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Yu-Ri Lee, Kwangsun Yu, Seenu Ravi, Wha-Seung Ahn
Efficient rare earth elements (REEs) separation and recovery are crucial to meet the ever-increasing demand for REEs extensively used in various high technology devices. Herein, we synthesized a highly stable chromium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) structure, Cr-MIL-101, and its derivatives with different organic functional groups: MIL-101-NH2 , MIL-101-ED (ED: ethylenediamine), MIL-101-DETA (DETA: diethylenetriamine), and MIL-101-PMIDA (PMIDA: N-(phosphonomethyl) iminodiacetic acid), and explored their effectiveness in the separation and recovery of La3+ , Ce3+ , Nd3+ , Sm3+ , and Gd3+ in aqueous solutions...
June 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michelle S Lau, Peter D Mooney, William L White, Michael A Rees, Simon H Wong, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Peter H R Green, Benjamin Lebwohl, David S Sanders
OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD) is common yet under-detected. A point of care test (POCT) may improve CD detection. We aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of an IgA/IgG-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP)-based POCT for CD detection, patient acceptability, and inter-observer variability of the POCT results. METHODS: From 2013-2017, we prospectively recruited patients referred to secondary care with gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia and/or weight loss (group 1); and patients with self-reported gluten sensitivity with unknown CD status (group 2)...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Klemen Zelič, Jaka Burja, Paul John McGuiness, Matjaž Godec
The morphology of the eutectic chromium carbides in the microstructure of as-cast AISI D2 tool steel was modified by adding small amounts of rare-earth elements (REEs) to the melt. As a result of these REE additions the eutectic carbide morphological type was changed from lamellar to globular. Similar phenomena have already been reported for various tool steels, but no complete theoretical explanation has been provided. Here, we propose a new model that is derived from first-principles thermodynamic calculations based on the phase-field modeling of the eutectic reaction...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Helen Richmond, Clare Lait, Cynthia Srikesavan, Esther Williamson, Jane Moser, Meredith Newman, Lauren Betteley, Beth Fordham, Sophie Rees, Sarah E Lamb, Julie Bruce
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal shoulder problems are common after breast cancer treatment. There is some evidence to suggest that early postoperative exercise is safe and may improve shoulder function. We describe the development and delivery of a complex intervention for evaluation within a randomised controlled trial (RCT), designed to target prevention of musculoskeletal shoulder problems after breast cancer surgery (The Prevention of Shoulder Problems Trial; PROSPER). METHODS: A pragmatic, multicentre RCT to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of best practice usual care versus a physiotherapy-led exercise and behavioural support intervention in women at high risk of shoulder problems after breast cancer treatment...
June 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Jameason D Cameron, Éric Doucet, Kristi B Adamo, Mark Walker, Alessandro Tirelli, Joel D Barnes, Kaamel Hafizi, Marisa Murray, Gary S Goldfield
BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal smoking is associated with downstream childhood obesity. Although animal research suggests reduced resting energy expenditure (REE), decreased physical activity (PA), and increased energy intake as mechanisms, these relationships are unclear in humans. The objectives were to examine the association of prenatal maternal smoking with non-volitional energy expenditure (REE and the thermic effect of feeding [TEF]), child adiposity, energy intake, free-living PA (daily light PA (LPA), daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), daily sedentary behavior (SB)), and screen time (television and computer/video game) in children...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Mark Stevens, Tim Rees, Remco Polman
Growing evidence suggests that social identities may have profound implications for physical activity participation. Real-world examinations of this relationship have, however, been lacking, with research predominantly examining intentions and hypothetical scenarios. To address this shortcoming and further advance understanding in this area, the present study tested relationships between group identification, participation, two exercise-specific outcomes (exercise-specific satisfaction and group cohesion), and a broad health indicator (life satisfaction) among individuals recruited from parkrun...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
K L Knopp, C Stenfors, C Baastrup, A W Bannon, M Calvo, O Caspani, G Currie, N B Finnerup, W Huang, J D Kennedy, I Lefevre, I Machin, M Macleod, H Rees, A S C Rice, K Rutten, M Segerdahl, J Serra, R Wodarski, O-G Berge, R-D Treedef
Background and aims Pain is a subjective experience, and as such, pre-clinical models of human pain are highly simplified representations of clinical features. These models are nevertheless critical for the delivery of novel analgesics for human pain, providing pharmacodynamic measurements of activity and, where possible, on-target confirmation of that activity. It has, however, been suggested that at least 50% of all pre-clinical data, independent of discipline, cannot be replicated. Additionally, the paucity of "negative" data in the public domain indicates a publication bias, and significantly impacts the interpretation of failed attempts to replicate published findings...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Tomoya Higo, Huiyuan Man, Daniel B Gopman, Liang Wu, Takashi Koretsune, Olaf M J van 't Erve, Yury P Kabanov, Dylan Rees, Yufan Li, Michi-To Suzuki, Shreyas Patankar, Muhammad Ikhlas, C L Chien, Ryotaro Arita, Robert D Shull, Joseph Orenstein, Satoru Nakatsuji
When a polarized light beam is incident upon the surface of a magnetic material, the reflected light undergoes a polarization rotation1 . This magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) has been intensively studied in a variety of ferro- and ferrimagnetic materials because it provides a powerful probe for electronic and magnetic properties2, 3 as well as for various applications including magneto-optical recording4 . Recently, there has been a surge of interest in antiferromagnets (AFMs) as prospective spintronic materials for high-density and ultrafast memory devices, owing to their vanishingly small stray field and orders of magnitude faster spin dynamics compared to their ferromagnetic counterparts5-9 ...
