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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811190/how-to-quench-your-thirst-the-effect-of-water-based-products-varying-in-temperature-and-texture-flavour-and-sugar-content-on-thirst
#1
L van Belzen, E M Postma, S Boesveldt
The sensation of thirst plays an important role in the consumption of water or other fluids to rehydrate the body in order to keep bodily functions working properly. An increase in saliva secretion, wetting the mouth by ingestion of liquids, and cooling and sour components in products can alleviate this sensation already before absorption of fluids by the body. This study aimed to investigate the thirst-quenching ability of water-based products differing in temperature and texture (cold solids and cool liquids), flavour (flavoured and non-flavoured) and sugar content in two consecutive experiments...
August 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810753/dynamical-transition-in-molecular-glasses-and-proteins-observed-by-spin-relaxation-of-nitroxide-spin-probes-and-labels
#2
Elena A Golysheva, Georgiy Yu Shevelev, Sergei A Dzuba
In glassy substances and biological media, dynamical transitions are observed in neutron scattering that manifests itself as deviations of the translational mean-squared displacement, 〈x(2)〉, of hydrogen atoms from harmonic dynamics. In biological media, the deviation occurs at two temperature intervals, at ∼100-150 K and at ∼170-230 K, and it is attributed to the motion of methyl groups in the former case and to the transition from harmonic to anharmonic or diffusive motions in the latter case. In this work, electron spin echo (ESE) spectroscopy-a pulsed version of electron paramagnetic resonance-is applied to study the spin relaxation of nitroxide spin probes and labels introduced in molecular glass former o-terphenyl and in protein lysozyme...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806690/occurrence-and-distribution-of-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-an-urban-watershed-comparison-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-organochlorine-pesticides
#3
Qian Wang, Barry C Kelly
Due to restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), market demand for alternative flame retardants is projected to increase, worldwide. Information regarding the environmental behavior of these compounds is limited. The present study involved field measurements of several alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), along with PBDEs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in surface water, bottom sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) within a highly urbanized watershed in Singapore...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806046/electrolytes-sodium-disorders
#4
Michael M Braun, Megan Mahowald
Sodium disorders (ie, hyponatremia, hypernatremia) are common electrolyte disturbances in clinical medicine and are associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Etiologies of hyponatremia are classified into four categories. The first is pseudohyponatremia, in which the sodium level is low due to hyperproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, or hyperglycemia. The other three categories are based on overall patient fluid status and include hypovolemic (commonly due to fluid loss), hypervolemic (commonly due to fluid retention from heart failure, cirrhosis, or renal failure), and euvolemic (most often because of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone)...
August 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803573/the-school-environment-and-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-among-guatemalan-adolescents
#5
Katelyn M Godin, Violeta Chacón, Joaquin Barnoya, Scott T Leatherdale
OBJECTIVE: The current study sought to examine Guatemalan adolescents' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), identify which individual-level characteristics are associated with SSB consumption and describe school characteristics that may influence students' SSB consumption. DESIGN: Within this observational pilot study, a questionnaire was used to assess students' consumption of three varieties of SSB (soft drinks, energy drinks, sweetened coffees/teas), as well as a variety of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801577/effects-of-disulfide-bridges-and-backbone-connectivity-on-water-sorption-by-protein-matrices
#6
Sang Beom Kim, Rakesh S Singh, Prem K C Paul, Pablo G Debenedetti
Understanding the water sorption behavior of protein powders is important in applications such as the preservation of protein-based pharmaceuticals. Most globular proteins exhibit a characteristic sigmoidal water adsorption isotherm at ambient conditions. However, it is not well understood how water sorption behavior is influenced by intrinsic factors that are related to structural properties of proteins. We investigate computationally how structural constraints on proteins influence the water sorption isotherms of amorphous protein powders...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798296/water-circulation-and-marine-environment-in-the-antarctic-traced-by-speciation-of-129-i-and-127-i
#7
Shan Xing, Xiaolin Hou, Ala Aldahan, Go Ran Possnert, Keliang Shi, Peng Yi, Weijian Zhou
Emissions of anthropogenic (129)I from human nuclear activities are now detected in the surface water of the Antarctic seas. Surface seawater samples from the Drake Passage, Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Seas were analyzed for total (129)I and (127)I, as well as for iodide and iodate of these two isotopes. The variability of (127)I and (129)I concentrations and their species ((127)I(-)/(127)IO3(-), (129)I(-)/(129)IO3(-)) suggest limited environmental impact where ((1.15-3.15) × 10(6) atoms/L for (129)I concentration and (0...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796748/diffusion-basis-spectral-imaging-detects-ongoing-brain-inflammation-in-virologically-well-controlled-hiv-patients
#8
Jeremy F Strain, Tricia H Burdo, Sheng-Kwei Song, Peng Sun, Omar El-Ghazzawy, Brittany Nelson, Elizabeth Westerhaus, Laurie Baker, Florin Vaida, Beau M Ances
Inflammation occurs after HIV infection and persists despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), measures HIV associated white matter changes, but can be confounded by inflammation. Currently, the influence of inflammation on white matter integrity in well-controlled HIV+ patients remains unknown. We used diffusion basis spectral imaging (DBSI) derived cellularity to isolate restricted water diffusion associated with inflammation separated from the anisotropic diffusion associated with axonal integrity...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796319/diffusion-weighted-mrs-of-acetate-in-the-rat-brain
#9
Masoumeh Dehghani, Nicolas Kunz, Bernard Lanz, Hikari A I Yoshihara, Rolf Gruetter
Acetate has been proposed as an astrocyte-specific energy substrate for metabolic studies in the brain. The determination of the relative contribution of the intracellular and extracellular compartments to the acetate signal using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide an insight into the cellular environment and distribution volume of acetate in the brain. In the present study, localized (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy employing a diffusion-weighted stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence at an ultra-high magnetic field (14...
