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dietary sodium

Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Mostafa Farahbakhsh, Leila Nikniaz, Zeinab Nikniaz
BACKGROUND: This population-based study aimed at investigating the prevalence and associated factors of prehypertension/hypertension in Iran. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data (n = 2818) for this study were collected in 2015 as a part of the major Lifestyle Promotion Project (LPP) conducted in East Azerbaijan (urban and regional parts). The data for socio-demographic status, dietary information, and physical activity and anxiety levels were collected through validated questionnaires...
2016: PloS One
Hengjia Ni, Lu Lu, Jinpin Deng, Wenjun Fan, Tiejun Li, Jiming Yao
Background. Oxidative stress is associated with infertility. This study was conducted to determine the effects of glutamate and aspartate on serum antioxidative enzymes, sex hormones, and genital inflammation in boars suffering from oxidative stress. Methods. Boars were randomly divided into 4 groups: the nonchallenged control (CON) and H2O2-challenged control (BD) groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 2% alanine; the other two groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2% glutamate (GLU) or 2% aspartate (ASP)...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Darla E Kendzor, Marlyn Allicock, Michael S Businelle, Lona F Sandon, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Summer G Frank
BACKGROUND: The current study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of a diet and physical activity intervention for homeless adults. METHODS: Shelter residents (N = 32) were randomly assigned to a 4-week diet and physical activity intervention (n = 17) or an assessment-only control group (n = 15). Intervention participants received tailored educational newsletters, pedometers with step goals, and twice daily fruit/vegetable snacks. Key measures included 24-hour dietary recall interviews and accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Casey M Rebholz, Adrienne Tin, Yang Liu, Marie Fanelli Kuczmarski, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman, Deidra C Crews
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that certain aspects of the diet related to magnesium intake, such as dietary acid load, protein intake and dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables, may impact kidney disease risk. We hypothesized that lower dietary magnesium intake would be prospectively associated with more rapid kidney function decline. METHODS: Among participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Ruirui Han, Qianqian Sun, Jianbo Wu, Pengyuan Zheng, Guoqiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: As the end product of the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colonic lumen, sodium butyrate (NaBt) has been reported to exert antitumor effects on colorectal cancer (CRC). In addition to functioning as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, NaBt also regulates the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) to inhibit CRC cell proliferation. Yet, the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Here we investigate whether NaBt regulates miR-203 to inhibit CRC growth and explore the promising target gene of miR-203 in CRC cells...
October 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jinyang Shen, Xiaolin Yang, Zhaoqing Meng, Changrun Guo
BACKGROUND: High dietary fructose can cause metabolic syndrome and renal injury. PURPOSE: The effects of protodioscin on metabolic syndrome and renal injury were investigated in mice receiving high-dose fructose. METHODS: Mice received 30% (w/v) fructose in water and standard chow for 6 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome and were divided into four groups to receive carboxymethylcellulose sodium, allopurinol (5 mg/kg) and protodioscin (5 and 10 mg/kg) continuously for 6 weeks, respectively...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Attilio Pingitore, Edward S Chambers, Thomas Hill, Inmaculada Ruz Maldonado, Bo Liu, Gavin Bewick, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Gareth A Wallis, Catriona Tedford, Ramón Castañera González, Guo Cai Huang, Pratik Choudhary, Gary Frost, Shanta J Persaud
AIMS: Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jia-Rong Wu, Terry A Lennie, Sandra B Dunbar, Susan J Pressler, Debra K Moser
Sodium intake in heart failure (HF) is a crucial but poorly understood phenomenon. Theoretical models promote understanding and provide a context for rational appraisal of complex situations. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors were associated with sodium intake in HF patients using theory of planned behavior (TPB). In this study, patients' (N = 244) attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (tenets of the TPB) were assessed using the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire...
