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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150938/regulation-of-calcification-in-human-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells-infected-with-high-glucose-treated-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#1
Te-Chuan Chen, Chien-Tsong Lin, Shao-Ju Chien, Shun-Fu Chang, Cheng-Nan Chen
Porphyromonas (P.) gingivalis infection leading to the periodontitis has been associated with the development of systemic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. However, the effect of a high concentration of glucose (HG) on the invasion efficiency of P. gingivalis and the consequent modulation of pathogenesis in vascular cells, especially in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), remains unclear. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate whether treating P. gingivalis with HG could change its invasion capability and result in VSMC calcification and the underlying mechanism...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145460/trail-attenuates-rankl-mediated-osteoblastic-signalling-in-vascular-cell-mono-culture-and-co-culture-models
#2
Emma Harper, Keith D Rochfort, Hannah Forde, Colin Davenport, Diarmuid Smith, Philip M Cummins
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vascular calcification (VC) is a major risk factor for elevated cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Underlying this process is osteoblastic signalling within the vessel wall involving complex and interlinked roles for receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). RANKL promotes vascular cell osteoblastic differentiation, whilst OPG acts as a neutralizing decoy receptor for RANKL (and TRAIL)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139535/contribution-of-cranial-neural-crest-cells-to-mouse-skull-development
#3
Taofen Wu, Guiqian Chen, Fei Tian, Hong-Xiang Liu
The mammalian skull vault is a highly regulated structure that evolutionally protects brain growth during vertebrate development. It consists of several membrane bones with different tissue origins (e.g. neural crest-derived frontal bone and mesoderm-derived parietal bone). Although membrane bones are formed through intramembranous ossification, the neural crest-derived frontal bone has superior capabilities for osteoblast activities and bone regeneration via TGF, BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling pathways. Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent, and once induced, will follow specific paths to migrate to different locations of the body where they give rise to a diverse array of cell types and tissues...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138798/hey1-functions-as-a-positive-regulator-of-odontogenic-differentiation-in-odontoblast%C3%A2-lineage-cells
#4
Xiao Yin, Zhaobin Zeng, Jinliang Xing, Ansheng Zhang, Wenkai Jiang, Wei Wang, Hantang Sun, Longxing Ni
Substantial evidence has indicated that Notch and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling may regulate odontoblastic differentiation. Hairy/enhancer‑of‑split related with YRPW motif 1 (Hey1), a downstream target gene of Notch and BMP signaling, is expressed in dental pulp tissues and has been demonstrated to be responsible for osteoblast mineralization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hey1 on odontoblast differentiation. The results of the study demonstrated that Hey1 expression in odontoblast‑lineage cells (OLCs) was upregulated by stimulation of osteoblastic/odontoblastic differentiation medium containing ascorbic acid, β‑glycerol phosphate and dexamethasone...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130990/increased-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-in-the-cutaneous-vasculature-of-patients-with-calciphylaxis
#5
Sagar U Nigwekar, Pawina Jiramongkolchai, Florian Wunderer, Emily Bloch, Rika Ichinose, Rosalynn M Nazarian, Ravi I Thadhani, Rajeev Malhotra, Donald B Bloch
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signal transduction in the pathogenesis of calciphylaxis. METHODS: Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from 18 patients with, and 12 patients without, calciphylaxis. Tissue sections were stained with antibodies directed against BMP effector proteins phosphorylated-SMAD (p-SMAD) 1/5/9, inhibitor of DNA 1 (Id1), inhibitor of DNA 3 (Id3), and Runx2. The intensity of staining was scored semi-quantitatively as strong versus weak or absent...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129645/incretins-modulate-progesterone-biosynthesis-by-regulating-bone-morphogenetic-protein-activity-in-rat-granulosa-cells
#6
Yuki Nishiyama, Toru Hasegawa, Shiho Fujita, Nahoko Iwata, Satoko Nagao, Takeshi Hosoya, Kenichi Inagaki, Jun Wada, Fumio Otsuka
The effects of incretins on ovarian steroidogenesis have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects of incretins, including GIP and GLP-1, on ovarian steroidogenesis using rat primary granulosa cells. Treatment with incretins significantly suppressed progesterone synthesis in the presence of FSH, and the effect of GIP was more potent than that of GLP-1. In contrast, incretins had no significant effect on estrogen synthesis by rat granulosa cells. In accordance with the effects of incretins on steroidogenesis, GIP and GLP-1 suppressed the expression of progesterogenic factors and enzymes, including StAR, P450scc, 3βHSD, but not P450arom, and cellular cAMP synthesis induced by FSH...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128351/drosophila-models-of-fop-provide-mechanistic-insight
#7
REVIEW
Viet Le, Edward Anderson, Takuya Akiyama, Kristi A Wharton
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare bone disease characterized by episodic events of heterotopic ossification (HO). All cases of FOP have been attributed to mutations in the ACVR1 gene that render the encoded BMP type I ALK2 receptor hypersensitive, resulting in the activation of BMP signaling, at inappropriate times in inappropriate locations. The episodic or sporadic nature of HO associated with FOP rests with the occurrence of specific 'triggers' that push the hypersensitive ALK2-FOP receptor into full signaling mode...