February 2018: Nature Photonics
Wesley C Kephart, Coree D Pledge, Paul A Roberson, Petey W Mumford, Matthew A Romero, Christopher B Mobley, Jeffrey S Martin, Kaelin C Young, Ryan P Lowery, Jacob M Wilson, Kevin W Huggins, Michael D Roberts
Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic diet (KD) on body composition, metabolic, and performance parameters in participants who trained recreationally at a local CrossFit facility. Twelve participants (nine males and three females, 31 ± 2 years of age, 80...
January 9, 2018: Sports (Basel)
Fiona Scorgie, Jonathan Stadler, Deborah Baron, Susan Ju, Tshepiso Ikaneng, Zonke Mabude, Sylvia Makgopa, Matshidiso A Malefo, Kgahlisho N Manenzhe, Thulani Mazibuko, Hilda Ntjana, Busi Nkala, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Glenda Gray, Helen Rees, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
The FACTS 001 trial found that vaginal pre- and post-coital application of 1% tenofovir gel did not prevent HIV-1 infection amongst young South African women. The trial included a multi-faceted approach to adherence support and collected objective and self-reported adherence measures. Using qualitative data collected from a random sub-set of FACTS 001 participants (135 in-depth interviews at product discontinuation and 13 focus group discussions at dissemination of trial results), we explore the importance of 'place' and 'timing' in shaping acts of sexual intimacy and product adherence...
June 16, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Michele Novaes Ravelli, Dale A Schoeller, Alex Harley Crisp, Natalie M Racine, Karina Pfrimer, Irineu Rasera Junior, Maria Rita Marques de Oliveira
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Predictive equations remain the clinical tool of choice to estimate the energy expenditure, however, poor accuracy has been found when applied in patients with severe obesity. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of the total energy expenditure (TEE) those obtained by predictive equations of resting energy expenditure (REE) times individual estimates of metabolic equivalents (MET), taking as reference the TEE measured by doubly labeled water (DLW), before, six and twelve months after bariatric surgery...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Mihaela Badea, Octavio P Luzardo, Ana González-Antuña, Manuel Zumbado, Liliana Rogozea, Laura Floroian, Dana Alexandrescu, Marius Moga, Laura Gaman, Mariana Radoi, Luis D Boada, Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández
Smoking is considered an important source for inorganic elements, most of them toxic for human health. During the last years, there has been a significant increase in the use of e-cigarettes, although the role of them as source of inorganic elements has not been well established. A cross-sectional study including a total of 150 subjects from Brasov (Romania), divided into three groups (non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarettes smokers) were recruited to disclose the role of smoking on the human exposure to inorganic elements...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Research
Sean Gipson, Mathew Weissenborn, Chip Bell, Chet Rees
Though hemorrhaging pelvic arteries can be treated with transcatheter arterial embolization, difficulty in selection of injured arteries can lead to increased morbidity and mortality due to embolization of untargeted vasculature and prolonged time to hemostasis, resulting in unnecessary ischemic injury and prolonged hemorrhage. This report describes a balloon occlusion technique utilized in the setting of an unselectable hemorrhaging obturator artery.
