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water restriction

Xiulin Wang, Xiaxiang Zhang, Jing Chen, Xiao Wang, Jian Cai, Qin Zhou, Tingbo Dai, Weixing Cao, Dong Jiang
Drought is the major abiotic stress that decreases plant water status, inhibits photosynthesis, induces oxidative stress, restricts growth and finally lead to the reduction of wheat yield. It has been proven that drought priming during vegetative growth stage could enhance tolerance to drought stress at grain filling in wheat. However, whether drought priming imposed at grain filling in parental plants could induce drought tolerance in the offspring is not known. In this study, drought priming was successively applied in the first, the second and the third generation of wheat to obtain the plants of T1 (primed for one generation), T2 (primed for two generations), T3 (primed for three generations)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Naoki Ohno, Tosiaki Miyati, Shuto Suzuki, Hirohito Kan, Toshitaka Aoki, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuki Hiramatsu, Satoshi Kobayashi, Toshifumi Gabata
PURPOSE: To suppress olefinic signals and enable simultaneous and quantitative estimation of multiple functional parameters associated with water and lipid, we investigated a modified method using chemical shift displacement and recovery-based separation of lipid tissue (SPLIT) involving acquisitions with different inversion times (TIs), echo times (TEs), and b-values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-shot diffusion echo-planar imaging (SSD-EPI) with multiple b-values (0-3000 s/mm2 ) was performed without fat suppression to separate water and lipid images using the chemical shift displacement of lipid signals in the phase-encoding direction...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Kathryn A McInerney, Kristen A Hahn, Elizabeth E Hatch, Ellen M Mikkelsen, Anne Z Steiner, Kenneth J Rothman, Henrik T Sørensen, Thala M Snerum, Lauren A Wise
OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which lubricant use during intercourse is associated with time-to-pregnancy (TTP). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Denmark and North America. POPULATION: 6,467 women aged 18-49 years who were not using contraception or fertility treatment. METHODS: We pooled data from two ongoing prospective cohort studies of pregnancy planners in Denmark (2011-2017) and North America (2013-2017)...
March 15, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Piotr Sowa, Hanne F Harbo, Nathan S White, Elisabeth G Celius, Hauke Bartsch, Pål Berg-Hansen, Stine M Moen, Atle Bjørnerud, Lars T Westlye, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Mona K Beyer
BACKGROUND: Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a recently introduced magnetic resonance imaging diffusion technique. The utility of RSI in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between RSI-derived parameters and neurological disability in MS. METHODS: Seventy-seven relapsing-remitting MS patients were scanned with RSI on a 3-T scanner. RSI-derived parameters: fast and slow apparent diffusion coefficient (sADC), fractional anisotropy, restricted fractional anisotropy, neurite density (ND), cellularity, extracellular water fraction, and free water fraction, were obtained in white matter lesions (WML) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Chandan Kumar Choudhury, Sidong Tu, Igor Luzinov, Sergiy Minko, Olga Kuksenok
Designing biomaterials capable of functioning in harsh environments is vital for a range of applications. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that conjugating lysozymes with a copolymer [poly(GMA-stat-OEGMA)] comprising of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) results in a dramatic increase of stability of these enzymes at high temperatures provided that the concentration of the copolymer in the close vicinity of the enzyme exceeds a critical value...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Tatiana Korshunova, Kennet Lundin, Klas Malmberg, Bernard Picton, Alexander Martynov
A unique example of brackish water fjord-related diversification of a new nudibranch genus and species Bohuslania matsmichaeli gen. n., sp. n. is presented. There are only few previously known brackish-water opisthobranchs and B. matsmichaeli gen. n., sp. n. is the first ever described brackish-water nudibranch with such an extremely limited known geographical range and apparently strict adherence to salinity levels lower than 20 per mille. Up to date the new taxon has been found only in a very restricted area in the Idefjord, bordering Sweden and Norway, but not in any other apparently suitable localities along the Swedish and Norwegian coasts...
