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Metabolic cart

Daniela Bassi, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Vivian Maria Arakelian, Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso, Ramona Cabiddu, José Carlos Bonjorno Júnior, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
BACKGROUND: Concurrent aerobic and resistance training (CART) programs have been widely recommended as an important strategy to improve physiologic and functional performance in patients with chronic diseases. However, the impact of a personalized CART program in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires investigation. Therefore, the primary aim of the current study is to investigate the impact of CART programs on metabolic profile, glycemic control, and exercise capacity in patients with diabetes...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Simit V Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
October 5, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Maxence Compagnat, Jean-Christophe Daviet, Jean-Yves Salle, Stéphane Mandigout, Justine Meurou, Nicolas Vuillerme, Jérémie Bordes
OBJECTIVE: The accuracy of accelerometers in assessment of the total Energy Expenditure (TEE) in activities of daily living is discuted. Sensewear Armband (SWA) a multi-sensor device appears as the most accurate device for the global estimate of the TEE after stroke (1). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of the SWA with criterion method for the estimation of the TEE in four commoun activities of the daily living in stroke survivors. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight individuals (age: 65...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Abba J Kastin, Weihong Pan
Pertinent to pandemic obesity, the discovery of endogenous peptides that affect the ingestion of food has led to the question of how these ingestive peptides exert their actions in the brain. Whereas peripheral sources provide a ready reserve, the availability of ingestive peptides to their central nervous system targets can be regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Some of the peptides/polypeptides are transported by saturable mechanisms from blood to brain. Examples include leptin, insulin, mahogany, and pancreatic polypeptide...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Charlotte Sefton, Erika Harno, Alison Davies, Helen Small, Tiffany-Jayne Allen, Jonathan R Wray, Catherine B Lawrence, Anthony P Coll, Anne White
Glucocorticoid (Gc) excess, from endogenous overproduction in disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or exogenous medical therapy, is recognised to cause adverse metabolic side effects. The Gc receptor (GR) is widely expressed throughout the body, including brain regions such as the hypothalamus. However the extent to which chronic Gcs affect Gc concentrations in the hypothalamus and impact on GR and target genes is unknown. To investigate this, we used a murine model of corticosterone-induced obesity, and analysed corticosterone levels in the hypothalamus and expression of genes relevant to Gc action...
September 20, 2016: Endocrinology
Jiao Li, Liwei Liu, Xu-Fang Liang, Xiaochen Yuan, Jie Li, Bin Li, Qingchao Wang, Jinguang Fang, Min Xue, Jia Wang
This study was undertaken to explore the systemic metabolic strategies of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) to maintain growth when fed with different dietary protein levels. The optimal growth group and two growing discomfort groups were selected through the basic data, to explain the growth difference from appetite regulation and lipid and glucose metabolism perspective. Three experimental diets were formulated with three dietary protein levels at 200.3, 296.1 and 442.9 g kg(-1), named P1, P2 and P3, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Rosa Lombardi, Helen Sambatakou, Ilias Mariolis, Demosthenis Cokkinos, George V Papatheodoridis, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis
OBJECTIVES: Significant liver disease may develop in HIV mono-infected patients, usually associated with fatty liver and/or cART exposure. We estimated the prevalence and predictors of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis as assessed by ultrasound and transient elastography (TE). METHODS: We enrolled 125 consecutive HIV mono-infected patients who underwent ultrasound and TE. Clinical, biochemical, immunological, virological features and medication history were analysed...
August 24, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Zohaib Iqbal, Neil E Wilson, Margaret A Keller, David E Michalik, Joseph A Church, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Jaime Deville, Raissa Souza, Mary-Lynn Brecht, M Albert Thomas
PURPOSE: To measure cerebral metabolite levels in perinatally HIV-infected youths and healthy controls using the accelerated five dimensional (5D) echo planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (EP-JRESI) sequence, which is capable of obtaining two dimensional (2D) J-resolved spectra from three spatial dimensions (3D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After acquisition and reconstruction of the 5D EP-JRESI data, T1-weighted MRIs were used to classify brain regions of interest for HIV patients and healthy controls: right frontal white (FW), medial frontal gray (FG), right basal ganglia (BG), right occipital white (OW), and medial occipital gray (OG)...
