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Non Epileptic Seizures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341968/the-complex-interrelations-between-two-paroxysmal-disorders-headache-and-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Carlo Cianchetti, Giuliano Avanzini, Filippo Dainese, Vincenzo Guidetti
The interrelations between headache/migraine and epileptic seizures are an interesting topic, still lacking a systematization, which is the objective of the present revision. We organize the general setting on: (a) a distinction between pre-ictal, ictal, post-ictal and inter-ictal headaches, assuming "ictal" as epileptic seizure, and (b) the kind of headache, if it is of migraine type or not. Concerning pre-ictal migraine/headache, the necessity of its differentiation from an epileptic headache presenting as an aura of a seizure is stressed; this is connected with the indefiniteness of the term "migralepsy"...
March 24, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341888/the-respiratory-control-of-carbon-dioxide-in-children-and-adolescents-referred-for-treatment-of-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#2
Kasia Kozlowska, Reena Rampersad, Catherine Cruz, Ubaid Shah, Catherine Chudleigh, Samantha Soe, Deepak Gill, Stephen Scher, Pascal Carrive
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are a common problem in paediatric neurology and psychiatry that can best be understood as atypical responses to threat. Threats activate the body for action by mediating increases in arousal, respiration, and motor readiness. In previous studies, a range of cardiac, endocrine, brain-based, attention-bias, and behavioral measures have been used to demonstrate increases in arousal, vigilance, and motor readiness in patients with PNES. The current study uses respiratory measures to assess both the motor readiness of the respiratory system and the respiratory regulation of CO2...
March 24, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335804/symbolic-time-series-analysis-of-electroencephalographic-eeg-epileptic-seizure-and-brain-dynamics-with-eye-open-and-eye-closed-subjects-during-resting-states
#3
Lal Hussain, Wajid Aziz, Jalal S Alowibdi, Nazneen Habib, Muhammad Rafique, Sharjil Saeed, Syed Zaki Hassan Kazmi
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a neuronal disorder for which the electrical discharge in the brain is synchronized, abnormal and excessive. To detect the epileptic seizures and to analyse brain activities during different mental states, various methods in non-linear dynamics have been proposed. This study is an attempt to quantify the complexity of control and epileptic subject with and without seizure as well as to distinguish eye-open (EO) and eye-closed (EC) conditions using threshold-based symbolic entropy...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334879/altered-sleep-homeostasis-correlates-with-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy
#4
Melanie Boly, Benjamin Jones, Graham Findlay, Erin Plumley, Armand Mensen, Bruce Hermann, Guilio Tononi, Rama Maganti
In animal studies, both seizures and interictal spikes induce synaptic potentiation. Recent evidence suggests that electroencephalogram slow wave activity during sleep reflects synaptic potentiation during wake, and that its homeostatic decrease during the night is associated with synaptic renormalization and its beneficial effects. Here we asked whether epileptic activity induces plastic changes that can be revealed by high-density electroencephalography recordings during sleep in 15 patients with focal epilepsy and 15 control subjects...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330876/electrocorticographic-dynamics-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-five-models-of-epileptogenesis
#5
Dan Z Milikovsky, Itai Weissberg, Lyna Solomon-Kamintsky, Kristina Lippmann, Osnat Schefenbauer, Federica Frigerio, Massimo Rizzi, Liron Sheintuch, Daniel Zelig, Jonathan Ofer, Annamaria Vezzani, Alon Friedman
Post injury epilepsy (PIE) is a devastating sequela of various brain insults. While recent studies offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and discover potential preventive treatments, the lack of PIE biomarkers hinders the clinical implementation of such treatments. Here we explored the biomarker potential of different electrographic features in five models of PIE. Electrocorticographic or intrahippocampal recordings of epileptogenesis (from the insult to the first spontaneous seizure) from two laboratories were analyzed in 3 mouse and 2 rat PIE models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328131/recessive-mutations-in-slc35a3-cause-early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-skeletal-defects
#6
Carla Marini, Katia Hardies, Tiziana Pisano, Patrick May, Sarah Weckhuysen, Elena Cellini, Arvid Suls, Davide Mei, Rudi Balling, Peter D Jonghe, Ingo Helbig, Domenico Garozzo, Renzo Guerrini
We describe the clinical and whole genome sequencing (WGS) study of a non-consanguineous Italian family in which two siblings, a boy and a girl, manifesting a severe epileptic encephalopathy (EE) with skeletal abnormalities, carried novel SLC35A3 compound heterozygous mutations. Both siblings exhibited infantile spasms, associated with focal, and tonic vibratory seizures from early infancy. EEG recordings showed a suppression-burst (SB) pattern and multifocal paroxysmal activity in both. In addition both had quadriplegia, acquired microcephaly, and severe intellectual disability...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327467/automated-detection-of-epileptic-ripples-in-meg-using-beamformer-based-virtual-sensors
#7
Carolina Migliorelli, Joan Alonso, Sergio Romero, Rafal Nowak, Antonio Russi, Miguel Mananas
