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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140661/an-international-model-for-antibiotics-regulation
#1
Emilie Aguirre
We face a global antibiotics resistance crisis. Antibiotic drugs are rapidly losing their effectiveness, potentially propelling us toward a post-antibiotic world. The largest use of antibiotics in the world is in food-producing animals. Food producers administer these drugs in routine, low doses—the types of doses that are incidentally the most conducive to breeding antibiotic resistance. In general, individual countries have been too slow to act in regulating misuse and overuse of antibiotics in foodproducing animals...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079152/antibiotic-stewardship-in-nursing-facilities
#2
REVIEW
Miranda McElligott, Grace Welham, Aurora Pop-Vicas, Lyndsay Taylor, Christopher J Crnich
Misuse and overuse of antibiotic therapy is a frequent cause of resident harm in nursing facilities. As a result, newly released policy and regulatory initiatives will require antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) in nursing facilities. Although implementing ASPs can be challenging, improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing is achievable in this setting. The authors review the determinants of antibiotic prescribing in nursing facilities, strategies to improve antibiotic prescribing in this setting, current status of ASPs in nursing facilities, and steps that facilities can take to enhance existing ASP structure and process...
December 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070451/arctic-antibiotic-resistance-gene-contamination-a-result-of-anthropogenic-activities-and-natural-origin
#3
Lu Tan, Linyun Li, Nicholas Ashbolt, Xiaolong Wang, Yuxiao Cui, Xiao Zhu, Yan Xu, Yang Yang, Daqing Mao, Yi Luo
The increasing global prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is attributed to anthropogenic activities, particularly the misuse of antimicrobial drugs in human care and animal production. In the present study, we first examined Arctic/sub-Arctic (polar) sediments for the abundance and diversity of 30 ARGs against sulfonamide, tetracycline, aminoglycoside, quinolone, macrolide, and β-lactam antibiotics. Polar sediment ARGs were detected by qPCR at relatively low levels (10(-9) to 10(-5) copies/16S rRNA gene copies) compared to the reference sites, which were heavily impacted regions of China (the Haihe River, the Tianjin Water Park water and the Qilihai Wetland water, at 10(-8) to 10(-2) copies/16S rRNA gene copies)...
October 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056927/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-transmission-in-a-ghanaian-burn-unit-the-importance-of-active-surveillance-in-resource-limited-settings
#4
Nana Ama Amissah, Andrew H Buultjens, Anthony Ablordey, Lieke van Dam, Ampomah Opoku-Ware, Sarah L Baines, Dieter Bulach, Caitlin S Tetteh, Isaac Prah, Tjip S van der Werf, Alexander W Friedrich, Torsten Seemann, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Ymkje Stienstra, Timothy P Stinear, John W Rossen
Objectives:Staphylococcus aureus infections in burn patients can lead to serious complications and death. The frequency of S. aureus infection is high in low- and middle-income countries presumably due to limited resources, misuse of antibiotics and poor infection control. The objective of the present study was to apply population genomics to precisely define, for the first time, the transmission of antibiotic resistant S. aureus in a resource-limited setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods:Staphylococcus aureus surveillance was performed amongst burn patients and healthcare workers during a 7-months survey within the burn unit of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044373/antimicrobial-resistance-a-one-health-perspective
#5
Laura H Kahn
Introduction: Worsening antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the practice of modern human and veterinary medicine. For decades, medicine and agriculture have blamed each other for the rise of resistant microbes. Widespread use and misuse of antibiotics in both medicine and agriculture have increased the prevalence and expression of resistance genes. VRE: The rise of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) in the European Union (EU) led to the ban of avoparcin, an antibiotic that is chemically related to vancomycin...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017265/antibiotic-overconsumption-in-pregnant-women-with-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-uganda
#6
Musa Sekikubo, Karolina Hedman, Florence Mirembe, Annelie Brauner
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections in women. During pregnancy physiological changes, like frequency, mimic UTI symptoms, and therefore bacteriological cultures are needed to confirm the diagnosis. However, in developing countries antibiotic therapy is commonly initiated without culture confirmation. Methods: We investigated the prevalence of bacteriuria among pregnant women with and without UTI symptoms in Uganda...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992929/antibiotic-use-by-farmers-to-control-mastitis-as-influenced-by-health-advice-and-dairy-farming-systems
