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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352742/cambogin-suppresses-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-colitis-by-enhancing-treg-cell-stability-and-function
#1
Yue Lu, Na-Mi Kim, Yi-Wen Jiang, Hong Zhang, Dan Zheng, Fu-Xiang Zhu, Rui Liang, Bin Li, Hong-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract, and the dysfunction of immune regulation plays a critical role in IBD. Reflecting the limited use of current drugs and therapies for IBD treatment, it is necessary to explore novel drugs or therapies for this disease. We investigated the effect of cambogin in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and whether cambogin attenuates inflammation via Treg-cell-mediated immune modulation...
January 20, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351935/an-adult-case-with-shigellosis-associated-encephalopathy
#2
Heleen Joséphine Schuster, Michelle Gompelman, Wim Ang, Albertus Jozef Kooter
A 45-year-old man was presented at the emergency department with altered neurological status and a 1-day history of diarrhoea and fever. The patient's sexual history revealed multiple male partners. As bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis was suspected, treatment was started accordingly. Cerebrospinal fluid investigations only showed a slight increase of leucocytes, and microbiological studies remained negative. Stool culture revealed Shigella flexneri, after which Shigella-associated encephalopathy was suspected...
January 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351774/inflammatory-bowel-disease-ibd-in-horses-a-retrospective-study-exploring-the-value-of-different-diagnostic-approaches
#3
Berit Boshuizen, Margreet Ploeg, Jeroen Dewulf, Sanne Klooster, Marco de Bruijn, Marie- Thérèse Picavet, Katrien Palmers, Lukas Plancke, Hilde De Cock, Mathijs Theelen, Catherine Delesalle
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing IBD in horses is challenging and requires a multimodal approach, since no conclusive diagnostic test is available. The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of population characteristics, results of applied diagnostic tests, treatment modalities and outcome in a large group of horses thought to have IBD and that were presented to four large equine referral hospitals, and to provide an exploratory investigation of possible associations between results of applied diagnostic tests, applied treatment modalities and outcome...
January 19, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351201/in-vivo-characterisation-of-five-strains-of-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-1-subgenotype-1c
#4
Rebecca K Ambrose, Jennifer L Gravel, Margaret A Commins, Elizabeth V Fowler, Timothy J Mahony
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is strongly associated with several important diseases of cattle, such as bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and haemoragic lesions. To date many subgenotypes have been reported for BVDV-1, currently ranging from subgenotype 1a to subgenotype 1u. While BVDV-1 has a world-wide distribution, the subgenotypes have a more restricted geographical distribution. As an example, BVDV-1 subgenotypes 1a and 1b are frequently detected in North America and Europe, while the subgenotype 1c is rarely detected...
January 19, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349793/the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-ledipasvir-plus-sofosbuvir-in-adolescents-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-4-infection-a-real-world-experience
#5
H R El-Khayat, E M Kamal, M H El-Sayed, M El-Shabrawi, H Ayoub, A RizK, M Maher, R Y El Sheemy, Y M Fouad, D Attia
BACKGROUND: The combination of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir was recently approved for treatment of adolescent (12-17 years) HCV genotype 1, 4, 5 & 6 patients. However, few clinical trials have been performed in genotype 1 patients. AIM: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir in chronic HCV adolescent patients with genotype 4 in the real world. METHODS: This prospective multicentre (six centres) open-label study included 144 adolescent chronic HCV patients with genotype 4 (mean age 14 ± 2, 69% males)...
January 19, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345159/weighing-in-on-the-risks-and-benefits-of-probiotic-use-in-hiv-infected-and-immunocompromised-populations
#6
A U Happel, S L Barnabas, R Froissart, J S Passmore
Probiotics are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of several conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and colic in infants. Despite the long history of probiotic use in humans, there is still significant debate about their efficacy and safety, particularly in HIV-infected and immunocompromised individuals. Here, we reviewed the safety and adverse event (AE) reporting from clinical trials that have tested probiotics in at risk populations, including HIV-infected individuals, the terminally ill and elderly, and neonates...
