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Non Epileptic Seizures

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528529/the-influence-of-depolarization-block-on-seizure-like-activity-in-networks-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons
#1
Christopher M Kim, Duane Q Nykamp
The inhibitory restraint necessary to suppress aberrant activity can fail when inhibitory neurons cease to generate action potentials as they enter depolarization block. We investigate possible bifurcation structures that arise at the onset of seizure-like activity resulting from depolarization block in inhibitory neurons. Networks of conductance-based excitatory and inhibitory neurons are simulated to characterize different types of transitions to the seizure state, and a mean field model is developed to verify the generality of the observed phenomena of excitatory-inhibitory dynamics...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527647/correlation-between-plasma-homocysteine-levels-and-craving-in-alcohol-dependent-stabilized-patients
#2
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid strictly related with alcohol consumption. In alcoholics, hyperhomocysteinemia can increase the risk of various alcohol-related disorders such as: brain atrophy, epileptic seizures during withdrawal, and mood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation among serum homocysteine concentrations, craving, hazardous and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption in patients stabilized for withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: Participants were adult outpatients accessed at the Addiction Treatment Unit...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524224/-epileptic-encephalopathies-in-infancy-how-do-we-treat-them-does-the-aetiology-influence-the-response-to-treatment
#3
S Roldan
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to treatments is a common feature of Ohtahara, Aicardi, West and Dravet syndromes, as well as malignant migrating epilepsy in infancy. AIMS: To update the therapeutic management and to analyse whether the aetiology somehow determines the treatment. DEVELOPMENT: Convulsive seizures in the first year of life may be due to a potentially treatable aetiology, which makes it essential to carry out a complete evaluation so as to be able to begin, as early as possible, the most suitable and the non-specific symptomatic treatments to control the seizures, which prevents or minimises their deleterious effects...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524221/-epileptic-spasms-in-infants-beyond-hypsarrhythmia
#4
M Garcia-Fernandez
Epileptic spasms are the most frequent type of epileptic seizures in infants. They can also occur beyond the period of infancy, within the context of other epileptic encephalopathies or as an expression of a focal or generalised epilepsy. The clinical semiology of epileptic spasms varies greatly. They sometimes consist of very subtle clinical manifestations, which occur in series, without the typical axorhizomelic contraction, or in association with focal seizures. The critical EEG correlate is also very variable and basically consists of the combination of a hypervoltage slow wave, a bout of rapid low-amplitude activity or a diffuse attenuation of the trace...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522734/voluntary-control-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-in-awake-rats
#5
Jeremy A Taylor, Krista M Rodgers, Florencia M Bercum, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Genetically inherited absence epilepsy in humans is typically characterized by brief (seconds) spontaneous seizures, which involve spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG and interruption of consciousness and ongoing behavior. Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities and anti-absence drugs. SWDs have also been proposed as models of complex partial seizures (CPSs) following traumatic brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy; PTE). However, the ictal characteristics of these rat models, including SWDs and associated immobility, are also prevalent in healthy outbred laboratory rats...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497610/epilepsia-partialis-continua-after-an-anterior-circulation-ischaemic-stroke
#6
C Bentes, A C Franco, A R Peralta, P Viana, H Martins, C Morgado, C Casimiro, C Fonseca, R Geraldes, P Canhão, T Pinho E Melo, T Paiva, J M Ferro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although cerebrovascular disorders are the main cause of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) in adulthood, the frequency of EPC after stroke is unknown. The aim was to prospectively ascertain its frequency 1 year after an ischaemic stroke. METHODS: This was a prospective study of consecutive acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients, previously independent, with an admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥4, an acute ischaemic lesion on imaging and no previous epileptic seizures...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481152/aspirin-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-the-chronically-epileptic-mice
#7
Kun Zhu, Ming Hu, Bo Yuan, Jian-Xin Liu, Yong Liu
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammatory processes are pathologic hallmarks of both experimental and human epilepsy, and could be implicated in the neuronal hyperexcitability. Aspirin represents one of the non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects in long-term application. This study was carried out to assess the anti-epileptic effects of aspirin when administered during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE] in mice. The alteration of hippocampal neurogenesis was also examined for raising a possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of anti-inflammatory treatment in the TLE...
