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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906073/gut-barrier-structure-mucosal-immunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#1
REVIEW
Camilla Tincati, Daniel C Douek, Giulia Marchetti
Over the past 10 years, extensive work has been carried out in the field of microbial translocation in HIV infection, ranging from studies on its clinical significance to investigations on its pathogenic features. In the present work, we review the most recent findings on this phenomenon, focusing on the predictive role of microbial translocation in HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms by which it arises and potential therapeutic approaches. From a clinical perspective, current work has shown that markers of microbial translocation may be useful in predicting clinical events in untreated HIV infection, while conflicting data exist on their role in cART-experienced subjects, possibly due to the inclusion of extremely varied patient populations in cohort studies...
April 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906007/what-happens-to-cardiovascular-system-behind-the-undetectable-level-of-hiv-viremia
#2
REVIEW
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Paolo Pavone, Pietro Vittozzi, Gabriella De Girolamo, Ivan Schietroma, Sara Serafino, Noemi Giustini, Vincenzo Vullo
Despite the combined antiretroviral therapy has improved the length and quality of life of HIV infected patients, the survival of these patients is always decreased compared with the general population. This is the consequence of non-infectious illnesses including cardio vascular diseases. In fact large studies have indicated an increased risk of coronary atherosclerotic disease, myocardial infarction even in HIV patients on cART. In HIV infected patients several factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular problems: life-style, metabolic parameters, genetic predisposition, viral factors, immune activation, chronic inflammation and side effects of antiretroviral therapy...
April 27, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869500/lower-frailty-is-associated-with-successful-cognitive-aging-among-older-adults-with-hiv
#3
Lindsay Mk Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David J Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in sample of older adults with HIV. METHODS: One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least one year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load...
November 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822503/levels-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-in-vagal-afferents-in-the-mouse-are-unaltered-in-response-to-metabolic-challenges
#4
Xuefeng Yuan, Ying Huang, Sarita Shah, Hua Wu, Laurent Gautron
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in vagal afferents, including those involved in regulating feeding. Recent observations indicate that metabolic challenges dramatically alter the neuropeptidergic profile of CART-producing vagal afferents. Here, using confocal microscopy, we reassessed the distribution and regulation of CART(55-102) immunoreactivity in vagal afferents of the male mouse in response to metabolic challenges, including fasting and high-fat-diet feeding...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804278/mycobacterium-smegmatis-is-a-suitable-cell-factory-for-the-production-of-steroidic-synthons
#5
Beatriz Galán, Iria Uhía, Esther García-Fernández, Igor Martínez, Esther Bahíllo, Juan L de la Fuente, José L Barredo, Lorena Fernández-Cabezón, José L García
A number of pharmaceutical steroid synthons are currently produced through the microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols as an alternative to multi-step chemical synthesis. Industrially, these synthons have been usually produced through fermentative processes using environmental isolated microorganisms or their conventional mutants. Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 is a model organism for tuberculosis studies which uses cholesterol as the sole carbon and energy source for growth, as other mycobacterial strains...
November 2, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801599/is-v%C3%AC-o2-supressed-during-nonapnoeic-facial-submersion
#6
Sarah Anderson, Maggie R Chamberlain, Samantha Musgrove, Antonia Partusch, Keagan R J Tice, David B Thorp
The mammalian dive response (DR) is described as oxygen-conserving based on measures of bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and decreased ventilation (V̇E). Using a model of simulated diving, this study examined the effect of nonapnoeic facial submersions (NAFS) on oxygen consumption (V̇O2). 19 participants performed four 2-min NAFS with 8 min of rest between each. Two submersions were performed in 5 °C water, 2 in 25 °C water. Heart rate (HR) was collected using chest strap monitors. A tube connected to the inspired port of a non-rebreathing valve allowed participants to breathe during facial submersion...
August 4, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747786/potential-effects-on-cardiorespiratory-and-metabolic-status-after-a-concurrent-strength-and-endurance-training-program-in-diabetes-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Daniela Bassi, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Vivian Maria Arakelian, Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso, Ramona Cabiddu, José Carlos Bonjorno Júnior, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
BACKGROUND: Concurrent aerobic and resistance training (CART) programs have been widely recommended as an important strategy to improve physiologic and functional performance in patients with chronic diseases. However, the impact of a personalized CART program in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires investigation. Therefore, the primary aim of the current study is to investigate the impact of CART programs on metabolic profile, glycemic control, and exercise capacity in patients with diabetes...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727725/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-on-cart
#8
Simit V Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716731/health-and-survival-of-hiv-perinatally-exposed-but-uninfected-children-born-to-hiv-infected-mothers
#9
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709330/microvascular-function-in-aging-among-women-living-with-hiv
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677004/evaluation-of-the-sensewear-armband-to-assess-the-total-energy-expenditure-of-activities-of-the-daily-living-in-stroke-survivors
#11
Maxence Compagnat, Jean-Christophe Daviet, Jean-Yves Salle, Stéphane Mandigout, Justine Meurou, Nicolas Vuillerme, Jérémie Bordes
OBJECTIVE: The accuracy of accelerometers in assessment of the total Energy Expenditure (TEE) in activities of daily living is discuted. Sensewear Armband (SWA) a multi-sensor device appears as the most accurate device for the global estimate of the TEE after stroke (1). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of the SWA with criterion method for the estimation of the TEE in four commoun activities of the daily living in stroke survivors. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight individuals (age: 65...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658512/involvement-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-metabolic-regulation
#12
Abba J Kastin, Weihong Pan
Pertinent to pandemic obesity, the discovery of endogenous peptides that affect the ingestion of food has led to the question of how these ingestive peptides exert their actions in the brain. Whereas peripheral sources provide a ready reserve, the availability of ingestive peptides to their central nervous system targets can be regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Some of the peptides/polypeptides are transported by saturable mechanisms from blood to brain. Examples include leptin, insulin, mahogany, and pancreatic polypeptide...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649090/elevated-hypothalamic-glucocorticoid-levels-are-associated-with-obesity-and-hyperphagia-in-male-mice
#13
Charlotte Sefton, Erika Harno, Alison Davies, Helen Small, Tiffany-Jayne Allen, Jonathan R Wray, Catherine B Lawrence, Anthony P Coll, Anne White
Glucocorticoid (Gc) excess, from endogenous overproduction in disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or exogenous medical therapy, is recognized to cause adverse metabolic side effects. The Gc receptor (GR) is widely expressed throughout the body, including brain regions such as the hypothalamus. However, the extent to which chronic Gcs affect Gc concentrations in the hypothalamus and impact on GR and target genes is unknown. To investigate this, we used a murine model of corticosterone (Cort)-induced obesity and analyzed Cort levels in the hypothalamus and expression of genes relevant to Gc action...
