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Non Epileptic Seizures

Morteza Behnam, Hossein Pourghassem
BACKGROUND: EEG signal analysis of pediatric patients plays vital role for making a decision to intervene in presurgical stages. NEW METHOD: In this paper, an offline seizure detection algorithm based on definition of a seizure-specific wavelet (Seizlet) is presented. After designing the Seizlet, by forming cone of influence map of the EEG signal, four types of layouts are analytically designed that are called Seizure Modulus Maximas Patterns (SMMP). By mapping CorrEntropy Induced Metric (CIM) series, four structural features based on least square estimation of fitted non-tilt conic ellipse are extracted that are called CorrEntropy Ellipse Features (CEF)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Xiao-Ying Liu, Tao Shi, Wei-Na Yin, Zhen-Yu Ren, Yu-Lei Deng, Sheng-Di Chen
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is one of the major consequences of epilepsy and has been shown to reduce quality of life. Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) were associated with poorer cognitive performance in children, and the aim of this study was to determine whether there was a similar association in adults. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 167 seizure-free adult patients underwent EEG recording and extensive cognitive evaluations. Global cognition was evaluated using Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), while sub-dimensions of cognition were evaluated using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Trial Making Test (TMT)-A and -B, and the 5 constitutive subscales of ACE-R...
September 30, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Xiao-Yan Yang, Li-Li Long, Bo Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of video electroencephalogram (VEEG) versus regular electroencephalogram (REEG) in the diagnosis of epilepsy and localization of origin of epileptic discharge in children through a comparative analysis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 223 children with clinical paroxysmal symptoms in the past and suspected epilepsy. VEEG and REEG were compared from the aspects of monitoring of clinical seizures, interictal epileptiform discharge (IED), localization of the origin of IED, and identification of non-epileptic seizures, and the detection rate of IED during awakening and sleep stages was also compared...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Teng-da Xu, Sheng-Yong Xu, Jia-Yuan Dai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Nadia Kafui Adotevi, Beulah Leitch
Absence seizures arise from disturbances within the corticothalamocortical network, however the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying seizure generation arising from different genetic backgrounds are not fully understood. While recent experimental evidence suggests that changes in inhibitory microcircuits in the cortex may contribute to generation of the hallmark spike-wave discharges, it is still unclear if altered cortical inhibition is a result of interneuron dysfunction due to compromised glutamatergic excitation and/or changes in cortical interneuron number...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Pedro Andrade, Jari Nissinen, Asla Pitkanen
Sleep disturbances commonly occur after traumatic brain injury and may predispose patients to epileptic seizures. We hypothesized that unprovoked seizure occurrence after traumatic brain injury depends on the sleep-wake cycle, and that the electrographic characteristics of a given sleep stage provide biomarkers for post-traumatic epilepsy. We show in a rat lateral fluid-percussion model that 92% of spontaneous generalized seizures occur during the transition from stage III to rapid-eye-movement sleep. Moreover, a reduction in spindle duration and dominant frequency during the transition stage present as specific and sensitive non-invasive biomarkers for experimentally induced post-traumatic epilepsy with generalized electrographic seizures...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hayri Kertmen, Bora Gürer, Erdal Resit Yilmaz, Zeki Sekerci
Endoscopic surgery for lumbar disc herniation has been available for more than 30 years. Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is a well-known, safe, and effective method used for the treatment of the lumbar disc herniation. The published complications of the transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy consist of infections, thrombophlebitis, dysesthesia, dural tear, vascular injury, and death. Seizure after transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is an extremely rare complication...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Nina M Christensen, Chiara Trevisan, Páll S Leifsson, Maria V Johansen
Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain tissue sections from seven pigs were examined histopathologically i.e. two pigs with epileptic seizures and T. solium cysts, four pigs without seizures but with cysts, and one non-infected control pig. Pigs with epileptic seizures had a larger amount of collagen in their brain tissue, showing as large fibrotic scars and moderate amount of collagen deposited around cysts, compared to pigs without seizures and the negative control pig...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Hormonal contraceptives are used by over 100 million people worldwide. Recently, there has been an emerging interest in studying the potential impact of oral contraceptives (OCs) on certain neurological conditions. It has been suspected for some time that hormonal birth control increases seizure activity in women with epilepsy, but there is little supportive data. Areas Covered: Literature from PubMed and online sources was analyzed with respect to hormonal contraception and epilepsy or seizures. New evidence indicates that OCs can cause an increase in seizures in women with epilepsy...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Emilio Russo, Rita Citraro, Andrew Constanti, Antonio Leo, Annika Lüttjohann, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Giovambattista De Sarro
The WAG/Rij rat model has recently gathered attention as a suitable animal model of absence epileptogenesis. This latter term has a broad definition encompassing any possible cause that determines the development of spontaneous seizures; however, most of, if not all, preclinical knowledge on epileptogenesis is confined to the study of post-brain insult models such as traumatic brain injury or post-status epilepticus models. WAG/Rij rats, but also synapsin 2 knockout, Kv7 current-deficient mice represent the first examples of genetic models where an efficacious antiepileptogenic treatment (ethosuximide) was started before seizure onset...
