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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453251/influence-of-manure-application-on-the-environmental-resistome-under-finnish-agricultural-practice-with-restricted-antibiotic-use
#1
Johanna Muurinen, Robert D Stedtfeld, Antti Karkman, Katariina Pärnänen, James M Tiedje, Marko P J Virta
The co-occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in farm environments can potentially foster the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. We studied the resistome of Finnish dairy and swine farms where use of antibiotics is limited to treating bacterial infections and manure is only applied April to September. The resistome of manure, soil and tile drainage water from ditch was investigated from the beginning of the growing season until forage harvest. The relative ARG and MGE abundance was measured using a qPCR array with 363 primer pairs...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437861/three-stage-decision-making-model-under-restricted-conditions-for-emergency-response-to-ships-not-under-control
#2
Bing Wu, Xinping Yan, Yang Wang, Di Zhang, C Guedes Soares
A ship that is not under control (NUC) is a typical incident that poses serious problems when in confined waters close to shore. The emergency response to NUC ships is to select the best risk control options, which is a challenge in restricted conditions (e.g., time limitation, resource constraint, and information asymmetry), particularly in inland waterway transportation. To enable a quick and effective response, this article develops a three-stage decision-making framework for NUC ship handling. The core of this method is (1) to propose feasible options for each involved entity (e...
April 24, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433828/poly-cyclodextrin-cryogels-with-aligned-porous-structure-for-removal-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-from-water
#3
Fuat Topuz, Tamer Uyar
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are sugar-based cyclic oligosaccharides, which form inclusion complexes with small guest molecules through their hydrophobic cavity. Here we successfully synthesized highly porous poly-cyclodextrin (poly-CD) cryogels, which were produced under cryogenic conditions by the cross-linking of amine-functional CDs with PEG-based diepoxide cross-linker. The poly-CD cryogels showed aligned porous network structures owing to the directional freezing of the matrix, of which the pore size and architecture exposed variations depending on the composition of the reactants...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433817/climate-change-risks-extinction-debt-and-conservation-implications-for-a-threatened-freshwater-fish-carmine-shiner-notropis-percobromus
#4
Shubha N Pandit, Bryan M Maitland, Laxmi K Pandit, Mark S Poesch, Eva C Enders
Climate change is affecting many freshwater species, particularly fishes. Predictions of future climate change suggest large and deleterious effects on species with narrow dispersal abilities due to limited hydrological connectivity. In turn, this creates the potential for population isolation in thermally unsuitable habitats, leading to physiological stress, species declines or possible extirpation. The current extent of many freshwater fish species' spatio-temporal distribution patterns and their sensitivity to thermal impacts from climate change - critical information for conservation planning - are often unknown...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432508/estimation-of-environmental-flow-incorporating-water-quality-and-hypothetical-climate-change-scenarios
#5
Bendangtola Walling, Shushobhit Chaudhary, C T Dhanya, Arun Kumar
Environmental flows (Eflow, hereafter) are the flows to be maintained in the river for its healthy functioning and the sustenance and protection of aquatic ecosystems. Estimation of Eflow in any river stretch demands consideration of various factors such as flow regime, ecosystem, and health of river. However, most of the Eflow estimation studies have neglected the water quality factor. This study urges the need to consider water quality criterion in the estimation of Eflow and proposes a framework for estimating Eflow incorporating water quality variations under present and hypothetical future scenarios of climate change and pollution load...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432403/bone-marrow-fat-content-in-70-adolescent-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment
#6
Kirsten Ecklund, Sridhar Vajapeyam, Robert V Mulkern, Henry A Feldman, Jennifer M O'Donnell, Amy D DiVasta, Catherine M Gordon
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426038/evaluation-of-the-dgt-technique-for-selective-measurement-of-aluminium-and-trace-metal-concentrations-in-an-acid-drainage-impacted-coastal-waterway
#7
Amir Houshang Shiva, Peter R Teasdale, David T Welsh, William W Bennett
The performance of DGT-Chelex, DGT-Metsorb and DGT-MBL (Chelex-Metsorb mixed binding layer) with open and restricted diffusive layers for trace metal (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and oxyanion (As, Mo, Sb, V) measurements, was evaluated in four natural waters with different pH (range 3.29-7.81). In moderately acidic (pH ≈ 5) and circumneutral (pH ≈ 6.3) waters, all three binding layers measured relatively similar concentrations of Al, while in more alkaline waters (pH ≈ 8) DGT-MBL measured higher concentrations than the other two binding layers...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422974/variation-in-benthic-long-term-data-of-transitional-waters-is-interpretation-more-than-speculation
#8
Michael Lothar Zettler, René Friedland, Mayya Gogina, Alexander Darr