January 18, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344358/the-global-problem-of-childhood-diarrhoeal-diseases-emerging-strategies-in-prevention-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Margaret Mokomane, Ishmael Kasvosve, Emilia de Melo, Jeffrey M Pernica, David M Goldfarb
Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343507/early-and-sustained-efficacy-with-apremilast-monotherapy-in-biological-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-psoriatic-arthritis-a-phase-iiib-randomised-controlled-trial-active
#8
Peter Nash, Kamal Ohson, Jessica Walsh, Nikolay Delev, Dianne Nguyen, Lichen Teng, Juan J Gómez-Reino, Jacob A Aelion
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate apremilast efficacy across various psoriatic arthritis (PsA) manifestations beginning at week 2 in biological-naïve patients with PsA. METHODS: Patients were randomised (1:1) to apremilast 30 mg twice daily or placebo. At week 16, patients whose swollen and tender joint counts had not improved by ≥10% were eligible for early escape. At week 24, all patients received apremilast through week 52. RESULTS: Among 219 randomised patients (apremilast: n=110; placebo: n=109), a significantly greater American College of Rheumatology 20 response at week 16 (primary outcome) was observed with apremilast versus placebo (38...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342306/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-diarrhoea-among-children-between-6-and-59-months-of-age-in-mwanza-city-tanzania
#9
Silas Kabhele, Moses New-Aaron, Stephen Matthew Kibusi, Ainory P Gesase
Background: Childhood diarrhoea is a global public health problem especially in unplanned settlements of low- and middle-income countries. Different studies have associated household settlement and childhood diarrhoea, but the prevalence and risk factors associated with childhood diarrhoea at the community level are not clearly known. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with diarrhoea in among 480 children between 6 and 59 months of age in Mwanza city from June to August 2016...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337963/phase-i-open-label-study-of-afatinib-plus-vinorelbine-in-patients-with-solid-tumours-overexpressing-egfr-and-or-her2
#10
Rastislav Bahleda, Andrea Varga, Yann Bergé, Jean-Charles Soria, David Schnell, Inga Tschoepe, Martina Uttenreuther-Fischer, Jean-Pierre Delord
BACKGROUND: This phase Ib study evaluated afatinib plus vinorelbine in patients with advanced solid tumours overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and/or human EGFR 2 (HER2). METHODS: Maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) were determined for afatinib (20, 40 or 50 mg, once daily) combined with standard intravenous vinorelbine (part A; 25 mg m-2 per week) or oral vinorelbine (part B; 60 mg m-2 per week, increased to 80 mg m-2 per week at week 3)...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336009/gefitinib-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Esther Ha Sim, Ian A Yang, Richard Wood-Baker, Rayleen V Bowman, Kwun M Fong
BACKGROUND: The role of gefitinib for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is evolving. We undertook a systematic review to evaluate the available evidence from all randomised trials. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of gefitinib as first-line, second-line or maintenance treatment for advanced NSCLC. SEARCH METHODS: We performed searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase from inception to 17 February 2017...
January 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335137/-nutritional-status-of-residents-of-a-nursing-home-and-optimisation-of-the-working-time-of-caregivers
#12
Suzanne Falesse, Philippe Barat, Christel Castelli, Valéry Antoine, Sihame Chkair, Sophie Bouvet, Valérie Pouysségur
The lack of time to devote to care is a frequent complaint of nurses and nursing assistants. The results of a study show that an improvement in the nutritional status of nursing home residents could help to improve their quality of life and to optimise the working time of the nursing teams, thanks to the reduction of pressure ulcers, diarrhoea, falls, fractures and infections.
January 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330993/chemical-composition-of-stones-in-paediatric-urolithiasis
#13
Kiran Imran, Mirza Naqi Zafar, Naureen Fatima, Uzma Ozair, Sajid Sultan, Syed Adibul Hasan Rizvi
BACKGROUND: Chemical composition of stones is one of the important diagnostic criteria for aetiology of stone formation and treatment to prevent recurrence. This paper reports composition of stones in children at a tertiary hospital by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). METHODS: Between January-June 2015, 412 urinary stones from children were analysed by FTIR. Chi-square tests were used for the comparison of categorical measurements between groups...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330009/the-almanach-project-preliminary-results-and-potentiality-from-afghanistan
#14
A Bernasconi, F Crabbé, R Rossi, I Qani, A Vanobberghen, M Raab, S Du Mortier