2018: PloS One
Reza Naeimi, Fatemeh Safarpour, Mona Hashemian, Hamed Tashakorian, Seyed Raheleh Ahmadian, Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman
Curcumin has been introduced as effective anti-inflammatory agent in treatment of several inflammatory disorders. Despite the wide range pharmacological activities, clinical application of curcumin is restricted mainly due to the low water solubility of this substance. More recently, we could remarkably improve the aqueous solubility of curcumin by its encapsulation in chitosan-alginate-sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (CS-ALG-STPP NPs). In this study, the anti-inflammatory and myelin protective effects of curcumin-loaded NPs were evaluated in lysolecithin (LPC)-induced focal demyelination model...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Aurélie Marquez, Zoheira Djelouadji, Virginie Lattard, Angéli Kodjo
Leptospirosis is a virulent zoonosis with a global distribution. Pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are responsible for this disease, and the primary animal reservoirs are rodentvvvs. Direct and indirect contact with infected urine constitutes the main route of transmission. Renal failure and advanced abortions are frequently observed in animals affected by leptospirosis, causing serious problems for farms. In humans, there is a high rate of mortality (10 percent), and farmers and persons in contact with water are frequently exposed...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Stephan Brendel, Éva Fetter, Claudia Staude, Lena Vierke, Annegret Biegel-Engler
Background: Short-chain PFASs (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are widely used as alternatives to long-chain PFASs. Long-chain PFASs become gradually regulated under REACH (EC No. 1907/2006) and other international regulations, due to having persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties and/or being toxic for reproduction. The increasingly used short-chain PFASs are assumed to have a lower bioaccumulation potential. Nonetheless, they have other properties of concern and are already widely distributed in the environment, also in remote regions...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
H Mason Hedberg, Alexander Trenk, Michael B Ujiki
BACKGROUND: Weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass affects up to 30% of individuals. A dilated gastrojejunostomy contributes to regain through decreased restriction. Endoscopic gastrojejunostomy revision is a safe alternative to revisional surgery. There is evidence that technique affects outcome, but the mechanical properties of various sutured repairs have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To compare different suture patterns for endoscopic gastrojejunostomy revision using an ex vivo porcine model...
January 31, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
James T Liu, Ray T Hsu, Rick J Yang, Ya Ping Wang, Hui Wu, Xiaoqin Du, Anchun Li, Steven C Chien, Jay Lee, Shouye Yang, Jianrong Zhu, Chih-Chieh Su, Yi Chang, Chih-An Huh
Globally mud areas on continental shelves are conduits for the dispersal of fluvial-sourced sediment. We address fundamental issues in sediment dynamics focusing on how mud is retained on the seabed on shallow inner shelves and what are the sources of mud. Through a process-based comprehensive study that integrates dynamics, provenance, and sedimentology, here we show that the key mechanism to keep mud on the seabed is the water-column stratification that forms a dynamic barrier in the vertical that restricts the upward mixing of suspended sediment...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jian Ma, Wei Zhou, Xin Tan, Tao Yu
Solar-to-chemical energy conversion is a challenging photochemical reaction for renewable energy storage. In the past decades, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution has been studied extensively. TiO2 is a classic semiconductor in photocatalytic H2 production area; however, its low efficiency for solar energy utilization and high recombination rate of photocarriers restricted its photocatalytic efficiency. Here, a series of K intercalated g-C3N4 modified TiO2 nanobelts (TCN-Kx) with different dosage of K atoms were fabricated by using a hydrothermal method followed by a calcinations process...