Biological long-term data series in marine habitats are often used to identify anthropogenic impacts on the environment or climate induced regime shifts. However, particularly in transitional waters, environmental properties like water mass dynamics, salinity variability and the occurrence of oxygen minima not necessarily caused by either human activities or climate change can attenuate or mask apparent signals. At first glance it very often seems impossible to interpret the strong fluctuations of e.g. abundances or species richness, since abiotic variables like salinity and oxygen content vary simultaneously as well as in apparently erratic ways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421106/the-synergistic-responses-of-different-photoprotective-pathways-in-dwarf-bamboo-fargesia-rufa-to-drought-and-subsequent-rewatering
#9
Chenggang Liu, Yanjie Wang, Kaiwen Pan, Qingwei Wang, Jin Liang, Yanqiang Jin, Akash Tariq
Dwarf bamboo-dominated forests are often subjected to temporary periods of drought due to rising air temperature and decreasing rainfall. Nevertheless, the relationship among CO2 assimilation, photoprotective pathways and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains unexplored in bamboo species. Changes in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, energy partitioning, antioxidative system and compounds related to ROS metabolism in Fargesia rufa plants subjected to drought and subsequent rewatering were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421004/neurosensory-and-cognitive-modifications-in-europe-s-toughest-randoraid-competition-the-transpyr%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-a-extreme-study
#10
Alessandro Tonacci, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Kristian Ujka, Francesco Sansone, Alice Ferrisi, Guido Giardini, Raffaele Conte, Lorenza Pratali
Introduction: Given the wide proliferation of ultra-long endurance races, it is important to understand the physiological response of the athletes to improve their safety. We evaluated the cognitive and neurosensory effects on ultra-endurance athletes during the Transpyrénéa (866 Km, 65,000 m positive slope), held on the French Pyrenees. Materials and Methods: 40 athletes were enrolled (age 43.8 ± 8.8 years; 36 males). Olfactory and cognitive tests were performed before the race (T0, n = 40), at 166 kms (T1, n = 28), at 418 kms (T2, n = 20), and after the race (T3, 866 kms, n = 13)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418707/liquid-water-restricts-habitability-in-extreme-deserts
#11
Charles S Cockell, Sarah Brown, Hanna Landenmark, Toby Samuels, Rebecca Siddall, Jennifer Wadsworth
Liquid water is a requirement for biochemistry, yet under some circumstances it is deleterious to life. Here, we show that liquid water reduces the upper temperature survival limit for two extremophilic photosynthetic microorganisms (Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis spp.) by greater than 40°C under hydrated conditions compared to desiccated conditions. Under hydrated conditions, thermal stress causes protein inactivation as shown by the fluorescein diacetate assay. The presence of water was also found to enhance the deleterious effects of freeze-thaw in Chroococcidiopsis sp...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418097/genome-and-epigenome-of-a-novel-marine-thaumarchaeota-strain-suggest-viral-infection-phosphorothioation-dna-modification-and-multiple-restriction-systems
#12
Nathan A Ahlgren, Yangyang Chen, David M Needham, Alma E Parada, Rohan Sachdeva, Vicki Trinh, Ting Chen, Jed A Fuhrman
Marine Thaumarchaeota are abundant ammonia-oxidizers but have few representative laboratory-cultured strains. We report the cultivation of Candidatus Nitrosomarinus catalina SPOT01, a novel strain that is less warm-temperature tolerant than other cultivated Thaumarchaeota. Using metagenomic recruitment, strain SPOT01 comprises a major portion of Thaumarchaeota (4-54%) in temperate Pacific waters. Its complete 1.36 Mbp genome possesses several distinguishing features: putative phosphorothioation (PT) DNA modification genes; a region containing probable viral genes; and putative urea utilization genes...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414423/robust-fluorine-free-superhydrophobic-amino-silicone-oil-sio2-modification-of-electrospun-polyacrylonitrile-membranes-for-waterproof-breathable-application
#13
Junlu Sheng, Yue Xu, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
Superhydrophobic waterproof-breathable membranes have attracted considerable interest owing to their multifunctional applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, anticorrosion, outdoor tents, and protective clothing. Despite the researches pertaning to the construction of superhydrophobic functional membranes by nanoparticle finishing have increased drastically, the disconnected particle component is easy to fall off from the membranes under deformation and wear conditions, which has restricted their wide use in practice...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412606/quantification-of-alprenolol-and-propranolol-in-human-plasma-using-a-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography-2d-lc
#14
Virgínia M F Gonçalves, Patrícia Rodrigues, Cláudia Ribeiro, Maria E Tiritan
A new two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method using a column switching valve, with a restricted-access media (RAM) column in the first dimension was developed and validated for the quantification of two β-blockers in human plasma. Several parameters, such as sample collection, mobile phase composition and flow rate for sample cleanup, transference and analytical separation of the β-blockers were investigated and optimized. The developed method allowed for the simultaneous pre-treatment and quantification of alprenolol (ALP) and propranolol (PRO) in human plasma in less than 25min...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412604/highlighting-the-differential-role-of-leaf-paraheliotropism-in-two-mediterranean-cistus-species-under-drought-stress-and-well-watered-conditions
