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antibiotic misuse

Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W Marion
Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines' milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers ( N = 25), street vendors ( N = 21), and three MVMs ( N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Taisa Trevizani Rocchetti, Katheryne Benine Martins, Patricia Yoshida Faccioli Martins, Rogério Antonio de Oliveira, Alessandro Lia Mondelli, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus spp. - both S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) - are relevant agents of healthcare-associated infections. Therefore, the rapid recognition of MRSA and methicillin-resistant CoNS from blood stream infections is critically important for patient management. It is worth noting that inappropriate empiric therapy has been associated with higher in-hospital mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study we evaluated a multiplex PCR standardized to detect Staphylococcus spp...
March 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Corinne M Hohl, Katherin Badke, Amy Zhao, Maeve E Wickham, Stephanie A Woo, Marco L A Sivilotti, Jeffrey J Perry
OBJECTIVES: Adverse drug events cause or contribute to one in nine emergency department presentations in North America, and are often misdiagnosed. Emergency departments have insufficient clinical pharmacists to complete medication reviews in all incoming patients, even though pharmacist-led medications reviews have been associated with improved health outcomes. Our objective was to validate clinical decision rules to identify patients presenting with adverse drug events so they could be prioritized for pharmacist-led medication review...
March 8, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Caitlin N Spaulding, Roger D Klein, Henry L Schreiber, James W Janetka, Scott J Hultgren
The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has led to a decline in the efficacy of traditional antimicrobial therapy. The rise in resistance has been driven by widespread use, and in some cases misuse, of antibacterial agents in treating a variety of infections. A growing body of research has begun to elucidate the harmful effects of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy on the beneficial host microbiota. To combat these threats, increasing effort is being directed toward the development of precision antimicrobial therapeutics that target key virulence determinants of specific pathogens while leaving the remainder of the host microbiota undisturbed...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Elvis Dzelamonyuy Chem, Damian Nota Anong, Jane-Francis K T Akoachere
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of antibiotics is a global public health challenge and has been associated with antibiotic resistance. WHO reports show that efforts to promote rational antibiotic use in developing countries are poor. With the growing number of infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria, rational drug use becomes imperative and studies that promote rational drug use are highly necessary. Considering this, we investigated prescribing patterns and predictors of antibiotic prescription in primary health care facilities in Kumbo East (KE) and Kumbo West (KW) health districts in North West Cameroon, to contribute data which could influence policy on antibiotic use...
2018: PloS One
Zhaowei Chen, Zhenzhen Wang, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
Bacterial infection continues to be a growing global health problem with the most widely accepted treatment paradigms restricted to antibiotics. However, antibiotics overuse and misuse have triggered increased multidrug resistance, frustrating the therapeutic outcomes and leading to higher mortalities. Even worse, the tendency of bacteria to form biofilms on living and nonliving surfaces further increases the difficulty in confronting bacteria because the extracellular matrix can act as a robust barrier to prevent the penetration of antibiotics and resist environmental stress...
February 28, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jade E McLellan, Joshua I Pitcher, Susan A Ballard, Elizabeth A Grabsch, Jan M Bell, Mary Barton, M Lindsay Grayson
Background: Antibiotic misuse in food-producing animals is potentially associated with human acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR; resistance to ≥ 3 drug classes) bacteria via the food chain. We aimed to determine if MDR Gram-negative (GNB) organisms are present in fresh Australian chicken and pork products. Methods: We sampled raw, chicken drumsticks (CD) and pork ribs (PR) from 30 local supermarkets/butchers across Melbourne on two occasions. Specimens were sub-cultured onto selective media for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) GNBs, with species identification and antibiotic susceptibility determined for all unique colonies...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Patrick Joseph, Eliot Godofsky
Background: The majority of oral antibiotics are prescribed in outpatient primary and urgent care clinics for acute respiratory infections. Effective antibiotic stewardship must include proper prescribing for outpatients as well as for those in a hospital or long-term care facility. Methods: Major databases, including MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, were searched for prospective human clinical studies, including children and/or adults published between January 1966 and November 2017 that evaluated Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) as a biomarker for diagnosing viral infections as well as both C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) as potential biomarkers for identifying and differentiating true bacterial upper respiratory infection (URI) from colonization...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Ye Zhang, April Z Gu, Tianyu Cen, Xiangyang Li, Miao He, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
Although widespread antibiotic resistance has been mostly attributed to the selective pressure generated by overuse and misuse of antibiotics, recent growing evidence suggests that chemicals other than antibiotics, such as certain metals, can also select and stimulate antibiotic resistance via both co-resistance and cross-resistance mechanisms. For instance, tetL, merE, and oprD genes are resistant to both antibiotics and metals. However, the potential de novo resistance induced by heavy metals at environmentally-relevant low concentrations (much below theminimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs], also referred as sub-inhibitory) has hardly been explored...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Adarsh Gandhi, Murali Matta, Narayana Garimella, Tesfalem Zere, James Weaver
PURPOSE: Extensive use and misuse of antibiotics over the past 50 years has contributed to the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains rendering them as a global health concern. To address this issue, a dynamic in vitro hollow-fiber system, which mimics in vivo environment more closely than the static model, was used to study the emergence of bacterial resistance of Escherichia coli against fosfomycin (FOS). To aid in this endeavor we developed and validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for quantitative analysis of FOS in lysogeny broth...
