 7, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Xiaoqing Li, Sally Wilkinson, Jianbo Shen, Brian G Forde, William J Davies
A better understanding of physiological responses of crops to drought stress is important for ensuring sustained crop productivity under climate change. Here, we studied the effect on 15-day-old maize (Zea mays L.) plants of a 6 d non-lethal period of soil drying [soil water potential (SWP) decreased from -0.20 MPa to -0.81 MPa]. Root growth was initially stimulated during drying (when SWP decreased from -0.31 MPa to -0.38 MPa, compared with -0.29 MPa in well-watered pots), followed by inhibition during Days 5-6 (SWP from -0...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Serena Milano, Monica Carmosino, Andrea Gerbino, Maria Svelto, Giuseppe Procino
Under physiological conditions, excessive loss of water through the urine is prevented by the release of the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin (AVP) from the posterior pituitary. In the kidney, AVP elicits a number of cellular responses, which converge on increasing the osmotic reabsorption of water in the collecting duct. One of the key events triggered by the binding of AVP to its type-2 receptor (AVPR2) is the exocytosis of the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2) at the apical membrane the principal cells of the collecting duct...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhenbing Zheng, Shan Gao, Li Huan, Guang-Ce Wang
Due to its highly efficient homologous recombination ability and unusual evolutionary position, the moss Physcomitrella patens has begun to attract more attention in genetic and evolutionary studies. Protonema, the filament stage of the gametophyte is of great significance in P. patens protoplast isolation. Moreover, protonema is widely used in genetic engineering. However, difficulties in the induction and state maintenance of protonema restrict its wider application. In this work, protonema was induced efficiently in a diluted seawater medium, and the filamentous state was maintained without further cell differentiation...
November 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Daragh Matthews, Michael G Diskin, David A Kenny, Christopher J Creevey, Kate Keogh, Sinead M Waters
BACKGROUND: Negative energy balance (NEB) is an imbalance between energy intake and energy requirements for lactation and body maintenance affecting high-yielding dairy cows and is of considerable economic importance due to its negative impact on fertility and health in dairy herds. It is anticipated that the cow hypothalamus experiences extensive biochemical changes during the early post partum period in an effort to re-establish metabolic homeostasis. However, there is variation in the tolerance to NEB between individual cows...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
Xiaojuan Yu, Hua Hou, Baoshan Wang
Two versions of the double-layered composite methods, including the restricted open-shell model chemistry based on the complete basis set quadratic mode (DL-ROCBS-Q) and the extrapolated CBS limit of electronic energy on the basis of the coupled cluster with single, double, and noniterative triple excitations with the hierarchical sequence of the correlation-consistent basis sets (DL-RCCSD(T)/CBS), were developed to calculate the energetic reaction routes for the systems involving 13/14 heavy atoms with good balance between efficiency and accuracy...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
So Hung Huynh, Dwayne Chung Kim Chung, Murat Muradoglu, Oi-Wah Liew, Tuck Wah Ng
Valves used to control liquid filling and draining processes from storage typically need to be actuated. Here, we show that similar flow enabling and restricting operations can be achieved through millimeter scale holes that function according to the amount of hydrostatic pressure applied without any other intervention. This phenomena is exhibited using receptacles where the base is made of either a hydrophilic or superhydrophobic substrate with hole sizes ranging from 1.0 - 2.0 mm. The construction is such that the drainage flow velocities are of the same order in both substrates and follow Torricelli's law trends...
November 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Taruna Anand, Bidhan Ch Bera, Nitin Virmani, Rajesh Kumar Vaid, Medhavi Vashisth, Bhupendra Nath Tripathi
A virulent Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and the corresponding novel, lytic bacteriophage (VTCCBPA5) were isolated from village pond water. The phage was found to belong to family Podoviridae. PCR analysis of major capsid protein gene confirmed its classification to T7-like genus. The protein profiling by SDS-PAGE indicated the major structural protein to be ~ 45 kDa. The phage (VTCCBPA5) is host specific and is stable over a range of pH (6-10) and temperatures (4-45 °C). On the basis of restriction endonuclease analysis combined with prediction mapping, it was observed to vary significantly from previously reported podophages of Aeromonas sp...
November 7, 2017: Virus Genes
Kurt Heil, Urs Schmidhalter
Fast and accurate assessment of within-field variation is essential for detecting field-wide heterogeneity and contributing to improvements in the management of agricultural lands. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of field scale characterization by electromagnetic induction, firstly with a focus on the applications of EM38 to salinity, soil texture, water content and soil water turnover, soil types and boundaries, nutrients and N-turnover and soil sampling designs. Furthermore, results concerning special applications in agriculture, horticulture and archaeology are included...
November 4, 2017: Sensors
Heloisa Nascimento, Cristina Viana-Niero, Christiane Lourenço Nogueira, Paulo José Martins Bispo, Fernando Pinto, Camila de Paula Pereira Uzam, Cristianne Kayoko Matsumoto, Antônia Maria Oliveira Machado, Sylvia Cardoso Leão, Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima, Denise de Freitas
PURPOSE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria keratitis is a rare but challenging complication of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). This study was conducted to determine the source(s) of infection in a cluster of cases of keratitis after LASIK and to describe this outbreak and patients' outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective, case series, single-center study, 86 patients were included who underwent LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy between December 2011 and February 2012...
November 2, 2017: Cornea
Chandana Lall, Vlad Bura, Thomas K Lee, Priya Bhosale, Silvana C Faria, Joon-Il Choi, Zhen Jane Wang
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an increasingly utilized sequence in the assessment of abdominal and pelvic lesions. Benign lesions containing hemorrhagic products, with conglomerates of tightly packed blood cells or fibers, can have restricted water diffusion on DWI and apparent diffusion coefficient maps. Such lesions can have restricted diffusion erroneously attributed to malignancy. This review illustrates benign hemorrhagic lesions displaying restricted diffusion, with histopathologic correlation in relevant cases...
November 6, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
Roger L Vallejo, Sixin Liu, Guangtu Gao, Breno O Fragomeni, Alvaro G Hernandez, Timothy D Leeds, James E Parsons, Kyle E Martin, Jason P Evenhuis, Timothy J Welch, Gregory D Wiens, Yniv Palti
Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant mortality and economic losses in salmonid aquaculture. In previous studies, we identified moderate-large effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BCWD resistance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the recent availability of a 57 K SNP array and a reference genome assembly have enabled us to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that overcome several experimental limitations from our previous work. In the current study, we conducted GWAS for BCWD resistance in two rainbow trout breeding populations using two genotyping platforms, the 57 K Affymetrix SNP array and restriction-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
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