September 26, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Johan Zelano, Elinor Ben-Menachem
Epileptic emergencies are frequently encountered and include ictal events as status epilepticus or seizure clusters, and non-ictal situations like postictal psychosis or acute drug side effects. The aim of this review was to describe recent pharmacological advances in the treatment of epileptic emergencies. Areas covered: Based on clinically relevant questions, a literature search was performed. The search showed that most pharmacological advances have been made in management of status epilepticus, where substantial literature has accumulated on several AEDs with potentially less side-effects than the traditional choices...
October 14, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Temesgen Yohannes Hasiso, Tigestu Alemu Desse
BACKGROUND: Non adherence of epileptic patients to antiepileptic medication often leads to an increased risk of seizures and worsening of disease, death and increased health care costs. OBJECTIVE: to assess adherence to treatment and factors affecting adherence of epileptic patients at Yirgalem General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on epileptic patients from February 9 to 22, 2015...
2016: PloS One
Marina Hodolic, Raffi Topakian, Robert Pichler
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by epileptic seizures as a result of excessive neuronal activity in the brain. Approximately 65 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy; 20-40% of them are refractory to medication therapy. Early detection of disease is crucial in the management of patients with epilepsy. Correct localization of the ictal onset zone is associated with a better surgical outcome. The modern non-invasive techniques used for structural-functional localization of the seizure focus includes electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Kh Rezaee, E Azizi, J Haddadnia
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a severe disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes the person to recurrent seizures. Fifty million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy; after Alzheimer's and stroke, it is the third widespread nervous disorder. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, an algorithm to detect the onset of epileptic seizures based on the analysis of brain electrical signals (EEG) has been proposed. 844 hours of EEG were recorded form 23 pediatric patients consecutively with 163 occurrences of seizures...
June 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Christian Samsonsen, Trond Sand, Geir Bråthen, Grethe Helde, Eylert Brodtkorb
PURPOSE: The relationship between sleep and seizures is intricate. The aim of this study was to assess whether sleep loss is an independent seizure precipitant in a clinical setting. METHODS: In this prospective, observational cross-over study, 179 consecutive hospital admissions for epileptic seizures were included. A semi-structured interview regarding several seizure precipitants was performed. The sleep pattern prior to the seizure, as well as alcohol, caffeine and drug use, were recorded...
September 16, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Tao Zhang, Wanzhong Chen
Achieving the goal of detecting seizure activity automatically using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is of great importance and significance for the treatment of epileptic seizures. To realize this aim, a newly-developed time-frequency analytical algorithm, namely local mean decomposition (LMD), is employed in the presented study. LMD is able to decompose an arbitrary signal into a series of product functions (PFs). Primarily, the raw EEG signal is decomposed into several PFs, and then the temporal statistical and non-linear features of the first five PFs are calculated...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Kah Keng Wong, Teguh Haryo Sasongko, Siew Hua Gan
Neurological manifestations or disorders associated with central nervous system (CNS) are one of the most common as well as important clinical characteristics of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Although in the last updated (2006) classification criteria of APS its neurological manifestations encompassed only transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke, diverse 'non-criteria' neurological disorders or manifestations (headache, migraine, bipolar disorder, transverse myelitis, dementia, chorea, epileptic seizures, multiple sclerosis, psychosis, cognitive impairment, Tourette's syndrome, parkinsonism, dystonia, transient global amnesia, obsessive compulsive disorder and leukoencephalopathy) have been observed in APS patients...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Rüdiger Lange, Frank Erbguth
"Disturbances of consciousness of unknown origin" require an interdisciplinary approach due to the broad variety of possibly underlying causes. Primary neurological pathologies account for about half of the cases, which emphasizes the key role of the neurologist in the primary assessment and planning of the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. The most important goal is to quickly identify patients with extremely time-critical conditions like ischemic stroke, bacterial meningitis or space occupying intracranial hemorrhage...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Tingxi Wen, Zhongnan Zhang, Wei Huang, Meihong Wang, Chunfeng Li
Epilepsy is a chronic disease with transient brain dysfunction that results from the sudden abnormal discharge of neurons in the brain. Since electroencephalogram (EEG) is a harmless and noninvasive detection method, it plays an important role in the detection of neurological diseases. The brain electrical signals are random, non-stationary and nonlinear, and therefore, the process of analyzing EEG in order to detect neurological diseases is a significant work. This paper extracts features from EEG by multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) during the first stage...
September 9, 2016: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Masaki Iwasaki, Kazutaka Jin, Nobukazu Nakasato, Teiji Tominaga
Epilepsy surgery is aimed to remove the brain tissues that are indispensable for generating patient's epileptic seizures. There are two purposes in the pre-operative evaluation: localization of the epileptogenic zone and localization of function. Surgery is planned to remove possible epileptogenic zone while preserving functional area. Since no single diagnostic modality is superior to others in identifying and localizing the epileptogenic zone, multiple non-invasive evaluations are performed to estimate the location of the epileptogenic zone after concordance between evaluations...
October 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
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