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Non Epileptic Seizures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649016/epileptic-seizure-detection-based-on-imbalanced-classification-and-wavelet-packet-transform
#1
Qi Yuan, Weidong Zhou, Liren Zhang, Fan Zhang, Fangzhou Xu, Yan Leng, Dongmei Wei, Meina Chen
PURPOSE: Automatic seizure detection is significant for the diagnosis of epilepsy and the reduction of massive workload for reviewing continuous EEG recordings. METHODS: Compared with the long non-seizure periods, the durations of the seizure events are much shorter in the continuous EEG recordings. So the seizure detection task can be regarded as an imbalanced classification problem. In this paper, a novel method based on the weighted extreme learning machine (ELM) is proposed for seizure detection with imbalanced EEG data distribution...
June 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643814/-unresponsive-wakefulness-syndrome-clinical-predictors-of-late-recovery
#2
Gianfranco Lamberti, Elena Antoniono, Francesca Gozzerino, Donatella Giraudo
Patients affected by the outcomes of serious traumatic and/or non-traumatic brain injury may show progressive recovery characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical conditions, which are often not completely different, but of differing seriousness. The unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) are syndromes that may characterize progression from the coma state and may be temporary clinical conditions, or in some cases, the final outcome of acute brain injury. The eventual recovery of consciousness is a dynamic process, in constant progress following the acute event...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638313/real-life-pharmaceutical-treatment-patterns-for-adult-patients-with-focal-epilepsy-in-germany-a-longitudinal-and-cross-sectional-analysis-of-recently-approved-anti-epileptic-drugs
#3
Antje Groth, Thomas Wilke, Simon Borghs, Patrick Gille, Lars Joeres
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment of adults suffering from focal epilepsies (FE) in Germany. Of special interest was the number and percentage of the patients 16 years and older receiving no treatment with an AED, treatment with one AED (monotherapy), treatment with more than one AED, and treatment with a novel AED. The definition for "novel" was newly approved at the time of market entry since 2006 (last 10 years): eslicarbazepine (ESL), lacosamide (LCM), perampanel (PER), and retigabine (RTG)...
2017: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624414/corneal-kindled-c57bl-6-mice-exhibit-saturated-dentate-gyrus-long-term-potentiation-and-associated-memory-deficits-in-the-absence-of-overt-neuron-loss
#4
Gregory J Remigio, Jaycie L Loewen, Sage Heuston, Colin Helgeson, H Steve White, Karen S Wilcox, Peter J West
Memory deficits have a significant impact on the quality of life of patients with epilepsy and currently no effective treatments exist to mitigate this comorbidity. While these cognitive comorbidities can be associated with varying degrees of hippocampal cell death and hippocampal sclerosis, more subtle changes in hippocampal physiology independent of cell loss may underlie memory dysfunction in many epilepsy patients. Accordingly, animal models of epilepsy or epileptic processes exhibiting memory deficits in the absence of cell loss could facilitate novel therapy discovery...
June 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605633/epileptic-vs-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-a-video-based-survey
#5
Danielle Wasserman, Moshe Herskovitz
Psychogenic non epileptic seizures (PNES) are present in up to 30% of patients undergoing video EEG. Delay in PNES diagnosis is an average of 7.2years. Patients are exposed to costly, hazardous medications and other iatrogenic morbidities. Our aim was to investigate the ability to correctly diagnose ES from PNES in different groups and seniorities of medical professionals based on video alone. We showed ten video episodes' recordings (5 PNES, 5 ES) to doctors and nurses from ER, Internal Medicine ward and Neurology department, and inquired about the episodes' nature...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602596/brain-sodium-mri-in-human-epilepsy-disturbances-of-ionic-homeostasis-reflect-the-organization-of-pathological-regions
#6
Ben Ridley, Angela Marchi, Jonathan Wirsich, Elisabeth Soulier, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Lothar Schad, Fabrice Bartolomei, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva, Maxime Guye, Wafaa Zaaraoui
In light of technical advancements supporting exploration of MR signals other than (1)H, sodium ((23)Na) has received attention as a marker of ionic homeostasis and cell viability. Here, we evaluate for the first time the possibility that (23)Na-MRI is sensitive to pathological processes occurring in human epilepsy. A normative sample of 27 controls was used to normalize regions of interest (ROIs) from 1424 unique brain locales on quantitative (23)Na-MRI and high-resolution (1)H-MPRAGE images. ROIs were based on intracerebral electrodes in ten patients undergoing epileptic network mapping...