OBJECTIVE: In epilepsy, high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are considered events highly linked to the seizure onset zone (SOZ). The detection of HFOs in noninvasive signals such as scalp EEG and MEG is still a challenging task. The aim of this study was to automatize the detection of ripples in MEG signals reducing the high-frequency noise using beamformer-based virtual sensors (VS) and applying an automatic procedure exploring the time-frequency content of the detected events. APPROACH: 200 seconds of MEG signals and simultaneous iEEG were selected in nine patients with refractory epilepsy...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327340/epileptic-activity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-causes-and-clinical-relevance
#8
REVIEW
Keith A Vossel, Maria C Tartaglia, Haakon B Nygaard, Adam Z Zeman, Bruce L Miller
Epileptic activity is frequently associated with Alzheimer's disease; this association has therapeutic implications, because epileptic activity can occur at early disease stages and might contribute to pathogenesis. In clinical practice, seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease can easily go unrecognised because they usually present as non-motor seizures, and can overlap with other symptoms of the disease. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, seizures can hasten cognitive decline, highlighting the clinical relevance of early recognition and treatment...
April 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325299/potent-anti-seizure-effects-of-locked-nucleic-acid-antagomirs-targeting-mir-134-in-multiple-mouse-and-rat-models-of-epilepsy
#9
Cristina R Reschke, Luiz F Almeida Silva, Braxton A Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán M Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C Henshall
Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) act on a limited set of neuronal targets, are ineffective in a third of patients with epilepsy, and do not show disease-modifying properties. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate levels of proteins by post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation. MicroRNA-134 is involved in controlling neuronal microstructure and brain excitability and previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA), cholesterol-tagged antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in mouse models of status epilepticus...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318732/paroxysmal-events-during-prolonged-video-video-electroencephalography-monitoring-in-refractory-epilepsy
#10
A Sanabria-Castro, F Henríquez-Varela, C Monge-Bonilla, S Lara-Maier, M Sittenfeld-Appel
INTRODUCTION: Given that epileptic seizures and non-epileptic paroxysmal events have similar clinical manifestations, using specific diagnostic methods is crucial, especially in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Prolonged video electroencephalography monitoring during epileptic seizures reveals epileptiform discharges and has become an essential procedure for epilepsy diagnosis. The main purpose of this study is to characterise paroxysmal events and compare patterns in patients with refractory epilepsy...
March 16, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316319/epileptic-spasms-in-paediatric-post-traumatic-epilepsy-at-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#11
Jun T Park, Harry T Chugani
To recognize epileptic spasms (ES) as a seizure type after traumatic brain injury (TBI), accidental or non-accidental, in infants and children. In the process, we aim to gain some insight into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in ES. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed at the Children's Hospital of Michigan from 2002 to 2012. Electronic charts of 321 patients were reviewed for evidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Various clinical variables were collected including age at TBI, mechanism of trauma, severity of brain injury, electroencephalography/neuroimaging data, and seizure semiology...
March 17, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303499/pregnane-x-receptor-not-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-up-regulates-p-glycoprotein-expression-in-the-brain-of-chronic-epileptic-rats-induced-by-kainic-acid
#12
Nian Yu, Yan-Fang Zhang, Kang Zhang, Yong-Fei Cheng, Hai-Yan Ma, Qing Di
Drug-resistance epilepsy (DRE) is attributed to the brain P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. We previously reported that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) played a critical role in regulating P-gp expression at the brain of the acute seizure rats. This study was extended further to investigate the interaction effect of NF-κB and pregnane X receptor (PXR) on P-gp expression at the brain of chronic epileptic rats treated with carbamazepine (CBZ). The chronic epileptic models were induced by the micro-injection of kainic acid (KA) into rats' hippocampus...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303446/expression-of-human-cytomegalovirus-components-in-the-brain-tissues-of-patients-with-rasmussen-s-encephalitis
#13
Yao Zhang, Yisong Wang, Sichang Chen, Shuai Chen, Yuguang Guan, Changqing Liu, Tianfu Li, Guoming Luan, Jing An
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare and severe progressive epileptic syndrome with unknown etiology. Infection by viruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), has been speculated to be a potential trigger for RE. However, no viral antigens have been detected in the brains of patients with RE; thus, a possible clinical linkage between viral infections and RE has not been firmly established. In this study, we evaluated the expression of HCMV pp65 antigen in brain sections from 26 patients with RE and 20 non-RE patients by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, and assessed the associations between HCMV infection and clinical parameters...
