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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922692/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jimmy Chong, Bonnie Leung, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#2
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916695/the-economics-of-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-eradication
#3
Beate Pinior, Clair L Firth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916371/ramucirumab-plus-docetaxel-versus-placebo-plus-docetaxel-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-urothelial-carcinoma-after-platinum-based-therapy-range-a-randomised-double-blind-phase-3-trial
#4
Daniel P Petrylak, Ronald de Wit, Kim N Chi, Alexandra Drakaki, Cora N Sternberg, Hiroyuki Nishiyama, Daniel Castellano, Syed Hussain, Aude Fléchon, Aristotelis Bamias, Evan Y Yu, Michiel S van der Heijden, Nobuaki Matsubara, Boris Alekseev, Andrea Necchi, Lajos Géczi, Yen-Chuan Ou, Hasan Senol Coskun, Wen-Pin Su, Miriam Hegemann, Ivor J Percent, Jae-Lyun Lee, Marcello Tucci, Andrey Semenov, Fredrik Laestadius, Avivit Peer, Giampaolo Tortora, Sufia Safina, Xavier Garcia Del Muro, Alejo Rodriguez-Vida, Irfan Cicin, Hakan Harputluoglu, Ryan C Widau, Astra M Liepa, Richard A Walgren, Oday Hamid, Annamaria H Zimmermann, Katherine M Bell-McGuinn, Thomas Powles
BACKGROUND: Few treatments with a distinct mechanism of action are available for patients with platinum-refractory advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. We assessed the efficacy and safety of treatment with docetaxel plus either ramucirumab-a human IgG1 VEGFR-2 antagonist-or placebo in this patient population. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial in patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who progressed during or after platinum-based chemotherapy...
September 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915692/biomarker-analysis-of-the-phase-3-torch-trial-for-first-line-erlotinib-versus-chemotherapy-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#5
Lucia Kim, Mauro Saieg, Massimo Di Maio, Ciro Gallo, Charles Butts, Fortunato Ciardiello, Ronald Feld, Dengxiao Cheng, Vittorio Gebbia, Marco Angelo Burgio, Yasmin Alam, Simona Signoriello, Antonio Rossi, Natasha Leighl, Paolo Maione, Alessandro Morabito, Geoffrey Liu, Ming-Sound Tsao, Francesco Perrone, Cesare Gridelli
BACKGROUND: The TORCH phase III trial compared the efficacy of first-line erlotinib followed by chemotherapy at progression (experimental arm) with the reverse sequence (standard arm) in unselected advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Here we report biomarker analyses. METHODS: EGFR and KRAS mutation, expression of EGFR family members and of cMET and PTEN and EGFR and ABCG2 germline polymorphisms were tested on tumor tissue or blood samples to either confirm previously proposed predictive role or describe it in an explorative setting...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915451/rotavirus-genotype-shifts-among-swedish-children-and-adults-application-of-a-real-time-pcr-genotyping
#6
Maria Andersson, Magnus Lindh
BACKGROUND: It is well known that human rotavirus group A is the most important cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children. Less is known about rotavirus infections in other age groups, and about how rotavirus genotypes change over time in different age groups. OBJECTIVES: Develop a real-time PCR to easily genotype rotavirus strains in order to monitor the pattern of circulating genotypes. STUDY DESIGN: In this study, rotavirus strains in clinical samples from children and adults in Western Sweden during 2010-2014 were retrospectively genotyped by using specific amplification of VP 4 and VP 7 genes with a new developed real-rime PCR...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911836/implementation-of-an-algorithm-for-selection-of-antimicrobial-therapy-for-diarrhoeic-calves-impact-on-antimicrobial-treatment-rates-health-and-faecal-microbiota
#7
Diego E Gomez, Luis G Arroyo, Zvonimir Poljak, Laurent Viel, J Scott Weese
