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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542317/systematic-review-of-dietary-salt-reduction-policies-evidence-for-an-effectiveness-hierarchy
#1
Lirije Hyseni, Alex Elliot-Green, Ffion Lloyd-Williams, Chris Kypridemos, Martin O'Flaherty, Rory McGill, Lois Orton, Helen Bromley, Francesco P Cappuccio, Simon Capewell
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention strategies now prioritise four major risk factors: food, tobacco, alcohol and physical activity. Dietary salt intake remains much higher than recommended, increasing blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and stomach cancer. Substantial reductions in salt intake are therefore urgently needed. However, the debate continues about the most effective approaches. To inform future prevention programmes, we systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of possible salt reduction interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531232/changes-in-primary-healthcare-providers-attitudes-and-counseling-behaviors-related-to-dietary-sodium-reduction-docstyles-2010-and-2015
#2
Zerleen S Quader, Mary E Cogswell, Jing Fang, Sallyann M Coleman King, Robert K Merritt
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The 2013 ACC/AHA Lifestyle Management Guideline recommends counseling pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients to reduce sodium intake. Population sodium reduction efforts have been introduced in recent years, and dietary guidelines continued to emphasize sodium reduction in 2010 and 2015. The objective of this analysis was to determine changes in primary health care providers' sodium-reduction attitudes and counseling between 2010 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530194/solvent-effect-in-the-synthesis-of-hydrophobic-drug-loaded-polymer-nanoparticles
#3
Sandip Pal, Chabita Saha
Quercetin is an abundant flavonoid in fruits, vegetables such as onion, tea leaves, cranberry, radish leaves etc. with numerous biological activities and widely used as an effective antioxidant. Its low solubility in water and chemical decomposition in intestinal environment are predicaments in delivery through dietary or oral intake. Noble polymeric nanoparticles are of particular interest today because of their applications in many areas. Polymer nanoparticles have attracted the interest of many research groups and have been utilised in an increasing number of fields such as site targeted drug delivery in cancer research during the last decades...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527154/structure-based-classification-for-bile-salt-export-pump-bsep-inhibitors-using-comparative-structural-modeling-of-human-bsep
#4
Sankalp Jain, Melanie Grandits, Lars Richter, Gerhard F Ecker
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) actively transports conjugated monovalent bile acids from the hepatocytes into the bile. This facilitates the formation of micelles and promotes digestion and absorption of dietary fat. Inhibition of BSEP leads to decreased bile flow and accumulation of cytotoxic bile salts in the liver. A number of compounds have been identified to interact with BSEP, which results in drug-induced cholestasis or liver injury. Therefore, in silico approaches for flagging compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors would be of high value in the early stage of the drug discovery pipeline...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526806/the-relationship-among-cardiac-structure-dietary-salt-and-aldosterone-in-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism
#5
Chi-Sheng Hung, Xue-Ming Wu, Ching-Way Chen, Ying-Hsien Chen, Vin-Cent Wu, Che-Wei Liao, Yi-Yao Chang, Ruh-Fang Yen, Ching-Chu Lu, Mao-Yuan M Su, Kao-Lang Liu, Chin-Chen Chang, Li-Yu Daisy Liu, Kwan-Dun Wu, Yen-Hung Lin
Salt intake is highly associated with cardiac structure in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). We investigated the association among dietary salt intake, aldosterone and left ventricular mass in patients with PA. We enrolled 158 patients with PA and 158 patients with essential hypertension. We measured 24-hour urinary sodium (UNa) and aldosterone (UAldo) level and echocardiography parameters. In patients with PA, the UAldo level was positively correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI; r=0.231, p=0...
April 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516817/decreased-but-still-sufficient-iodine-intake-of-children-and-adults-in-the-netherlands
#6
Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman, Elly J M Buurma-Rethans, Arnold L M Dekkers, Caroline T M van Rossum
Sufficient I intake is important for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which play an important role in normal growth and development. Our aim was to estimate habitual I intake for the Dutch population and the risk of inadequate or excessive intakes. Further, we aimed to provide an insight into the dietary sources of I and the association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 (n 3819; 7-69 years), and from the Dutch food and supplement composition tables were used to estimate habitual I intake with a calculation model...