#7
A Poizat, F Bonnet-Beaugrand, A Rault, C Fourichon, N Bareille
Mastitis is a bacterial disease common in dairy farms. Although knowledge about mastitis and its optimal technical management and treatment is now available, some dairy farmers still use antibiotics in inappropriate ways. Antibiotic use by farmers can be influenced by personal restraints and motivations, but it can be assumed that external drivers are also influential. The main purpose of this article is thus to analyse the choices of antibiotic and alternative medicine use for mastitis treatment and investigate the possible influence of two unexplored external drivers in dairy farms: (i) the health advice offered to farmers by farm advisors and veterinarians, (ii) the dairy farming system, as defined by combining the market valuation chosen for the milk, the level of intensification, and the perceived pressure related to investments...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989242/developing-new-antimicrobial-therapies-are-synergistic-combinations-of-plant-extracts-compounds-with-conventional-antibiotics-the-solution
#8
REVIEW
Matthew J Cheesman, Aishwarya Ilanko, Baxter Blonk, Ian E Cock
The discovery of penicillin nearly 90 years ago revolutionized the treatment of bacterial disease. Since that time, numerous other antibiotics have been discovered from bacteria and fungi, or developed by chemical synthesis and have become effective chemotherapeutic options. However, the misuse of antibiotics has lessened the efficacy of many commonly used antibiotics. The emergence of resistant strains of bacteria has seriously limited our ability to treat bacterial illness, and new antibiotics are desperately needed...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978750/rapid-pathogen-specific-phenotypic-antibiotic-susceptibility-testing-using-digital-lamp-quantification-in-clinical-samples
#9
Nathan G Schoepp, Travis S Schlappi, Matthew S Curtis, Slava S Butkovich, Shelley Miller, Romney M Humphries, Rustem F Ismagilov
Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is urgently needed for informing treatment decisions and preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance resulting from the misuse and overuse of antibiotics. To date, no phenotypic AST exists that can be performed within a single patient visit (30 min) directly from clinical samples. We show that AST results can be obtained by using digital nucleic acid quantification to measure the phenotypic response of Escherichia coli present within clinical urine samples exposed to an antibiotic for 15 min...
October 4, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965402/clinical-variants-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-are-evolving-to-overcome-zinc-scarcity
#10
Alesha C Stewart, Christopher R Bethel, Jamie VanPelt, Alex Bergstrom, Zishuo Cheng, Callie G Miller, Cameron Williams, Robert Poth, Matthew Morris, Olivia Lahey, Jay C Nix, David L Tierney, Richard C Page, Michael W Crowder, Robert A Bonomo, Walter Fast
Use and misuse of antibiotics have driven the evolution of serine β-lactamases to better recognize new generations of β-lactam drugs, but the selective pressures driving evolution of metallo-β-lactamases are less clear. Here, we present evidence that New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is evolving to overcome the selective pressure of zinc(II) scarcity. Studies of NDM-1, NDM-4 (M154L), and NDM-12 (M154L, G222D) demonstrate that the point mutant M154L, contained in 50% of clinical NDM variants, selectively enhances resistance to the penam ampicillin at low zinc(II) concentrations relevant to infection sites...
October 11, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954700/impact-of-tetracycline-clay-interactions-on-bacterial-growth
#11
Guocheng Lv, Zhaohui Li, Lisa Elliott, Monica J Schmidt, Maria P MacWilliams, Baogang Zhang
Antibiotics are extremely effective against bacterial infections due to their selective toxicity for bacteria rather than the host. Extensive use and misuse of antibiotics resulted in significant increases in antibiotic levels in aquatic and soil environments. Bacteria exposed to antibiotics with low concentrations may develop antibiotic resistance. In this study a swelling 2:1 clay mineral montmorillonite (MMT) and a non-swelling 1:1 clay mineral kaolinite were premixed with tetracycline (TC) of varying concentrations...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947463/maltese-antibiotic-stewardship-programme-in-the-community-maspic-protocol-of-a-prospective-quasiexperimental-social-marketing-intervention
#12
Erika A Saliba-Gustafsson, Michael A Borg, Senia Rosales-Klintz, Anna Nyberg, Cecilia StålsbyLundborg
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic misuse is a key driver of antibiotic resistance. In 2015/2016, Maltese respondents reported the highest proportions of antibiotic consumption in Europe. Since antibiotics are prescription-only medicines in Malta, research on effective strategies targeting general practitioners' (GPs) knowledge and behaviour is needed. Multifaceted behaviour change (BC) interventions are likely to be effective. Social marketing (SM) can provide the tools to promote sustained BC; however, its utilisation in Europe is limited...