This study evaluated the impact of an algorithm targeting antimicrobial therapy of diarrhoeic calves on the incidence of diarrhoea, antimicrobial treatment rates, overall mortality, mortality of diarrhoeic calves and changes in the faecal microbiota. The algorithm was designed to target antimicrobial therapy in systemically ill calves from on two dairy farms. Retrospective (farm 1: 529 calves; farm 2: 639 calves) and prospective (farm 1: 639 calves; farm 2: 842 calves) cohorts were examined for 12 months before and after implementation of the algorithm...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905004/gastroenteritis-aggressive-versus-slow-treatment-for-rehydration-gastro-a-pilot-rehydration-study-for-severe-dehydration-who-plan-c-versus-slower-rehydration
#8
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Ayub Mpoya, Nchafatso Obonyo, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Margeret Nakuya, Jennifer A Evans, Elizabeth C George, Diana M Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) rehydration management guidelines (Plan C) for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe dehydration are widely practiced in resource-poor settings, yet have never been formally evaluated in a clinical trial. A recent audit of outcome of AGE at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya noted that 10% of children required high dependency care (20% mortality) and a number developed fluid-related complications. The fluid resuscitation trial, FEAST, conducted in African children with severe febrile illness, demonstrated higher mortality with fluid bolus therapy and raised concerns regarding the safety of rapid intravenous rehydration therapy...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#9
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900551/appendicitis-caused-by-primary-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-in-a-child-with-digeorge-syndrome
#10
Lotte Møller Smedegaard, Claus Bohn Christiansen, Linea Cecilie Melchior, Anja Poulsen
INTRODUCTION: Chickenpox is caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Although predominantly a mild disease, it can cause considerable morbidity and in rare occasions even mortality in healthy children as well as increased morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The aetiology of appendicitis is largely unknown but is thought to be multifactorial. Appendicitis is a suspected, but not well documented, complication from varicella zoster virus infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A five-year-old girl diagnosed with DiGeorge syndrome and a prolonged primary VZV infection was admitted due to abdominal pain, increasing diarrhoea, vomiting, and poor general condition...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899964/the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill-coast-guard-cohort-study
#11
Jennifer Rusiecki, Melannie Alexander, Erica G Schwartz, Li Wang, Laura Weems, John Barrett, Kate Christenbury, David Johndrow, Renée H Funk, Lawrence S Engel
OBJECTIVES: Long-term studies of oil spill responders are urgently needed as oil spills continue to occur. To this end, we established the prospective Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort study. METHODS: DWH oil spill responders (n=8696) and non-responders (n=44 823) who were members of the US Coast Guard (20 April-17 December 2010) were included. This cohort uses both prospective, objective health data from military medical encounters and cross-sectional survey data...
September 12, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899876/treatment-and-management-of-children-with-haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Patrick R Walsh, Sally Johnson
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), comprising microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and acute kidney injury, remains the leading cause of paediatric intrinsic acute kidney injury, with peak incidence in children aged under 5 years. HUS most commonly occurs following infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC-HUS). Additionally, HUS can occur as a result of inherited or acquired dysregulation of the alternative complement cascade (atypical HUS or aHUS) and in the setting of invasive pneumococcal infection...
