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Non Epileptic Seizures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337452/-neurology
#1
Isabelle Chopard, David Benninger, Jean-François Demonet, Renaud Du Pasquier, Lorenz Hirt, Thierry Kuntzer, Patrik Michel, Bernard Nater, Jan Novy, Andrea Rossetti, Olivier Rouaud, Philippe Ryvlin, Myriam Schluep, Marie Theaudin
Ocrelizumab (Ocrevus), an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Eculizumab (Soliris) has been approved in several countries for refractory forms of generalized seropositive severe myasthenia gravis. A form of gene therapy, patisiran, has shown positive results in transthyretin familial amyloidosis. In the treatment of headaches, particularly migraines, non-pharmacological approaches have shown some interesting results. The criteria for Lewy body dementia have been revised...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327202/transient-disruption-of-adenosine-signaling-during-embryogenesis-triggers-a-pro-epileptic-phenotype-in-adult-zebrafish
#2
Fabiano Peres Menezes, Felipe Machado Torresini, Laura Roesler Nery, Rosane Souza da Silva
Adenosinergic signaling has important effects on brain function, anatomy, and physiology in both late and early stages of development. Exposure to caffeine, a non-specific blocker of adenosine receptor, has been indicated as a developmental risk factor. Disruption of adenosinergic signaling during early stages of development can change the normal neural network formation and possibly lead to an increase in susceptibility to seizures. In this work, morpholinos (MO) temporarily blocked the translation of adenosine receptor transcripts, adora1, adora2aa, and adora2ab, during the embryonic phase of zebrafish...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306976/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Tim A M Bouwens van der Vlis, Olaf E M G Schijns, Frédéric L W V J Schaper, Govert Hoogland, Pieter Kubben, Louis Wagner, Rob Rouhl, Yasin Temel, Linda Ackermans
Despite the use of first-choice anti-epileptic drugs and satisfactory seizure outcome rates after resective epilepsy surgery, a considerable percentage of patients do not become seizure free. ANT-DBS may provide for an alternative treatment option in these patients. This literature review discusses the rationale, mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ANT-DBS in drug-resistant epilepsy patients. A review using systematic methods of the available literature was performed using relevant databases including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library pertaining to the different aspects ANT-DBS...
January 6, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306906/-psychiatric-disorders-in-epilepsy-clinical-phenomena
#4
Anna Szucs, Andras Horvath, Daniel Fabo, Geza Szabo, Andrea Kovacs, Peter Halasz
The frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy compromises the quality of life of those affected, further increasing their suicide risk and the high burden of stigmatisation. Out of adulthood epilepsies, mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy carries the highest cognitive and psychiatric risk, making mental health comorbidities its inherent features. The pathomechanism of the epilepsy-related mental health symptoms and conditions appears to be related to undetected subclinical seizures, postictal exhaustion and inhibition, and the non-REM sleep related interictal epileptic activity...
September 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303866/pet-and-ictal-spect-can-be-helpful-for-localizing-epileptic-foci
#5
Tim J von Oertzen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional neuroimaging with PET and SPECT is a commonly used tool in presurgical evaluation. The following article reviews the literature of PET and SPECT in presurgical assessment of epilepsies published in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: FDG-PET adds concomitant information in temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsy in adults and children. The pattern of hypometabolism in FDG-PET is a good additional predictor or seizure outcome in TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis or negative MRI...
January 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291457/diagnosis-of-epileptic-seizures-by-community-health-workers-using-a-mobile-app-a-comparison-with-physicians-and-a-neurologist
#6
Victor Patterson, Shruti Samant, Mamta Bhushan Singh, Priya Jain, Vaibhav Agavane, Yogesh Jain
PURPOSE: The World Health Organisation (WHO) strategy for non-physician health workers (NPHWs) to diagnose and manage people with untreated epilepsy depends on them having access to suitable tools. We have devised and validated an app on a tablet computer to diagnose epileptic episodes and now examine how its use by NPHWs compares with diagnosis by local physicians and a neurologist. METHODS: Fifteen NPHWs at Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) a hospital with community outreach in Chhattisgarh, India were trained in the use of an epilepsy diagnosis app on a tablet computer...
December 26, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289531/epileptic-seizures-are-reduced-by-autonomic-biofeedback-therapy-through-enhancement-of-fronto-limbic-connectivity-a-controlled-trial-and-neuroimaging-study
#7
Yoko Nagai, Julia Aram, Matthias Koepp, Louis Lemieux, Marco Mula, Hugo Critchley, Sanjay Sisodiya, Mara Cercignani
BACKGROUND: Thirty-percent of patients with epilepsy are drug-resistant, and might benefit from effective noninvasive therapeutic interventions. Evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of autonomic biofeedback therapy using galvanic skin response (GSR; an index of sympathetic arousal) in treating epileptic seizures. This study aimed to extend previous controlled clinical trials of autonomic biofeedback therapy with a larger homogeneous sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, we used neuroimaging to characterize neural mechanisms of change in seizure frequency following the therapy...
