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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794470/endocrine-disruptors-induce-perturbations-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derivatives
#1
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Camille Ocampo, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We delineate the effects upon physiological low-dose exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals including, perfluoro-octanoic acid, tributyltin, and butylhydroxytoluene, in endocrine-active human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived foregut epithelial cells and hypothalamic neurons...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767523/respiratory-mechanical-and-cardiorespiratory-consequences-of-cycling-with-aerobars
#2
Jesse M Charlton, Andrew H Ramsook, Reid A Mitchell, Michael A Hunt, Joseph H Puyat, Jordan A Guenette
PURPOSE: Aerobars place a cyclist in a position where the trunk is flexed forward and the elbows are close to the midline of the body. This position is known to improve cycling aerodynamics and time trial race performance compared to upright cycling positions. However, the aggressive nature of this position may have important cardiorespiratory and metabolic consequences. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the respiratory mechanical, ventilatory, metabolic, and sensory consequences of cycling while using aerobars during laboratory based cycling...
July 31, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743230/cart-modulates-beta-amyloid-metabolism-associated-enzymes-and-attenuates-memory-deficits-in-app-ps1-mice
#3
Kailin Yin, Jiali Jin, Xiaolei Zhu, Linjie Yu, Sulei Wang, Lai Qian, Lijuan Han, Yun Xu
INTRODUCTION: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects in stroke and some neurodegeneration diseases. In current study, we investigated the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of CART in APP/PS1 mice. METHODS: The protein levels of CART, soluble Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 were measured in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We determined the mRNA and protein levels of Aβ metabolism-associated enzymes including neprilysin (NEP), insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice using real-time PCR and western blotting...
July 25, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725640/risk-factors-for-impaired-fasting-glucose-or-diabetes-among-hiv-infected-patients-on-art-in-the-copperbelt-province-of-zambia
#4
Perfect Shankalala, Choolwe Jacobs, Samuel Bosomprah, Michael Vinikoor, Patrick Katayamoyo, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Africa has a high prevalence of both Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) but in Zambia there are few data on co-morbid NCDs like Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among HIV-infected individuals. We aimed to identify risk factors for impaired fasting glucose or diabetes among HIV-infected Zambians on long-term Combined Antiretroviral Treatment (cART). METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of adult HIV patients in five health facilities of Copperbelt Province in Zambia...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694769/hypothalamic-integration-of-metabolic-endocrine-and-circadian-signals-in-fish-involvement-in-the-control-of-food-intake
#5
REVIEW
María J Delgado, José M Cerdá-Reverter, José L Soengas
The regulation of food intake in fish is a complex process carried out through several different mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS) with hypothalamus being the main regulatory center. As in mammals, a complex hypothalamic circuit including two populations of neurons: one co-expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and the second one population co-expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is involved in the integration of information relating to food intake control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694205/association-of-variants-in-sh2b1-and-rabep1-with-worsening-of-low-density-lipoprotein-and-glucose-parameters-in-patients-treated-with-psychotropic-drugs
#6
Aurélie Delacrétaz, Adna Zdralovic, Frederik Vandenberghe, Nuria Saigi-Morgui, Anaïs Glatard, Lina Quteineh, Mehdi Gholam-Rezaee, Wassim Raffoul, Lee Ann Applegate, Paris Jafari, Franziska Gamma, Armin von Gunten, Philippe Conus, Chin B Eap
Genetic factors associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) have been widely studied over the last decade. We examined whether genetic variants previously associated with BMI in the general population are associated with cardiometabolic parameter worsening in the psychiatric population receiving psychotropic drugs, a high-risk group for metabolic disturbances. Classification And Regression Trees (CARTs) were used as a tool capable of describing hierarchical associations, to pinpoint genetic variants best predicting worsening of cardiometabolic parameters (i...
July 7, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690493/emerging-signaling-pathway-in-arcuate-feeding-related-neurons-role-of-the-acbd7
#7
REVIEW
Damien Lanfray, Denis Richard
The understanding of the mechanisms whereby energy balance is regulated is essential to the unraveling of the pathophysiology of obesity. In the last three decades, focus was put on the metabolic role played by the hypothalamic neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and the neurons co-localizing agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These neurons are part of the leptin-melanocortin pathway, whose role is key in energy balance regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690189/efavirenz-what-is-known-about-the-cellular-mechanisms-responsible-for-its-adverse-effects
#8
REVIEW
Nadezda Apostolova, Ana Blas-Garcia, Maria J Galindo, Juan V Esplugues
The HIV infection remains an important health problem worldwide. However, due to the efficacy of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), it has ceased to be a mortal condition, becoming a chronic disease instead. Efavirenz, the most prescribed non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has been a key component of cART since its commercialization in 1998. Though still a drug of choice in many countries, its primacy has been challenged by the arrival of newer antiretroviral agents with better toxicity profiles and treatment adherence...