November 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630021/modulation-of-appetite-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-of-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-by-different-dietary-protein-levels
#14
Jiao Li, Liwei Liu, Xu-Fang Liang, Xiaochen Yuan, Jie Li, Bin Li, Qingchao Wang, Jinguang Fang, Min Xue, Jia Wang
This study was undertaken to explore the systemic metabolic strategies of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) to maintain growth when fed with different dietary protein levels. The optimal growth group and two growing discomfort groups were selected through the basic data, to explain the growth difference from appetite regulation and lipid and glucose metabolism perspective. Three experimental diets were formulated with three dietary protein levels at 200.3, 296.1 and 442.9 g kg(-1), named P1, P2 and P3, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623186/prevalence-and-predictors-of-liver-steatosis-and-fibrosis-in-unselected-patients-with-hiv-mono-infection
#15
Rosa Lombardi, Helen Sambatakou, Ilias Mariolis, Demosthenis Cokkinos, George V Papatheodoridis, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
OBJECTIVES: Significant liver disease may develop in HIV mono-infected patients, usually associated with fatty liver and/or cART exposure. We estimated the prevalence and predictors of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis as assessed by ultrasound and transient elastography (TE). METHODS: We enrolled 125 consecutive HIV mono-infected patients who underwent ultrasound and TE. Clinical, biochemical, immunological, virological features and medication history were analysed...
August 24, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622551/pilot-assessment-of-brain-metabolism-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-youths-using-accelerated-5d-echo-planar-j-resolved-spectroscopic-imaging
#16
Zohaib Iqbal, Neil E Wilson, Margaret A Keller, David E Michalik, Joseph A Church, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Jaime Deville, Raissa Souza, Mary-Lynn Brecht, M Albert Thomas
PURPOSE: To measure cerebral metabolite levels in perinatally HIV-infected youths and healthy controls using the accelerated five dimensional (5D) echo planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (EP-JRESI) sequence, which is capable of obtaining two dimensional (2D) J-resolved spectra from three spatial dimensions (3D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After acquisition and reconstruction of the 5D EP-JRESI data, T1-weighted MRIs were used to classify brain regions of interest for HIV patients and healthy controls: right frontal white (FW), medial frontal gray (FG), right basal ganglia (BG), right occipital white (OW), and medial occipital gray (OG)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620211/identification-and-prediction-of-the-walking-cadence-required-to-reach-moderate-intensity-using-individually-determined-relative-moderate-intensity-in-older-adults
#17
Danielle Bouchard
Many international agencies recommend using 40% of VO2reserve to individually prescribe moderate aerobic intensity to achieve health benefits. Few studies have evaluated the walking cadence needed to reach that intensity for older adults. 121 apparently healthy adults with an average age of 69 years old and an average VO2peak of 24.1 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min (women) and 28.9 ± 9.1 ml/kg/min (men) were studied. Walking cadence at moderate intensity was established when participants reached 40% of VO2reserve on an indoor flat surface using a portable metabolic cart...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552076/nanoflow-nanospray-mass-spectrometry-metabolomics-reveals-disruption-of-the-urinary-metabolite-profiles-of-hiv-positive-patients-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Andrew J Chetwynd, Amanda Samarawickrama, Jaime H Vera, Stephen A Bremner, Alaa Abdul-Sada, Yvonne Gilleece, Stephen G Holt, Elizabeth M Hill
BACKGROUND: The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has substantially improved the outlook for patients with HIV infection. However, lifelong exposure to cART is also associated with adverse metabolic changes and an enhanced risk of renal, hepatic and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated disruptions of the urinary metabolome of cART-exposed patients, thereby furthering our understanding of some of the side effects of pharmaceutical intervention. METHODS: HIV-positive patients were recruited from an HIV clinic and divided into cART-naïve and cART-exposed groups...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537510/inducing-metabolic-suppression-in-severe-hemorrhagic-shock-pilot-study-results-from-the-biochronicity-project
#19
George E Black, Kyle K Sokol, Robert R Shawhan, Matthew J Eckert, Shashikumar Salgar, Shannon T Marko, Zachary S Hoffer, Christopher C Keyes, Mark B Roth, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Suspended animation-like states have been achieved in small animal models, but not in larger species. Inducing metabolic suppression and temporary oxygen independence could enhance survivability of massive injury. Based on prior analyses of key pathways, we hypothesized that phosphoinositol-3-kinase inhibition would produce metabolic suppression without worsening organ injury or systemic physiology. METHODS: Twenty swine were studied using LY294002 (LY), a nonselective phosphoinositol-3-kinase inhibitor...
December 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501818/the-central-nervous-system-and-bone-metabolism-an-evolving-story
#20
Paul Dimitri, Cliff Rosen
Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function...
August 8, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
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