May 18, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515645/effect-of-abalone-hydrolysates-encapsulated-by-double-emulsion-on-the-physicochemical-and-sensorial-properties-of-fresh-cheese
#7
HeeJeong Choi, Soo-Jin Kim, Sang-Yoon Lee, Mi-Jung Choi
The intake of dietary salt through food now exceeds current nutritional recommendations and is thought to have negative effects on human health, such as the increasing prevalence of hypertension. This study was performed to investigate whether W1/O/W2 double emulsions can be used to enhance the saltiness of cheese without increasing the salt content (W1 is distilled water or 1% abalone hydrolysate, and W2 is 1% NaCl or 1% abalone hydrolysate + 1% NaCl solution). We also investigated the effect of adding abalone hydrolysate to the double emulsion as a saltiness enhancer...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511736/dietary-salt-intake-in-the-australian-population
#8
Joseph Alvin Santos, Jacqui Webster, Mary-Anne Land, Victoria Flood, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward, Bruce Neal, Kristina S Petersen
OBJECTIVE: To update the estimate of mean salt intake for the Australian population made by the Australian Health Survey (AHS). DESIGN: A secondary analysis of the data collected in a cross-sectional survey was conducted. Estimates of salt intake were made in Lithgow using the 24 h diet recall methodology employed by the AHS as well as using 24 h urine collections. The data from the Lithgow sample were age- and sex-weighted, to provide estimates of daily salt intake for the Australian population based upon (i) the diet recall data and (ii) the 24 h urine samples...
May 17, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511293/enterobacter-aerogenes-zdy01-attenuates-choline-induced-trimethylamine-n-oxide-levels-via-remodeling-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#9
Liang Qiu, Dong Yang, Xueying Tao, Jun Yu, Hua Xiong, Hua Wei
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is transformed from trimethylamine (TMA) through hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases, can promote atherosclerosis. TMA is produced from dietary carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and choline via the gut microbes. Previous works have shown that some small molecules, such as allicin, resveratrol, and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, are used to reduce circulating TMAO levels. However, the use of bacteria as an effective therapy to reduce TMAO levels has not been reported. In the present study, 82 isolates were screened from healthy Chinese fecal samples on a basal salt medium supplemented with TMA as sole carbon source...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502496/minimal-food-effect-for-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-bioavailability-from-omega-3-acid-ethyl-esters-with-an-advanced-lipid-technologies-tm-alt-%C3%A2-based-formulation
#10
Miguel A Lopez-Toledano, Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson, Ahmed A Daak, Kevin C Maki, Colleen Johns, Adrian L Rabinowicz, Frederick D Sancilio
BACKGROUND: The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501983/understanding-the-two-faces-of-low-salt-intake
#11
REVIEW
Branko Braam, Xiaohua Huang, William A Cupples, Shereen M Hamza
Fierce debate has developed whether low-sodium intake, like high-sodium intake, could be associated with adverse outcome. The debate originates in earlier epidemiological studies associating high-sodium intake with high blood pressure and more recent studies demonstrating a higher cardiovascular event rate with both low- and high-sodium intake. This brings into question whether we entirely understand the consequences of high- and (very) low-sodium intake for the systemic hemodynamics, the kidney function, the vascular wall, the immune system, and the brain...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499978/salt-taste-recognition-in-a-heart-failure-cohort
#12
Laura P Cohen, Scott L Hummel, Mathew S Maurer, Sara López-Pintado, Jeffrey D Wessler
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) disproportionately afflicts older adults. Dietary sodium indiscretion is frequently implicated in HF decompensation. The affinity for and ability to taste salt in this process is unexplored. We sought to evaluate differences in salt taste by age and HF diagnosis and to map changes following hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). METHODS: Seventy-two subjects underwent initial salt-taste testing during hospitalization for ADHF...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487006/cost-effectiveness-of-salt-reduction-to-prevent-hypertension-and-cvd-a-systematic-review
#13
Elisabeth Schorling, Dea Niebuhr, Anja Kroke
OBJECTIVE: To analyse and compare the cost-effectiveness of different interventions to reduce salt consumption. DESIGN: A systematic review of published cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) and cost-utility analyses (CUA) was undertaken in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane and others until July 2016. Study selection was limited to CEA and CUA conducted in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in English, German or French, without time limit...
