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Hugo Legge, Amira Shaheen, Ghassan Shakhshir, Ai Milojevic
BACKGROUND: Water insecurity is an important risk factor for disease. In recent years, Palestinians have seen access to drinking water increasingly restricted. The aim of this study was to describe such changes over time and examine the association between drinking water sources and the health of children younger than 5 years in the occupied Palestinian territory in 2000-14. METHODS: For this repeated cross-sectional study we used data from five Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2014...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Rola Abu Dalfa, Khaled I Abu El Aish, Mohamed El Raai, Nermeen El Gazaly, Ahmed Shatat
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea causes 15% of under-5 mortality in developing countries. Zinc (Zn) stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zn given with standard treatment to children with acute or moderate diarrhoea. METHODS: In this quasi-unmasked, parallel-group study, we enrolled children with diarrhoea at El-Dorra Paediatric Hospital, Gaza Strip, occupied Palestinian territory. Inclusion criteria were children with more than three unformed stools in the preceding 24 h, duration of diarrhoea up to 72 h, and ability to accept oral fluids or feeds...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ye Htut Linn, K Khine Thu, Nang Hla Hla Win
Radiotherapy is the mainstay treatment of cervical cancer and the most common acute side effect is radiation-induced diarrhoea (RID), which can affect up to 80% of the patients. The most frequently used probiotics for the RID in previous studies with somewhat positive results are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of a probiotic containing live Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 for the prevention of acute (RID) among cervical cancer patients...
March 17, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Ron Basuroy, Cathy Bouvier, John Ramage, Maia Sissons, Alexandra Kent, Raj Srirajaskanthan
<br>Introduction The gastrointestinal tract and pancreas are common primary sites for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Patients often report long duration of non-specific symptoms in the year prior to diagnosis. The aims of this study were to establish pre-diagnosis patterns of symptoms. Secondly, to determine the time from onset of symptoms to NET diagnosis and understand the interaction with primary and secondary healthcare providers. Method A survey was designed on a web-based survey platform with the focus on patient symptoms prior to diagnosis and a screen for functional diarrhoea (Rome III criteria (C4))...
March 18, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Firdausi Qadri, Mohammad Ali, Julia Lynch, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful Islam Khan, Thomas F Wierzba, Jean-Louis Excler, Amit Saha, Md Taufiqul Islam, Yasmin A Begum, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Farhana Khanam, Mohiul I Chowdhury, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Alamgir Kabir, Baizid Khoorshid Riaz, Afroza Akter, Arifuzzaman Khan, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Deok Ryun Kim, Ashraf U Siddik, Nirod C Saha, Alejandro Cravioto, Ajit P Singh, John D Clemens
BACKGROUND: A single-dose regimen of inactivated whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is attractive because it reduces logistical challenges for vaccination and could enable more people to be vaccinated. Previously, we reported the efficacy of a single dose of an OCV vaccine during the 6 months following dosing. Herein, we report the results of 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial done in Dhaka, Bangladesh, individuals aged 1 year or older with no history of receipt of OCV were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of inactivated OCV or oral placebo...
March 14, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Jennifer R Brown, Mehdi Hamadani, John Hayslip, Ann Janssens, Nina Wagner-Johnston, Oliver Ottmann, Jon Arnason, Hervé Tilly, Michael Millenson, Fritz Offner, Nashat Y Gabrail, Siddhartha Ganguly, Sikander Ailawadh, Siddha Kasar, Arnon P Kater, Jeanette K Doorduijn, Lei Gao, Joanne J Lager, Bin Wu, Coumaran Egile, Marie José Kersten
BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia have a poor prognosis. Therapies targeting more than one isoform of PI3K, as well as mTOR, might increase antitumour activity. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of voxtalisib (also known as XL765 or SAR245409), a pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma, or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. METHODS: We did a non-randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial at 30 oncology clinics in the USA, Belgium, Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Australia...