September 12, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898154/systemic-anti-cancer-therapy-induced-diarrhoea
#13
Caroline Forde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895927/association-between-childhood-diarrhoeal-incidence-and-climatic-factors-in-urban-and-rural-settings-in-the-health-district-of-mbour-senegal
#14
Sokhna Thiam, Aminata N Diène, Ibrahima Sy, Mirko S Winkler, Christian Schindler, Jacques A Ndione, Ousmane Faye, Penelope Vounatsou, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
We assessed the association between childhood diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors in rural and urban settings in the health district of Mbour in western Senegal. We used monthly diarrhoeal case records among children under five years registered in 24 health facilities over a four-year period (2011-2014). Climatic data (i.e., daily temperature, night temperature and rainfall) for the same four-year period were obtained. We performed a negative binomial regression model to establish the relationship between monthly diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors of the same and the previous month...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895864/immunomodulatory-potential-of-%C3%AE-glucan-as-supportive-treatment-in-porcine-rotavirus-enteritis
#15
Gollahalli Eregowda Chethan, Jugal Garkhal, Shubhankar Sircar, Yash Pal Singh Malik, Reena Mukherjee, Nihar Ranjan Sahoo, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal, Ujjwal Kumar De
A non-blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory potential of β-glucan (BG) in piglet diarrhoea associated with type A rotavirus infection. A total of 12 rotavirus-infected diarrheic piglets were randomly divided into two groups: wherein six rotavirus-infected piglets were treated with supportive treatment (ST) and other six rotavirus-infected piglets were treated with BG along with ST (ST-BG). Simultaneously, six healthy piglets were also included in the study which served as control...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895860/a-rapid-il-17-response-to-cryptosporidium-parvum-in-the-bovine-intestine
#16
Emma Drinkall, Matthew J Wass, Tracey J Coffey, Robin J Flynn
Cryptosporidium parvum causes diarrhoea, due to villi damage, in livestock and humans globally. Immunity develops after repeated infections but initial infections can be severe, highlighting the importance of early infection dynamics. We have modelled early C. parvum infection in bovine jejunum biopsies. IL-17A accumulated over time peaking at 9h post-infection, with no effect of infection on IL-1β; antibiotics positively influenced IL-17A as higher levels were found in cultures with antibiotics. Infection of primary fibroblasts resulted in lower plaque formation when fibroblasts were primed with IL-17A...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894406/identification-of-rotavirus-strains-causing-diarrhoea-in-children-under-five-years-of-age-in-yogyakarta-indonesia
#17
Hera Nirwati, Mohamad Saifudin Hakim, Sri Aminah, Ida Bagus Nyoman Putra Dwija, Qiuwei Pan, Abu Tholib Aman
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in children. The aims of this study were to identify the rotavirus strains that cause diarrhoea in children in Yogyakarta and to determine the association between rotavirus positivity and its clinical manifestations. METHODS: Clinical data and stool samples were collected from children hospitalised at Kodya Yogyakarta Hospital, Indonesia. Rotavirus was detected in stool samples using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), which was followed by genotyping using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894393/review-of-rifaximin-latest-treatment-frontier-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-mechanism-of-action-and-clinical-profile
#18
Kamesh Gupta, Harparam Singh Ghuman, Shivani Vijay Handa
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder with the primary symptom of abdominal pain in conjunction with bloating and bowel movement disorder. It affects up to 15% of the world's population. Among its subtypes, the most common is diarrhoea predominant. However, the current treatment options for diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have had not very promising results; most, such as antispasmodics, only provide partial symptomatic relief...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893866/randomised-placebo-controlled-safety-and-tolerability-trial-of-fk506-tacrolimus-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
Edda Spiekerkoetter, Yon K Sung, Deepti Sudheendra, Valerie Scott, Patricia Del Rosario, Matthew Bill, Francois Haddad, Janel Long-Boyle, Haley Hedlin, Roham T Zamanian
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterised by occlusive pulmonary vasculopathy. Activation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) signalling by FK506 (tacrolimus) reverses occlusive vasculopathy in rodent PAH models. Here, we determined the safety and tolerability of low-level FK506 therapy in stable PAH patients.We performed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week, single-centre, phase IIa trial in PAH patients with New York Heart Association functional class II/III symptoms using three FK506 target levels (<2, 2-3 and 3-5 ng·mL(-1))...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893751/non-typhoidal-salmonella-in-calabria-italy-a-laboratory-and-patient-based-survey
#20
Valentina Mascaro, Claudia Pileggi, Maria Crinò, Yolande Therese Rose Proroga, Maria Rosaria Carullo, Caterina Graziani, Fabio Arigoni, Pasquale Turno, Maria Pavia
INTRODUCTION: Although there has been a decrease in the number of cases of salmonellosis in the European Union, it still represents the primary cause of foodborne outbreaks. In Calabria region, data are lacking for the incidence of human non-typhoid salmonellosis as active surveillance has never been carried out. OBJECTIVE: To report the results of a laboratory and patient-based morbidity survey in Calabria to describe the incidence and distribution of Salmonella serovars isolated from humans, with a focus on antimicrobial resistance patterns...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
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