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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330922/joint-histology-in-alligator-mississippiensis-challenges-the-identification-of-synovial-joints-in-fossil-archosaurs-and-inferences-of-cranial-kinesis
#1
Alida M Bailleul, Casey M Holliday
Archosaurs, like all vertebrates, have different types of joints that allow or restrict cranial kinesis, such as synovial joints and fibrous joints. In general, synovial joints are more kinetic than fibrous joints, because the former possess a fluid-filled cavity and articular cartilage that facilitate movement. Even though there is a considerable lack of data on the microstructure and the structure-function relationships in the joints of extant archosaurs, many functional inferences of cranial kinesis in fossil archosaurs have hinged on the assumption that elongated condylar joints are (i) synovial and/or (ii) kinetic...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329897/maternal-labor-delivery-and-perinatal-outcomes-associated-with-placental-abruption-a-systematic-review
#2
Katheryne L Downes, Katherine L Grantz, Edmond D Shenassa
Objective Risk factors for placental abruption have changed, but there has not been an updated systematic review investigating outcomes. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and CINAHL for publications from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2016. We reviewed English-language publications reporting estimated incidence and/or risk factors for maternal, labor, delivery, and perinatal outcomes associated with abruption. We excluded case studies, conference abstracts, and studies that lacked a referent/comparison group or did not clearly characterize placental abruption...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328234/quantification-of-basal-insulin-peglispro-and-human-insulin-in-adipose-tissue-interstitial-fluid-by-open-flow-microperfusion
#3
Katrin Tiffner, Beate Boulgaropoulos, Christian Höfferer, Thomas Birngruber, Niels Porksen, Helle Linnebjerg, Parag Garhyan, Eric Chen Quin Lam, Mary Pat Knadler, Thomas R Pieber, Frank Sinner
BACKGROUND: Restoration of the physiologic hepatic-to-peripheral insulin gradient may be achieved by either portal vein administration or altering insulin structure to increase hepatic specificity or restrict peripheral access. Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) is a novel, PEGylated basal insulin with a flat pharmacokinetic and glucodynamic profile and altered hepatic-to-peripheral action gradient. We hypothesized reduced BIL exposure in peripheral tissues explains the latter, and in this study assessed the adipose tissue interstitial fluid (ISF) concentrations of BIL compared with human insulin (HI)...
March 22, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328069/autophagy-maintains-the-integrity-of-endothelial-barrier-in-lps-induced-lung-injury
#4
Dan Zhang, Jian Zhou, Le Chi Ye, Jing Li, Zhenzhou Wu, Yuping Li, Chichi Li
Understanding the role and underlying regulation mechanism of autophagy in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury (LPS-LI) may provide potentially new pharmacological targets for treatment of acute lung injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of autophagy in LPS-LI. The autophagy of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) and mice was inhibited before they were challenged with LPS. In vitro, permeability, vitality and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release rate of the cells were detected, the zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) expression and the stress fiber formation were determined...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328043/csf-tau-and-the-csf-tau-abeta-ratio-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-other-dementias-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#5
REVIEW
Craig Ritchie, Nadja Smailagic, Anna H Noel-Storr, Obioha Ukoumunne, Emma C Ladds, Steven Martin
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that measurable change in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers occurs years in advance of the onset of clinical symptoms (Beckett 2010). In this review, we aimed to assess the ability of CSF tau biomarkers (t-tau and p-tau) and the CSF tau (t-tau or p-tau)/ABeta ratio to enable the detection of Alzheimer's disease pathology in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These biomarkers have been proposed as important in new criteria for Alzheimer's disease dementia that incorporate biomarker abnormalities...
March 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324647/metabolism-and-distribution-of-clozapine-n-oxide-implications-for-nonhuman-primate-chemogenetics
#6
Jessica Raper, J Scott Daniels, Ryan D Morrison, Leonard Howell, Jocelyne Bachevalier, Thomas Wichmann, Adriana Galvan
The use of Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) in neuroscience has rapidly expanded in rodent studies, but has lagged behind in nonhuman primate (NHP) experiments, slowing the development of this method for therapeutic use in humans. One reason for the slow adoption of DREADD technology in primates is that the pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability of clozapine-n-oxide (CNO), the most commonly used ligand for human muscarinic (hM) DREADDs, are not fully described in primates...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323670/prevention-of-respiratory-complications-of-the-surgical-patient-actionable-plan-for-continued-process-improvement
#7
Katarina J Ruscic, Stephanie D Grabitz, Maíra I Rudolph, Matthias Eikermann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postoperative respiratory complications (PRCs) increase hospitalization time, 30-day mortality and costs by up to $35 000. These outcomes measures have gained prominence as bundled payments have become more common. RECENT FINDINGS: Results of recent quantitative effectiveness studies and clinical trials provide a framework that helps develop center-specific treatment guidelines, tailored to minimize the risk of PRCs. The implementation of those protocols should be guided by a local, respected, and visible facilitator who leads proper implementation while inviting center-specific input from surgeons, anesthesiologists, and other perioperative stakeholders...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323135/effect-of-bioaugmentation-by-cellulolytic-bacteria-enriched-from-sheep-rumen-on-methane-production-from-wheat-straw
#8
E Gozde Ozbayram, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Marcell Nikolausz, Bahar Ince, Orhan Ince
The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry...