August 10, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794326/temperature-and-size-effects-on-structural-and-dynamical-properties-of-water-confined-in-1-10-nm-scale-pores-using-proton-nmr-spectroscopy
#10
Yuta Fukatsu, Kyojiro Morikawa, Yasuhisa Ikeda, Takehiko Tsukahara
We were able to fill 1 - 10 nm-scale silica pores with water by vapor condensation, and examined the freezing phenomena, structures, and molecular motions of the confined water in the temperature range from 293 to 188 K by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that almost all water molecules confined in 10 nm-scale pores were frozen and that approximately half of the water confined in 1 nm-scale pores existed in the liquid state even below the freezing point. The water adsorbed on the pore surfaces was estimated as a monolayer in 2...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792053/a-janus-oil-barrel-with-tapered-microhole-arrays-for-spontaneous-high-flux-spilled-oil-absorption-and-storage
#11
Zhen Zhang, Yinghui Zhang, Hua Fan, Yulong Wang, Chen Zhou, Feifei Ren, Sizhu Wu, Guoqiang Li, Yanlei Hu, Jiawen Li, Dong Wu, Jiaru Chu
Porous oil/water separation materials show excellent prospects in the remediation of oil spill accidents. However, several drawbacks such as low flux, limited absorption and storage capacity restrict their practical applications. Hence, a novel Janus oil barrel (superhydrophobic outside wall and superhydrophilic inside wall) constituted by tapered microhole arrayed aluminium foil is designed, which is demonstrated to be a promising device for the remediation of oil spill accidents. Furthermore, the investigation shows that the tapered microholes (taper angle 25-30°) can significantly enhance oil/water intrusion pressures (1-3 times higher than cylindrical holes) and unidirectional transferability which can eliminate the secondary leakage when salvaging full oil barrels without an additional procedure...
August 9, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782715/corticosterone-potentiates-dfp-induced-neuroinflammation-and-affects-high-order-diffusion-imaging-in-a-rat-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#12
Bang-Bon Koo, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Samanthan Calderazzo, Kimberly A Kelly, Kimberly Sullivan, Ronald J Killiany, James P O'Callaghan
Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War were potentially exposed to a variety of toxic chemicals, including sarin nerve agent and pesticides, which have been suspected to be involved in the development of Gulf War Illness (GWI). Several of these exposures cause a neuroinflammatory response in mice, which may serve as a basis for the sickness behavior-like symptoms seen in veterans with GWI. Furthermore, conditions mimicking the physiological stress experienced during the war can exacerbate this effect. While neuroinflammation has been observed post-exposure using animal models, it remains a challenge to evaluate neuroinflammation and its associated cellular and molecular changes in vivo in veterans with GWI...
August 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782649/comparison-of-methods-available-for-the-identification-of-mycobacterium-chimaera
#13
Emmanuel Lecorche, Sophie Haenn, Faiza Mougari, Sylvain Kumanski, Nicolas Veziris, Hanaa Benmansour, Laurent Raskine, Laurent Moulin, Emmanuelle Cambau
OBJECTIVES: Mycobacterium chimaera is a recently described nontuberculous mycobacterium belonging to the M. avium complex (MAC). Because this species is implicated in a worldwide outbreak due to contaminated heater-cooler unit water tanks during open-heart surgery, it becomes mandatory for clinical microbiology laboratories to be able to differentiate M. chimaera from the other MAC species, especially M. intracellulare. Such identification was so far restricted to specialized laboratories, since it required the analysis of several gene sequences...