May 7, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477354/a-de-novo-missense-mutation-in-slc12a5-found-in-a-compound-heterozygote-patient-with-epilepsy-of-infancy-with-migrating-focal-seizures
#8
T Saito, A Ishii, K Sugai, M Sasaki, S Hirose
Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) is an infantile epileptic encephalopathy characterized by refractory seizures, severe psychomotor delay, and multiple moving epileptic discharges. The genetic etiology of EIMFS is relatively homogeneous with the majority of causative mutations found in KCNT1. Currently, gene panel or whole-exome sequencing is used for testing. To verify the pathogenicity of a variant, co-segregation of the variant and the disorder in a pedigree is important; hence, de novo mutations that are judged to be deleterious may be considered pathogenic because the patients are isolated...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471819/hyperventilation-induced-non-epileptic-seizures-in-an-adolescent-boy-with-pediatric-medical-traumatic-stress
#9
Parul Chandra, Kasia Kozlowska, Catherine Cruz, Gaston C Baslet, David L Perez, M Elena Garralda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450153/epidural-focal-brain-cooling-abolishes-neocortical-seizures-in-cats-and-non-human-primates
#10
Takao Inoue, Masami Fujii, Hiroyuki Kida, Toshitaka Yamakawa, Yuichi Maruta, Tatsuji Tokiwa, Yeting He, Sadahiro Nomura, Yuji Owada, Takeshi Yamakawa, Michiyasu Suzuki
Focal brain cooling (FBC) is under investigation in preclinical trials of intractable epilepsy (IE), including status epilepticus (SE). This method has been studied in rodents as a possible treatment for epileptic disorders, but more evidence from large animal studies is required. To provide evidence that FBC is a safe and effective therapy for IE, we investigated if FBC using a titanium cooling plate can reduce or terminate focal neocortical seizures without having a significant impact on brain tissue. Two cats and two macaque monkeys were chronically implanted with an epidural FBC device over the somatosensory and motor cortex...
April 24, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439226/the-phosphodiesterase-10a-inhibitor-pf-2545920-enhances-hippocampal-excitability-and-seizure-activity-involving-the-upregulation-of-glua1-and-nr2a-in-post-synaptic-densities
#11
Yanke Zhang, Baobing Gao, Fangshuo Zheng, Shanshan Lu, Yun Li, Yan Xiong, Qin Yang, Yong Yang, Pengfei Fu, Fei Xiao, Xuefeng Wang
Phosphodiesterase regulates the homeostasis of cAMP and cGMP, which increase the strength of excitatory neural circuits and/or decrease inhibitory synaptic plasticity. Abnormally, synchronized synaptic transmission in the brain leads to seizures. A phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor PF-2545920 has recently attracted attention as a potential therapy for neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that PF-2545920 plays an important role in status epilepticus (SE) and investigated the underlying mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432961/diurnal-patterns-and-relationships-between-physiological-and-self-reported-stress-in-patients-with-epilepsy-and-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#12
Barbora Novakova, Peter R Harris, Markus Reuber
PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy and those with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) experience high levels of stress and stress is one of the most frequently self-identified seizure precipitants. Although stress is a multifaceted phenomenon, few studies have systematically examined its different components in patients with seizures. The aim of this study was therefore to describe diurnal patterns of psychological and physiological measures of stress in patients with epilepsy and patients with PNES, and explore their relationships to each other in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stress and seizure occurrence in these patients...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431367/clinical-characterization-of-the-pre-ictal-state-in-the-pediatric-population-a-caretaker-s-perspective
#13
Puja Patel, Victor Ferastraoaru, Dov Gold, Andrew Lipnick, Rana Jehle, Sheryl R Haut
The unpredictability of seizures causes distress to patients with epilepsy and their caretakers. To date, no studies have explored seizure prediction specifically in the pediatric population. If the period of time preceding a seizure can be reliably identified, either by child or caretaker, there may be a role for pre-emptive interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate caretaker seizure prediction. A questionnaire was distributed to caretakers of patients with epilepsy. The patients were 0-21years old and experienced ≥1 seizure within the past year...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430287/dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumour-insight-into-the-pathology-and-pathogenesis
#14
Iwona Sontowska, Ewa Matyja, Jacek Malejczyk, Wieslawa Grajkowska
<i>Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) is categorized as a benign glioneuronal neoplasm affecting children and young adults with chronic epileptic seizures. It is characterized by predominant intracortical localization and nodular architecture. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour usually demonstrates a distinctive morphological pattern with a specific glioneuronal element but occasionally, its morphological picture is heterogeneous and unspecific. Thus, considering the morphology of DNT, three different histopathological subtypes are distinguished: simple, complex, and non-specific and diffuse...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427021/risk-factors-for-learning-problems-in-youth-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#15