March 14, 2018: Lancet Haematology
Amirsaeed Hosseini, Fatemeh Mirzaee, Ali Davoodi, Hossein Bakhshi Jouybari, Mohammad Azadbakh
Arnebia, a sub cosmopolitan and important genus of the Boraginaceae family, comprises 25 species distributed among the world. Based on the studies of Persian medicine texts, there are some promising bioactivities for this genus that is unknown in modern medicine and some of them are still the basis of new remedies. This article presents Arnebia according to the most important ancient information by the most famous Persian medicine books like Makhzan Al Advieh, Tohfat Al-Momenin, Al-Qanun, Al-Seidaneh and Ekhtiarate Badiei...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, Manuela Ferreira, Luis Tomé
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Ana M Molina, Thomas E Hutson, Dmitry Nosov, Piotr Tomczak, Oleg Lipatov, Cora N Sternberg, Robert Motzer, Tim Eisen
BACKGROUND: Tivozanib is a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3 tyrosine kinases. This open-label, crossover clinical study (AV-951-09-902) provided access to tivozanib for patients who progressed on sorafenib in TIVO-1, comparing tivozanib with sorafenib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Patients enrolled in this single-arm, phase 2 crossover study were previously randomised to sorafenib on TIVO-1, progressed and then crossed over to tivozanib...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Elena Kilian, Jan S Suchodolski, Katrin Hartmann, Ralf S Mueller, Gerhard Wess, Stefan Unterer
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important viral cause of acute canine enteritis leading to severe damage of the intestinal barrier. It has been speculated that dogs might develop chronic disorders after surviving CPV infection. However, no studies regarding the long-term implications of CPV infection have been published to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dogs that have survived CPV infection will have an increased risk for developing chronic gastroenteritis, atopic dermatitis, or cardiac disease...
2018: PloS One
Hannah R Wardill, Ysabella Z A Van Sebille, Matthew A Ciorba, Joanne M Bowen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strong preclinical data support prophylactic probiotics as an effective preventive strategy for diarrhoea secondary to anticancer therapies. To determine the composite evidence that this approach translates to the clinic, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic probiotics for the prevention of cancer therapy induced diarrhoea. RECENT FINDINGS: A three-step search strategy was used to identify relevant studies (1 June 2000-1 June 2017) investigating probiotic intervention for diarrhoea secondary to any cancer therapy (cytotoxic, targeted and immunotherapies)...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Anna Wickbom, Johan Bohr, Nils Nyhlin, Anders Eriksson, Annika Lapidus, Andreas Münch, Kjell-Arne Ung, Lina Vigren, Åke Öst, Curt Tysk
OBJECTIVES: Onset of microscopic colitis (MC) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD), or vice versa, has been reported occasionally but the subject is not well described. We therefore report a retrospective observational study of such patients and review the literature. METHODS: Forty-six Swedish gastroenterology clinics were contacted about patients with diagnoses of both inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and MC. Publications were searched on PubMed...
March 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Young-A Heo, Emma D Deeks
A fixed-dose combination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, the HCV NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir; Vosevi® ) is approved in the EU for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 infection in adults. In the phase III POLARIS trials, in patients who had HCV genotype 1-6 infection with or without compensated cirrhosis, overall rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12 ) with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir were high after 8 weeks of treatment in direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-naïve patients and 12 weeks of treatment in DAA-experienced patients...
March 15, 2018: Drugs
Marina Chiara Garassino, Byoung-Chul Cho, Joo-Hang Kim, Julien Mazières, Johan Vansteenkiste, Hervé Lena, Jesus Corral Jaime, Jhanelle E Gray, John Powderly, Christos Chouaid, Paolo Bidoli, Paul Wheatley-Price, Keunchil Park, Ross A Soo, Yifan Huang, Catherine Wadsworth, Phillip A Dennis, Naiyer A Rizvi
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new standard of care for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without EGFR tyrosine kinase or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genetic aberrations (EGFR-/ALK-), but clinical benefit in patients with EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements (EGFR+/ALK+) has not been shown. We assessed the effect of durvalumab (anti-PD-L1) treatment in three cohorts of patients with NSCLC defined by EGFR/ALK status and tumour expression of PD-L1...