March 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321321/associations-between-fluid-balance-and-outcomes-in-critically-ill-children-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Rashid Alobaidi, Catherine Morgan, Rajit K Basu, Erin Stenson, Robin Featherstone, Sumit R Majumdar, Sean M Bagshaw
BACKGROUND: Fluid therapy is a mainstay during the resuscitation of critically ill children. After initial stabilization, excessive fluid accumulation may lead to complications of fluid overload, which has been independently associated with increased risk for mortality and major morbidity in critically ill children. OBJECTIVES: Perform an evidence synthesis to describe the methods used to measure fluid balance, define fluid overload, and evaluate the association between fluid balance and outcomes in critically ill children...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316774/glutathione-metabolism-in-the-prefrontal-brain-of-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-mrs-study
#10
Dominique Endres, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Simon A Meyer, Bernd Feige, Kathrin Nickel, Anna Bubl, Andreas Riedel, Dieter Ebert, Thomas Lange, Volkmar Glauche, Monica Biscaldi, Alexandra Philipsen, Simon J Maier, Evgeniy Perlov
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by difficulties in social communication, unusually restricted, repetitive behavior and interests, and specific abnormalities in language and perception. The precise etiology of ASD is still unknown and probably heterogeneous. In a subgroup of patients, toxic environmental exposure might lead to an imbalance between oxidative stress and anti-oxidant systems. Previous serum and postmortem studies measuring levels of glutathione (GSH), the main cellular free radical scavenger in the brain, have supported the hypothesis that this compound might play a role in the pathophysiology of autism...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316263/individualised-dietary-strategies-for-olympic-combat-sports-acute-weight-loss-recovery-and-competition-nutrition
#11
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Louise M Burke
Olympic combat sports separate athletes into weight divisions, in an attempt to reduce size, strength, range and/or leverage disparities between competitors. Official weigh-ins are conducted anywhere from 3 and up to 24 h prior to competition ensuring athletes meet weight requirements (i.e. have 'made weight'). Fighters commonly aim to compete in weight divisions lower than their day-to-day weight, achieved via chronic and acute manipulations of body mass (BM). Although these manipulations may impair health and absolute performance, their strategic use can improve competitive success...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300194/amniotic-fluid-metabolomics-and-biochemistry-analysis-provides-novel-insights-into-the-diet-regulated-foetal-growth-in-a-pig-model
#12
Jin Wan, Fei Jiang, Jiao Zhang, Qingsong Xu, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Yuheng Luo, Jun He
Foetal loss and intrauterine growth restriction are major problems in mammals, but there are few effective ways in preventing it. Intriguingly, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a biomaterial derived from chitosan, can promote foetal survival and growth. Therefore, we have investigated how COS affects foetal survival and growth in a pig model. Fifty-two sows were divided into two treatment groups (n = 26) and fed either solely a control diet or a control diet that includes 100 mg/kg COS. Amniotic fluid and foetus samples from six sows that were of average body weight in each group were collected on gestation day 35...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299612/dietary-self-management-in-heart-failure-high-tech-or-high-touch
#13
REVIEW
Eloisa Colin-Ramirez, JoAnne Arcand, Justin A Ezekowitz
Dietary management of heart failure (HF) has largely been focused on sodium and fluid restrictions. Although safety and efficacy of these interventions in HF remain unclear, a daily sodium intake between 2000 and 3000 mg/day appears to be safe in these patients. Ongoing clinical research will inform on the safety and efficacy of a more restrictive sodium intake to less than 1500 mg/day. Data shows that routine fluid restriction in HF regardless of symptoms may be unnecessary; however, in patients with signs of congestion, fluid restriction to 2...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298967/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-brain-involvement-in-alcoholic-and-nonalcoholic-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#14
Gianvincenzo Sparacia, Andrea Anastasi, Claudia Speciale, Francesco Agnello, Aurelia Banco
AIM: To present the typical and atypical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of alcoholic and non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy. METHODS: This study included 7 patients with Wernicke's encephalopathy (2 men, 5 women; mean age, 52.3 years) that underwent brain MR examination between January 2012 and March 2016 in a single institution. Three patients were alcoholics and 4 patients were non-alcoholics. MR protocol included a T2-weighted sequence, a fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence, a diffusion-weighted sequence (b = 0 and 1000 s/mm(2)), and a contrast-enhanced MR sequence...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297853/semi-lagrangian-off-lattice-boltzmann-method-for-weakly-compressible-flows
#15
Andreas Krämer, Knut Küllmer, Dirk Reith, Wolfgang Joppich, Holger Foysi
