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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109160/antibiotics-for-infection-prevention-after-excision-of-the-cervical-transformation-zone
#1
REVIEW
Chumnan Kietpeerakool, Bandit Chumworathayi, Jadsada Thinkhamrop, Butsakorn Ussahgij, Pisake Lumbiganon
BACKGROUND: Excision of the transformation zone of the cervix is the most commonly used approach to treat cervical precancerous lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)) to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer. As the excision of the transformation zone leaves a raw area on the cervix, there is a risk of infection following the procedure. The incidence of infection after cold knife conization (CKC) is 36%, whereas the incidence for large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ, also known as loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP)) is much lower (0...
January 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107883/batch-medication-of-intestinal-infections-in-nursery-pigs-a-randomised-clinical-trial-on-the-efficacy-of-treatment-strategy-type-of-antibiotic-and-bacterial-load-on-average-daily-weight-gain
#2
Nicolai Rosager Weber, Ken Steen Pedersen, Christian Fink Hansen, Matthew Denwood, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Jens Peter Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Previous research projects have demonstrated the need for better diagnostic tools to support decisions on medication strategies for infections caused by Escherichia coli F4 (F4) and F18 (F18), Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and Brachyspira pilosicoli (PILO). This study was carried out as a randomised clinical trial in three Danish pig herds and included 1047 nursery pigs, distributed over 10 batches and 78 pens. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the effect of four 5-day treatment strategies (initiated at clinical outbreak of diarrhoea or at fixed time points 14, 21, or 28days after weaning) on average daily weight gain (ADG); (2) to compare the effect of treatment with doxycycline or tylosine on diarrhoea prevalence, pathogenic bacterial load, and ADG; (3) to evaluate PCR testing of faecal pen floor samples as a diagnostic tool for determining the optimal time of treatment...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107866/potential-of-zimbabwean-commercial-probiotic-products-and-strains-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-as-prophylaxis-and-therapy-against-diarrhoea-caused-by-escherichia-coli-in-children
#3
Walter Chingwaru, Jerneja Vidmar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential of commercial fermented products sold in the country, and strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) as prophylaxis and therapy against diarrhoea in children. METHODS: The antimicrobial potential of cultures of lactobacilli enriched from 4 Zimbabwean commercial food/beverage products: Dairibord Lacto sour milk (DLSM), Probrand sour milk (PSM), Kefalos Vuka cheese (KVC) and Chibuku opaque beer (COB); and four strains of L...
January 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105986/canagliflozin-dapagliflozin-and-empagliflozin-monotherapy-for-treating-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation
#4
Rhona Johnston, Olalekan Uthman, Ewen Cummins, Christine Clar, Pamela Royle, Jill Colquitt, Bee Kang Tan, Andrew Clegg, Saran Shantikumar, Rachel Court, J Paul O'Hare, David McGrane, Tim Holt, Norman Waugh
BACKGROUND: Most people with type 2 diabetes are overweight, so initial treatment is aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity. Even modest weight loss can improve control of blood glucose. If drug treatment is necessary, the drug of first choice is metformin. However, some people cannot tolerate metformin, which causes diarrhoea in about 10%, and it cannot be used in people with renal impairment. This review appraises three of the newest class of drugs for monotherapy when metformin cannot be used, the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors...
January 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104997/poverty-related-diseases-prds-unravelling-complexities-in-disease-responses-in-cameroon
#5
Valerie Makoge, Harro Maat, Lenneke Vaandrager, Maria Koelen
BACKGROUND: In Cameroon, poverty-related diseases (PRDs) are a major public health concern. Research and policies addressing PRDs are based on a particular understanding of the interaction between poverty and disease, usually an association between poverty indicators and health indicators for a specific country or region. Such indicators are useful but fail to explain the nature of the linkages between poverty and disease or poverty and health. This paper presents results of a study among university students, unravelling how they perceive diseases, the linkages with poverty, their responses to diseases and the motivations behind reported responses...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104985/high-risk-of-temporomandibular-disorder-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-is-there-a-correlation-with-greater-illness-severity
#6
Serena Gallotta, Vincenzo Bruno, Santo Catapano, Nicola Mobilio, Carolina Ciacci, Paola Iovino
AIM: To investigate the prevalence and the risk of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (including each subtype: constipation, diarrhoea, and mixed) compared to the general population. METHODS: Between January 2014 and December 2015 we enrolled consecutively adult patients diagnosed with IBS at the outpatient clinic of the University of Salerno and healthy controls (HC) without IBS. At enrollment, we analyzed all patients for the presence of TMDs according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD...
January 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097718/a-prospective-study-of-the-use-of-antibiotics-in-the-emergency-department-of-a-chinese-university-hospital
#7
Linan Zeng, Die Hu, Imti Choonara, Dezhi Mu, Lingli Zhang, Xihong Li, Zuojie Zhang, Zhiqiang Hu, Shuyan Quan
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are one of the most widely misused group of medicines. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of antibiotics in one of the paediatric emergency departments in China. METHODS: We performed a prospective, cross-sectional study of antibiotic use in the paediatric emergency room of West China Second University Hospital. A total of 500 consecutive patients from March 25 to April 3 2013 were included. Clinical details of the patients were also collected in order to analyse antibiotic use...
