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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241344/sustainability-of-rare-earth-elements-chain-from-production-to-food-a-review
#1
Christian Turra
Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of chemical elements that include lanthanoids (lanthanum to lutetium), scandium and yttrium. In the last decades, the REE demand in the industry and other areas has increased significantly. In general, REE have shown low concentrations in soils, plants, water and atmosphere, but they may accumulate in such environments due to anthropogenic inputs. In areas where there is REE contamination, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239448/organic-matter-identifies-the-nano-mechanical-properties-of-native-soil-aggregates
#2
S A Gazze, I Hallin, G Quinn, E Dudley, G P Matthews, P Rees, G van Keulen, S H Doerr, L W Francis
Localized variations at the nanoscale in soil aggregates and in the spatial organisation of soil organic matter (SOM) are critical to understanding the factors involved in soil composition and turnover. However soil nanoscience has been hampered by the lack of suitable methods to determine soil biophysical properties at nanometre spatial resolution with minimal sample preparation. Here we introduce for the first time an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)-based Quantitative Nano-Mechanical mapping (QNM) approach that allows the characterisation of the role of SOM in controlling surface nano-mechanical properties of soil aggregates...
December 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239063/stimulating-neural-plasticity-with-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-in-huntington-s-disease-a-proof-of-concept-study
#3
Marina Papoutsi, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Douglas Langbehn, Ralf Reilmann, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi
Novel methods that stimulate neuroplasticity are increasingly being studied to treat neurological and psychiatric conditions. We sought to determine whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback training is feasible in Huntington's disease (HD), and assess any factors that contribute to its effectiveness. In this proof-of-concept study, we used this technique to train 10 patients with HD to volitionally regulate the activity of their supplementary motor area (SMA). We collected detailed behavioral and neuroimaging data before and after training to examine changes of brain function and structure, and cognitive and motor performance...
December 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238244/influence-of-a-thermogenic-dietary-supplement-on-safety-markers-body-composition-energy-expenditure-muscular-performance-and-hormone-concentrations-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#4
Grant M Tinsley, Stacie Urbina, Jacy Mullins, Jordan Outlaw, Sara Hayward, Matt Stone, Cliffa Foster, Colin Wilborn, Lem Taylor
Dietary supplementation is commonly employed by individuals seeking to improve body composition and exercise performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of a commercially available dietary supplement designed to promote thermogenesis and fat loss. In a randomized double-blind trial, participants were assigned to consume placebo or a multi-ingredient supplement containing caffeine, green tea extract, l-carnitine, evodiamine and other ingredients that purportedly enhance thermogenesis...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238094/energy-expenditure-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-people-with-motor-complete-tetraplegia-or-motor-complete-paraplegia
#5
Tobias Holmlund, Elin Ekblom-Bak, Erika Franzén, Claes Hultling, Kerstin Wahman
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe and compare VO2 and energy expenditure at rest (REE) and during standardized sedentary, non-exercise physical activity, and exercise activities, in people with motor-complete tetraplegia (C5-C8). Further, REE and energy expenditure (EE) for the different activities were compared to data from a reference group of people with motor-complete paraplegia (T7-T12). SETTING: Sweden...
December 14, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233967/whole-genome-sequencing-for-an-enhanced-understanding-of-genetic-variation-among-south-africans
#6
Ananyo Choudhury, Michèle Ramsay, Scott Hazelhurst, Shaun Aron, Soraya Bardien, Gerrit Botha, Emile R Chimusa, Alan Christoffels, Junaid Gamieldien, Mahjoubeh J Sefid-Dashti, Fourie Joubert, Ayton Meintjes, Nicola Mulder, Raj Ramesar, Jasper Rees, Kathrine Scholtz, Dhriti Sengupta, Himla Soodyall, Philip Venter, Louise Warnich, Michael S Pepper
The Southern African Human Genome Programme is a national initiative that aspires to unlock the unique genetic character of southern African populations for a better understanding of human genetic diversity. In this pilot study the Southern African Human Genome Programme characterizes the genomes of 24 individuals (8 Coloured and 16 black southeastern Bantu-speakers) using deep whole-genome sequencing. A total of ~16 million unique variants are identified. Despite the shallow time depth since divergence between the two main southeastern Bantu-speaking groups (Nguni and Sotho-Tswana), principal component analysis and structure analysis reveal significant (p < 10-6) differentiation, and FST analysis identifies regions with high divergence...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232902/rapid-assessment-of-stakeholder-concerns-about-public-health-an-introduction-to-a-fast-and-inexpensive-approach-applied-on-health-concerns-about-intensive-animal-production-systems
#7
Marleen Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Joost van der Ree, Erik Lebret
To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the risk governance process. Even though concern assessment is a pivotal element of risk governance, few tools for rapid assessment are reported in the literature. We tested a rapid and relatively cheap approach, taking the Dutch debate on Intensive Animal Production Systems (IAPS) and health as an example...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230136/managing-the-adult-patient-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#8
Carol Rees Parrish, John K DiBaise
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a malabsorptive disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life, and high health care costs. Managing the patient with SBS requires an understanding of gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology; a dedicated multidisciplinary team; and the coordination of dietary, fluid, pharmacologic, and comorbid disease management. This article provides an overview of the current state of management of SBS, including a practical approach to optimizing the care and quality of life of the adult patient with SBS...
