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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448363/finite-element-lattice-boltzmann-simulations-of-contact-line-dynamics
#1
Rastin Matin, Marek Krzysztof Misztal, Anier Hernández-García, Joachim Mathiesen
The lattice Boltzmann method has become one of the standard techniques for simulating a wide range of fluid flows. However, the intrinsic coupling of momentum and space discretization restricts the traditional lattice Boltzmann method to regular lattices. Alternative off-lattice Boltzmann schemes exist for both single- and multiphase flows that decouple the velocity discretization from the underlying spatial grid. The current study extends the applicability of these off-lattice methods by introducing a finite element formulation that enables simulating contact line dynamics for partially wetting fluids...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448239/bioaccessibility-and-bioavailability-of-environmental-semi-volatile-organic-compounds-via-inhalation-a-review-of-methods-and-models
#2
REVIEW
Wenjuan Wei, Nathalie Bonvallot, Åsa Gustafsson, Gaëlle Raffy, Philippe Glorennec, Annette Krais, Olivier Ramalho, Barbara Le Bot, Corinne Mandin
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) present in indoor environments are known to cause adverse health effects through multiple routes of exposure. To assess the aggregate exposure, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of SVOCs need to be determined. In this review, we discussed measurements of the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of SVOCs after inhalation. Published literature related to this issue is available for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene...
February 12, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447255/hydroxyethyl-starch-for-volume-expansion-after-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-and-renal-function-results-of-a-retrospective-analysis
#3
Sven Bercker, Tanja Winkelmann, Thilo Busch, Sven Laudi, Dirk Lindner, Jürgen Meixensberger
BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) was part of "triple-H" therapy for prophylaxis and therapy of vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The European Medicines Agency restricted the use of HES in 2013 due to an increase of renal failure in critically ill patients receiving HES compared to crystalloid fluids. The occurrence of renal insufficiency in patients with SAH due to HES is still uncertain. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether there was an association with renal impairment in patients receiving HES after subarachnoid haemorrhage...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437746/from-renal-salt-wasting-to-siadh
#4
Tzy Harn Chua, Matin Ly, Senthil Thillainadesan, Katie Wynne
Hyponatraemia is common following major head injury and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A 20-year-old man presented with reduced consciousness after head trauma and was found to have a fractured skull base with bilateral frontal contusions. On day 3 of his admission, he developed hyponatraemia with raised urine sodium and osmolality, despite receiving dexamethasone and intravenous fluid therapy. His hyponatraemia worsened after the treatment with fluid restriction and oral salt. He was in negative fluid balance suggesting possible renal salt wasting...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428274/computational-models-of-laryngeal-aerodynamics-potentials-and-numerical-costs
#5
Hossein Sadeghi, Stefan Kniesburges, Manfred Kaltenbacher, Anne Schützenberger, Michael Döllinger
Human phonation is based on the interaction between tracheal airflow and laryngeal dynamics. This fluid-structure interaction is based on the energy exchange between airflow and vocal folds. Major challenges in analyzing the phonatory process in-vivo are the small dimensions and the poor accessibility of the region of interest. For improved analysis of the phonatory process, numerical simulations of the airflow and the vocal fold dynamics have been suggested. Even though most of the models reproduced the phonatory process fairly well, development of comprehensive larynx models is still a subject of research...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427013/assessment-of-fluid-responsiveness-in-spontaneously-breathing-patients-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#6
REVIEW
Renato Carneiro de Freitas Chaves, Thiago Domingos Corrêa, Ary Serpa Neto, Bruno de Arruda Bravim, Ricardo Luiz Cordioli, Fabio Tanzillo Moreira, Karina Tavares Timenetsky, Murillo Santucci Cesar de Assunção
Patients who increase stoke volume or cardiac index more than 10 or 15% after a fluid challenge are usually considered fluid responders. Assessment of fluid responsiveness prior to volume expansion is critical to avoid fluid overload, which has been associated with poor outcomes. Maneuvers to assess fluid responsiveness are well established in mechanically ventilated patients; however, few studies evaluated maneuvers to predict fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients. Our objective was to perform a systematic review of literature addressing the available methods to assess fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426050/-ards-an-update-part-2-therapy-and-outcome
#7
Rolf Dembinski, Frank Mielck
The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is defined by hypoxemic respiratory failure due to inflammatory response within the lung usually requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Despite more than 50 years of scientific research numerous issues especially regarding mechanical ventilation as the most important treatment option remain unclear. Most important, adjustment of mechanical ventilation is challenging due to desirable beneficial effects on pulmonary gas exchange on the one hand and deleterious effects in terms of ventilator-associated lung injury on the other...
