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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786523/decision-support-beyond-total-savings-eligibility-and-potential-savings-for-individual-participants-from-changes-in-the-national-surveillance-strategy-for-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-bvd-in-ireland
#1
Jamie A Tratalos, Hans-Hermann Thulke, David A Graham, Maria Guelbenzu Gonzalo, Simon J More
Surveillance and management of livestock diseases is often evaluated with reference to expected sector-wide costs. In contrast, we calculate losses or savings for individual herd owners of a change in monitoring strategy during a national cattle disease eradication programme: bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Ireland. The alternative strategy differs in how the disease is identified; by its sample- rather than census-based approach; and by its greater cost per test. We examined the costs faced by each breeding herd if testing were conducted using serology on a sample of young stock, in contrast to the current method of tissue-tag testing of all newborn calves...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785709/four-year-follow-up-of-a-single-arm-phase-ii-clinical-trial-of-ibrutinib-with-rituximab-ir-in-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-mantle-cell-lymphoma-mcl
#2
Preetesh Jain, Jorge Romaguera, Samer A Srour, Hun J Lee, Frederick Hagemeister, Jason Westin, Luis Fayad, Felipe Samaniego, Maria Badillo, Liang Zhang, Lorreta Nastoupil, Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, Nathan Fowler, Michael L Wang
Ibrutinib has shown significant activity in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (RR-MCL). We report the long-term outcome and safety profile of a single-centre, single arm, open-label, phase 2 study of RR-MCL treated with IR. Overall, the median follow-up time was 47 months (range 1-52 months), median duration on treatment was 16 months (range 1-53 months) and median number of treatment cycles was 17 (range 1-56). Twenty-nine patients (58%) achieved complete remission and of these, 12 patients continue on study...
May 22, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779867/-faecaloma-in-a-54-year-old-woman-as-a-cause-of-vomiting-and-diarrhoea
#3
Desirée Pérez Martínez, Paula Martínez García, Juan Valdés Bécares
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778364/prevention-of-cardiovascular-events-in-asian-patients-with-ischaemic-stroke-at-high-risk-of-cerebral-haemorrhage-picasso-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Bum Joon Kim, Eun-Jae Lee, Sun U Kwon, Jong-Ho Park, Yong-Jae Kim, Keun-Sik Hong, Lawrence K S Wong, Sungwook Yu, Yang-Ha Hwang, Ji Sung Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Joung-Ho Rha, Sung Hyuk Heo, Sung Hwan Ahn, Woo-Keun Seo, Jong-Moo Park, Ju-Hun Lee, Jee-Hyun Kwon, Sung-Il Sohn, Jin-Man Jung, Jose C Navarro, Dong-Wha Kang
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for patients with ischaemic stroke with a high risk of cerebral haemorrhage is unclear. We assessed the efficacy and safety of cilostazol versus aspirin, with and without probucol, in these patients. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial, we enrolled patients with ischaemic stroke with a history of or imaging findings of intracerebral haemorrhage or two or more microbleeds from 67 centres in three Asian countries...
June 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774628/efficacy-and-safety-of-brexpiprazole-for-the-treatment-of-acute-schizophrenia-in-japan-a-6-week-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#5
Jun Ishigooka, Shuichi Iwashita, Yoshihiro Tadori
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of brexpiprazole compared to placebo in Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2/3 study in Japan. Patients with acute schizophrenia were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive brexpiprazole 1, 2, or 4 mg or placebo once a day. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 6 in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774288/molecular-analysis-of-giardia-duodenalis-isolates-from-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-children-from-la-habana-cuba
#6
Luis Enrique Jerez Puebla, Fidel A Núñez, Lissette Pérez Santos, Lázara Rojas Rivero, Isabel Martínez Silva, Lucía Ayllón Valdés, Iraís Atencio Millán, Norbert Müller
Giardiasis is considered the most common intestinal parasitic disease in humans worldwide. In Cuba, this infection has particularly a strong clinical impact on the child population. Giardia duodenalis is a highly diverse protozoan, which comprises a complex of eight morphologically identical genetic assemblages, further divided into sub-assemblages. The present study used triose phosphate isomerase ( tpi ) and small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes as genetic markers for the identification of G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in correlation with clinical and epidemiological data in children attended at the Paediatric Hospital "William Soler" and at Pedro Kouri Institute, between 2015 and 2016...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773135/discrimination-molecular-characterisation-and-phylogenetic-comparison-of-porcine-eimeria-spp-in-india
#7
Devina Sharma, Nirbhay K Singh, Harkirat Singh, Anja Joachim, Shitanshu S Rath, Damer P Blake
Infections with Eimeria spp. are common in pigs worldwide, occasionally affecting animals clinically after weaning or during the fattening period when diarrhoea and weight loss can be observed upon infection with the more pathogenic species. Molecular characterization of pathogens is valuable to accurately delimit species and development novel diagnostics, although sequences which define Eimeria species that infect pigs are scarce. Only three of the eight common species are currently represented in GenBank...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770867/dietary-supplementation-with-an-amino-acid-blend-enhances-intestinal-function-in-piglets
#8
Dan Yi, Baocheng Li, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Ying Zhou, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770590/genomic-and-antigenic-characterization-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhoea-virus-strains-isolated-from-south-korea-2017
#9
Sunhee Lee, Changhee Lee
Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is a globally emerging and re-emerging enteric coronavirus in pigs causing serious economic threats to the world swine industry. Since the re-emergence of massive PEDV outbreaks in South Korea in 2013-2014, domestic pig farms have continued to experience PED epidemics or endemics. This study represents the molecular characterization of PEDV isolates identified in diarrhoeic animals collected across the country in 2017. Initial sequencing analysis of the full-length S genes revealed that 70% of the 2017 isolates (7/10) belong to the G2b subgroup, while the remaining isolates were classified as G1b...