July 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649723/distribution-and-female-reproductive-state-differences-in-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-mouth-brooding-african-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#9
Danielle T Porter, David A Roberts, Karen P Maruska
Integration of reproduction and metabolism is necessary for species survival. While the neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis are well-characterized, the signals controlling the relay of nutritional information to the reproductive axis are less understood. The cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is ideal for studying the neural regulation of feeding and reproduction because females cycle between a feeding gravid state and a period of forced starvation while they brood developing young inside their mouths...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648904/mixture-effects-of-30-environmental-contaminants-on-incident-metabolic-syndrome-a-prospective-study
#10
Lars Lind, Samira Salihovic, Erik Lampa, P Monica Lind
BACKGROUND: Several cross-sectional studies have linked different environmental contaminants to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, mixture effects have not been investigated and no prospective studies exist regarding environmental contaminants and the MetS. OBJECTIVES: To study mixture effects of contaminants on the risk of incident MetS in a prospective fashion. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 452 subjects from the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (50% women, all aged 70years) free from the MetS at baseline, being followed for 10years...
June 22, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648475/effects-of-docosahexanoic-acid-on-metabolic-and-fat-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-cart-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#11
Pere Domingo, Irene Fernández, José Miguel Gallego-Escuredo, Ferran Torres, Ma Del Mar Gutierrez, Ma Gracia Mateo, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt, Francesc Vidal, Francesc Villarroya, Joan Carles Domingo
BACKGROUND: Hypertriglyceridemia is common in HIV-infected patients. Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce fasting serum triglyceride (TG) levels in HIV-infected patients. It is not known whether docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation can reduce hypertriglyceridemia and modify fat distribution in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 84 antiretroviral-treated patients who had fasting TG levels from 2...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#12
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633455/fetal-metabolic-stress-disrupts-immune-homeostasis-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-hiv-1-and-cart-exposed-infants
#13
Johannes C Schoeman, Gontse P Moutloatse, Amy C Harms, Rob J Vreeken, Henriette J Scherpbier, Liesbeth Van Leeuwen, Taco W Kuijpers, Carools J Reinecke, Ruud Berger, Thomas Hankemeier, Madeleine J Bunders
Increased morbidity and fetal growth restriction are reported in uninfected children born to HIV-1-infected women treated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Viruses and/or pharmacological interventions such as ARVs can induce metabolic stress skewing the cell's immune response and restricting (cell) growth. Novel metabolomic techniques provided the opportunity to investigate the impact of fetal HIV-1 and combination ARV therapy (cART)-exposure on the infants' immune-metabolome. Peroxidized lipids, generated by reactive oxygen species, were increased in cART/HIV-1-exposed infants, indicating altered mitochondrial functioning...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594920/genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-fatty-liver-disease-and-fibrosis-in-hiv-positive-patients-receiving-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-cart
#14
Leona Dold, Carolin Luda, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Christoph Boesecke, Cordula Hansel, Hans-Dieter Nischalke, Philipp Lutz, Raphael Mohr, Jan-Christian Wasmuth, Christian P Strassburg, Jonel Trebicka, Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh, Ulrich Spengler
Hepatic steatosis can occur with any antiretroviral therapy (cART). Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified to predispose to alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, their role for treatment-associated steatosis in HIV-positive patients remains unclear. We determined the frequency of PNPLA3 (rs738409), CSPG3/NCAN (rs2228603), GCKR (rs780094), PPP1R3B (rs4240624), TM6SF (rs8542926), LYPLAL1 (rs12137855) and MBOAT7 (rs626283) by RT-PCR in 117 HIV-positive patients on cART and stratified participants based on their "controlled attenuation parameter" (CAP) into probable (CAP: 215-300 dB/m) and definite (CAP >300 dB/m) hepatic steatosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580396/combined-aerobic-and-resistance-training-improves-bone-health-of-female-cancer-survivors
#15
Hawley C Almstedt, Silvie Grote, Joshua R Korte, Stephanie Perez Beaudion, Todd C Shoepe, Sarah Strand, Heather P Tarleton
