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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909729/self-renewal-molecular-mechanisms-of-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells
#1
Tianhui Pan, Jinghong Xu, Yongliang Zhu
Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), specific roles mediated by cell surface markers and micro-environmental factors are involved in the regulation of self-renewal...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909410/mechanosensitive-molecular-networks-involved-in-transducing-resistance-exercise-signals-into-muscle-protein-accretion
#2
REVIEW
Emil Rindom, Kristian Vissing
Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS), may contribute to an understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907131/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-comparison-of-early-and-late-passage-human-dermal-papilla-cell-secretome-in-relation-to-inducing-hair-follicle-regeneration
#3
Huan Zhang, Ning-Xia Zhu, Keng Huang, Bo-Zhi Cai, Yang Zeng, Yan-Ming Xu, Yang Liu, Yan-Ping Yuan, Chang-Min Lin
Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem that lacks effective therapy. Recently, research has focused on early-passage dermal papilla cells (DPCs), which have hair inducing activity both in vivo and in vitro. Our previous study indicated that factors secreted from early-passage DPCs contribute to hair follicle (HF) regeneration. To identify which factors are responsible for HF regeneration and why late-passage DPCs lose this potential, we collected 48-h-culture medium (CM) from both of passage 3 and 9 DPCs, and subcutaneously injected the DPC-CM into NU/NU mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905054/crosstalk-between-shh-and-stemness-state-signaling-pathways-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Maryam Najafi, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Abolfazl Rad, Mahtab Dastpak, Samaneh Boroumand-Noughabi, Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard
The expression of GLI1 as a downstream gene of sonic hedgehog (Hh) pathway, studied in a variety of cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the interaction of Hh with other developmental pathways needs to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation of GLI1 expression with transcription factors (TFs) of stem cell signaling pathways, and their association with clinico-pathological data of ESCC. Using real-time PCR, we assessed the expression of GLI1 mRNA in 49 ESCC patients, and analyzed the correlation between GLI1 and selected TFs...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904762/activin-receptor-like-kinases-a-diverse-family-playing-an-important-role-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Holli A Loomans, Claudia D Andl
The role and function of the members of the TGFβ superfamily has been a substantial area of research focus for the last several decades. During that time, it has become apparent that aberrations in TGFβ family signaling, whether through the BMP, Activin, or TGFβ arms of the pathway, can result in tumorigenesis or contribute to its progression. Downstream signaling regulates cellular growth under normal physiological conditions yet induces diverse processes during carcinogenesis, ranging from epithelial- to-mesenchymal transition to cell migration and invasion to angiogenesis...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895117/examining-crosstalk-among-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-bone-morphogen-protein-and-wnt-pathways
#6
Adam D Coster, Curtis A Thorne, Lani F Wu, Steve J Altschuler
The integration of morphogenic signals by cells is not well understood. A growing body of literature suggests increasingly complex coupling among classically defined pathways. Given this apparent complexity, it is difficult to predict where, when or even whether crosstalk occurs. Here, we investigated pairs of morphogenic pathways, previously reported to have multiple points of crosstalk, which either do not share (TGFβ; and Wnt/β-catenin) or share (TGFβ; and BMP) core signaling components. Crosstalk was measured by the ability of one morphogenic pathway to cross-activate core transcription factors and/or target genes of another morphogenic pathway...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892483/down-regulation-of-coasy-the-gene-associated-with-nbia-vi-reduces-bmp-signaling-perturbs-dorso-ventral-patterning-and-alters-neuronal-development-in-zebrafish
#7
Deepak Khatri, Daniela Zizioli, Natascia Tiso, Nicola Facchinello, Sara Vezzoli, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Maurizio Memo, Eugenio Monti, Giuseppe Borsani, Dario Finazzi
Mutations in Pantothenate kinase 2 and Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (COASY), genes involved in CoA biosynthesis, are associated with rare neurodegenerative disorders with brain iron accumulation. We showed that zebrafish pank2 gene plays an essential role in brain and vasculature development. Now we extended our study to coasy. The gene has high level of sequence identity with the human ortholog and is ubiquitously expressed from the earliest stages of development. The abrogation of its expression led to strong reduction of CoA content, high lethality and a phenotype resembling to that of dorsalized mutants...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890611/histone-methyltransferase-setdb1-is-indispensable-for-meckel-s-cartilage-development