March 12, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Bakary Sanneh, Alhagie Papa Sey, Minesh Shah, Jacqueline Tate, Mariama Sonko, Sheriffo Jagne, ModouLamin Jarju, Dawda Sowe, Makie Taal, Adam Cohen, Umesh Parashar, Jason M Mwenda
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus vaccines protect against the leading cause of severe childhood diarrhoea, and have been introduced in many low-income African countries. The Gambia introducedRotateq® (RV5) into their national immunization program in 2013. We revieweddata from an active rotavirus sentinel surveillancesitefor early evidence of vaccine impact. METHODS: We compared rotavirus prevalence in diarrhoeal stool in children< 5 years of age admittedat the Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital sentinel surveillance site before (2013) andafterRV5 introduction (2015-2016) in the Gambia...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Vanesa Alende-Castro, Cristina Macía-Rodríguez, Ignacio Novo-Veleiro, Xana García-Fernández, Mercedes Treviño-Castellano, Sergio Rodríguez-Fernández, Arturo González-Quintela
BACKGROUND: Forms of presentation of Q fever vary widely across Spain, with differences between the north and south. In the absence of reported case series from Galicia (north-west Spain), this study sought to describe a Q-fever case series in this region for the first time, and conduct a systematic review to analyse all available data on the disease in Spain. METHODS: Patients with positive serum antibodies to Coxiella burnetii from a single institution over a 5-year period (January 2011-December 2015) were included...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
D Roorda, M J Witvliet, L M Wellens, D V Schulten, C E J Sloots, I de Blaauw, P M A Broens, J Oosterlaan, L W E van Heurn, A F W van der Steeg
AIM: Total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) is a severe form of Hirschsprung's Disease (HD) associated with a high morbidity. This study assesses long-term functional outcome and Quality of Life (QoL) of TCA patients in a national consecutive cohort. METHODS: Medical records of all patients (n=53) diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 were reviewed on surgical and demographic characteristics. Functional outcome of all non-syndromal patients, aged ≥ four years (n=35) was assessed in medical records and with a questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Rikke Pilmann Laursen, Anni Larnkjaer, Christian Ritz, Iva Hojsak, Kim Michaelsen, Christian Mølgaard
AIM: We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged 8-14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility...
March 14, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Joaquin Escribano, Natalia Ferré, Mariona Gispert-Llaurado, Veronica Luque, Carmen Rubio-Torrents, Marta Zaragoza-Jordana, Isabel Polanco, Francisco M Codoñer, Empar Chenoll, Mireia Morera, Jose Antonio Moreno Muñoz, Montserrat Rivero, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota of breast-fed infants is plenty of beneficial bifidobacteria. We aimed to determine whether an infant formula supplemented with probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT7210 (B. infantis IM1®) is effective at reducing diarrhoea incidence in healthy term infants. METHODS: Double-blinded, randomized, multicentre, controlled clinical trial, where formula-fed infants (<3 months) received an infant formula supplemented (Probiotic) or not (Control) with 107 cfu/g of B...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Valerie Bauza, Diana M Byrne, John T Trimmer, Amanda Lardizabal, Philip Atiim, Mawuli A K Asigbee, Jeremy S Guest
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this work were to evaluate (i) the prevalence and frequency of caregiver-reported soil ingestion by children, (ii) whether household flooring material in the bedroom (earth versus concrete) affected caregiver-reported soil ingestion, (iii) whether caregiver-reported soil ingestion was associated with caregiver-reported diarrhoea, and (iv) caregivers' perceptions of their children ingesting soil. METHODS: We conducted 309 household surveys in northern Ghana, including 529 children under five (249 children aged 6-36 months), and measured faecal contamination in soil from 31 households...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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