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BMP signalling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777011/fox-proteins-are-modular-competency-factors-for-facial-cartilage-and-tooth-specification
#1
Pengfei Xu, Bartosz Balczerski, Amanda Ciozda, Kristin Louie, Veronika Oralova, Ann Huysseune, J Gage Crump
Facial form depends on the precise positioning of cartilage, bone, and tooth fields in the embryonic pharyngeal arches. How complex signaling information is integrated to specify these cell types remains a mystery. We find that modular expression of Forkhead-domain transcription factors (Fox) in the zebrafish face arises through integration of Hh, Fgf, Bmp, Edn1, and Jagged-Notch pathways. Whereas loss of C-class Fox proteins results in reduced upper facial cartilages, loss of F-class Fox proteins results in distal jaw truncations and absent midline cartilages and teeth...
May 18, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774544/functional-molecules-in-mesothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-revealed-by-transcriptome-analyses
#2
Sara Namvar, Adrian S Woolf, Leo A H Zeef, Thomas Wilm, Bettina Wilm, Sarah E Herrick
Peritoneal fibrosis is a common complication of abdominal and pelvic surgery, and can also be triggered by peritoneal dialysis, resulting in treatment failure. In these settings, fibrosis is driven by activated myofibroblasts that are considered to be partly derived by mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT). We hypothesised that if the molecular signature of MMT could be better defined, these insights could be exploited to block this pathological cellular transition. Rat peritoneal mesothelial cells were purified, using an antibody to HBME1, a protein present on mesothelial cell microvilli, and streptavidin nanobead technology...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771958/cooperation-of-bmp-and-ihh-signaling-in-interdigital-cell-fate-determination
#3
Arunima Murgai, Sara Altmeyer, Stephanie Wiegand, Przemko Tylzanowski, Sigmar Stricker
The elaborate anatomy of hands and feet is shaped by coordinated formation of digits and regression of the interdigital mesenchyme (IM). A failure of this process causes persistence of interdigital webbing and consequently cutaneous syndactyly. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key inductive factors for interdigital cell death (ICD) in vivo. NOGGIN (NOG) is a major BMP antagonist that can interfere with BMP-induced ICD when applied exogenously, but its in vivo role in this process is unknown. We investigated the physiological role of NOG in ICD and found that Noggin null mice display cutaneous syndactyly and impaired interdigital mesenchyme specification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771334/%C3%AE-catenin-activation-in-hair-follicle-dermal-stem-cells-induces-ectopic-hair-outgrowth-and-skin-fibrosis
#4
Yixin Tao, Qingchun Yang, Lei Wang, Jie Zhang, Xuming Zhu, Qianqian Sun, Yunbin Han, Qian Luo, Yushu Wang, Xizhi Guo, Ji Wu, Baojie Li, Xiao Yang, Lin He, Gang Ma
Hair follicle dermal sheath (DS) harbors hair follicle dermal stem cells (hfDSCs), which can be recruited to replenish DS and dermal papilla (DP). Cultured DS cells can differentiate into various cell lineages in vitro. However, it is unclear how its plasticity is modulated in vivo. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in maintaining stem cells of various lineages and is required for HF development and regeneration. Here we report that activation of β-catenin in DS generates ectopic HF outgrowth (EF) by reprogramming HF epidermal cells and DS cells themselves, and endows DS cells with hair inducing ability...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767257/bmp%C3%A2-6-protects-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-from-oxidative-stress%C3%A2-induced-injury-by-inhibiting-the-mapk-signaling-pathways
#5
Li Chen, Ming Liu, Yan Luan, Yingfei Liu, Zhichao Zhang, Bo Ma, Xuan Liu, Yong Liu
Worldwide, neovascular age‑related macular degeneration (nAMD) is one of the most common causes of blindness in the elderly. In particular, degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells represents the main pathological process in the development of nAMD, and oxidative stress serves a major role. The present study aimed to investigate the association between bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP‑6) and nAMD. BMP‑6 concentration was significantly reduced in patients with wet nAMD compared with in the control group...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756996/twsg1-is-a-novel-tumor-suppressor-in-gastric-cancer
#6
Jingyi Yuan, Jiali Zeng, Chun Shuai, Yue Liu
Gastric cancer has a high incidence and mortality in the world, especially in China. The pathogenesis leading to the high heterogeneity of gastric cancer remains unclear. It is believed that TWSG1 is associated with a variety of tumors, but there are few studies related to gastric cancer. To investigate the biological significance of TWSG1, we evaluated the TWSG1 expression of the clinical samples and gastric cancer cell lines (BGC-823, MGC-803, and SGC-790) via stomach cancer tissue array, real-time PCR, and western blotting...