November 8, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126155/isl1-mediates-mesenchymal-expansion-in-the-developing-external-genitalia-via-regulation-of-bmp4-fgf10-and-wnt5a
#8
Saunders T Ching, Carlos R Infante, Wen Du, Amnon Sharir, Sungdae Park, Douglas B Menke, Ophir D Klein
Genital malformations are among the most common human birth defects, and both genetic and environmental factors can contribute to these malformations. Development of the external genitalia in mammals relies on complex signaling networks, and disruption of these signaling pathways can lead to genital defects. Islet-1 (ISL1), a member of the LIM/Homeobox family of transcription factors, has been identified as a major susceptibility gene for classic bladder exstrophy in humans, a common form of the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), and is implicated in a role in urinary tract development...
November 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125417/loss-of-mechanosensitive-sclerostin-may-accelerate-cranial-bone-growth-and-regeneration
#9
Kyung Shin Kang, Jeff Lastfogel, Laurie L Ackerman, Andrew Jea, Alexander G Robling, Sunil S Tholpady
OBJECTIVE Cranial defects can result from trauma, infection, congenital malformations, and iatrogenic causes and represent a surgical challenge. The current standard of care is cranioplasty, with either autologous or allogeneic material. In either case, the intrinsic vascularity of the surrounding tissues allows for bone healing. The objective of this study was to determine if mechanotransductive gene manipulation would yield non-weight-bearing bone regeneration in a critical size calvarial defect in mice. METHODS A mouse model of Sost deletion in Sost knockout (KO) mice was created in which the osteocytes do not express sclerostin...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120519/palovarotene-inhibits-osteochondroma-formation-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-hereditary-exostoses
#10
Toshihiro Inubushi, Isabelle Lemire, Fumitoshi Irie, Yu Yamaguchi
Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE), also known as multiple osteochondromas (MO), is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of multiple cartilage-capped bone tumors (osteochondromas). The large majority of patients with MHE carry loss-of-function mutations in the EXT1 or EXT2 gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase essential for heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis. Increasing evidence suggests that enhanced BMP signaling resulting from loss of HS expression plays a role in osteochondroma formation in MHE...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118272/beyond-cancer-genes-colorectal-cancer-as-robust-intrinsic-states-formed-by-molecular-interactions
#11
Ruoshi Yuan, Suzhan Zhang, Jiekai Yu, Yanqin Huang, Demin Lu, Runtan Cheng, Sui Huang, Ping Ao, Shu Zheng, Leroy Hood, Xiaomei Zhu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has complex pathological features that defy the linear-additive reasoning prevailing in current biomedicine studies. In pursuing a mechanistic understanding behind such complexity, we constructed a core molecular-cellular interaction network underlying CRC and investigated its nonlinear dynamical properties. The hypothesis and modelling method has been developed previously and tested in various cancer studies. The network dynamics reveal a landscape of several attractive basins corresponding to both normal intestinal phenotype and robust tumour subtypes, identified by their different molecular signatures...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115642/combined-treatment-with-extracorporeal-shock%C3%A2-wave-therapy-and-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-improves-bone-repair-in-a-rabbit-model-of-bone-nonunion
#12
Tao Fan, Guozhi Huang, Wen Wu, Rong Guo, Qing Zeng
The aim of the present study was to analyze whether extracorporeal shock‑wave therapy (ESWT) combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) transplantation improves bone repair in a rabbit bone nonunion model. ESWT combined with BMMSC effectively enhanced mechanical strength, fracture stiffness and histological scores, and increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteopontin, runt related transcription factor 2 and collagen type I α1 chain protein expression levels in a rabbit bone nonunion model...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115400/global-gene-expression-analysis-combined-with-a-genomics-approach-for-the-identification-of-signal-transduction-networks-involved-in-postnatal-mouse-myocardial-proliferation-and-development
#13
Ruoxin Wang, Chao Su, Xinting Wang, Qiang Fu, Xingjie Gao, Chunyan Zhang, Jie Yang, Xi Yang, Minxin Wei
Mammalian cardiomyocytes may permanently lose their ability to proliferate after birth. Therefore, studying the proliferation and growth arrest of cardiomyocytes during the postnatal period may enhance the current understanding regarding this molecular mechanism. The present study identified the differentially expressed genes in hearts obtained from 24 h‑old mice, which contain proliferative cardiomyocytes; 7‑day‑old mice, in which the cardiomyocytes are undergoing a proliferative burst; and 10‑week‑old mice, which contain growth‑arrested cardiomyocytes, using global gene expression analysis...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113455/hdac1-governs-iron-homeostasis-independent-of-histone-deacetylation-in-iron-overload-murine-models
#14
Xiangju Yin, Qian Wu, Jitender Monga, Enjun Xie, Hao Wang, Shufen Wang, Huizhen Zhang, Zhan-You Wang, Tianhua Zhou, Yunjun Shi, Jack Rogers, Hening Lin, Junxia Min, Fudi Wang
AIMS: Iron overload disorders are common and could lead to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to limited treatment options, there is a great need to develop novel strategies to remove the excess body iron. To discover potential epigenetic modulator in hepcidin upregulation and subsequently decreasing iron burden, we performed an epigenetic screen. The in vivo effects of the identified compounds were further tested in iron-overload mouse models, including Hfe-/-, Hjv-/- and hepatocyte-specific Smad4 knockout (Smad4fl/fl;Alb-Cre+) mice...