Julia Doss, Rochelle Caplan, Prabha Siddarth, Brenda Bursch, Tatiana Falcone, Marcy Forgey, Kyle Hinman, W Curt LaFrance, Rebecca Laptook, Richard Shaw, Deborah Weisbrot, Matthew Willis, Sigita Plioplys
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the risk factors for learning problems (LP) in pediatric psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and their specificity by comparing psychopathology, medical, cognitive/linguistic/achievement, bullying history, and parent education variables between subjects with PNES with and without LP and between subjects with PNES and siblings with LP. METHODS: 55 subjects with PNES and 35 siblings, aged 8-18years, underwent cognitive, linguistic, and achievement testing, and completed somatization and anxiety sensitivity questionnaires...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425015/the-new-classification-of-seizures-by-the-international-league-against-epilepsy-2017
#16
REVIEW
Robert S Fisher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents the newly developed International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification of seizure types. RECENT FINDINGS: The fundamental distinction is between seizures that begin focally in one hemisphere of the brain, generalized onset seizures that apparently originate in both hemispheres, and seizures of unknown onset. Focal seizures optionally can be subclassified according to whether awareness (a surrogate marker for consciousness) is intact or impaired...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423040/inheritance-patterns-of-atcct-repeat-interruptions-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-10-sca10-expansions
#17
Ivette Landrian, Karen N McFarland, Jilin Liu, Connie J Mulligan, Astrid Rasmussen, Tetsuo Ashizawa
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia disorder, is caused by a non-coding ATTCT microsatellite repeat expansion in the ataxin 10 gene. In a subset of SCA10 families, the 5'-end of the repeat expansion contains a complex sequence of penta- and heptanucleotide interruption motifs which is followed by a pure tract of tandem ATCCT repeats of unknown length at its 3'-end. Intriguingly, expansions that carry these interruption motifs correlate with an epileptic seizure phenotype and are unstable despite the theory that interruptions are expected to stabilize expanded repeats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418189/epileptic-manifestations-in-stroke-patients-treated-with-intravenous-alteplase
#18
C Bentes, H Martins, A R Peralta, C Morgado, C Casimiro, A C Franco, A C Fonseca, R Geraldes, P Canhão, T Pinho E Melo, T Paiva, J M Ferro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intravenous alteplase (rtPA) may be associated with seizures and epileptic activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The aim of this work was to compare the frequency of seizures and EEG abnormalities between stroke patients treated and not treated with rtPA. METHODS: This was a prospective study of consecutive acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients, with 1-year follow-up. Patients were previously independent, had an admission National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score ≥4, an acute ischaemic lesion and no previous seizures...
June 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411517/pre-and-post-surgical-psychiatric-assessments-and-intervention-by-major-epilepsy-centers-in-japan-nationwide-survey
#19
Hiroko Goji, Toshihiko Fukuchi, Kousuke Kanemoto
BACKGROUND: Although psychiatric issues following epilepsy surgery are now widely recognized as a major problem, actual awareness of these issues by epilepsy centers remains to be elucidated. This is the first known report regarding the use of psychiatric assessments and interventions by epilepsy centers throughout Japan. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: At the beginning of 2016, we sent a questionnaire regarding psychiatric assessments performed before and after epilepsy surgery, psychiatric intervention after surgery, and future plans for dealing with psychiatric issues in relation to epilepsy surgery, which consisted of a total of 24 items, to all members of the Japan Epilepsy Center Association (JEPICA)...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407526/the-impact-of-antidepressants-on-seizure-frequency-and-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-of-patients-with-epilepsy-is-it-worth-investigating
#20
Ramses Ribot, Bichun Ouyang, Andres M Kanner
PURPOSE: Depression and anxiety disorders in patients with epilepsy (PWE) remain under-recognized and under-treated, despite being the most common psychiatric co-morbidities. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are considered first-line treatment for primary depression and anxiety disorders. We performed this study to investigate if SSRIs and SNRIs could affect the seizure frequency of PWE and to assess whether such effect is independent of the response of the mood and anxiety disorders to these drugs...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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