May 14, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752282/niche-mediated-bmp-smad-signaling-regulates-lung-alveolar-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#7
Mei-I Chung, Melissa Bujnis, Christina E Barkauskas, Yoshihiko Kobayashi, Brigid L M Hogan
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway, including antagonists, functions in lung development and regeneration of tracheal epithelium from basal stem cells. Here, we explore its role in the alveolar region, where type 2 epithelial cells (AT2s) and Pdgfrα+ type 2-associated stromal cells (TASCs) are components of the stem cell niche. We use organoids and in vivo alveolar regrowth after pneumonectomy (PNX) - a process that requires proliferation of AT2s and differentiation into type 1 cells (AT1s)...
May 11, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751129/selective-inhibition-of-src-family-kinases-by-su6656-increases-bone-mass-by-uncoupling-bone-formation-from-resorption-in-mice
#8
Cyril Thouverey, Serge Ferrari, Joseph Caverzasio
Mice deficient in the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src exhibit high bone mass due to impaired bone resorption and increased bone formation. Although several Src family kinase inhibitors inhibit bone resorption in vivo, they display variable effects on bone formation. SU6656 is a selective Src family kinase inhibitor with weaker activity towards the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abl and receptor tyrosine kinases which are required for appropriate osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and function. Therefore, we sought to determine whether SU6656 could increase bone mass by inhibiting bone resorption and by stimulating bone formation, and to explore its mechanisms of action...
May 8, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746601/aberrant-activity-of-nkl-homeobox-gene-nkx3-2-in-a-t-all-subset
#9
Stefan Nagel, Corinna Meyer, Maren Kaufmann, Margarete Zaborski, Roderick A F MacLeod, Hans G Drexler
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematopoietic malignancy originating from T-cell progenitors in which differentiation is blocked at early stages. Physiological expression of specific NKL homeobox genes obeys a hematopoietic NKL-code implicated in the process of lymphopoiesis while in differentiated T-cells these genes are silenced. We propose that this developmental expression pattern underlies the observation that NKL homeobox genes are the most ubiquitous group of transcription factors deregulated in T-ALL, including TLX1, TLX3, NKX2-5 and NKX3-1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746183/msx2-marks-spatially-restricted-populations-of-mesenchymal-precursors
#10
N Sakagami, Y Matsushita, S Syklawer-Howle, H M Kronenberg, W Ono, N Ono
Craniofacial development requires a set of patterning codes that define the identities of postmigratory mesenchymal cells in a region-specific manner, in which locally expressed morphogens, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), provide instructive cues. Msx2, a bona fide target of BMP signaling, is a transcription factor regulating Runx2 and osterix (Osx), whose mutations are associated with cranial deformities in humans. Here we show that Msx2 defines osteo-chondro precursor cells in specific regions of the craniofacial mesenchyme at the postmigratory stage, particularly in the mandibular process and the posterior cranial vault...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740080/interleukin-17-enhances-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-induced-ectopic-bone-formation
#11
M Croes, M C Kruyt, W M Groen, K M A van Dorenmalen, W J A Dhert, F C Öner, J Alblas
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) stimulates the osteogenic differentiation of progenitor cells in vitro through a synergy with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. This study investigates whether the diverse responses mediated by IL-17 in vivo also lead to enhanced BMP-2-induced bone formation. Since IL-17 is known to induce osteoclastogenesis, we studied the interactions between IL-17 and BMP-2 in ceramic scaffolds either or not carrying a coating with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZOL). Histological evaluation revealed that IL-17 alone did not induce any osteoclasts at day 10...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739878/bmpr2-inhibits-activin-and-bmp-signaling-via-wild-type-alk2
#12
Oddrun Elise Olsen, Meenu Sankar, Samah Elsaadi, Hanne Hella, Glenn Buene, Sagar Ramesh Darvekar, Kristine Misund, Takenobu Katagiri, Petra Knaus, Toril Holien
TGF-β/BMP superfamily ligands require heteromeric complexes of type 1 and 2 receptors for ligand dependent downstream signaling. Activin A, a TGF-β superfamily member, inhibits growth of multiple myeloma cells, but the mechanism is unknown. We aimed to clarify how activins affect myeloma cell survival. Activin A activates the transcription factors SMAD2/3 through the ALK4 type 1 receptor, but may also activate SMAD1/5/8 through mutated variants of the type 1 receptor ALK2. We demonstrate that activin A and B activate SMAD1/5/8 in myeloma cells through endogenous wild type ALK2...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736686/effect-of-inorganic-and-organic-bioactive-signals-decoration-on-the-biological-performance-of-chitosan-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#13
Alessandra Soriente, Ines Fasolino, Maria Grazia Raucci, Christian Demitri, Marta Madaghiele, Antonella Giuri, Alessandro Sannino, Luigi Ambrosio