June 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601603/enhanced-classical-complement-pathway-activation-and-altered-phagocytosis-signaling-molecules-in-human-epilepsy
#7
Season K Wyatt, Thomas Witt, Nicholas M Barbaro, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, Amy L Brewster
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is widely associated with seizures and epilepsy. Although microglial cells are professional phagocytes, less is known about the status of this phenotype in epilepsy. Recent evidence supports that phagocytosis-associated molecules from the classical complement (C1q-C3) play novel roles in microglia-mediated synaptic pruning. Interestingly, in human and experimental epilepsy, altered mRNA levels of complement molecules were reported. Therefore, to identify a potential role for complement and microglia in the synaptodendritic pathology of epilepsy, we determined the protein levels of classical complement proteins (C1q-C3) along with other phagocytosis signaling molecules in human epilepsy...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600359/ictal-pain-in-focal-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus
#8
Sara Casciato, Alessandra Morano, Jinane Fattouch, Martina Fanella, Mariarita Albini, Anna Teresa Giallonardo, Carlo Di Bonaventura
We report an adult with acute unilateral pain as isolated manifestation of acute symptomatic focal non-convulsive status epilepticus. Pain is rarely a manifestation of epileptic seizures. Traditionally, painful seizures have been thought to originate in either the parietal or temporal lobes, but their localising value is debatable. Recent functional neuroimaging studies and electrophysiological findings obtained by using intracerebral recordings have shown the involvement of the insular cortex along with several other brain structures in the processing of painful inputs, comprising a more widespread anatomo-functional network...
June 9, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599984/prevention-and-management-of-postoperative-seizures-in-neuro-oncology
#9
F Chassoux, E Landre
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy related to brain tumors is often difficult to treat and may impact the quality of life. We performed a review of current recommendations for the prevention of postoperative seizures and optimizing the anti-epileptic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on studies performed since 2000 we conducted the review by (1) analyzing the incidence of tumoral epilepsy and mechanisms of epileptogenicity; (2) describing the current medical and surgical strategy according to oncologic treatments; (3) discussing the management of postoperative seizures; (4) considering the drug withdrawal after oncologic therapy...
June 6, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587649/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-versus-standardised-medical-care-for-adults-with-dissociative-non-epileptic-seizures-codes-statistical-and-economic-analysis-plan-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Emily J Robinson, Laura H Goldstein, Paul McCrone, Iain Perdue, Trudie Chalder, John D C Mellers, Mark P Richardson, Joanna Murray, Markus Reuber, Nick Medford, Jon Stone, Alan Carson, Sabine Landau
BACKGROUND: Dissociative seizures (DSs), also called psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, are a distressing and disabling problem for many patients in neurological settings with high and often unnecessary economic costs. The COgnitive behavioural therapy versus standardised medical care for adults with Dissociative non-Epileptic Seizures (CODES) trial is an evaluation of a specifically tailored psychological intervention with the aims of reducing seizure frequency and severity and improving psychological well-being in adults with DS...
June 6, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586447/seizure-control-as-a-new-metric-in-assessing-efficacy-of-tumor-treatment-in-low-grade-glioma-trials-impact-of-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#11
Amy M Morrow, Rachael M Morgan, John L Villano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586147/epileptic-networks-in-action-synchrony-between-distant-hemodynamic-responses
#12
Hui Ming Khoo, Nicolás von Ellenrieder, Natalja Zazubovits, François Dubeau, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: Structural and functional imaging studies in focal epilepsy often reveal distributed regions of abnormality. These are interpreted as representing the existence of epileptic networks but the presence of actual neuronal interactions between these regions has not been demonstrated. We sought to determine if the distributed hemodynamic responses often seen in fMRI studies of scalp interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) actually correspond to synchronized neuronal activities when examining the intracerebral EEG (iEEG) at distant nodes of the network...
June 6, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582473/connectivity-in-ictal-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-perfusion-a-cortico-cortical-evoked-potential-study
#13
Simon Tousseyn, Balu Krishnan, Zhong I Wang, Sattawut Wongwiangjunt, Chetan S Nayak, John C Mosher, Guiyun Wu, Wim Van Paesschen, Richard M Leahy, Jorge A Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan Bulacio, Imad M Najm, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Dileep R Nair
Subtraction ictal and interictal single photon emission computed tomography can demonstrate complex ictal perfusion patterns. Regions with ictal hyperperfusion are suggested to reflect seizure onset and propagation pathways. The significance of ictal hypoperfusion is not well understood. The aim of this study was to verify whether ictal perfusion changes, both hyper- and hypoperfusion, correspond to electrically connected brain networks. A total of 36 subtraction ictal and interictal perfusion studies were analysed in 31 consecutive medically refractory focal epilepsy patients, evaluated by stereo-electroencephalography that demonstrated a single focal onset...