February 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420097/hemostatic-comparison-of-a-polysaccharide-powder-and-a-gelatin-powder
#8
Rahul K Singh, Bernhard Baumgartner, Jason R Mantei, Rhea N Parreno, Paul J Sanders, Kevin M Lewis, John J Barry
Purpose/Aim: Powdered hemostats have been widely adopted for their ease-of-use; however, their efficacy has been limited resulting in applications restricted to low-level bleeds. This study investigates the use of bovine-derived gelatin particles (BGP) as a standalone hemostatic powder and compare BGP to commercially available microporous polysaccharide hemospheres (MPH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The powders were investigated for their hemostatic efficacy in a heparinized pre-clinical bleeding model limited to grade 1 and 2 bleeds on a validated intraoperative bleeding scale, which represents the accepted, clinical use of hemostatic powders...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418003/in-vitro-evaluation-of-chitosan-copper-chelate-gels-as-a-multimicronutrient-feed-additive-for-cattle
#9
Ciara Duffy, E Dolores O' Riordan, Michael O' Sullivan, Jean-Christophe Jacquier
BACKGROUND: Effective micronutrient supplementation strategies are critical to ensure optimal health and productivity in livestock. The objective of this study was to develop a copper and vitamin (multimicronutrient) delivery system based on chitosan gel beads, and test its suitability, in vitro, for use as a cattle feed additive. RESULTS: Chitosan was chelated with copper sulphate to produce millimetre-scale gel matrices (~2mm). The copper content was significantly increased (from 61 to 95mg...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415981/acute-exertional-compartment-syndrome-with-rhabdomyolysis-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#10
Brandon McKinney, Christopher Gaunder, Ross Schumer
BACKGROUND Acute exertional compartment syndrome (AECS) is a rare cause of leg pain often associated with a delay in diagnosis and potentially leading to irreversible muscle and nerve damage. CASE REPORT We present the case of a previously healthy, high-level athlete who presented with the acute onset of unilateral anterior leg pain and foot drop the day after a strenuous workout. He was diagnosed with compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis. His management included emergent fluid resuscitation, fasciotomies, debridement of necrotic muscle from his anterior compartment, and delayed primary closure...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413943/enhancing-methane-production-from-u-lactuca-using-combined-anaerobically-digested-sludge-ads-and-rumen-fluid-pre-treatment-and-the-effect-on-the-solubilization-of-microbial-community-structures
#11
Yu Zou, Xiaochen Xu, Liang Li, Fenglin Yang, Shushen Zhang
Methane production by the anaerobic digestion of seaweed is restricted by the slow degradation caused by the influence of the rigid algal cell wall. At the present time, there has been no study focusing on the anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca by co-fermentation and pre-treatment with rumen fluid. Rumen fluid can favor methane production from algal biomass by utilizing the diversity and quantity of bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen fluid. This research presents a novel method based on combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment to improve the production of methane from seaweed...
December 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413860/electrochemical-corrosion-wear-and-cell-behavior-of-zro2-tio2-alloyed-layer-on-ti-6al-4v
#12
Jianfang Li, Xiaojing He, Guannan Zhang, Ruiqiang Hang, Xiaobo Huang, Bin Tang, Xiangyu Zhang
Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) has received increasing attention as biomaterial but also raised concerns about the long-term safety of releasing of metal ions and poor wear resistance. In this work, an ZrO2/TiO2 alloyed layer was prepared on TC4 by plasma surface alloying with Zr and subsequently annealed in the air for improved corrosion and wear resistant. To assess the corrosion performance of the alloyed layer, the specimens were measured by open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization in simulated body fluid solution...
January 29, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406177/could-patient-controlled-thirst-driven-fluid-administration-lead-to-more-rapid-rehydration-than-clinician-directed-fluid-management-an-early-feasibility-study
#13
F Hughes, S C Ng, M Mythen, H Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Fluid management is a major factor determining perioperative outcome, yet in reality, fluid administration practice is variable. Thirst however, is a highly sensitive and reliable indicator of fluid deficits. We explored the use of thirst sensation to trigger i.v. fluid boluses to guide individualized fluid management. METHODS: We performed a randomised double crossover trial on 16 healthy male volunteers, of mean age 31 yr and BMI 24.4 kg m-2. Twice, after administrations of oral furosemide (40 mg) and 12 h of oral fluid restriction, participants received a 4-h i...