INTRODUCTION: Cancer pathogenesis and resulting treatment may lead to bone loss and poor skeletal health in survivorship. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of 26 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance-training (CART) exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) in a multi-racial sample of female cancer survivors. METHODS: Twenty-six female cancer survivors volunteered to undergo CART for 1 h/day, 3 days/week, for 26 weeks. The Improving Physical Activity After Cancer Treatment (IMPAACT) Program involves supervised group exercise sessions including 20 min of cardiorespiratory training, 25 min of circuit-style resistance-training, and 15 min of abdominal exercises and stretching...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561903/arcuate-nucleus-neuropeptide-coexpression-and-connections-to-gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-neurones-in-the-female-rhesus-macaque
#16
C True, D Takahashi, M Kirigiti, S R Lindsley, C Moctezuma, A Arik, M S Smith, P Kievit, K L Grove
The underlying hypothalamic neurocircuitry by which metabolism and feeding regulates reproductive function has been well-studied in the rodent; however, recent data have demonstrated significant neuroanatomical differences in the human brain. The present study had three objectives, centred on arcuate nucleus neuropeptides regulating feeding and reproduction: (i) to characterise coexpression patterns in the female nonhuman primate; (ii) to establish whether these neuronal populations make potential contacts with gonadotophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones; and (iii) to determine whether these contacts differ between the low and high GnRH-releasing states of pre-puberty and adulthood, respectively...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558441/validity-of-the-inbody-520%C3%A2-to-predict-metabolic-rate-in-apparently-healthy-adults
#17
Amanda J Salacinski, Steven M Howell, Danielle L Hill
BACKGROUND: The present study seeks to assess the validity of the InBody 520™ device to predict RMR in apparently healthy adults relative to a metabolic cart (the standard, yet time intensive, method for determining resting metabolic rate). METHODS: Twenty-six apparently healthy adults participated in the study. Predicted RMR (pRMR) was calculated by the InBody 520™ and measured RMR (mRMR) was determined by 30-minute gas analysis and ventilated hood system. Of the 78 measurement trials conducted, 64 yielded acceptable measurement trials...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495865/ceramide-counteracts-the-effects-of-ghrelin-on-the-metabolic-control-of-food-intake-in-rainbow-trout
#18
Cristina Velasco, Guillermo Moreiras, Marta Conde-Sieira, José M Leao, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas
In mammals ceramides are involved in the modulation of the orexigenic effects of ghrelin (GHRL). We previously demonstrated in rainbow trout that intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment with ceramide (2.5 µg/100g fish) resulted in an anorexigenic response, i.e. a response opposed to that described in mammals where ceramide treatment is orexigenic. Therefore, we hypothesize that the putative interaction between GHRL and ceramide must be different in fish. Accordingly, in a first experiment we observed that ceramide levels in hypothalamus of rainbow trout did not change after ICV treatment with GHRL...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431343/measurement-of-physical-activity-levels-in-the-intensive-care-unit-and-functional-outcomes-an-observational-study
#19
Lisa J Beach, Kate Fetterplace, Lara Edbrooke, Selina M Parry, Rachel Curtis, Thomas Rechnitzer, Sue Berney, Linda Denehy
PURPOSE: Primary aims were: (1) objectively quantify levels of physical activity with the sensewear armband mini-fly motion sensor (SWA-MF), (2) evaluate the correlation of SWA-MF measurement of active and resting energy expenditure against the ICU Mobility scale (IMS) and indirect calorimetry respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults mechanically ventilated ≥48h and anticipated to remain in ICU≥5days were included. Physical activity (PA) was measured using a SWA-MF (over the first five days); energy expenditure was measured with both the SWA-MF and the Deltatrac II metabolic cart on day three; highest level of mobility was assessed on the IMS...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420298/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-patients-naive-to-antiretroviral-therapy-or-receiving-a-first-line-treatment
#20
Leonardo Calza, Vincenzo Colangeli, Eleonora Magistrelli, Nicolo' Rossi, Elena Rosselli Del Turco, Linda Bussini, Marco Borderi, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: The combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has dramatically improved the life expectancy of patients with HIV infection, but may lead to several long-term metabolic abnormalities. However, data about the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected people vary considerably across different observational studies. METHODS: The prevalence of MS among HIV-infected patients was evaluated by a cross-sectional study conducted among subjects naive to cART or receiving the first antiretroviral regimen and referring to our Clinics from January 2015 to December 2015...
May 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
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