February 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095796/a-severe-case-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-liposomal-amphotericin-b-treatment-failure-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient-15%C3%A2-years-after-exposure
#8
Anna Eichenberger, Annina E Buechi, Andreas Neumayr, Chistroph Hatz, Andri Rauch, Marc Huguenot, Eva Diamantis-Karamitopoulou, Cornelia Staehelin
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan disease, which is responsible for 200.000-400.000 yearly infections worldwide. If left untreated, the fatality rate can be as high as 100% within 2 years. 90% of cases occur in just six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. It is thus a disease rarely seen by physicians in Europe or North America. We report on the fatal case of VL in an 80-year-old immunosuppressed patient who presented with a latency of over 15 years after having visited an endemic region...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095397/a-randomised-phase-ii-trial-and-feasibility-study-of-palliative-chemotherapy-in-frail-or-elderly-patients-with-advanced-gastroesophageal-cancer-321go
#9
P S Hall, S R Lord, M Collinson, H Marshall, M Jones, C Lowe, H Howard, D Swinson, G Velikova, A Anthoney, R Roy, J Dent, S Cheeseman, K Last, M T Seymour
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients are commonly under-represented in cancer clinical trials. The 321GO was undertaken in preparation for a definitive phase three trial assessing different chemotherapy regimens in a frail and/or elderly population with advanced gastroesophageal (GO) cancer. METHODS: Patients with advanced GO cancer considered unfit for conventional dose chemotherapy were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 : 1 ratio to: epirubicin, oxaliplatin and capecitabine (EOX); oxaliplatin and capecitabine (OX); and capecitabine alone (X) (all 80% of full dose and unblinded)...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094141/intravenous-zanamivir-or-oral-oseltamivir-for-hospitalised-patients-with-influenza-an-international-randomised-double-blind-double-dummy-phase-3-trial
#10
Francisco M Marty, Joan Vidal-Puigserver, Carol Clark, Sandeep K Gupta, Esperanza Merino, Denis Garot, Marianne J Chapman, Frédérique Jacobs, Eduardo Rodriguez-Noriega, Petr Husa, Denise Shortino, Helen A Watson, Phillip J Yates, Amanda F Peppercorn
BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors are effective for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza. However, there is an unmet need for intravenous treatment for patients admitted to hospital with severe influenza. We studied whether intravenous zanamivir was a suitable treatment in this setting. METHODS: In this international, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients aged 16 years or older with severe influenza admitted to 97 hospitals from 26 countries...
January 13, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093870/acute-management-of-autoimmune-toxicity-in-cancer-patients-on-immunotherapy-common-toxicities-and-the-approach-for-the-emergency-physician
#11
Anna J Lomax, Catriona McNeil
When a patient receiving anti-cancer treatment presents acutely unwell, an understanding of associated side effects of their therapy is critical. This review will discuss the approach to patients receiving anti-cancer treatment with immunotherapy presenting with autoimmune toxicities in the emergency setting. These toxicities are commonly referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). IrAE might consist of, but are not limited to, dermatologic, gastrointestinal (diarrhoea, colitis), hepatic, endocrine (thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis, adrenal crisis), renal, ocular and pulmonary toxicity...
January 16, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093213/characterization-of-the-efficiency-and-uncertainty-of-skimmed-milk-flocculation-for-the-simultaneous-concentration-and-quantification-of-water-borne-viruses-bacteria-and-protozoa
#12
Eloy Gonzales-Gustavson, Yexenia Cardenas-Youngs, Miquel Calvo, Marcelle Figueira Marques da Silva, Ayalkibet Hundesa, Inmaculada Amorós, Yolanda Moreno, Laura Moreno-Mesonero, Rosa Rosell, Lliliane Ganges, Rosa Araujo, Rosina Girones
In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091974/clinical-trial-shows-lasting-function-of-a%C3%A2-new-moisturizing-cream-against-vaginal-dryness
#13
Hans-Heinrich Henneicke-von Zepelin, Ragna Williams, Wiebke Havemeister, Walter Wigger-Alberti, Klaus-Ulrich Nolte
Vaginal dryness and associated symptoms may occur in women of any age and are a frequent burden after menopause. The North American Menopause Society recommends long-acting non-hormonal vaginal creams as first-line therapy. A new type of such creams was developed (Remifemin® FeuchtCreme in Austria and Germany). This hormone-free cream contains hamamelis virginiana distillate and well-established vaginal cream ingredients. We explored its physical function and tolerability in an open interventional clinical trial...
