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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212460/do-low-oxygen-environments-facilitate-marine-invasions-relative-tolerance-of-native-and-invasive-species-to-low-oxygen-conditions
#1
Marcelo E Lagos, Diego R Barneche, Craig R White, Dustin J Marshall
Biological invasions are one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity. Marine artificial structures are proliferating worldwide and provide a haven for marine invasive species. Such structures disrupt local hydrodynamics, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-depleted microsites. The extent to which native fauna can cope with such low oxygen conditions, and whether invasive species, long associated with artificial structures in flow-restricted habitats, have adapted to these conditions remains unclear...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210930/emotion-specific-nocebo-effects-an-fmri-study
#2
Anne Schienle, Carina Höfler, Sonja Übel, Albert Wabnegger
The neurobiological mechanisms of nocebos are still poorly understood. Thirty-eight women participated in a 'smell study' using functional magnetic resonance imaging. They were presented with an odorless stimulus (distilled water) together with the verbal suggestion that this fluid has an aversive odor which enhances disgust feelings. The nocebo was presented while the participants viewed disgusting, fear-inducing, and neutral images. Participants' affective and neuronal responses during nocebo administration were compared with those in a control condition without nocebo...
February 16, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208014/improved-antitumor-efficacy-of-hyaluronic-acid-complexed-paclitaxel-nanoemulsions-in-treating-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Joo-Eun Kim, Young-Joon Park
Paclitaxel (PTX) is a effectively chemotherapeutic agent which is extensively able to treat the non-small cell lung, pancreatic, breast and other cancers. But it is a practically insoluble drug with water solubility less than 1 µg/mL, which restricts its therapeutic application. To overcome the problem, hyaluronic acid-complexed paclitaxel nanoemulsions (HPNs) were prepared by ionic complexation of paclitaxel (PTX) nanoemulsions and hyaluronic acid (HA) to specifically target non-small cell lung cancer. HPNs were composed of DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, soybean oil, polysorbate 80, ferric chloride, and HA and fabricated by high-pressure homogenization...
February 17, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205341/spatiotemporal-microstructural-white-matter-changes-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging-after-transient-focal-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#4
Won-Beom Jung, Yong Hee Han, Julius Juhyun Chung, Sun Young Chae, Sung Hoon Lee, Geun Ho Im, JiHoon Cha, Jung Hee Lee
Structural reorganization in white matter (WM) after stroke is a potential contributor to substitute or to newly establish the functional field on the injured brain in nature. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an imaging modality that can be used to evaluate damage and recovery within the brain. This method of imaging allows for in vivo assessment of the restricted movements of water molecules in WM and provides a detailed look at structural connectivity in the brain. For longitudinal DTI studies after a stroke, the conventional region of interest method and voxel-based analysis are highly dependent on the user-hypothesis and parameter settings for implementation...
February 16, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203479/metformin-impairs-spatial-memory-and-visual-acuity-in-old-male-mice
#5
Nopporn Thangthaeng, Margaret Rutledge, Jessica M Wong, Philip H Vann, Michael J Forster, Nathalie Sumien
Metformin is an oral anti-diabetic used as first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes. Because benefits of metformin extend beyond diabetes to other age-related pathology, and because its effect on gene expression profiles resembles that of caloric restriction, metformin has a potential as an anti-aging intervention and may soon be assessed as an intervention to extend healthspan. However, beneficial actions of metformin in the central nervous system have not been clearly established. The current study examined the effect of chronic oral metformin treatment on motor and cognitive function when initiated in young, middle-aged, or old male mice...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202133/toddlers-later-diagnosed-with-autism-exhibit-multiple-structural-abnormalities-in-temporal-corpus-callosum-fibers
#6
Noa Fingher, Ilan Dinstein, Michal Ben-Shachar, Shlomi Haar, Anders M Dale, Lisa Eyler, Karen Pierce, Eric Courchesne
Interhemispheric functional connectivity abnormalities are often reported in autism and it is thus not surprising that structural defects of the corpus callosum (CC) are consistently found using both traditional MRI and DTI techniques. Past DTI studies however, have subdivided the CC into 2 or 3 segments without regard for where fibers may project to within the cortex, thus placing limitations on our ability to understand the nature, timing and neurobehavioral impact of early CC abnormalities in autism. Leveraging a unique cohort of 97 toddlers (68 autism; 29 typical) we utilized a novel technique that identified seven CC tracts according to their cortical projections...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199767/alkaliphilic-bacillus-species-show-potential-application-in-concrete-crack-repair-by-virtue-of-rapid-spore-production-and-germination-then-extracellular-calcite-formation
#7
T K Sharma, M Alazhari, A Heath, K Paine, R M Cooper