October 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229593/acute-rotator-cuff-tears
#9
Richard Craig, Tim Holt, Jonathan Lloyd Rees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227935/hematite-%C3%AE-fe2o3-a-potential-ce4-carrier-in-red-mud
#10
Ralph M Bolanz, Stefan Kiefer, Jörg Göttlicher, Ralph Steininger
Cerium is the most abundant rare earth element (REE) within the waste product of alumina production (red mud), but its speciation in this complex material is still barely understood. Previous studies showed evidence for a correlation between Ce and the main constituent of red mud, iron oxides, which led us to investigate the most abundant iron oxide in red mud, hematite, as possible carrier phase for Ce. Synthetic hematite can incorporate up to 1.70±0.01wt% Ce, which leads to a systematical increase of all unit cell parameters...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225663/high-throughput-detection-of-antioxidants-in-mulberry-fruit-using-correlations-between-high-resolution-mass-and-activity-profiles-of-chromatographic-fractions
#11
Ye Ji Park, Si Hyun Seong, Min Sun Kim, Sang Wan Seo, Mee Ree Kim, Hyun Sik Kim
Background: Plant extracts contain a huge variety of pharmacologically active substances. Conventionally, various chromatographic methods must be applied several times to purify functional compounds to measure their functional activity. However, conventional purification methods are time-consuming and expensive due to the laborious purification process. Recently, a high-throughput discovery method that replaces such time-consuming purification processes was introduced; this method uses 15 T ultra-high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (15 T FT-ICR MS) and a high-throughput screening method...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224893/external-validation-of-equations-to-estimate-resting-energy-expenditure-in-14952-adults-with-overweight-and-obesity-and-1948-adults-with-normal-weight-from-italy
#12
Giorgio Bedogni, Simona Bertoli, Alessandro Leone, Ramona De Amicis, Elisa Lucchetti, Fiorenza Agosti, Nicoletta Marazzi, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandro Sartorio
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We cross-validated 28 equations to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in a very large sample of adults with overweight or obesity. METHODS: 14952 Caucasian men and women with overweight or obesity and 1498 with normal weight were studied. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry and estimated using two meta-regression equations and 26 other equations. The correct classification fraction (CCF) was defined as the fraction of subjects whose estimated REE was within 10% of measured REE...
November 24, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222882/relative-validity-of-an-indirect-calorimetry-device-for-measuring-resting-energy-expenditure-and-respiratory-quotient
#13
Xi Wang, Yuan Wang, Zenghui Ding, Guangbei Cao, Fusong Hu, Yining Sun, Zuchang Ma, Duoqi Zhou, Benyue Su
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) are important for optimal nutritional care. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and repeatability of an indirect calorimetry device (IIM-IC-100) in the measurement of REE and RQ in healthy Chinese adults. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 38 healthy adults (19 male and 19 female) aged 18-52 years (25±6 years) were enrolled in this study. REE and RQ were measured by IIM-IC-100 and by VO2000, alternately and in duplicate...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220102/identification-of-a-62-kda-major-allergen-from-artemisia-pollen-as-a-putative-galactose-oxidase
#14
Wanyi Fu, Zhongshan Gao, Ling Gao, Jing Jin, Meiling Liu, Yuemei Sun, Shandong Wu, Lingying Wu, Hongshan Ma, Yimin Dong, Xuefeng Wang, Biyuan Gao, Huiying Wang, Jaap H Akkerdaas, Serge A Versteeg, Ronald van Ree
BACKGROUND: Around 20 years ago, a 60-70 kDa protein was reported as a major allergen of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen. This study was to identify and characterize its molecular properties. METHODS: Sera from 113 Chinese and 20 Dutch Artemisia allergic/sensitized subjects (and pools thereof) were used to identify the 60-70 kDa allergen. Pollen extracts of seven Artemisia species were compared by immunoblotting. Transcriptomics and proteomics (mass spectrometry) of A...