The lattice Boltzmann method is a simulation technique in computational fluid dynamics. In its standard formulation, it is restricted to regular computation grids, second-order spatial accuracy, and a unity Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. This paper advances the standard lattice Boltzmann method by introducing a semi-Lagrangian streaming step. The proposed method allows significantly larger time steps, unstructured grids, and higher-order accurate representations of the solution to be used. The appealing properties of the approach are demonstrated in simulations of a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex, doubly periodic shear layers, and a three-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294557/double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-routine-peri-operative-use-of-terlipressin-in-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#16
Mettu Srinivas Reddy, Ilankumaran Kaliamoorthy, Akila Rajakumar, Selvakumar Malleeshwaran, Ellango Appuswamy, Sukanya Lakshmi, Joy Varghese, Mohamed Rela
BACKGROUND: Peri-operative terlipressin (Tp) during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been shown to reduce intra-operative portal pressures and improve renal function. Its role and safety profile has never been evaluated in a double-blinded RCT. AIM: To evaluate the haemodynamic effects, clinical benefits and safety of peri-operative terlipressin infusion in adult LDLT. METHODS: This was a single centre double-blind RCT. Consenting adults with chronic liver disease and low risk of post-transplant renal dysfunction (PTRD) undergoing their first LDLT were randomized...
March 14, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289542/complications-after-pancreaticoduodenectomy-are-associated-with-higher-amounts-of-intra-and-postoperative-fluid-therapy-a-single-center-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Birte Kulemann, Marianne Fritz, Torben Glatz, Goran Marjanovic, Olivia Sick, Ulrich T Hopt, Jens Hoeppner, Frank Makowiec
BACKGROUND: Perioperative mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy has decreased significantly in high-volume centers, but morbidity remains high. Restrictive perioperative fluid management may contribute to reduced complication rates after various surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between the amount of fluid administered and postoperative complications. We hypothesized that higher amounts of intra- and total fluid is associated with greater postoperative morbidity...
April 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288059/effects-of-intraoperative-fluid-management-on-postoperative-outcomes-a-hospital-registry-study
#18
Christina H Shin, Dustin R Long, Duncan McLean, Stephanie D Grabitz, Karim Ladha, Fanny P Timm, Tharusan Thevathasan, Alberto Pieretti, Cristina Ferrone, Andreas Hoeft, Thomas W L Scheeren, Boyd Taylor Thompson, Tobias Kurth, Matthias Eikermann
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the dose-response relationship between intraoperative fluid administration and postoperative outcomes in a large cohort of surgical patients. BACKGROUND: Healthy humans may live in a state of fluid responsiveness without the need for fluid supplementation. Goal-directed protocols driven by such measures are limited in their ability to define the optimal fluid state during surgery. METHODS: This analysis of data on file included 92,094 adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery with endotracheal intubation between 2007 and 2014 at an academic tertiary care hospital and two affiliated community hospitals...
March 10, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287491/natural-killer-cell-assessment-in-peripheral-circulation-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-of-patients-with-severe-sepsis-a-case-control-study
#19
Paulo Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando Guimaraes, Caroline Natânia De Souza-Araujo, Lidiane Maria Boldrini Leite, Alexandra Cristina Senegaglia, Anita Nishiyama, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes
Sepsis is a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome, the most common cause of which is attributed to systemic underlying bacterial infection. The complete mechanisms of the dynamic pro- and anti-inflammatory processes underlying the pathophysiology of sepsis remain poorly understood. Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis, leading to exaggerated inflammation due their rapid response and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Several studies have already shown that NK cells undergo lymphopenia in the peripheral blood of patients with sepsis...
March 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282848/long-term-vaptan-treatment-of-idiopathic-siadh-in-an-octogenarian
#20
Stefan Büttner, Jürgen Bachmann, Helmut Geiger, Nicholas Obermüller
Hyponatremia is the most common and by far underestimated electrolyte disorder in clinical practice. Especially in elderly patients, treatment of symptomatic hyponatremia is challenging. Herein we describe the case of an octogenarian with recurrent symptomatic hyponatremia due to idiopathic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release (SIADH). Fluid restriction was insufficient to prevent repeated episodes of hyponatremia complicated by falls and coma. After introduction of a low-dose therapy with tolvaptan, serum sodium levels as well as the clinical condition were stable under vaptan therapy, without any relapse for more than six years now...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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