March 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
Claudia Andrea Tortone, MartIn José Zumárraga, Andrea Karina Gioffr, Delia Susana Oriani
Background: The environment is the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) reservoir, opportunistic pathogens of great diversity and ubiquity, which is observed in the constant description of new species capable of causing infection. Since its introduction, molecular methods are essential for species identification. Most comparative studies between molecular and conventional methods, have used isolated strains from clinical samples. Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of molecular methods, especially the hsp65-PRA (PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis), and biochemical tests in the identification of NTM recovered from water of different origins, using the sequencing of 16S rRNA and hsp 65 genes as assessment methods of the previous ones...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Geane Silva de Almeida, Iara Brandão de Oliveira
This work applied the Water Quality Index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (WQI-CCME), to communicate the water quality per section of the Joanes River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil. WQI-CCME is a statistical procedure that originally requires the execution of at least four monitoring campaigns per monitoring location and the measurement of at least four parameters. This paper presents a new aggregation method to calculate the WQI-CCME because, to apply the original method in Joanes River, a huge loss of information would occur, by the fact that, the number of analyzed parameters varied between the monitoring campaigns developed by the Government Monitoring Program...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Vahid Vosooghi-Postindoz, Abdol Mansour Tahmasbi, Abbas Ali Naserian, Reza Valizadeh, Seyed Hadi Ebrahimi
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intermittent watering on Baluchi lambs, regarding their performance, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility. Methods: Twenty male Baluchi lambs, 120 ± 5 days of age and 29 ±2.2 kg body weight were randomly assigned to four watering treatments: (T1) free access to water during the day, (T2) watered ad libitum twice a day, (T3) watered ad libitum once a day, (T4) watered ad libitum once every two days...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Yuncong Chen, Weijie Zhang, Zheng Zhao, Yuanjing Cai, Junyi Gong, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Herman H Y Sung, Ian D Williams, Ben Zhong Tang
Ionic fluorophores are powerful tools for the study of environmental science and bio-imaging. However, traditional ionic dyes usually require long synthetic steps and suffer from aggregation-caused quenching effect. Here we report a water-soluble ionic aggregation-induced emission luminogen called DBTA, which is readily accessed by a novel one-step reaction. The switchable emission manipulated by hydrogen bonding provided solid evidence for the restriction of intramolecular motions as the mechanism of AIE phenomenon...
March 7, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Guaiqiang Chai, Chunlian Li, Feng Xu, Yang Li, Xue Shi, Yong Wang, Zhonghua Wang
BACKGROUND: The cuticle covers the surface of the polysaccharide cell wall of leaf epidermal cells and forms an essential diffusion barrier between the plant and the environment. The cuticle is composed of cutin and wax. Cuticular wax plays an important role in the survival of plants by serving as the interface between plants and their biotic and abiotic environments, especially restricting nonstomatal water loss. Leaf cuticular waxes of hexaploid wheat at the seedling stage mainly consist of primary alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, alkane and esters...
March 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
F R Vizcarra, M Verghese, J A Vizcarra
One-day-old broad-breasted white turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were reared as recommended by industry standards. In Experiment 1, starting at 5 wk of age (WOA), birds were placed in individual cages with free access to feed and water. Blood samples were taken after 18 h of fasting (FASTING) and at 90 ± 5 min after feeding (1.5 h after feeding). In Experiment 2, birds were weighed, randomly assigned to 2 treatments, and placed in individual cages. In treatment 1 (n = 10), birds were fed ad libitum (FF), while birds in treatment 2 (n = 11) were placed on a restricted diet to allow for an average daily gain of 10...
February 28, 2018: Poultry Science
Meiyuan Yang, Yaobin Li, Lei Hu, Dan Luo, Yi Zhang, Xue Xiao, Guilin Li, Lixia Zhang, Gaochun Zhu
Lead (Pb) exposure has been shown to affect presynaptic neurotransmitter release in the animal and cell models. The mechanism by which Pb exposure impairs neurotransmitter release remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on synaptic vesicle protein 2C (SV2C) and its molecular mechanism. SV2C promoter region contains a neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) binding motif. Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) is a transcription repressor that regulates gene expression by binding to NRSE...
March 2, 2018: Toxicology
Michael Bitterlich, Martin Sandmann, Jan Graefe
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) proliferate in soil pores, on the surface of soil particles and affect soil structure. Although modifications in substrate moisture retention depend on structure and could influence plant water extraction, mycorrhizal impacts on water retention and hydraulic conductivity were rarely quantified. Hence, we asked whether inoculation with AMF affects substrate water retention, water transport properties and at which drought intensity those factors become limiting for plant transpiration...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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