2016: PloS One
Danielle Bouchard
Many international agencies recommend using 40% of VO2reserve to individually prescribe moderate aerobic intensity to achieve health benefits. Few studies have evaluated the walking cadence needed to reach that intensity for older adults. 121 apparently healthy adults with an average age of 69 years old and an average VO2peak of 24.1 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min (women) and 28.9 ± 9.1 ml/kg/min (men) were studied. Walking cadence at moderate intensity was established when participants reached 40% of VO2reserve on an indoor flat surface using a portable metabolic cart...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Andrew J Chetwynd, Amanda Samarawickrama, Jaime H Vera, Stephen A Bremner, Alaa Abdul-Sada, Yvonne Gilleece, Stephen G Holt, Elizabeth M Hill
BACKGROUND: The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has substantially improved the outlook for patients with HIV infection. However, lifelong exposure to cART is also associated with adverse metabolic changes and an enhanced risk of renal, hepatic and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated disruptions of the urinary metabolome of cART-exposed patients, thereby furthering our understanding of some of the side effects of pharmaceutical intervention. METHODS: HIV-positive patients were recruited from an HIV clinic and divided into cART-naïve and cART-exposed groups...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
George E Black, Kyle K Sokol, Robert Shawhan, Matthew J Eckert, Shashikumar Salgar, Shannon T Marko, Zachary S Hoffer, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Suspended animation-like states have been achieved in small animal models, but not in larger species. Inducing metabolic suppression and temporary oxygen-independence could enhance survivability of massive injury. Based on prior analyses of key pathways, we hypothesized that PI3-kinase inhibition (PI3-KI) would produce metabolic suppression without worsening organ injury or systemic physiology. METHODS: Twenty swine were studied using LY294002 (LY), a non-selective PI3-KI: Animals were assigned to Trauma only (TO, N=3); DMSO only (DMSO, N=4), LY drug only (LYO, N=3); and Drug + trauma (LY+T , N=10) groups...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Paul Dimitri, Cliff Rosen
Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function...
August 8, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Nora T Oliver, Christine M Hartman, Jennifer R Kramer, Elizabeth Y Chiao
INTRODUCTION: Chronic HIV/HCV co-infection carries increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Due to anti-inflammatory properties, HMG co-A inhibitors (statins) may be useful adjunctive therapy to reduce liver disease progression. METHODS: Clinical information was extracted from the Veterans Affairs HIV and HCV Clinical Case Registries (1999 - 2010). HIV-related variables included combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) era of diagnosis, CD4 cell count, and percent time with undetectable HIV viral load...
August 3, 2016: AIDS
Chul-Ho Kim, Courtney M Wheatley, Mehrdad Behnia, Bruce D Johnson
Aging is associated with a fall in maximal aerobic capacity as well as with a decline in lean body mass. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of aging on the relationship between aerobic capacity and lean body mass in subjects that chronically train both their upper and lower bodies. Eleven older rowers (58±5 yrs) and 11 younger rowers (27±4 yrs) participated in the study. Prior to the VO2max testing, subjects underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to estimate total lean body mass...
2016: PloS One
Hélène Volkoff, Rafael Estevan Sabioni, José Eurico Possebon Cyrino
The dourado, Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816) is a freshwater piscivorous Characin native to South American rivers. Owing to the high quality of its flesh and its fast growth, it is the object of both capture fisheries and fish farming. However, very little is known about the endocrine regulation of feeding and metabolism of dourado. In this study, cDNAs for orexin, CART and CCK were isolated in dourado, and their mRNA tissue distributions examined. In order to assess the role of these peptides in the regulation of feeding of dourado, the effects of fasting and feeding on mRNA expression levels of orexin, CART and CCK in the brain as well as CCK in the intestine were assessed...
October 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Hongyu Li, Huiling Calvina Kek, Joy Lim, Richard Wayne Gelling, Weiping Han
SCOPE: High-fat diet (HFD) induces overeating and obesity. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces HFD-induced body weight and body fat gain mainly through increased lipid metabolism and fat oxidation. However, little is known about its effect on HFD-induced alterations in feeding behavior. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three diet groups of wildtype C57B/6j male mice at 5 months old were fed on normal chow diet (NCD), one week of HFD (60% of energy) and three months of HFD (diet-induced obesity, DIO) prior to EGCG supplement in respective diet...
July 28, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Lin Sun, Jie-Qiong Li, Na Ren, Hui Qi, Fang Dong, Jing Xiao, Fang Xu, Wei-Wei Jiao, Chen Shen, Wen-Qi Song, A-Dong Shen
Although tuberculosis (TB) has been the greatest killer due to a single infectious disease, pediatric TB is still hard to diagnose because of the lack of sensitive biomarkers. Metabolomics is increasingly being applied in infectious diseases. But little is known regarding metabolic biomarkers in children with TB. A combination of a NMR-based plasma metabolic method and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to provide a broader range of applications in TB diagnosis in our study. Plasma samples obtained from 28 active TB children and 37 non-TB controls (including 21 RTIs and 16 healthy children) were analyzed by an orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model, and 17 metabolites were identified that can separate children with TB from non-TB controls...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Huiyun Zhang, Rui Li, Yongqiang Wang, Bing Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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