September 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924280/antibiotics-use-and-misuse-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-patients-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-analysis-in-university-hospital-saudi-arabia
#13
Waseem Hajjar, Sami Alnassar, Sara Al-Khelb, Sarah Al-Mutairi, Norah Al-Refayi, Sultan Ayoub Meo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the awareness and causes of antibiotics use and misuse in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January 2014 to December 2015, and comprised patients suffering from upper respiratory tract infections. A well-established, self-administrated questionnaire was randomly distributed to the patients. The questionnaire consisted of 3 parts: demographic variables, knowledge, and beliefs, and behaviour towards antibiotic use and misuse...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917069/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-antibiotic-use-and-misuse-among-adults-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#14
Nouf Al-Shibani, Abdulaziz Hamed, Nawaf Labban, Reem Al-Kattan, Hanan Al-Otaibi, Sara Alfadda
To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of antibiotics (ABs) use and misuse among adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to participants from  March 2016 to January 2017 in the outpatient department of King Khalid University Hospital and Dental Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was divided into 4 sections. The first and second section inquired regarding demographic details and knowledge of ABs...
October 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911637/safety-of-frozen-liver-for-human-consumption
#15
Ghada A K Kirrella, Azza M M Deeb, Reda Mohamed Ibrahim Abdallah
The objective of this study was to ensure and evaluate the safety of imported frozen beef liver traded in supermarkets of Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, through detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidies, Escherichia coli O157:H7, antibiotic residues, and aflatoxin B1 residue. Fifty samples of imported frozen liver were randomly collected from different shops at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate for isolation of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidies, and E. coli O157:H7. The results revealed that for both microorganisms 4% of the examined samples presumed to contain Salmonella and E...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904072/validation-of-a-novel-assay-to-distinguish-bacterial-and-viral-infections
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Isaac Srugo, Adi Klein, Michal Stein, Orit Golan-Shany, Nogah Kerem, Irina Chistyakov, Jacob Genizi, Oded Glazer, Liat Yaniv, Alina German, Dan Miron, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas, Ellen Bamberger, Kfir Oved, Tanya M Gottlieb, Roy Navon, Meital Paz, Liat Etshtein, Olga Boico, Gali Kronenfeld, Eran Eden, Robert Cohen, Helène Chappuy, François Angoulvant, Laurence Lacroix, Alain Gervaix
BACKGROUND: Reliably distinguishing bacterial from viral infections is often challenging, leading to antibiotic misuse. A novel assay that integrates measurements of blood-borne host-proteins (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, interferon γ-induced protein-10, and C-reactive protein [CRP]) was developed to assist in differentiation between bacterial and viral disease. METHODS: We performed double-blind, multicenter assay evaluation using serum remnants collected at 5 pediatric emergency departments and 2 wards from children ≥3 months to ≤18 years without (n = 68) and with (n = 529) suspicion of acute infection...
October 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863269/bacteriophages-the-possible-solution-to-treat-infections-caused-by-pathogenic-bacteria
#17
Ayman El-Shibiny, Salma El-Sahhar
Since their discovery in 1915, bacteriophages have been used to treat bacterial infections in animals and humans because of their unique ability to infect their specific bacterial hosts without affecting other bacterial populations. The research carried out in this field throughout the 20th century, largely in Georgia, part of USSR and Poland, led to the establishment of phage therapy protocols. However, the discovery of penicillin and sulfonamide antibiotics in the Western World during the 1930s was a setback in the advancement of phage therapy...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831457/editorial-use-and-misuse-of-systemic-antibiotics-in-periodontitis-treatment
#18
Norbert Cionca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805984/self-medication-misuse-in-the-middle-east-a-systematic-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Malak M Khalifeh, Nicholas D Moore, Pascale R Salameh
Regulations usually distinguish between prescription-only (POM) and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The former requires medical prescription; the latter are available for SM of common minor or easily treated ailments. However, in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, theoretical prescription medicines can easily be purchased without a prescription, as self-medication (SM) resulting in potential misuse and unnecessary risk for patients. The magnitude of this activity is uncertain. The aim of this article, therefore, is to undertake a comprehensive review to identify the different types of medicines that can easily be purchased as SM in Middle East and recognized as misused...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752952/persistent-diarrhea-a-persistent-infection-with-enteropathogens-or-a-gut-commensal-dysbiosis
#20
Shafiqul A Sarker, Tahmeed Ahmed, Harald Brüssow
In children from developing countries 5-10% of acute diarrhea (AD) episodes develop into persistent diarrhea (PD) defined by > 14 days of diarrhea duration. PD represents a major health burden leading to growth faltering. It is also associated with half of all diarrhea mortality. A rational intervention is thus crucial, but depends on an understanding of the pathogenesis of PD, which is still lacking. Many surveys were conducted in Latin America and in South Asia; they differ, however, with respect to enteropathogens associated with PD...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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