December 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282444/obstructive-sleep-apnea-presenting-as-non-epileptic-spells-a-unique-combination
#8
Prashant Natteru, Chintan Rupareliya, Xiangping Zhou, Pradeep C Bollu
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), an increasingly prevalent sleep disorder, has been extensively studied in both clinical and scientific settings. In most cases, the diagnosis of sleep apnea is straightforward with patients having symptoms of snoring, choking or gasping for air while asleep and witnessed apneas. However, sleep apnea is known to present in some unusual ways. We present a case of a 61-year-old male, with recently diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (currently not on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) and a history of seizure-like events since the age of 18 years, who came to the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) for spell characterization of his frequent seizure-like episodes...
October 24, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282343/-diagnosis-of-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizure-how-can-we-detect-it-prior-to-video-electroencephalography-monitoring
#9
Kousuke Kanemoto
It is highly recommended not to base the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) on one single sign. Yet, the combination of several symptoms may be highly indicative of PNES. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that some combinations of symptoms are more easily recorded and that some are more indicative of PNES. We review and analize various symptom combinations including convulsions, falling, and impaired consciousness. Further, we examine and discuss all individual symptoms that are known to be associated with PNES...
December 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282342/-motor-symptoms-of-autoimmune-encephalopathies
#10
Yuichi Tashiro, Hiroshi Takashima
Autoimmune encephalopathies are clinically and immunologically heterogeneous disorders. At least 20 types of autoimmune encephalopathies have been discovered, with the most common type being Hashimoto encephalopathy. In clinical situations, we often observe that patients with autoimmune encephalopathy are misdiagnosed because they exhibit signs similar to those observed in functional psychogenic movement, conversion, or somatoform disorders. We clinically examined over 100 patients with autoimmune encephalopathy...
December 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262297/antiallodynic-and-antihyperalgesic-activity-of-new-3-3-diphenyl-propionamides-with-anticonvulsant-activity-in-models-of-pain-in-mice
#11
Anna Rapacz, Jolanta Obniska, Paulina Koczurkiewicz, Katarzyna Wójcik-Pszczoła, Agata Siwek, Anna Gryboś, Sabina Rybka, Aleksandra Karcz, Elżbieta Pękala, Barbara Filipek
Anticonvulsant drugs are used to treat a wide range of non-epileptic conditions, including chronic pain. The aim of the present experiments was to examine analgesic activity of three new 3,3-diphenyl-propionamides, which had previously demonstrated anticonvulsant activity in the MES (maximal electroshock seizure), scPTZ (subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole) and/or 6Hz (psychomotor seizure) tests in mice. Antinociceptive activity was examined in mouse models of acute pain (the hot plate test) and tonic pain (the formalin test) in mice...
December 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251059/epileptic-seizure-detection-using-dwt-based-approximate-entropy-shannon-entropy-and-support-vector-machine-a-case-study
#12
A Sharmila, Suman Aman Raj, Pandey Shashank, P Mahalakshmi
In this work, we have used a time-frequency domain analysis method called discrete wavelet transform (DWT) technique. This method stand out compared to other proposed methods because of its algorithmic elegance and accuracy. A wavelet is a mathematical function based on time-frequency analysis in signal processing. It is useful particularly because it allows a weak signal to be recovered from a noisy signal without much distortion. A wavelet analysis works by analysing the image and converting it to mathematical function which is decoded by the receiver...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237663/progressive-myoclonic-epilepsy-and-horizontal-gaze-palsy-a-rare-aetiology
#13
Rajveer Singh, Aditya Choudhary, Amith S Kumar, Manoj Kumar Goyal
Gaucher's disease is a rare autosomal recessive, potentially fatal disorder but most common type among lysosomal storage disorders. The disease's incidence is around 1/40 000 to 1/60 000 births in the general population. A 32-year-old man, born out of non-consanguineous union, presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures and myoclonus since 17 years of age. Seizures were noted to be resistant to multiple epileptic drugs. He developed gait imbalance, intentional tremor and dysarthria. Detailed examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly, bilateral pancerebellar signs with normal power, reflexes and sensory system...