February 20, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Ying-Xiu Dai, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Yun-Ting Chang
BACKGROUND: Skin diseases are among the most common public health problems and cause a significant burden. For policymakers and clinicians, comprehensive and detailed information is necessary to better allocate resources needed to care for skin diseases. This study was conducted to characterize the ambulatory practice of dermatologists in Taiwan. METHODS: The study data were drawn from the datasets of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database for 2013, with 623,614 records of ambulatory care visits representing 1/500 of all the claims in Taiwan for 2013...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Asnakew Achaw Ayele, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie, Daniel Asfaw Erku, Eyob Alemayehu Gebreyohannes, Dessalegn Getnet Demssie, Amanual Getnet Mersha, Henok Getachew Tegegn
Ceftriaxone is among the most commonly utilized antibiotics owing to its high potency, wide spectrum of activity, and low risk of toxicity. It is used to treat different types of bacterial infections including pneumonia, bone infections, abdominal infections, Skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections. However, evidence around the globe shows the misuse of Ceftriaxone. This study aimed at evaluating the appropriateness of ceftriaxone use in medical and emergency wards of Gondar university referral hospital (GURH), Northwest Ethiopia...
February 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Iris Hoxha, Admir Malaj, Besmira Kraja, Silvia Bino, Margaret Oluka, Vanda Marković-Peković, Brian Godman
OBJECTIVES: Irrational use of antibiotics is a major driver of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), exacerbated by dispensing of antibiotics without a prescription especially for typically viral infections. Such dispensing is common despite legislation. Pharmacists play a key role advising on medicines especially in countries where most patients seek pharmacist help as they cannot afford both physician fees and medicines. Consequently, the objective was to ascertain skills and knowledge of pharmacists regarding antibiotics when patients present to them with typically viral infections...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Leila Gheitani, Hossein Fazeli, Sharareh Moghim, Bahram Nasr Isfahani
Overuse and misuse of Carbapenems among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates have caused Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumonia (CRKP) during recent years. Colistin is one of the last available options, and there are increasing concerns about the dosage and resistance to this agent in long-term monotherapies. This study was designed to identification of carbapenemase producing isolates of K. pneumoniae via phenotypic and genotypic methods as well as evaluation of colistin-meropenem combination therapy potential...
January 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Shashi N Kapadia, Erika L Abramson, Eileen J Carter, Angela S Loo, Rainu Kaushal, David P Calfee, Matthew S Simon
BACKGROUND: Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which adversely affects morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost. To combat the threat of antimicrobial resistance, The Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services have initiated or proposed requirements for hospitals to have antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), but implementation remains challenging. A key-informant interview study was conducted to describe the characteristics and innovative strategies of leading ASPs...
February 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Moneera M Al-Shawi, Magdy A Darwish, Moataza M Abdel Wahab, Nouf A Al-Shamlan
BACKGROUND: Misuse of antibiotics has become a global public health issue for several reasons, one of which is the rapid development of antibiotic resistance that leads to high morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to study the misconceptions of parents of primary school children in Dammam, Khobar, and Dhahran about the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms; and also study perceptions, attitudes, and behavior toward antibiotic use and identify the factors affecting this...
January 2018: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Harsimran Kaur, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Candidemia, the commonest invasive fungal infection, is associated with high morbidity and mortality in developing countries, though the exact prevalence is not known due to lack of systematic epidemiological data from those countries. The limited studies report a very high incidence of candidemia and unique epidemiology with a different spectrum of Candida species. The recent global emergence of multi-drug resistant Candida auris is looming large as an important threat in hospitalized patients of developing countries...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Lawal Waisu Umar, Abdulmuminu Isah, Shuaibu Musa, Bilkisu Umar
BACKGROUND: Assessment of patterns of drug to detect performance problems and compliance with standards facilitates objective comparisons and impact evaluation. Children are at higher risk of consequences of irrational prescribing and antibiotic misuse. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the prescribing pattern and utilization of antibiotics for children using standard prescribing indicators and indices of rational drug prescribing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of prescriptions for pediatric inpatients at a teaching hospital in Northern Nigeria...
January 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Maya Nadimpalli, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau, David C Love, Lance B Price, Bich-Tram Huynh, Jean-Marc Collard, Kruy Sun Lay, Laurence Borand, Awa Ndir, Timothy R Walsh, Didier Guillemot
Antibiotic misuse in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance that can disseminate globally. Strategies specific to LMICs that seek to reduce antibiotic misuse by humans, but simultaneously improve antibiotic access, have been proposed. However, most approaches to date have not considered the growing impact of animal and environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, which threaten to exacerbate the antibiotic resistance crisis in LMICs. In particular, current strategies do not prioritize the impacts of increased antibiotic use for terrestrial food-animal and aquaculture production, inadequate food safety, and widespread environmental pollution...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Xiuge Gao, Yani Zheng, Xiangchun Ruan, Hui Ji, Lin Peng, Dawei Guo, Shanxiang Jiang
Salinomycin, as a polyether ionophore antibiotic, is extensively used as a feed additive against coccidiosis in poultry and as a growth promoter of ruminants worldwide. Owing to its narrow therapeutic index, numerous intoxication have been reported in target/non-target animals by overdosage, misuse or drug interactions as well as human who consumed salinomycin accidently. Salinomycin-induced cardiotoxicity in chicken and non-target animals is considered as a major contributor to animal death. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanism of its myocardial toxicity using primary chicken myocardial cell as an in vitro model...
January 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
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