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antibiotic misuse

Lisa G Pont, Tessa K Morgan, Margaret Williamson, Flora M Haaijer, Mieke L van Driel
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a set of European quality indicators for assessing antimicrobial prescribing in Australian General Practice. METHODS: A modified UCLA/RAND appropriateness method was used to assess the validity of 30 antimicrobial prescribing indicators. An expert panel of 12 general practitioners scored the validity of each indicator for measuring quality in Australian general practice. Four quality domains were considered: monitoring antibiotic resistance, benefit to individual patients, value for money and value to policymakers...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Wei-Ju Lee, Eng-Yen Huang, Chih-Min Tsai, Kuang-Che Kuo, Yi-Chuan Huang, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Chen-Kuang Niu, Hong-Ren Yu
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is an important causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection is important so that appropriate antibiotic treatment can be initiated to reduce the misuse of drugs and resistance rates. Anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an indicator of recent primary infection, but can persist for several months after initial infection. It has been suggested that anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin A (IgA) can be a reliable indicator for recent M...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Anita Kotwani, Chand Wattal, P C Joshi, Kathleen Holloway
OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceptions and knowledge of school teachers and students about antibiotic use, resistance, and suggestions for practical interventions for the rational use of antibiotics. METHODOLOGY: Five focus group discussions (FGDs) with high school students (Class: 9-11) and five with teachers were conducted in two private and three public schools (one teacher and one student FGD per school) in five municipal wards of Delhi. Qualitative data on antibiotic knowledge, resistance, and behaviors with respect to antibiotics use were collected...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Guillermo Blanco, Alexandra Junza, Dolores Barrón
Pharmaceuticals from veterinary treatments may enter terrestrial food webs when medicated livestock are available to wildlife in supplementary feeding stations aimed at the conservation of endangered scavengers. Here, we hypothesized that the exposure risk to livestock fluoroquinolones, as indicators of pharmaceutical burden in food, is related to the variable reliance of scavengers on domestic versus wild animal carcasses. Since the misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is a major predisposing factor for opportunistic mycoses, we evaluated disease signs potentially associated with diet-dependent drug exposure in nestlings of two threatened vultures...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kam Lun Hon, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Ming Him James Ng, Chi Cheung Ho, Yin Ching Kathy Tsang, Wing Hung Tam, Chung Shun Ho
OBJECTIVE: Maternal drug abuse may influence neonatal outcomes. We compared neonatal outcomes of patients with urine screened positive for commonly abused drugs (CAD) versus those who were screened negative, and reviewed the pattern of drugs detected at a university teaching hospital. METHODS: Urine samples collected from babies with suspected illicit drug exposure who were admitted to the neonatal unit were sent for comprehensive drug screen (CDS) performed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS)...
October 10, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Ira L Leeds, Anne Fabrizio, Sara E Cosgrove, Elizabeth C Wick
Antibiotic resistance continues to receive national attention as a leading public health threat. In 2015, President Barack Obama proposed a National Action Plan to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to curb the rise of "superbugs," bacteria resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Whereas many antibiotics are prescribed appropriately to treat infections, there continue to be a large number of inappropriately prescribed antibiotics. Although much of the national attention with regards to stewardship has focused on primary care providers, there is a significant opportunity for surgeons to embrace this national imperative and improve our practices...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Gabor Zilahi, Antonio Artigas, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
Over the last several decades, antibacterial drug use has become widespread with their misuse being an ever-increasing phenomenon. Consequently, antibacterial drugs have become less effective or even ineffective, resulting in a global health security emergency. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) varies widely among regions and countries. The primary aim of antibiotic stewardship programs is to supervise the three most influential factors contributing to the development and transmission of MDROs, namely: (1) appropriate antibiotic prescribing; (2) early detection and prevention of cross-colonization of MDROs; and (3) elimination of reservoirs...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Lívia Viganor, Orla Howe, Pauraic McCarron, Malachy McCann, Michael Devereux
The "antibiotic era", characterized by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, over the last half-century has culminated in the present critical "era of resistance". The treatment of bacterial infections is challenging because of a decline in the current arsenal of useful antibiotics and the slow rate of new drug development. The discovery of a new gene (mcr-1) in 2015, which enables bacteria to be highly resistant to polymyxins (such as colistin), the last line of antibiotic defence left, heralds a new level of concern as this gene is susceptible to horizontal gene transfer, with alarming potential to be spread between different bacterial populations, suggesting that the progression from "extensive drug resistance" to "pan-drug resistance" may be inevitable...
October 3, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Edward Stenehjem, Adam L Hersh, Xiaoming Sheng, Peter Jones, Whitney R Buckel, James F Lloyd, Stephen Howe, R Scott Evans, Tom Greene, Andrew T Pavia
BACKGROUND:  Antibiotic use and misuse is driving drug resistance. Much of US healthcare takes place in small community hospitals (SCHs); 70% of all US hospitals have <200 beds. Antibiotic use in SCHs is poorly described. We evaluated antibiotic use using data from the National Healthcare and Safety Network antimicrobial use option from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS:  We used Intermountain Healthcare's monthly antibiotic use reports for 19 hospitals from 2011 to 2013...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Muhammad Salman Ashraf, Paul P Cook
Antibiotic misuse is common in the United States, but the causes of antibiotic misuse may differ from one health care setting to another. In this commentary, we describe the factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions in hospital, outpatient, and long-term care settings, along with specific measures that can help prevent antibiotic misuse.