#8
Kohei Yahiro, Norihisa Higashihori, Keiji Moriyama
The histone methyltransferase Setdb1 represses gene expression by catalyzing lysine 9 of histone H3 trimethylation. Given that the conventional knockout of Setdb1 is embryo-lethal at the implantation stage, its role in craniofacial development is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of Setdb1, using conditional knockout mice-in which Setdb1 was deleted in the Meckel's cartilage (Setdb1 CKO)-and the mouse chondrogenic cell line ATDC5-in which Setdb1 was inhibited by siRNA. Deletion of Setdb1 in Meckel's cartilage, the supportive tissue in the embryonic mandible, led to its enlargement, instead of the degeneration that normally occurs...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888757/bmp4-id2-signaling-pathway-is-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-late-outgrowth-endothelial-progenitor-cell-mediated-endothelial-injury-repair
#9
Wen-Hao Xia, Long Chen, Jian-Wen Liang, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Chen Su, Xinzhu Tong, Jiang He, Yan Li, Zheng Cao, Xiu-Fang Lin, Jun Tao
BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a pivotal role in endothelial repair following artery injury, however, the molecular mechanism of late outgrowth EPCs (LEPCs) in endothelial repair remained to be studied. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is involved in vascular injury-mediated mobilization and homing of LEPCs. Here, we investigated the influence of BMP4-modified signaling pathway in LEPC-related endothelial repair of human and underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro, after a 28day culture, human LEPCs were pretreated with different concentrations of recombinant BMP4 (0, 10, 50, or 100ng/mL), which markedly augmented the migration and adhesion in vitro and demonstrated a significantly accelerated in vivo endothelial repair capacity of human LEPCs after transplantation into nude mice with carotid artery denudation injury...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886213/promotive-effects-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-on-angiogenesis-in-hepatocarcinoma-via-multiple-signal-pathways
#10
Wei-Han Zuo, Peng Zeng, Xi Chen, Yan-Jun Lu, An Li, Jian-Bin Wu
The effects of Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) on the angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma have not yet been observed and its molecular mechanisms is not clear. We first constructed the recombinant lentivirus vectors expressing small hairpin RNA against BMP-2 gene (LV-SH-BMP2) and the recombinant lentivirus vectors over-expressing BMP-2 (overexpression-LV-BMP2), and then the two recombinant lentivirus vectors were respectively transfected into Hep G2 cells. The Hep G2 cells transfected with LV-SH-BMP2 or overexpression-LV-BMP2 were respectively co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to observe the effects of BMP-2 on HUVECs...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883221/alcohol-exposure-causes-overexpression-of-heart-development-related-genes-by-affecting-the-histone-h3-acetylation-via-bmp-signaling-pathway-in-cardiomyoblast-cells
#11
Jin Shi, Weian Zhao, Bo Pan, Min Zheng, Lina Si, Jing Zhu, Lingjuan Liu, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: Abusive alcohol utilization of pregnant woman may cause congenital heart disease (CHD) of fetus, where alcohol ignites histone H3 hyperacetylation leading to abnormal development of heart morphogenesis and associated genes. Knowledge about the regularized upstream genes is little, but bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling may actively and prominently take part in alteration in acetylation of histone H3. The supreme objective of this study was to unearth the involvement of BMP signaling pathway in alcohol-driven hyperacetylation of histone H3 in cardiomyoblast cells...
November 24, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
November 23, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881824/two-tissue-resident-progenitor-lineages-drive-distinct-phenotypes-of-heterotopic-ossification
#13
Devaveena Dey, Jana Bagarova, Sarah J Hatsell, Kelli A Armstrong, Lily Huang, Joerg Ermann, Ashley J Vonner, Yue Shen, Agustin H Mohedas, Arthur Lee, Elisabeth M W Eekhoff, Annelies van Schie, Marie B Demay, Charles Keller, Amy J Wagers, Aris N Economides, Paul B Yu
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a congenital heterotopic ossification (HO) syndrome caused by gain-of-function mutations of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor ACVR1, manifests with progressive ossification of skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints. In this disease, HO can occur in discrete flares, often triggered by injury or inflammation, or may progress incrementally without identified triggers. Mice harboring an Acvr1(R206H) knock-in allele recapitulate the phenotypic spectrum of FOP, including injury-responsive intramuscular HO and spontaneous articular, tendon, and ligament ossification...