INTRODUCTION: ALMANACH (ALgorithms for the MANagement of Acute CHildhood illnesses) is an electronic version of IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) running on tablets. ALMANACH enhances its concept, it integrates well into health staff's daily consultation work and facilitates diagnosis and treatment. ALMANACH informs when to refer a child or to perform a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), recommends the right treatment dosage and synchronizes collected data real time with a Health Management Information System (DHIS2) for epidemiological evaluation and decision making...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327520/risk-factors-of-clinical-and-immunological-failure-in-south-indian-cohort-on-generic-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Mucheli Shravan Sadashiv, Priscilla Rupali, Abi Manesh, Rajesh Kannangai, Ooriapadickal Cherian Abraham, Susanne A Pulimood, Rajiv Karthik, S Rajkumar, Kurien Thomas
Background: Since the time of NACO Antiretroviral (ART) roll-out, generic ART has been the mainstay of therapy. There are many studies documenting the efficacy of generic ART but with the passage of time, failure of therapy is on the rise. As institution of second line ART has significant financial implications both for a program and for an individual it is imperative that we determine factors which contribute towards treatment failure in a cohort of patients on generic antiretroviral therapy...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327443/effect-of-gut-stress-induced-by-oxidized-wheat-gluten-on-the-growth-performance-gut-morphology-and-oxidative-states-of-broilers
#16
R B Liao, H J Yan, G H Liu, S Zhang, W H Chang, W Liu, C H Lin, X Y Huang, H Y Cai
This study was to investigate the effect of oxidized wheat gluten (OG) on growth performance, gut morphology and its oxidative states of broilers. One hundred and eighty-day-old male broilers (10 chicks/pen) were randomly allocated into three dietary treatments: control diet (CON), diet with 8% wheat gluten (WG) and diet with 8% OG with six pens/treatment. Body weight (BW) (21 and 35 days) and average daily gain (ADG) (1-21 days and 22-35 days) decreased (p < .05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1-21 days and 22-35 days) increased (p < ...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326029/neoadjuvant-treatment-with-trastuzumab-and-pertuzumab-plus-palbociclib-and-fulvestrant-in-her2-positive-er-positive-breast-cancer-na-pher2-an-exploratory-open-label-phase-2-study
#17
Luca Gianni, Giancarlo Bisagni, Marco Colleoni, Lucia Del Mastro, Claudio Zamagni, Mauro Mansutti, Milvia Zambetti, Antonio Frassoldati, Raffaella De Fato, Pinuccia Valagussa, Giuseppe Viale
BACKGROUND: In the neoadjuvant setting, blockade of HER2 plus use of an aromatase inhibitor in patients with HER2-positive and oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer leads to a pathological complete response in 21% of patients. Convergence of HER2 and ER signals on RB1 suggests that a combined pharmacological intervention directed to these targets could be synergistic. To test this approach, we combined palbociclib to block RB1, fulvestrant to block ER, and trastuzumab with pertuzumab to block HER2 in patients with HER2-positive, ER-positive breast cancer...
January 8, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325751/a-difficult-diagnosis-of-coeliac-disease-repeat-duodenal-histology-increases-diagnostic-yield-in-patients-with-concomitant-causes-of-villous-atrophy
#18
Gaetano Cristian Morreale, Luigi Maria Montalbano, Maria Cappello, Emanuele Sinagra, Aroldo Rizzo, Antonio Carroccio
Villous atrophy in absence of coeliac disease (CD)-specific antibodies represents a diagnostic dilemma. We report a case of a woman with anaemia, weight loss and diarrhoea with an initial diagnosis of seronegative CD and a histological documented villous atrophy who did not improve on gluten-free diet due to the concomitant presence of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and Giardia lamblia infection. This case report confirms that CD diagnosis in CVID patients is difficult; the combination of anti-endomysial antibodies (EmA-IgA), anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG-IgAb) antibodies and total IgA is obligatory in basic diagnostic of CD but in CVID are negative...
January 8, 2018: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324884/a-cross-sectional-study-on-dutch-layer-farms-to-investigate-the-prevalence-and-potential-risk-factors-for-different-chlamydia-species
#19
Marloes Heijne, Jeanet A van der Goot, Helmi Fijten, Joke W van der Giessen, Eric Kuijt, Catharina B M Maassen, Annika van Roon, Ben Wit, Ad P Koets, Hendrik I J Roest
In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its avian pathogenicity and zoonotic potential have to be further elucidated. Within the Netherlands no data were available on the presence of Chlamydia on poultry farms. As part of a surveillance programme for zoonotic pathogens in farm animals, we investigated pooled faecal samples from 151 randomly selected layer farms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322604/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-in-dogs-with-small-cell-t-cell-intestinal-lymphoma
#20
K M Couto, P F Moore, A L Zwingenberger, J L Willcox, K A Skorupski
Small cell intestinal lymphoma has not been well characterized in dogs. The objective of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and outcome in dogs with small cell intestinal lymphoma. We hypothesized that affected dogs would have prolonged survival compared with high-grade gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma. Pathology records were searched for dogs with histologically confirmed small cell GI lymphoma. Seventeen dogs with confirmed small cell intestinal lymphoma were identified, and clinical and outcome data were retrospectively collected...
January 11, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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