February 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405357/flow-mri-simulation-in-complex-3d-geometries-application-to-the-cerebral-venous-network
#14
Alexandre Fortin, Stéphanie Salmon, Joseph Baruthio, Maya Delbany, Emmanuel Durand
PURPOSE: Develop and evaluate a complete tool to include 3D fluid flows in MRI simulation, leveraging from existing software. Simulation of MR spin flow motion is of high interest in the study of flow artifacts and angiography. However, at present, only a few simulators include this option and most are restricted to static tissue imaging. THEORY AND METHODS: An extension of JEMRIS, one of the most advanced high performance open-source simulation platforms to date, was developed...
February 5, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402724/effects-of-acute-or-chronic-heat-exposure-exercise-and-dehydration-on-plasma-cortisol-il-6-and-crp-levels-in-trained-males
#15
Joseph T Costello, Rebecca A Rendell, Matthew Furber, Heather C Massey, Michael J Tipton, John S Young, Jo Corbett
This study examined the acute and chronic effects of euhydrated and hypohydrated heat exposure, on biomarkers of stress and inflammation. Eight trained males [mean (SD) age: 21 (3) y; mass: 77.30 (4.88) kg; V̇O2max: 56.9 (7.2) mL kg-1 min-1] undertook two heat acclimation programmes (balanced cross-over design), once drinking to maintain euhydration and once with restricted fluid-intake (permissive dehydration). Days 1, 6, and 11 were 60 min euhydrated exercise-heat stress tests (40 °C; 50% RH, 35% peak power output), days 2-5 and 7-10 were 90 min, isothermal-strain (target rectal temperature: 38...
February 2, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401336/cavh-in-the-combat-environment-a-case-report-and-lessons-learned-in-southern-afghanistan
#16
Jacob Glaser, Joseph Zeman, Stephen Noble, Nathanial Fernandez
Background: Acute kidney injury is a common complication of both civilian and military trauma. The lack of dedicated resources restrict dialysis in the forward setting. We report a case of a combat polytrauma and renal failure, using continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration to clear uremia and remove volume, allowing for ventilator liberation and safe disposition. Materials and Methods: The patient presented with traumatic lower extremity injuries and abdominal wounds and developed acute post-traumatic renal failure...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401133/randomized-controlled-trial-of-liberal-versus-restricted-fluid-management-in-patients-undergoing-pancreatectomy-erratum
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398426/the-influence-of-fluid-management-on-outcomes-in-preeclampsia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
T Pretorius, G van Rensburg, R A Dyer, B M Biccard
BACKGROUND: The optimal fluid management strategy to ensure best outcomes in preeclamptic patients remains a controversial issue, with little evidence to support any one approach. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of various fluid management strategies on clinical outcomes, haemodynamic indices and biochemical markers in preeclamptic women and their babies. Primary outcome measures were the occurrence of pulmonary oedema and/or the development of renal impairment...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395172/postoperative-diabetes-insipidus-and-hyponatremia-in-children-after-transsphenoidal-surgery-for-adrenocorticotropin-hormone-and-growth-hormone-secreting-adenomas
#19
Carolina Saldarriaga, Charlampos Lyssikatos, Elena Belyavskaya, Margaret Keil, Prashant Chittiboina, Ninet Sinaii, Constantine A Stratakis, Maya Lodish
OBJECTIVES: To define the incidence and risk factors of postoperative sodium alterations in pediatric patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for adrenocorticotropic hormone and growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed 160 patients ≤18 years of age who had TSS for pituitary adenomas at our institution from 1999 to 2017. Variables included daily serum sodium through postoperative day 10, urine specific gravity, and medications administered...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394908/intermittent-fasting-energy-balance-and-associated-health-outcomes-in-adults-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Iain Templeman, Dylan Thompson, Javier Gonzalez, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Sue Reeves, Peter J Rogers, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Leonidas G Karagounis, Kostas Tsintzas, James A Betts
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that intermittent fasting is capable of producing improvements in body weight and fasted health markers. However, the extent to which intermittent fasting incurs compensatory changes in the components of energy balance and its impact on postprandial metabolism are yet to be ascertained. METHODS: A total of 30-36 lean participants and 30-36 overweight/obese participants will be recruited to provide two separate study groups who will undergo the same protocol...
February 2, 2018: Trials
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