December 8, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215365/physiologic-evaluation-of-ventilation-perfusion-mismatch-and-respiratory-mechanics-at-different-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-patients-undergoing-protective-one-lung-ventilation
#15
Savino Spadaro, Salvatore Grasso, Dan Stieper Karbing, Alberto Fogagnolo, Marco Contoli, Giacomo Bollini, Riccardo Ragazzi, Gilda Cinnella, Marco Verri, Narciso Giorgio Cavallesco, Stephen Edward Rees, Carlo Alberto Volta
BACKGROUND: Arterial oxygenation is often impaired during one-lung ventilation, due to both pulmonary shunt and atelectasis. The use of low tidal volume (VT) (5 ml/kg predicted body weight) in the context of a lung-protective approach exacerbates atelectasis. This study sought to determine the combined physiologic effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and low VT during one-lung ventilation. METHODS: Data from 41 patients studied during general anesthesia for thoracic surgery were collected and analyzed...
December 6, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215172/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-increases-hepatic-oxidative-capacity-but-not-physical-activity-or-energy-expenditure-in-hepatic-pgc-1%C3%AE-deficient-mice
#16
Justin A Fletcher, Melissa A Linden, Ryan D Sheldon, Grace M Meers, E Matthew Morris, Anthony Butterfield, James W Perfield, R Scott Rector, John P Thyfault
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) treatment drives metabolic improvements, including increased metabolic flux and reduced hepatic steatosis, but mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be fully elucidated. We tested if a targeted reduction in hepatic PGC-1α, which has been shown to occur with obesity, negatively impacted the metabolic effects of FGF21. We infused FGF21 (1 mg kg-1  day-1 ) or saline in chow-fed wild-type (WT) and liver-specific PGC-1α +/- (LPGC-1α) mice for 4 weeks. FGF21 administration lowered serum insulin and cholesterol (P ≤ 0...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214222/reasons-to-pursue-a-career-in-medicine-a-qualitative-study-in-sierra-leone
#17
Aniek Woodward, Suzanne Thomas, Mohamed Bella Jalloh, John Rees, Andrew Leather
Background: Many low-income and crises-affected countries like Sierra Leone struggle with the recruitment and retention of their health professionals, particularly nurses and doctors. There are multiple factors that influence the 'recruitment to retention' pipeline. The first stage of an exploration into the issues influencing the availability of qualified health care workers may focus on the aspects which influence their entry into relevant educational programmes. This paper explores the reasons given by junior doctors in Sierra Leone for wanting to become a doctor...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212370/psychological-interventions-for-coronary-heart-disease-cochrane-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Suzanne H Richards, Lindsey Anderson, Caroline E Jenkinson, Ben Whalley, Karen Rees, Philippa Davies, Paul Bennett, Zulian Liu, Robert West, David R Thompson, Rod S Taylor
Background Although psychological interventions are recommended for the management of coronary heart disease (CHD), there remains considerable uncertainty regarding their effectiveness. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions for CHD. Methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched to April 2016. Retrieved papers, systematic reviews and trial registries were hand-searched. We included RCTs with at least 6 months of follow-up, comparing the direct effects of psychological interventions to usual care for patients following myocardial infarction or revascularisation or with a diagnosis of angina pectoris or CHD defined by angiography...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210332/dopamine-gene-variants-in-opioid-addiction-comparison-of-dependent-patients-nondependent-users-and-healthy-controls
#19
Matthew Randesi, Wim van den Brink, Orna Levran, Vadim Yuferov, Peter Blanken, Jan M van Ree, Jurg Ott, Mary Jeanne Kreek
AIM: To determine whether specific dopaminergic system gene variants are associated with opioid dependence. PATIENTS & METHODS: Subjects included 153 healthy controls, 163 opioid exposed, but not dependent and 281 opioid dependent. Genotypes of 90 variants in 13 genes were examined. RESULTS: The most significant results were obtained for DA β-hydroxylase variants, rs2073837 and rs1611131, which were associated with protection from addiction (q = 0...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208074/the-impact-of-implementing-a-xpert-mtb-rif-algorithm-on-drug-sensitive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-retrospective-analysis
#20
K Rees, N Muditambi, M Maswanganyi, J Railton, J A McIntyre, H E Struthers, P B Fourie, R P H Peters
Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) is the preferred first-line test for all persons with tuberculosis (TB) symptoms in South Africa in line with a diagnostic algorithm. This study evaluates pre- and post-implementation trends in diagnostic practices for drug-sensitive, pulmonary TB in adults in an operational setting, following the introduction of the Xpert-based algorithm. We retrospectively analysed data from the national TB database for Greater Tzaneen sub-district, Limpopo Province. Trends in a number of cases, diagnosis and outcome and characteristics associated with death are reported...
December 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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