AIMS: Characterisation of alkaliphilic Bacillus species for spore production and germination and calcite formation as a prelude to investigate their potential in micro-crack remediation in concrete. METHODS AND RESULTS: Conditions, extent and timing of endospore production was determined by dark field light microscopy; germination induction and kinetics was assessed by combining reduction in optical density with formation of refractile bodies by phase contrast microscopy...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197550/sexually-dimorphic-risk-mitigation-strategies-in-rats
#8
Blake A Pellman, Bryan P Schuessler, Mohini Tellakat, Jeansok J Kim
The scientific understanding of fear and anxiety-in both normal and pathological forms-is presently limited by a predominance of studies that use male animals and Pavlovian fear conditioning-centered paradigms that restrict and assess specific behaviors (e.g., freezing) over brief sampling periods and overlook the broader contributions of the spatiotemporal context to an animal's behavioral responses to threats. Here, we use a risky "closed economy" system, in which the need to acquire food and water and the need to avoid threats are simultaneously integrated into the lives of rats, to examine sex differences in mitigating threat risk while foraging...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197091/axonpacking-an-open-source-software-to-simulate-arrangements-of-axons-in-white-matter
#9
Tom Mingasson, Tanguy Duval, Nikola Stikov, Julien Cohen-Adad
HIGHLIGHTS AxonPacking: Open-source software for simulating white matter microstructure.Validation on a theoretical disk packing problem.Reproducible and stable for various densities and diameter distributions.Can be used to study interplay between myelin/fiber density and restricted fraction. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can provide parameters that describe white matter microstructure, such as the fiber volume fraction (FVF), the myelin volume fraction (MVF) or the axon volume fraction (AVF) via the fraction of restricted water (fr)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196300/omnidirectional-shape-memory-effect-via-lyophilization-of-peg-hydrogels
#10
Di Chen, Xuhui Xia, Tuck W Wong, Hao Bai, Marc Behl, Qian Zhao, Andreas Lendlein, Tao Xie
Device applications of shape memory polymers demand diverse shape changing geometries, which are currently limited to non-omnidirectional movement. This restriction originates from traditional thermomechanical programming methods such as uniaxial, biaxial stretching, bending, or compression. A solvent-modulated programming method is reported to achieve an omnidirectional shape memory behavior. The method utilizes freeze drying of hydrogels of polyethylene glycol networks with a melting transition temperature around 50 °C in their dry state...
February 14, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192446/range-extension-for-the-common-dolphin-delphinus-sp-to-the-colombian-caribbean-with-taxonomic-implications-from-genetic-barcoding-and-phylogenetic-analyses
#11
Nohelia Farías-Curtidor, Dalia C Barragán-Barrera, Paula Alejandra Chávez-Carreño, Cristina Jiménez-Pinedo, Daniel M Palacios, Dalila Caicedo, Fernando Trujillo, Susana Caballero
The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W) during two separate efforts: (a) a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010), and (b) three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187967/an-investigation-of-the-space-distribution-of-ulva-microscopic-propagules-and-ship-based-experiment-of-mitigation-using-modified-clay
#12
Jing Li, Xiuxian Song, Yue Zhang, Jun Pan, Zhiming Yu
Previous studies suggested that the removal of Ulva microscopic propagules (UMP) from cradle water might restrict the formation and expansion of green tides in the Yellow Sea, China. In this study, the distribution characteristics of UMP in the southern Yellow Sea was investigated, and then a flocculation experiment of UMP using modified clay (MC) was conducted at a selected station of the research cruise. The results indicated that the distribution of green algae thalli is one of the main factors that directly influence UMP distribution...
February 7, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187666/revision-of-recent-and-fossil-i-mixtacandona-i-klie-1938-ostracoda-candonidae-from-italy-with-description-of-a-new-species
#13
Ilaria Mazzini, Federico Marrone, Marco Arculeo, Giampaolo Rossetti
Although studies on ostracods dwelling in inland subterranean habitats of Italy have increased in the last decades, highlighting a considerable taxonomic diversity, available information is still far from sufficient to understand phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships. Mixtacandona Klie 1938 is one of the most common and diverse genera of ostracods in subterranean waters. Of the 20 living recognized species in the genus, all stygobiontic and restricted to the Palearctic Region, four are known for the Italian peninsula and Sardinia, one of which exclusively as fossil...
January 17, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187511/a-novel-cholesterol-lipid-delivery-system-for-murine-myeloma-cell-lines
#14
Gaurav Chauhan, Albert E Schmelzer
Murine myeloma NS0 cells are cholesterol-dependent auxotrophs and require externally provided cholesterol for sustained growth. Traditionally, cholesterol is provided to these cells by supplementing cell culture media with concentrated solution of cholesterol and other water insoluble components dissolved in 200-proof ethanol. However, the solubility of cholesterol in ethanol is limited and for processes requiring large amounts of cholesterol, the consequential increase in added ethanol may negatively impact cell growth...