October 18, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Richard Wainford
This lecture will provide a background on the physiology of renal sodium handling and its importance in long term blood pressure regualtion. A brief overview of the classical Guytonion Pressure-Natriuresis Hypothesis of blood pressure control will be provided. The global impact of dietary salt intake on hypertension incidence and cardiovasular health will be discussed. Addtionally, recent insights into the mechanisitc regualtion of renal sodium handling during health and the pathophysiology of salt-sensitive hypertension - including a focus on the regulation of the sodium chloride cotransport will be provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yongsoon Park
A healthy lifestyle is important in CVD prevention and treatment through effects on modifiable CVD risk factors, particularly blood pressure. Although the major drawback is the low level of adherence over time, appropriate lifestyle changes may safely and effectively prevent and treat hypertension. The recommended dietary approaches that have been shown to be capable of reducing blood pressure are: salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, high consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat and other types of diet, and weight reduction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Leonardo Sechi, GIanLuca Colussi, Marileda Novello, Cristiana Catena
OBJECTIVE: Primary aldosteronism is associated with increased left ventricular mass independent of blood pressure levels. Previous studies suggest that elevated aldosterone causes cardiac damage only in the presence of an inappropriate salt status. We examined the relevance of dietary salt intake on cardiac changes in patients with primary aldosteronism before and after treatment. DESIGN AND METHOD: Sixty-five patients with tumoral or idiopathic primary aldosteronism were recruited at a University medical center and followed after either surgical (n = 30) or medical (n = 35) treatment...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yen-Hung Lin, Chi-Sheng Hung, Chia-Hung Chou, Vin-Cent Wu, Che-Wei Liao, Yi-Yao Chang, Xue-Ming Wu, Kwan-Dun Wu
OBJECTIVE: High dietary salt and high aldosterone levels may be deleterious to cardiac structure in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) in samll studies. However the relation among them still unclear. We investigated the association among dietary sodium intake, aldosterone levela and cardiac structure in patients with PA and essential hypertension (EH). DESIGN AND METHOD: This cross-sectional study enrolled 158 patients with confirmed PA and 158 patients with EH...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chao Chu, Yumeng Cao, Jianjun Mu
BACKGROUND: Salt reduction are crucial in the management of hypertension. Over the past few decades, Series of national activities and studies focusing on salt reduction and salt intake education were promoted by the Chinese government. However, the current status of dietary sodium and potassium intake of Chinese population is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the status of dietary salt and potassium intake in the Chinese population through summarizing the previous studies from 1998 to 2011 and then propose appropriate initiatives...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Norm Campbell
Hypertension is the second leading global risk for death and disability after unhealthy diets. Amongst dietary risks, excess dietary salt (sodium) is the leading risk. As dietary sodium increases, blood pressure increases linearly. In meta-analyses of higher quality cohort studies and in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, higher dietary sodium is linearly associated with increased cardiovascular disease. There are an estimated xxxx deaths and xxx DALYs in 2013 from excess dietary sodium. The World Health Organization has a recommended sodium (salt) intake of less than 2000 mg (5 g)/day with the World Health Assembly setting a voluntary target of a 30% reduction by 2025...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Martin O'Donnell
Salt (sodium chloride) is the primary source of sodium in the diet. Sodium is an essential nutrient, required for normal human physiology. Excess sodium intake is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported a curvilinear increase in blood pressure with increasing sodium intake, more marked in people with high sodium intakes and hypertension. Interventional clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of reduced sodium intake on reducing blood pressure, although the interventions employed in these trials are not generalizable to most settings (intensive dietary counselling or feeding trials)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Vernon Min Sen Oh
According to the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS) of 2010, the population of the Republic of Singapore was 5.076,700, comprising four ethnic groups: Chinese (74.1%), Malays (13.4%), Indians (9.2%), and others (3.3%). The National Health Survey for 2016 is under way and due to be published in 2017. From the six-yearly national health surveys, the crude prevalence of clinical hypertension (HTn), defined as a sustained blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, in Singaporean residents aged 30 to 69 years rose from 22...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mustafa Arici
Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, east of the Mediterranean Sea and the Egypt. The whole area has almost 20 countries with an approximate population of 400 million with different ethnicities. The whole area has basically a hot and dry climate. In some parts of the Middle East, there is a desert climate.Cardiovascular diseases were the leading causes of death in the Middle East, similar to the many other territories of the World. Beyond that, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized this region as a hotspot for cardiovascular disease, where disease projections will exceed those of other regions...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Martin D Hoffman, Kristin J Stuempfle, Taylor Valentino
BACKGROUND: Ultramarathon runners commonly believe that sodium replacement is important for prevention of muscle cramping, dehydration, hyponatremia, and nausea during prolonged continuous exercise. The purpose of this study was to measure total sodium intake to determine if these beliefs are supported. METHODS: Participants of a 161-km ultramarathon (air temperature reaching 39 °C) provided full dietary information during the race, underwent body weight measurements before and after the race, completed a post-race questionnaire about muscle cramping and nausea or vomiting during the race, and had post-race plasma sodium concentration measured...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
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