August 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782008/controlled-hydroxyapatite-biomineralization-in-an-810-million-year-old-unicellular-eukaryote
#14
Phoebe A Cohen, Justin V Strauss, Alan D Rooney, Mukul Sharma, Nicholas Tosca
Biomineralization marks one of the most significant evolutionary milestones among the Eukarya, but its roots in the fossil record remain obscure. We report crystallographic and geochemical evidence for controlled eukaryotic biomineralization in Neoproterozoic scale microfossils from the Fifteenmile Group of Yukon, Canada. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the microfossils are constructed of a hierarchically organized interwoven network of fibrous hydroxyapatite crystals each elongated along the [001] direction, indicating biological control over microstructural crystallization...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781038/evidence-based-rabbit-housing-and-nutrition
#15
REVIEW
Marcus Clauss, Jean-Michel Hatt
Because most research on rabbit husbandry, welfare, and nutrition was performed on production animals, evidence for best practices in pet rabbits is scarce, and guidelines must be based on transfer of results, deduction, and common sense. Rabbits benefit from being kept with at least one conspecific; from large enclosures and multistory hutches; from drinking water offered ad libitum in open dish drinker systems; and from receiving hay ad libitum, with restricted amounts of fresh grass, herbs, or green leafy vegetables, and a high-fiber complete diet...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776975/dual-functional-ta-doped-electrospun-tio2-nanofibers-with-enhanced-photocatalysis-and-sers-detection-for-organic-compounds
#16
Narendra Singh, Jai Prakash, Mrinmoy Misra, Ashutosh Sharma, Raju Kumar Gupta
There is a growing interest in multifunctional nanomaterials for the detection as well as degradation of organic contaminants in the water. In this work, we report on the development of dual functional TiO2 nanofibers (TNF) with different tantalum (Ta) doping (1-10 mol %) by a simple electrospinning technique. As-prepared TNF show mesoporous dominant structure, which are favorable for photocatalytic activity due to the presence of catalytic spots. Ta doping decreases the crystalline size within TiO2 matrix because of the incorporation of Ta(5+) ions and restricts the phase transformation from anatase to rutile...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776097/elevational-diversity-and-distribution-of-ammonia-oxidizing-archaea-community-in-meadow-soils-on-the-tibetan-plateau
#17
Kang Zhao, Weidong Kong, Ajmal Khan, Jinbo Liu, Guangxia Guo, Said Muhanmmad, Xianzhou Zhang, Xiaobin Dong
Unraveling elevational diversity patterns of plants and animals has long been attracting scientific interests. However, whether soil microorganisms exhibit similar elevational patterns remains largely less explored, especially for functional microbial communities, such as ammonia oxidizers. Here, we investigated the diversity and distribution pattern of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in meadow soils along an elevation gradient from 4400 m to the grassline at 5100 m on the Tibetan Plateau using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequencing methods by targeting amoA gene...
August 3, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773174/hydrothermal-sterilization-improves-initial-osteoblast-responses-on-sandpaper-polished-titanium
#18
Xingling Shi, Lingli Xu, Qingliang Wang, Lin Xu
Hydrocarbon contamination accumulated on titanium (Ti) implant surfaces during storage and sterilization is unavoidable and difficult to remove. It impairs the bioactivity of implants, restricts initial interactions between implants and the surrounding biological environment, and has become a common challenge for Ti implants. To overcome this problem, sterilization was considered as the final surface modification and a novel method, hydrothermal sterilization (HS), was proposed. Briefly, stored sandpaper-polished Ti specimens were sterilized in a glass container with pure water at 121 °C for 20 min and kept in the same water until utilization...
July 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772892/effects-of-wastes-from-the-brewing-industry-in-lightweight-aggregates-manufactured-with-clay-for-green-roofs
#19
Romina D Farías, Carmen Martínez García, Teresa Cotes Palomino, Myriam Martínez Arellano
This study investigates the effects of sieved wastes generated from the brewing industry on lightweight aggregates manufactured with clay. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, bagasse and diatomaceous earth were used to obtain the samples. These wastes are usually dumped in landfills, but the current increase in restrictions on dumping and interest in improving the environment make our proposal for gaining value from these wastes a significant contribution. Laboratory tests show that the new aggregate has low bulk density and increased water absorption and porosity...
May 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769947/heterologous-expression-of-panax-ginseng-pgtip1-confers-enhanced-salt-tolerance-of-soybean-cotyledon-hairy-roots-composite-and-whole-plants
#20
Jing An, Zhenmin Hu, Benning Che, Haiying Chen, Bingjun Yu, Weiming Cai
The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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