November 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113418/role-of-growth-differentiation-factor-11-in-development-physiology-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Yonghui Zhang, Yong Wei, Dan Liu, Feng Liu, Xiaoshan Li, Lianhong Pan, Yi Pang, Dilong Chen
Growth differentiation factor (GDF11) is a member of TGF-β/BMP superfamily that activates Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways and regulates expression of its target nuclear genes. Since its discovery in 1999, studies have shown the involvement of GDF11 in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development and erythropoiesis, as well as in the pathophysiology of aging, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. In addition, there are contradictory reports regarding the role of GDF11 in aging, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteogenesis, skeletal muscle development, and neurogenesis...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110609/bmp3-is-required-for-integrity-of-blood-brain-barrier-by-promoting-pericyte-coverage-in-zebrafish-embryos
#16
D Lei, X Jin, L Wen, H Dai, Z Ye, G Wang
BACKGROUND: The compromise of blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity is often associated with human hemorrhage stroke and neurodegeneration diseases, including retina diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Brain pericytes play pivotal roles in regulation and maintenance of BBB integrity. However, the mechanisms underlying brain pericyte development to establish BBB integrity remain unclear. METHODS: zebrafish transgenic lines Tg(flk1:GFP; gata1:dsRed), Tg(flk1:GFP), Tg(fli1:GFP) and Tg(BRE:GFP) were used in this work...
November 5, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107593/escape-from-pluripotency-via-inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-bmp-and-activation-of-wnt-signaling-accelerates-differentiation-and-aging-in-hpsc-progeny-cells
#17
Koki Fujimori, Takuya Matsumoto, Fumihiko Kisa, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano, Wado Akamatsu
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a potentially valuable cell source for applications in cell replacement therapy, drug development, and disease modeling. For all these uses, it is necessary to develop reproducible and robust protocols for differentiation into desired cell types. However, differentiation protocols remain unstable and inefficient, which makes minimizing the differentiation variance among hPSC lines and obtaining purified terminally differentiated cells extremely time consuming. Here, we report a simple treatment with three small molecules-SB431542, dorsomorphine, and CHIR99021-that enhanced hPSC differentiation into three germ layers with a chemically transitional embryoid-body-like state (CTraS)...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107070/inflammation-driven-colon-neoplasmatogenesis-in-upa-deficient-mice-is-associated-with-an-increased-expression-of-runx-transcriptional-regulators
#18
Hara Afaloniati, George S Karagiannis, Alexandros Hardas, Theofilos Poutahidis, Katerina Angelopoulou
Deregulation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway has been documented in colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously, we investigated possible associations between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) deficiency and expression of extracellular constituents of BMP signaling in a newly developed mouse model of inflammation-driven intestinal neoplasmatogenesis, in which chronic colitis and CRC are induced using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In this report, we explored the contribution of intracellular components of Smad-mediated BMP signal transduction using the same model...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103804/fibrinogen-activates-bmp-signaling-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-and-inhibits-remyelination-after-vascular-damage
#19
Mark A Petersen, Jae Kyu Ryu, Kae-Jiun Chang, Ainhoa Etxeberria, Sophia Bardehle, Andrew S Mendiola, Wanjiru Kamau-Devers, Stephen P J Fancy, Andrea Thor, Eric A Bushong, Bernat Baeza-Raja, Catriona A Syme, Michael D Wu, Pamela E Rios Coronado, Anke Meyer-Franke, Stephanie Yahn, Lauriane Pous, Jae K Lee, Christian Schachtrup, Hans Lassmann, Eric J Huang, May H Han, Martina Absinta, Daniel S Reich, Mark H Ellisman, David H Rowitch, Jonah R Chan, Katerina Akassoglou
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption alters the composition of the brain microenvironment by allowing blood proteins into the CNS. However, whether blood-derived molecules serve as extrinsic inhibitors of remyelination is unknown. Here we show that the coagulation factor fibrinogen activates the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and suppresses remyelination. Fibrinogen induces phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8 and inhibits OPC differentiation into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) while promoting an astrocytic fate in vitro...
October 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101484/periostin-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-development-a-tale-of-two-distinct-roles
#20
REVIEW
Natalie M Landry, Smadar Cohen, Ian M C Dixon
Tissue development and homeostasis are dependent upon the concerted synthesis, maintenance, and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. Cardiac fibrosis is now recognized as a primary contributor to incidence of heart failure, particularly heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, wherein cardiac filling in diastole is compromised. Periostin is a cell-associated protein involved in cell fate determination, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and inflammatory responses. As a non-structural component of the ECM, secreted 90 kDa periostin is emerging as an important matricellular factor in cardiac mesenchymal tissue development...
November 3, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
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