May 10, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483828/sources-of-sodium-in-us-adults-from-3-geographic-regions
#14
Lisa J Harnack, Mary E Cogswell, James M Shikany, Christopher D Gardner, Cathleen Gillespie, Catherine M Loria, Xia Zhou, Keming Yuan, Lyn M Steffen
BACKGROUND: Most US adults consume excess sodium. Knowledge about the dietary sources of sodium intake is critical to the development of effective reduction strategies. METHODS: A total of 450 adults were recruited from 3 geographic locations: Birmingham, AL (n=150); Palo Alto, CA (n=150); and the Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (n=150), metropolitan areas. Equal numbers of women and men from each of 4 race/ethnic groups (blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites) were targeted for recruitment...
May 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475738/appetite-for-health-related-food-taxes-new-zealand-stakeholder-views
#15
Louise N Signal, Carolyn Watts, Celia Murphy, Helen Eyles, Cliona Ni Mhurchu
There is increasing discussion globally of the value of health-related food taxes and subsidies to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases. In order for such policies to be successful it is important to understand the positions of key stakeholders. This research investigated New Zealand (NZ) stakeholders' views on the feasibility and acceptability of selected health-related food taxes and subsidies over the next 5 to 10 years. Twenty semi-structured interviews were undertaken by telephone from November 2014 to May 2015...
May 5, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473772/lack-of-effects-of-metformin-and-aicar-chronic-infusion-on-the-development-of-hypertension-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#16
Tengis S Pavlov, Vladislav Levchenko, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Hui Li, Oleg Palygin, Nuria M Pastor-Soler, Kenneth R Hallows, Alexander Staruschenko
In the kidney, reabsorption via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is involved in long-term blood pressure control. Previously we demonstrated that ENaC hyperactivity is associated with development of salt-sensitive (SS) hypertension in Dahl SS rats. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), playing a role in cellular energy homeostasis, has been shown to decrease ENaC activity. Here, we tested whether metformin and AICAR, two drugs that activate AMPK, affect the development of salt-induced hypertension. High salt diet significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in Dahl SS rats...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459189/-counting-votes-in-public-responses-to-scientific-disputes
#17
Branden B Johnson
Publicized disputes between groups of scientists may force lay choices about groups' credibility. One possible, little studied, credibility cue is vote-counting (proportions of scientists on either side): for example, "97%" of climate scientists believe in anthropogenic climate change. An online sample of 2600 Americans read a mock article about a scientific dispute, in a 13 (proportions: 100%-0%, 99%-1%, … 50%-50%, … 1%-99%, 0%-100% for Positions A and B, respectively) × 8 (scenarios: for example, dietary salt, dark matter) between-person experiment...
April 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451854/role-of-vasopressin-in-rat-models-of-salt-dependent-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Masha Prager-Khoutorsky, Katrina Y Choe, David I Levi, Charles W Bourque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary salt intake increases both plasma sodium and osmolality and therefore increases vasopressin (VP) release from the neurohypophysis. Although this effect could increase blood pressure by inducing fluid reabsorption and vasoconstriction, acute activation of arterial baroreceptors inhibits VP neurons via GABAA receptors to oppose high blood pressure. Here we review recent findings demonstrating that this protective mechanism fails during chronic high salt intake in rats...
May 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451853/management-of-hypertension-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
REVIEW
Seyed Mehrdad Hamrahian
Hypertension is the leading factor in the global burden of disease. It is the predominant modifiable risk factor for stroke, heart disease, and kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is both a common cause and sequel of uncontrolled hypertension. The pathophysiology of CKD-associated hypertension is complex and multi-factorial. This paper reviews the key pathogenic mechanisms of CKD-associated hypertension, the importance of standardized blood pressure (BP) measurement in establishing the diagnosis and management plus the significance of ambulatory BP monitoring for assessment of diurnal BP variation commonly seen in CKD...
May 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450882/oral-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-increases-ketonemia-decreases-visceral-adipocyte-volume-and-improves-serum-lipid-profile-in-wistar-rats
#20
Rennan de Oliveira Caminhotto, Ayumi Cristina Medeiros Komino, Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Sandra Andreotti, Rogério Antônio Laurato Sertié, Gabriela Boltes Reis, Fabio Bessa Lima
BACKGROUND: Ketosis can be induced in humans and in animals by fasting or dietary interventions, such as ketogenic diets. However, the increasing interest on the ketogenic state has motivated the development of alternative approaches to rapidly increase ketonemia using less drastic interventions. Here, it was tested whether oral intake of a β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) mineral salt mixture could increase ketonemia in Wistar rats without any other dietary changes, thereby being a useful model to study ketones effects alone on metabolism...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
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