June 3, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575766/increased-odds-and-predictive-rates-of-mmpi-2-rf-scale-elevations-in-patients-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-and-observed-sex-differences
#14
Victor A Del Bene, Miguel Arce Rentería, Moshe Maiman, Mitch Slugh, Deana M Gazzola, Siddhartha S Nadkarni, William B Barr
OBJECTIVE: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a self-report instrument, previously shown to differentiate patients with epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). At present, the odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations in PNES patients, as well as the diagnostic predictive value of such scale elevations, remain largely unexplored. This can be of clinical utility, particularly when a diagnosis is uncertain. METHOD: After looking at mean group differences, we applied contingency table derived odds ratios to a sample of ES (n=92) and PNES (n=77) patients from a video EEG (vEEG) monitoring unit...
May 30, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559790/non-linear-analysis-of-scalp-eeg-by-using-bispectra-the-effect-of-the-reference-choice
#15
Federico Chella, Antea D'Andrea, Alessio Basti, Vittorio Pizzella, Laura Marzetti
Bispectral analysis is a signal processing technique that makes it possible to capture the non-linear and non-Gaussian properties of the EEG signals. It has found various applications in EEG research and clinical practice, including the assessment of anesthetic depth, the identification of epileptic seizures, and more recently, the evaluation of non-linear cross-frequency brain functional connectivity. However, the validity and reliability of the indices drawn from bispectral analysis of EEG signals are potentially biased by the use of a non-neutral EEG reference...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556953/novel-biallelic-szt2-mutations-in-three-cases-of-early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy
#16
Naomi Tshuchida, Mitsuko Nakashima, Akihiko Miyauchi, Shinsaku Yoshitomi, Tomokazu Kimizu, Vigneswari Ganesan, Keng Wee Teik, Ch'ng Gaik-Siew, Mitsuhiro Kato, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Atsushi Takata, Satoko Miyatake, Noriko Miyake, Hitoshi Osaka, Takanori Yamagata, Nakajima Hideaki, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto
The seizure threshold 2 (SZT2) gene encodes a large, highly-conserved protein that is associated with epileptogenesis. In mice, Szt2 is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. Recently, biallelic SZT2 mutations were found in seven patients (from five families) presenting with epileptic encephalopathy with dysmorphic features and/or non-syndromic intellectual disabilities. In this study, we identified by whole-exome sequencing compound heterozygous SZT2 mutations in three patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528529/the-influence-of-depolarization-block-on-seizure-like-activity-in-networks-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons
#17
Christopher M Kim, Duane Q Nykamp
The inhibitory restraint necessary to suppress aberrant activity can fail when inhibitory neurons cease to generate action potentials as they enter depolarization block. We investigate possible bifurcation structures that arise at the onset of seizure-like activity resulting from depolarization block in inhibitory neurons. Networks of conductance-based excitatory and inhibitory neurons are simulated to characterize different types of transitions to the seizure state, and a mean field model is developed to verify the generality of the observed phenomena of excitatory-inhibitory dynamics...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527647/correlation-between-plasma-homocysteine-levels-and-craving-in-alcohol-dependent-stabilized-patients
#18
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid strictly related with alcohol consumption. In alcoholics, hyperhomocysteinemia can increase the risk of various alcohol-related disorders such as: brain atrophy, epileptic seizures during withdrawal, and mood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation among serum homocysteine concentrations, craving, hazardous and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption in patients stabilized for withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: Participants were adult outpatients accessed at the Addiction Treatment Unit...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524224/-epileptic-encephalopathies-in-infancy-how-do-we-treat-them-does-the-aetiology-influence-the-response-to-treatment
#19
S Roldan
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to treatments is a common feature of Ohtahara, Aicardi, West and Dravet syndromes, as well as malignant migrating epilepsy in infancy. AIMS: To update the therapeutic management and to analyse whether the aetiology somehow determines the treatment. DEVELOPMENT: Convulsive seizures in the first year of life may be due to a potentially treatable aetiology, which makes it essential to carry out a complete evaluation so as to be able to begin, as early as possible, the most suitable and the non-specific symptomatic treatments to control the seizures, which prevents or minimises their deleterious effects...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524221/-epileptic-spasms-in-infants-beyond-hypsarrhythmia
#20
M Garcia-Fernandez
Epileptic spasms are the most frequent type of epileptic seizures in infants. They can also occur beyond the period of infancy, within the context of other epileptic encephalopathies or as an expression of a focal or generalised epilepsy. The clinical semiology of epileptic spasms varies greatly. They sometimes consist of very subtle clinical manifestations, which occur in series, without the typical axorhizomelic contraction, or in association with focal seizures. The critical EEG correlate is also very variable and basically consists of the combination of a hypervoltage slow wave, a bout of rapid low-amplitude activity or a diffuse attenuation of the trace...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
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