September 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
Sandip Paul, Evgeni V Sokurenko, Sujay Chattopadhyay
: Horizontal acquisition of novel chromosomal genes is considered to be a key process in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, identification of gene presence or absence could be hindered by the inconsistencies in bacterial genome annotations. Here, we perform a cross-annotation of omnipresent core and mosaic accessory genes in the chromosome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, across a total of 20 fully-assembled genomes deposited into GenBank. Cross-annotation resulted in 32% increase in the number of core genes and 3 fold drop in genes identified as mosaic (i...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Luke S P Moore, Fran Husson, Alison H Holmes
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is driven by multiple factors. Resolving the threat to human and animal health presented by drug-resistant infections remains a societal challenge that demands close collaboration between scientists and citizens. We compared current public views about key contributing factors to antimicrobial resistance with those expressed by experts. METHODS: Overarching factors contributing to antimicrobial resistance were identified following a review of literature...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
N Krzyżaniak, I Pawłowska, B Bajorek
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: When considering acute care settings, such as the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the inappropriate use of medicines poses a great risk to vulnerable babies at the start of their lives. However, there is limited published literature that explores the current medication management practices in NICUs and where the main misuse issues lie. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to give an overview of medicine use in NICUs worldwide and identify therapeutic areas requiring more targeted pharmaceutical care...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Srinath Satyanarayana, Ada Kwan, Benjamin Daniels, Ramnath Subbaraman, Andrew McDowell, Sofi Bergkvist, Ranendra K Das, Veena Das, Jishnu Das, Madhukar Pai
BACKGROUND: India's total antibiotic use is the highest of any country. Patients often receive prescription-only drugs directly from pharmacies. Here we aimed to assess the medical advice and drug dispensing practices of pharmacies for standardised patients with presumed and confirmed tuberculosis in India. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study in the three Indian cities Delhi, Mumbai, and Patna, we developed two standardised patient cases: first, a patient presenting with 2-3 weeks of pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms (Case 1); and second, a patient with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (Case 2)...
August 24, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Abhijeet Kumar Jha, Rajesh Sinha, Smita Prasad
BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroids (TC) are being misused widely on the face without a prescription from the dermatologist. AIM: To evaluate the misuse of TC-containing preparations on the face and the adverse effects due to its application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire-based analysis was done among patients attending the dermatology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital between March 2014 and March 2015. Patients with various facial dermatoses were asked about their current use of topical preparations and on further followup questioning, those who revealed the use of TCs (25g or more) continuously or intermittently for a minimum duration of four weeks were included in the study and observed for local adverse effects...
July 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are among the drugs most commonly prescribed to children in hospitals and communities. Unfortunately, a great number of these prescriptions are unnecessary or inappropriate. Antibiotic abuse and misuse have several negative consequences, including drug-related adverse events, the emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens, the development of Clostridium difficile infection, the negative impact on microbiota, and undertreatment risks. In this paper, the principle of and strategies for paediatric antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programs, the effects of AS interventions and the common barriers to development and implementation of AS programs are discussed...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Efthymia Giannitsioti, Sofia Athanasia, Diamantis Plachouras, Stavroula Kanellaki, Fani Bobota, Georgia Tzepetzi, Helen Giamarellou
Antibiotics are overused in many European countries, particularly Greece, leading to emerging antimicrobial resistance with sustained high mortality among hospitalised patients. Limited data are available regarding factors influencing people's knowledge and the impact of public campaigns on antibiotic misuse. Patients' beliefs regarding antibiotics were investigated in the outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Athens, Greece. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to examine patients' opinions on antibiotic use in the waiting room of the outpatient clinic...
September 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Elise Launay, Karine Levieux, Corinne Levy, François Dubos, Alain Martinot, Bénédicte Vrignaud, Flora Lepage, Robert Cohen, Emmanuel Grimprel, Matthieu Hanf, François Angoulvant, Christèle Gras-Le Guen
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection is a common cause of consultation and antibiotic prescription in paediatric practice. The misuse of antibiotics is a major cause of the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, changes over time, and determinants of non-compliance with antibiotic prescription recommendations for children admitted in paediatric emergency department (PED) with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: We conducted a prospective two-period study using data from the French pneumonia network that included all children with CAP, aged one month to 15 years old, admitted to one of the ten participating paediatric emergency departments...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Nicolás Rascovan, Amar Telke, Didier Raoult, Jean Marc Rolain, Christelle Desnues
Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a major problem for human health. We analyzed metagenomic datasets from ancient and remote samples from diverse environmental sources and observed the presence of all the eleven antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) groups evaluated. Since ancient samples are not subjected to modern effects of antibiotic misuse, they represent a clean model to explore the natural diversity of ARG in the environment. Most sequences showed high divergence compared to known ARG, representing a much larger universe than the currently known and characterized ARGs...
August 12, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Jerod L Nagel, Keith S Kaye, Kerry L LaPlante, Jason M Pogue
Antibiotic misuse is a serious patient safety concern and a national public health priority. Years of indiscriminant antibiotic use has promoted selection for antibiotic resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile This crisis has led to clinicians being faced with managing untreatable infections, often in the most vulnerable patient populations. This review summarizes the goals of antimicrobial stewardship programs, the essential members needed to initiate a program, various antimicrobial stewardship strategies, the role of the infection control practitioner in stewardship, barriers to its implementation and maintenance, approaches to measure the impact of a program, and the steps needed to initiate a program...
September 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
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