November 23, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880803/wdr68-mediates-dorsal-and-ventral-patterning-events-for-craniofacial-development
#14
Estibaliz Alvarado, Mina Yousefelahiyeh, Greg Alvarado, Robin Shang, Taryn Whitman, Andrew Martinez, Yang Yu, Annie Pham, Anish Bhandari, Bingyan Wang, Robert M Nissen
Birth defects are among the leading causes of infant mortality and contribute substantially to illness and long-term disability. Defects in Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling are associated with cleft lip/palate. Many craniofacial syndromes are caused by defects in signaling pathways that pattern the cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) along the dorsal-ventral axis. For example, auriculocondylar syndrome is caused by impaired Endothelin-1 (Edn1) signaling, and Alagille syndrome is caused by defects in Jagged-Notch signaling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877072/cultured-human-periosteum-derived-cells-can-differentiate-into-osteoblasts-in-a-perioxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-mediated-fashion-via-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling
#15
Jin-Eun Chung, Jin-Ho Park, Jeong-Won Yun, Young-Hoon Kang, Bong-Wook Park, Sun-Chul Hwang, Yeong-Cheol Cho, Iel-Yong Sung, Dong Kyun Woo, June-Ho Byun
The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblastic fate depends on numerous signaling pathways, including activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling components. Commitment to osteogenesis is associated with activation of osteoblast-related signal transduction, whereas inactivation of this signal transduction favors adipogenesis. BMP signaling also has a critical role in the processes by which mesenchymal stem cells undergo commitment to the adipocyte lineage. In our previous study, we demonstrated that an agonist of the perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, stimulates osteoblastic differentiation of cultured human periosteum-derived cells...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875556/mxa-is-a-novel-regulator-of-endosome-associated-transcriptional-signaling-by-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-4-and-9-bmp4-and-bmp9
#16
Huijuan Yuan, Pravin B Sehgal
There is confusion about the role that IFN-α plays in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with different investigators reporting a causative or a protective role. There is now clear evidence in PAH pathogenesis for the involvement of BMP4 and BMP9 signaling, and its disruption by mutations in BMPR2. In the present study, we investigated MxA, an IFN-α-inducible cytoplasmic dynamin-family GTPase for effects on BMP4/9 signaling, including in the presence of PAH-disease-associated mutants of BMPR2...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869129/reprogramming-mouse-fibroblasts-into-engraftable-myeloerythroid-and-lymphoid-progenitors
#17
Hui Cheng, Heather Yin-Kuan Ang, Chadi A El Farran, Pin Li, Hai Tong Fang, Tong Ming Liu, Say Li Kong, Michael Lingzi Chin, Wei Yin Ling, Edwin Kok Hao Lim, Hu Li, Tara Huber, Kyle M Loh, Yuin-Han Loh, Bing Lim
Recent efforts have attempted to convert non-blood cells into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with the goal of generating blood lineages de novo. Here we show that hematopoietic transcription factors Scl, Lmo2, Runx1 and Bmi1 can convert a developmentally distant lineage (fibroblasts) into 'induced hematopoietic progenitors' (iHPs). Functionally, iHPs generate acetylcholinesterase(+) megakaryocytes and phagocytic myeloid cells in vitro and can also engraft immunodeficient mice, generating myeloerythoid and B-lymphoid cells for up to 4 months in vivo...
November 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864366/siah2-mediates-early-events-in-commitment-to-an-adipogenic-pathway
#18
Gail Kilroy, David H Burk, Z Elizabeth Floyd
Adipose tissue expansion occurs by increasing the size of existing adipocytes or by increasing the number of adipocytes via adipogenesis. Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired adipogenesis. We recently demonstrated that deletion of the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is associated with enlarged adipocytes in lean or obese mice. In this study, we find that adipogenesis is impaired in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes stably transfected with Siah2 shRNA and that overexpression of Siah2 in non-precursor fibroblasts promotes adipogenesis...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864295/endothelial-cells-produce-bone-morphogenetic-protein-6-required-for-iron-homeostasis-in-mice
#19
Susanna Canali, Kimberly B Zumbrennen-Bullough, Amanda B Core, Chia-Yu Wang, Manfred Nairz, Richard Bouley, Filip K Swirski, Jodie L Babitt
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)6 signaling in hepatocytes is a central transcriptional regulator of the iron hormone hepcidin to control systemic iron balance. How iron levels are sensed to regulate hepcidin production is not known, but local induction of liver BMP6 expression by iron is proposed to have a critical role. To identify the cellular source of BMP6 responsible for hepcidin and iron homeostasis regulation, we generated mice with tissue specific ablation of Bmp6 in different liver cell populations and evaluated their iron phenotype...
November 18, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863509/profibrotic-mediators-in-tendon-disease-a-systematic-review
#20
Wataru Morita, Sarah Jane Bothwell Snelling, Stephanie Georgina Dakin, Andrew Jonathan Carr
BACKGROUND: Tendon disease is characterized by the development of fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are key mediators in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the evidence for the expression of TGF-β, BMPs and CTGF along tendon disease progression and the response of tendon cells to these growth factors accordingly. METHOD: We conducted a systematic screen of the scientific literature using the Medline database...
November 18, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
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