May 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769189/metabolic-acidosis-in-short-bowel-syndrome-think-d-lactic-acid-acidosis
#10
Sorin Stanciu, Aminda De Silva
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a condition when a person's gastrointestinal function is insufficient to supply the body with essential nutrients and hydration. Patients with SBS suffer from diarrhoea and symptoms of malabsorption such as weight loss, electrolyte disturbances and vitamin deficiencies. Long-term management of this condition can be complicated by the underlying disease, the abnormal bowel function and issues related to treatment like administration of parenteral nutrition and the use of a central venous catheter...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768710/improving-the-safety-of-high-dose-methotrexate-for-children-with-hematologic-cancers-in-settings-without-access-to-mtx-levels-using-extended-hydration-and-additional-leucovorin
#11
Kalthi Vaishnavi, Deepak Bansal, Amita Trehan, Richa Jain, Savita Verma Attri
BACKGROUND: A lack of access to methotrexate levels is common in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), relevant for 80% of children with cancer worldwide. We evaluated whether high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) can be administered safely with extended hydration and leucovorin rescue, with monitoring of serum creatinine and urine pH. METHODS: The prospective study was conducted at a single centre in Chandigarh, India in 2015. Patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or with T-cell ALL or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (T-NHL) were administered 3 and 5 gm/m2 of MTX (24 hr infusion), respectively...
May 16, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763867/shiga-toxigenic-escherichia-coli-incidence-is-related-to-small-area-variation-in-cattle-density-in-a-region-in-ireland
#12
C Brehony, J Cullinan, M Cormican, D Morris
Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic E. coli that cause infectious diarrhoea. In some cases infection may be complicated by renal failure and death. The incidence of human infection with STEC in Ireland is the highest in Europe. The objective of the study was to examine the spatial incidence of human STEC infection in a region of Ireland with significantly higher rates of STEC incidence than the national average and to identify possible risk factors of STEC incidence at area level. Anonymised laboratory records (n = 379) from 2009 to 2015 were obtained from laboratories serving three counties in the West of Ireland...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763669/travel-related-health-problems-in-the-immunocompromised-traveller-an-exploratory-study
#13
Mariëlle van Aalst, Marella C E van Ruissen, Roos Verhoeven, Godelieve J de Bree, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised travellers (ICTs) are at increased risk of travel-related health problems. Therefore, they are advised to attend specialised pre-travel clinics for advise on vaccination, malaria chemoprophylaxis and on demand antibiotics. However, studies yield conflicting data regarding travel-related health problems encountered by ICTs; questioning the rationale for certain advises, and particularly the advice of on demand antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate self-reported travel-related health problems, antibiotic use, medical visits and risk behaviours in ICTs and controls...