December 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237452/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-the-family-of-feline-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-lgi-genes-and-mutational-analysis-in-familial-spontaneous-epileptic-cats
#14
Yoshihiko Yu, Daisuke Hasegawa, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Yuji Hamamoto, Shunta Mizoguchi, Takayuki Kuwabara, Michio Fujita
BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated (LGI) proteins play a critical role in synaptic transmission. Dysfunction of these genes and encoded proteins is associated with neurological disorders such as genetic epilepsy or autoimmune limbic encephalitis in animals and human. Familial spontaneous epileptic cats (FSECs) are the only feline strain and animal model of familial temporal lobe epilepsy. The seizure semiology of FSECs comprises recurrent limbic seizures with or without evolution into generalized epileptic seizures, while cats with antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel complexed/LGI1 show limbic encephalitis and recurrent limbic seizures...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229342/parahippocampectomy-as-a-new-surgical-approach-to-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-caused-by-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-pilot-randomized-comparative-clinical-trial
#15
Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas, Iván D Freire Carlier, Daniel San-Juan, Alma Rosa Martínez, Carlos Trenado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The parahippocampal gyrus plays an important role in the epileptogenic pathways of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS); its resection could prevent epileptic seizures with fewer complications. This study evaluates the initial efficacy and safety of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), selective amygdalohipppocampectomy (SAH), and parahippocampectomy (PHC) surgical approaches in mTLE-HS. METHODS: A randomized comparative pilot clinical trial (2008-2011) was performed that included patients with mTLE-HS who underwent ATL, trans-T3 SAH, and trans-T3 PHC...
December 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220065/clinical-profile-of-patients-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-in-puerto-rico
#16
Joashlie M Méndez-Ruiz, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Yeira M Valdez-Pimentel, Miguel Torres-Narváez, Marianette Colón-Laboy, Gisela G Jiménez-Colón, José Rodríguez-Gómez, Christian J González-Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: Specialized epilepsy clinics receive many cases (20%-30% of total cases) in which the patients are diagnosed with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). In Puerto Rico, there has been a lack of research on and data about patients with PNES. This study examined the clinical profile of 34 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PNES. METHODS: A secondary analysis of 34 clinical records of patients with PNES was conducted. The resulting profile was based on clinical interviews, the behavioral presentation of seizures, the history of traumatic experiences or abuse, and the relationship between PNES events and life stressors...
December 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214650/perampanel-an-ampa-receptor-antagonist-from-clinical-research-to-practice-in-clinical-settings
#17
REVIEW
J-J Tsai, T Wu, H Leung, T Desudchit, S Tiamkao, K-S Lim, A Dash
Epileptic seizures are refractory to treatment in approximately one-third of patients despite the recent introduction of many newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Development of novel AEDs therefore remains a high priority. Perampanel is a first-in-class non-competitive selective AMPA receptor antagonist with a unique mechanism of action. Clinical efficacy and safety of perampanel as adjunctive treatment for focal seizures with/without secondary generalization (±SG) and primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures have been established in five phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and a long-term extension study, and perampanel is approved as monotherapy for focal seizures ±SG in the USA...
December 7, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205292/brain-regions-and-epileptogenicity-influence-epileptic-interictal-spike-production-and-propagation-during-nrem-sleep-in-comparison-with-wakefulness
#18
Isabelle Lambert, Nicolas Roehri, Bernard Giusiano, Romain Carron, Fabrice Wendling, Christian Benar, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVE: Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is known to be a brain state associated with an activation of interictal epileptic activity. The goal of this work was to quantify topographic changes occurring during NREM sleep in comparison with wakefulness. METHOD: We studied intracerebral recordings of 20 patients who underwent stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) during presurgical evaluation for pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. We measured the number of interictal spikes (IS) and quantified the co-occurrence of IS between brain regions during 1 hour of NREM sleep and 1 hour of wakefulness...
December 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188743/a-case-study-on-discrete-wavelet-transform-based-hurst-exponent-for-epilepsy-detection
#19
Saiby Madan, Kajri Srivastava, A Sharmila, P Mahalakshmi
Epileptic seizures are manifestations of epilepsy. Careful analysis of EEG records can provide valuable insight and improved understanding of the mechanism causing epileptic disorders. The detection of epileptic form discharges in EEG is an important component in the diagnosis of epilepsy. As EEG signals are non-stationary, the conventional frequency and time domain analysis does not provide better accuracy. So, in this work an attempt has been made to provide an overview of the determination of epilepsy by implementation of Hurst exponent (HE)-based discrete wavelet transform techniques for feature extraction from EEG data sets obtained during ictal and pre ictal stages of affected person and finally classifying EEG signals using SVM and KNN Classifiers...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176138/clinical-manifestations-and-amplitude-integrated-encephalogram-in-neonates-with-early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy
#20
Li-Li Liu, Xin-Lin Hou, Dan-Dan Zhang, Guo-Yu Sun, Cong-Le Zhou, Yi Jiang, Ze-Zhong Tang, Rui Zhang, Yun Cui
BACKGROUND: The patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE) suffer from neurodevelopmental delay. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical manifestations and amplitude-integrated encephalogram (aEEG) characteristics of infants with EOEE with onset within the neonatal period, to make early diagnosis to improve the prognosis. METHODS: One-hundred and twenty-eight patients with neonatal seizure were enrolled and followed up till 1 year old. Sixty-six neonates evolved into EOEE were as the EOEE group, the other 62 were as the non-EOEE (nEOEE) group...
December 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
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