January 13, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089635/venetoclax-plus-rituximab-in-relapsed-or-refractory-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-a-phase-1b-study
#14
John F Seymour, Shuo Ma, Danielle M Brander, Michael Y Choi, Jacqueline Barrientos, Matthew S Davids, Mary Ann Anderson, Anne W Beaven, Steven T Rosen, Constantine S Tam, Betty Prine, Suresh K Agarwal, Wijith Munasinghe, Ming Zhu, L Leanne Lash, Monali Desai, Elisa Cerri, Maria Verdugo, Su Young Kim, Rod A Humerickhouse, Gary B Gordon, Thomas J Kipps, Andrew W Roberts
BACKGROUND: Selective BCL2 inhibition with venetoclax has substantial activity in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Combination therapy with rituximab enhanced activity in preclinical models. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of venetoclax in combination with rituximab. METHODS: Adult patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (according to the 2008 Modified International Workshop on CLL guidelines) or small lymphocytic lymphoma were eligible for this phase 1b, dose-escalation trial...
January 12, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089463/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-the-selective-phosphodiesterase-3-inhibitor-cilostazol-and-antioxidants-enzymatically-modified-isoquercitrin-and-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-reduce-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-colorectal-mucosal-injury-in-mice
#15
Yumi Kangawa, Toshinori Yoshida, Hajime Abe, Yoshiki Seto, Taishi Miyashita, Michi Nakamura, Tohru Kihara, Shim-Mo Hayashi, Makoto Shibutani
Developing effective treatments and preventing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are urgent challenges in improving patients' health. It has been suggested that platelet activation and reactive oxidative species generation are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. We examined the inhibitory effects of a selective phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor, cilostazol (CZ), and two antioxidants, enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) and α-lipoic acid (ALA), against dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. BALB/c mice were treated with 0...
January 12, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086835/stunting-and-severe-stunting-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-in-nigeria-a-multilevel-analysis
#16
Blessing Jaka Akombi, Kingsley Emwinyore Agho, John Joseph Hall, Dafna Merom, Thomas Astell-Burt, Andre M N Renzaho
BACKGROUND: Stunting has been identified as one of the major proximal risk factors for poor physical and mental development of children under-5 years. Stunting predominantly occurs in the first 1000 days of life (0-23 months) and continues to the age of five. This study examines factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children under-5 years in Nigeria. METHODS: The sample included 24,529 children aged 0-59 months from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078948/care-seeking-for-children-with-fever-cough-or-diarrhoea-in-nepal-equity-trends-over-the-last-15-years
#17
Mats Målqvist, Chahana Singh, Ashish Kc
AIMS: Childhood illnesses such as diarrhoea and pneumonia remain major contributors to child mortality globally and need to be continually targeted in pursuit of universal health coverage. This study analyses time trends in the prevalence of fever/cough and diarrhoea in Nepal and applies an equity lens in order to identify disadvantaged groups. METHODS: Data from the Nepal Demographic Health Surveys of 2001, 2006, and 2011, together with data from the most recent Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey of 2014 performed in Nepal, were utilized for analysis...
January 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077759/complex-responses-to-movement-based-disease-control-when-livestock-trading-helps
#18
Jamie C Prentice, Glenn Marion, Michael R Hutchings, Tom N McNeilly, Louise Matthews
Livestock disease controls are often linked to movements between farms, for example, via quarantine and pre- or post-movement testing. Designing effective controls, therefore, benefits from accurate assessment of herd-to-herd transmission. Household models of human infections make use of R*, the number of groups infected by an initial infected group, which is a metapopulation level analogue of the basic reproduction number R0 that provides a better characterization of disease spread in a metapopulation. However, existing approaches to calculate R* do not account for individual movements between locations which means we lack suitable tools for livestock systems...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077608/-holiday-sickness-reported-exploratory-outcome-of-over-500-united-kingdom-holidaymakers-with-travellers-diarrhoea
#19
Prof Aali J Sheen, M Saad B Zahid, Andrew Fagbemi, Catherine Fullwood, Kathryn Whitehead
AIMS: To ascertain any predictors of potential food poisoning pathogens and development of post-infective irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in UK travellers. An analysis was undertaken on prospectively collected data on 527 patients reporting symptoms of suspected food poisoning between June 2012 and June 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Positive stool sample indicative of food poisoning pathogens and diagnosis of post-infective IBS. RESULTS: Data on 527 patients were examined...
January 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076934/the-injury-of-serotonin-on-intestinal-epithelium-cell-renewal-of-weaned-diarrhoea-mice
#20
Y Dong, C Yang, Z Wang, Z Qin, J Cao, Y Chen
Diarrhoea is a common cause of death in children and weaned animals. Recent research has found that serotonin (5-HT) in the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in regulating growth and the maintenance of mucosa, which protect against diarrhoea. To determine the influence of 5-HT on intestinal epithelium cell renewal under weaned stress diarrhoea, a weaned-stress diarrhoea mouse model was established with senna infusion (15 mL/Kg) via intragastric administration and stress restraint (SR). Mice with an increase in 5-HT were induced by intraperitoneal injection with citalopram hydrobromide (CH, 10 mg/Kg)...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
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