May 12, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760783/minor-digestive-symptoms-and-their-impact-in-the-general-population-a-cluster-analysis-approach
#14
Diane L'Heureux-Bouron, Sophie Legrain-Raspaud, Helen R Carruthers, P J Whorwell
Background: The classification and treatment of patients who do not meet the criteria for a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder has not been well established. This study aimed to record the prevalence of minor digestive symptoms (MDSs) in the general population attempting to divide them into symptom clusters as well as trying to assess their impact and the way sufferers cope with them. Methods: Following face-to-face interviews, a web-based, self-administered questionnaire was designed to capture a range of GI sensations using 34 questions and 12 images depicting abdominal symptoms...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760164/%C3%A2-bezlotoxumab-for-prevention-of-recurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
(no author information available yet)
Clostridium difficile infection is a significant cause of infectious diarrhoea and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality.1,2 Management of Clostridium difficile infection often requires treatment with antibiotics (metronidazole, vancomycin or fidaxomicin) alongside supportive care to manage hydration, electrolytes and nutrition. However, the risk of recurrence is approximately 20%.2 Here, we review the evidence for bezlotoxumab (▼ Zinplava - Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited), a monoclonal antibody licensed for the prevention of recurrence of Clostridium difficile in adults who are at high risk of recurrence...
May 2018: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759925/metronidazole-in-the-prevention-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhoea-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-high-risk-hospitalised-patients
#16
Marco Tobar-Marcillo, Maria Guerrero-Duran, Ariana Avecillas-Segovia, Lillana Pacchiano-Aleman, Roberto Basante-Díaz, Hiram Vela-Vizcaino, Eduardo Espinosa-Aznar, Pedro Castorena García, Ricardo Santiago-Ramírez, Ixel Rivas-Bucio
BACKGROUND: In-hospital diarrhoea has a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates among hospitalised patients. Chemoprophylaxis with antibiotics in selected patients could be a cost-effective tool for prevention. METHODS: A prospective randomised, open-label study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Mexico City, selecting patients at high risk of acquiring in-hospital diarrhoea and assigning them to a group taking metronidazole 500mg orally every eight hours for seven days or an observation group...
May 11, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757386/impact-of-vaccine-stock-outs-on-infant-vaccination-coverage-a-hospital-based-survey-from-south-africa
#17
Rosemary J Burnett, Gloria Mmoledi, Ntombenhle J Ngcobo, Carine Dochez, L Mapaseka Seheri, M Jeffrey Mphahlele
Introduction: National population-based immunization coverage surveys provide data for validating official administrative coverage figures. However, these costly and logistically challenging surveys are conducted infrequently. This hospital-based records review determined coverage of birth-dose vaccines, fully immunized under 1-y-old coverage (FIC) of 12- to 59-mo-old children; and the reasons for missed vaccinations. Methods: Rotavirus surveillance in South Africa is based on under-5-y-old children being treated for diarrhoea, and includes photocopying the official vaccination document and collecting data on reasons for missed vaccinations...
May 11, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757372/does-safe-disposal-of-child-faeces-matter-an-assessment-of-access-to-improved-sanitation-and-child-faeces-disposal-behaviour-and-diarrhoea-in-rural-nepal
#18
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Background: Improper disposal of child faeces is a major source of faecal pathogens that cause diarrhoeal disease. However, this has received relatively less attention in sanitation evaluation literature, which has tended to focus on sanitation provision, implicitly assuming that child faeces disposal behaviour also improves with sanitation. We examined the impact of improved sanitation without safe disposal (households with improved sanitation but not disposing of child faeces in improved sanitation) and improved sanitation with safe disposal (households with improved sanitation and disposal of child faeces in improved sanitation) on diarrhoeal prevalence in rural Nepal...
May 11, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756388/semaglutide-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Panagiotis Andreadis, Thomas Karagiannis, Konstantinos Malandris, Ioannis Avgerinos, Aris Liakos, Apostolos Manolopoulos, Eleni Bekiari, David R Matthews, Apostolos Tsapas
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of semaglutide, a recently approved glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We searched major electronic databases and grey literature sources for randomised controlled trials comparing semaglutide with placebo or other antidiabetic agents. Primary outcome was change from baseline in HbA1c . Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and incidence of hypoglycaemia, gastrointestinal adverse effects, pancreatitis and diabetic retinopathy...
May 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755760/impact-of-measles-supplementary-immunisation-activities-on-utilisation-of-maternal-and-child-health-services-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#20
Iryna Postolovska, Stéphane Helleringer, Margaret E Kruk, Stéphane Verguet
Background: Measles supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) are an integral component of measles elimination in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite their success in increasing vaccination coverage, there are concerns about their negative consequences on routine services. Few studies have conducted quantitative assessments of SIA impact on utilisation of health services. Methods: We analysed the impact of SIAs on utilisation of selected maternal and child health services using Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys from 28 LMICs, where at least one SIA occurred over 2000-2014...
2018: BMJ Global Health
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