February 10, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185800/inhaled-sildenafil-as-an-alternative-to-oral-sildenafil-in-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-pah
#15
Jahidur Rashid, Brijeshkumar Patel, Eva Nozik-Grayck, Ivan F McMurtry, Kurt R Stenmark, Fakhrul Ahsan
The practice of treating PAH patients with oral or intravenous sildenafil suffers from the limitations of short dosing intervals, peripheral vasodilation, unwanted side effects, and restricted use in pediatric patients. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that inhalable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles of sildenafil prolong the release of the drug,produce pulmonary specific vasodilation, reduce the systemic exposure of the drug, and may be used as an alternative to oral sildenafil in the treatment of PAH...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182160/curcumin-coordinated-nanoparticles-with-improved-stability-for-reactive-oxygen-species-responsive-drug-delivery-in-lung-cancer-therapy
#16
Cheng-Qiong Luo, Lei Xing, Peng-Fei Cui, Jian-Bin Qiao, Yu-Jing He, Bao-An Chen, Liang Jin, Hu-Lin Jiang
BACKGROUND: The natural compound curcumin (Cur) can regulate growth inhibition and apoptosis in various cancer cell lines, although its clinical applications are restricted by extreme water insolubility and instability. To overcome these hurdles, we fabricated a Cur-coordinated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive nanoparticle using the interaction between boronic acid and Cur. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We synthesized a highly biocompatible 4-(hydroxymethyl) phenylboronic acid (HPBA)-modified poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted poly(acrylic acid) polymer (PPH) and fabricated a Cur-coordinated ROS-responsive nanoparticle (denoted by PPHC) based on the interaction between boronic acid and Cur...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178975/evaluation-of-dogs-with-genetic-hyperuricosuria-and-urate-urolithiasis-consuming-a-purine-restricted-diet-a-pilot-study
#17
Jodi L Westropp, Jennifer A Larsen, Eric G Johnson, Dannika Bannasch, Andrea J Fascetti, Vincent Biourge, Yann Queau
BACKGROUND: Urate urolithiasis is a common problem in breed homozygous for the mutation that results in hyperuricosuria. Low purine diets have been recommended to reduce purine intake in these dogs. METHODS: A higher protein, purine restricted diet with water added was evaluated in dogs with genetic hyperuricosuria and a history of clinical urate urolithiasis over a one year time period. Dogs were evaluated at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months after initiating the test diet...
February 8, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178634/synthesis-of-ce-iii-doped-fe3o4-magnetic-particles-for-efficient-removal-of-antimony-from-aqueous-solution
#18
Zenglu Qi, Tista Prasai Joshi, Ruiping Liu, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu
Aqueous antimony (Sb) pollution from human activity is of great concern in drinking water due to its adverse health effect. Magnetic Fe3O4 particles, with high separation ability from solution, have been considered as a low-cost Sb adsorbent for contaminants. However, the limited adsorption capacity has restricted its practical application. In this study, a solvothermal approach was developed for doping Ce(III) into Fe3O4, thereby increasing the adsorption efficacy for both Sb(III) and Sb(V). In contrast to un-doped Fe3O4, the adsorption capacity towards Sb(III) and Sb(V) in Ce-doped materials increased from 111...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178059/less-restrictive-food-intake-during-labor-in-low-risk-singleton-pregnancies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Andrea Ciardulli, Gabriele Saccone, Hannah Anastasio, Vincenzo Berghella
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate benefits and harms of food intake during labor. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases such as MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from their inception until October 2016. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized trials comparing a policy of less-restrictive food intake with a policy of more restrictive food intake during labor. The primary outcome was the mean duration of labor. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of either a relative risk or a mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI)...
February 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177396/growth-heterogeneity-in-broiler-breeder-pullets-is-settled-before-the-onset-of-feed-restriction-but-is-not-predicted-by-size-at-hatch
#20
C Lindholm, J Jönsson, A Calais, A Middelkoop, N Yngwe, E Berndtson, J J Lees, E Hult, J Altimiras
Uniform growth is a desirable trait in all large-scale animal production systems because it simplifies animal management and increases profitability. In parental broiler flocks, so-called broiler breeders, low growth uniformity is largely attributed to the feed competition that arises from quantitatively restricted feeding. As feed restriction is crucial to maintaining healthy and fertile breeders, several practices for reducing feed competition and the associated growth heterogeneity have been suggested and range from nutrient dilution by increasing fiber content in feed to intermittent fasting with increased portion size ("skip a day"), but no practice appears to be entirely effective...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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