#15
Giacomo Puglielli, Susana Redondo-Gómez, Loretta Gratani, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo
The differential degree by which paraheliotropism may counterbalance the deleterious impact of high irradiance between congeneric species in relation to different water availabilities has been poorly investigated. We followed the evolution of gas exchange, quenching analysis and OJIP parameters in restrained (R) and free (F) to move leaves of Cistus monspeliensis (CM) and Cistus salvifolius (CS) under drought stress (WS) and well-watered conditions (WW). Concerning gas exchange parameters, leaf restriction effect was overall not significant in CM except in apparent carboxylation efficiency (Ce) under WS, while CS showed a significant sensitivity of maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax), stomatal conductance (gs) and Ce even under WW...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410472/histological-alterations-in-gills-of-macrobrachium-amazonicum-juveniles-exposed-to-ammonia-and-nitrite
#16
Fabrício Martins Dutra, Milton Rönnau, Dircelei Sponchiado, Sandra Carla Forneck, Carolina Arruda Freire, Eduardo Luis Cupertino Ballester
Aquaculture has shown great growth in the last decades. Due to the restrictions on water use, production systems are becoming increasingly more intensive, raising concerns about the production water quality. Macrobrachium amazonicum is among the freshwater prawn species with favorable characteristics for production and possibility of intensification. Nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitrite affect the health of aquatic organisms since they quickly reach toxic concentrations. These compounds can also cause damage to the gill structure, leading to hypoxia in tissues, affecting acid-base balance, osmoregulation (salt absorption) and ammonia excretion, decreasing the immune capacity of the animal and, in extreme cases, cause death...
April 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405198/mapping-water-stress-incidence-and-intensity-optimal-plant-populations-and-cultivar-duration-for-african-groundnut-productivity-enhancement
#17
Vincent Vadez, Oumarou Halilou, Halime M Hissene, Pierre Sibiry-Traore, Thomas R Sinclair, Afshin Soltani
Groundnut production is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa and water deficit or "drought," is often considered as the main yield-limiting factor. However, no comprehensive study has assessed the extent and intensity of "drought"-related yield decreases, nor has it explored avenues to enhance productivity. Hence, crop simulation modeling with SSM (Simple Simulation Modeling) was used to address these issues. To palliate the lack of reliable weather data as input to the model, the validity of weather data generated by Marksim, a weather generator, was tested...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403147/cryptosporidium-spp-and-giardia-spp-in-feces-and-water-and-the-associated-exposure-factors-on-dairy-farms
#18
Roberta Dos Santos Toledo, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Jonatas Campos de Almeida, Liza Ogawa, Hannah Lia Ettiene Peruch Lemos Dos Santos, Maíra Moreira Dos Santos, Filipe Aguera Pinheiro, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, João Luis Garcia, Roberta Lemos Freire
The aims of this study were to verify the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in animal feces and drinking water on dairy farms and to identify a possible relation between the exposure factors and the presence of these parasites. Fecal samples from cattle and humans and water samples were collected on dairy farms in Paraná, Brazil. Analysis of (oo)cysts in the feces was performed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining and centrifugal flotation in zinc sulfate. Test-positive samples were subjected to nested PCR amplification of the 18SSU ribosomal RNA gene for identification of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and of the gp60 gene for subtyping of Cryptosporidium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402888/influence-of-physical-effects-on-the-swarming-motility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Alexander Yang, Wai Shing Tang, Tieyan Si, Jay X Tang
Many species of bacteria can spread over a moist surface via a particular form of collective motion known as "surface swarming". This form of motility is typically studied by inoculating bacteria on a gel formed by 0.4-1.5% agar, which contains essential nutrients for their growth and proliferation. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its pili-less mutant, ΔPilA, we investigate physical factors that either facilitate or restrict the swarming motility, measured by the rate of increase in area covered by a spreading bacterial colony, i...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401991/supramolecular-amino-acid-based-hydrogels-probing-the-contribution-of-additive-molecules-using-nmr-spectroscopy
#20
Susana M Ramalhete, Karol P Nartwoski, Nichola Sarathchandra, Jamie S Foster, Andrew N Round, Jesús Angulo, Gareth O Lloyd, Yaroslav Z Khimyak
Supramolecular hydrogels are composed of self-assembled solid networks that restrict the flow of water. L-phenylalanine is the smallest molecule reported to date to form gel networks in water, and it is of particular interest due to its crystalline gel state. Single and multi-component hydrogels of L-phenylalanine are used herein as model materials to develop an NMR-based analytical approach to gain insight into the mechanisms of supramolecular gelation. Structure and composition of the gel fibres were probed using PXRD, solid-state NMR experiments and microscopic techniques...
April 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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