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Robyn Eakle, Nyaradzo Mutanha, Judie Mbogua, Maria Sibanyoni, Adam Bourne, Gabriela Gomez, Francois Venter, Helen Rees
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to design relevant, tailored oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and early antiretroviral (ART) interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) in South Africa. This paper examines the methods, process and outcomes of employing an inductive approach to formative research exploring intervention feasibility and acceptability. SETTING: Research was conducted in several sex work-related settings including five sites in and around clinics and stakeholder offices...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Renáta Sándor, Fiona Ehrhardt, Lorenzo Brilli, Marco Carozzi, Sylvie Recous, Pete Smith, Val Snow, Jean-François Soussana, Christopher D Dorich, Kathrin Fuchs, Nuala Fitton, Kate Gongadze, Katja Klumpp, Mark Liebig, Raphaël Martin, Lutz Merbold, Paul C D Newton, Robert M Rees, Susanne Rolinski, Gianni Bellocchi
Simulation models quantify the impacts on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in grassland systems caused by changes in management practices. To support agricultural policies, it is however important to contrast the responses of alternative models, which can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and in their response to management. We applied eight biogeochemical models at five grassland sites (in France, New Zealand, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States) to compare the sensitivity of modelled C and N fluxes to changes in the density of grazing animals (from 100% to 50% of the original livestock densities), also in combination with decreasing N fertilization levels (reduced to zero from the initial levels)...
June 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Emily Birkin, Katherine S Moore, Chao Huang, Marshall Christopher, John I Rees, Vetrisudar Jayaprakasam, Patrick A Fielding
To determine the extent of physiological variation of uptake of F-flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) within palatine tonsils. To define normal limits for side-to-side variation and characterize factors affecting tonsillar uptake of FDG.Over a period of 16 weeks 299 adult patients at low risk for head and neck pathology, attending our center for FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans were identified. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was recorded for each palatine tonsil. For each patient age, gender, smoking status, scan indication and prior tonsillectomy status as well as weather conditions were noted...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Arjune Sen, Patricia Dugan, Piero Perucca, Daniel Costello, Hyunmi Choi, Carl Bazil, Rod Radtke, Danielle Andrade, Chantal Depondt, Sinead Heavin, Jane Adcock, W Owen Pickrell, Ronan McGinty, Fábio Nascimento, Philip Smith, Mark I Rees, Patrick Kwan, Terence J O'Brien, David Goldstein, Norman Delanty
OBJECTIVE: There is little detailed phenotypic characterization of bilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We therefore conducted a multicenter review of people with pharmacoresistant epilepsy and bilateral HS to better determine their clinical characteristics. METHODS: Databases from 11 EPIGEN centers were searched. For identified cases, clinicians reviewed the medical notes, imaging, and electroencephalographic (EEG), video-EEG, and neuropsychometric data. Data were irretrievably anonymized, and a single database was populated to capture all phenotypic information...
June 14, 2018: Epilepsia
Joshua P Copping, Bryce D Stewart, Colin J McClean, James Hancock, Richard Rees
Background: The whale shark ( Rhincodon typus ) is known to aggregate in a number of coastal locations globally, however what causes these aggregations to form where they do is largely unknown. This study examines whether bathymetry is an important driver of coastal aggregation locations for R. typus through bathymetry's effect on primary productivity and prey availability. This is a global study taking into account all coastal areas within R. typus' range. Methods: R...
2018: PeerJ
Anja Grawunder, Matthias Gube
During growth and senescence, fungal fruiting bodies accumulate essential and non-essential elements to different extent in their compartments. This study bases on a dataset of 32 basidiocarps of the ectomycorrhizal Lactarius pubescens sampled in a former U mining area. Statistical analyses were combined with rare earth element (REE, La-Lu) patterns to study the element distribution within sporocarp compartments and between three different age classes. For this purpose, fruiting bodies were separated into stipe, pileus trama, pileipelles and lamellae, dried and digested with HNO3 ...
May 24, 2018: Chemosphere
Bo Wang, Dunsheng Xia, Ye Yu, Hong Chen, Jia Jia
We studied the magnetic properties and trace element concentrations (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti, V, Zn) of urban topsoils from 111 urban sites in a large REE-Nb-Fe mining and smelting city, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, China. The results show that pseudo-single domain and multi-domain magnetite dominates the magnetic properties of the soil samples, and the magnetic concentration parameters show a large positive anomaly near the Baotou iron and steel works. The average contents of all trace metals exceeded their background level in soils in Inner Mongolia, except for Pb...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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