March 2, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296376/-lafora-disease-presentation-two-cases-in-a-mexican-family
#14
María Guadalupe González-De la Rosa, Edith Alva-Moncayo
Myoclonic epilepsy, described in 1911 by Lafora and Glueck, is an autosomal recessive hereditary clinical-pathological entity, which begins at the end of childhood or during adolescence, presents atypical absences, generalized and atonic tonic-clonic seizures, which can evolve to the epileptic state. The diagnosis is confirmed trough the skin biopsy or trough determination of the protein laforine. In this paper we present the initial case of a patient in whom we confirm the diagnosis of progressive myoclonic epilepsy and in particular the Lafora disease, which due to the symptomatology and the knowledge of the case we were able to detect her sister's disease...
March 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291980/psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizure-status-diagnostic-and-treatment-challenge
#15
Silvio Basic, Ivana Markovic, Davor Sporis, Ivana Susak Sporis, Igor Filipcic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288363/the-role-of-postictal-laboratory-blood-analyses-in-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-seizures
#16
REVIEW
Robert D Nass, Robert Sassen, Christian E Elger, Rainer Surges
BACKGROUND: Epileptic seizures (ES) lead to alterations in the blood laboratory values and reflect changes in different organ systems. Here, we review the diagnostic and prognostic value of various blood laboratory values within the context of epilepsy. METHODS: Narrative review and literature search on PubMed using the term, "seizure" and various laboratory values. RESULTS: Laboratory markers can help clinicians determine whether an unwitnessed event was more likely to be epileptic or non-epileptic...
February 27, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271336/the-relationship-between-headaches-with-epileptic-and-non-epileptic-seizures-a-narrative-review
#17
REVIEW
William S Kingston, Todd J Schwedt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the relationship between headaches and epilepsy as well as headaches and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). Emphasis was placed on clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Epilepsy and headaches are common disorders that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. There are some overlapping clinical features between migraine and epilepsy as well as evidence for shared underlying mechanisms...
March 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269816/automatic-epileptic-seizure-detection-in-eegs-using-mf-dfa-svm-based-on-cloud-computing
#18
Zhongnan Zhang, Tingxi Wen, Wei Huang, Meihong Wang, Chunfeng Li
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a chronic disease with transient brain dysfunction that results from the sudden abnormal discharge of neurons in the brain. Since electroencephalogram (EEG) is a harmless and noninvasive detection method, it plays an important role in the detection of neurological diseases. However, the process of analyzing EEG to detect neurological diseases is often difficult because the brain electrical signals are random, non-stationary and nonlinear. OBJECTIVE: In order to overcome such difficulty, this study aims to develop a new computer-aided scheme for automatic epileptic seizure detection in EEGs based on multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and support vector machine (SVM)...
2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269702/predicting-seizures-from-local-field-potentials-recorded-via-intracortical-microelectrode-arrays
#19
Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo
The need for new therapeutic interventions to treat pharmacologically resistant focal epileptic seizures has led recently to the development of closed-loop systems for seizure control. Once a seizure is predicted/detected by the system, electrical stimulation is delivered to prevent seizure initiation or spread. So far, seizure prediction/detection has been limited to tracking non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) or intracranial EEG (iEEG) signals. Here, we examine seizure prediction based on local field potentials (LFPs) from a small neocortical patch recorded via a 10×10 microelectrode array implanted in a patient with focal seizures...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268494/gaussian-mixture-model-for-the-identification-of-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-using-a-wearable-accelerometer-sensor
#20
Shitanshu Kusmakar, Ramanathan Muthuganapathy, Bernard Yan, Terence J O'Brien, Marimuthu Palaniswami
Any abnormal hypersynchronus activity of neurons can be characterized as an epileptic seizure (ES). A broad class of non-epileptic seizures is comprised of Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). PNES are paroxysmal events, which mimics epileptic seizures and pose a diagnostic challenge with epileptic seizures due to their clinical similarities. The diagnosis of PNES is done using video-electroencephalography (VEM) monitoring. VEM being a resource intensive process calls for alternative methods for detection of PNES...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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