The present work is focused on the design of a bioactive chitosan-based scaffold functionalized with organic and inorganic signals to provide the biochemical cues for promoting stem cell osteogenic commitment. The first approach is based on the use of a sequence of 20 amino acids corresponding to a 68-87 sequence in knuckle epitope of BMP-2 that was coupled covalently to the carboxyl group of chitosan scaffold. Meanwhile, the second approach is based on the biomimetic treatment, which allows the formation of hydroxyapatite nuclei on the scaffold surface...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736392/quercetin-stimulates-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-through-an-estrogen-receptor-mediated-pathway
#14
Xin-Gang Pang, Yu Cong, Ni-Rong Bao, Yong-Gang Li, Jian-Ning Zhao
Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the overall effect of quercetin on mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro . Materials and Methods: BMSCs were treated with different concentrations of quercetin for 6 days. The effects of quercetin on cell proliferation were assessed at predetermined times using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The cells were then treated with quercetin, estrogen, or an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist (which was also administered in the presence of quercetin or estrogen) for 7 or 21 days...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735293/anchor-negatively-regulates-bmp-signalling-to-control-drosophila-wing-development
#15
Xiao Chun Wang, Ziguang Liu, Li Hua Jin
G protein-coupled receptors play particularly important roles in many organisms. The novel Drosophila gene anchor is an orthologue of vertebrate GPR155. However, the roles of anchor in molecular functions and biological processes, especially in wing development, remain unknown. Knockdown of anchor resulted in an increased wing size and additional and thickened veins. These abnormal wing phenotypes were similar to those observed in BMP signalling gain-of-function experiments. We observed that the BMP signalling indicator p-Mad was significantly increased in wing discs in which anchor RNAi was induced in larvae and accumulated abnormally in intervein regions in pupae...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732364/impaired-fgf10-signaling-and-epithelial-development-in-experimental-lung-hypoplasia-with-esophageal-atresia
#16
Jun Wang, Hao Liu, Linlin Gao, Xiaomei Liu
Patients with esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) often experience persistent respiratory tract disease. In experimental models, doxorubicin-induced developmental lung abnormalities may result from downregulation of branching morphogenesis factor fibroblast growth factor (Fgf10). This study investigated the temporospatial expression of Fgf10 pathway components and lung epithelial factors in an doxorubicin-induced EA-TEF model by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729840/synergistic-mechano-chemical-sensing-by-vascular-cilia
#17
Gautier Follain, Jacky G Goetz
Endothelial cells can sense and respond to blood flow forces and signals, but the exact mechanisms employed remain poorly understood. A recent study describes how low-flow forces are sensed by primary cilia during development of the retinal vasculature, which sensitizes endothelial cells to BMP signaling.
May 2, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722917/pathogenic-variants-in-the-abcc6-gene-are-associated-with-an-increased-risk-for-ischemic-stroke
#18
Eva Y G De Vilder, Stefanie Cardoen, Mohammad J Hosen, Olivier Le Saux, Julie De Zaeytijd, Bart P Leroy, Jacques De Reuck, Paul J Coucke, Anne De Paepe, Dimitri Hemelsoet, Olivier M Vanakker
Ischemic stroke causes a high mortality and morbidity worldwide. It results from a complex interplay of incompletely known environmental and genetic risk factors. We investigated the ABCC6 gene as a candidate risk factor for ischemic stroke because of the increased ischemic stroke incidence in the autosomal recessive disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum, caused by biallelic pathogenic ABCC6 variants, the higher cardiovascular risk in heterozygous carriers and the established role of ABCC6 dysfunction in myocardial ischemia...
May 3, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719123/wound-induced-cell-proliferation-during-animal-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Lorenzo Ricci, Mansi Srivastava
Many animal species are capable of replacing missing tissues that are lost upon injury or amputation through the process of regeneration. Although the extent of regeneration is variable across animals, that is, some animals can regenerate any missing cell type whereas some can only regenerate certain organs or tissues, regulated cell proliferation underlies the formation of new tissues in most systems. Notably, many species display an increase in proliferation within hours or days upon wounding. While different cell types proliferate in response to wounding in various animal taxa, comparative molecular data are beginning to point to shared wound-induced mechanisms that regulate cell division during regeneration...
May 2, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717261/antagonizing-cd105-enhances-radiation-sensitivity-in-prostate-cancer
#20
Anisha Madhav, Allen Andres, Frank Duong, Rajeev Mishra, Subhash Haldar, Zhenqiu Liu, Bryan Angara, Roberta Gottlieb, Zachary S Zumsteg, Neil A Bhowmick
Radiation therapy is the primary intervention for nearly half of the patients with localized advanced prostate cancer and standard of care for recurrent disease following surgery. The development of radiation-resistant disease is an obstacle for nearly 30-50% of patients undergoing radiotherapy. A better understanding of mechanisms that lead to radiation resistance could aid in the development of sensitizing agents to improve outcome. Here we identified a radiation-resistance pathway mediated by CD105, downstream of BMP and TGF-β signaling...
May 2, 2018: Oncogene
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