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Research chemicals

Xueyan Zhang, Jianwu Zhang, Lin Li, Yuzhu Zhang, Guocai Yang
Chongqing mountain citrus orchard is one of the main origins of Chinese citrus. Its planting terrain is complex and soil parent material is diverse. Currently, the citrus fertilization, irrigation and other management processes still have great blindness. They usually use the same pattern and the same formula rather than considering the orchard terrain features, soil differences, species characteristics and the state of tree growth. With the help of the ZigBee technology, artificial intelligence and decision support technology, this paper has developed the research on the application technology of agricultural Internet of Things for real-time monitoring of citrus soil moisture and nutrients as well as the research on the integration of fertilization and irrigation decision support system...
February 23, 2017: Sensors
Rong Miao, Junxia Peng, Yu Fang
Low Molecular-Mass Organic Gelator (LMOG)-based molecular gels are known as one of the most attractive soft materials and have received great attention since the early 1990s. In the last few decades, many LMOGs have been synthesized, and a series of theories have been proposed to better understand molecular gels. However, only limited applications of LMOGs have been realized for a variety of reasons, such as their lack of stability compared to chemical gels. Therefore, efforts to explore the applications of these materials are especially meaningful...
February 27, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Joohoon Kang, Vinod K Sangwan, Joshua D Wood, Mark C Hersam
Exfoliation of single-layer graphene from bulk graphite and the subsequent discovery of exotic physics and emergent phenomena in the atomically thin limit has motivated the isolation of other two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials. Early work on isolated 2D nanomaterial flakes has revealed a broad range of unique physical and chemical properties with potential utility in diverse applications. For example, the electronic and optical properties of 2D nanomaterials depend strongly on atomic-scale variations in thickness, enabling enhanced performance in optoelectronic technologies such as light emitters, photodetectors, and photovoltaics...
February 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yunjung Kim, Sunkyu Yu, Namkyoo Park
Graphene plasmonics has become a highlighted research area due to the outstanding properties of deep-subwavelength plasmon excitation, long relaxation time, and electro-optical tunability. Although the giant conductivity of a graphene layer enables the low-dimensional confinement of light, the atomic scale of the layer thickness is severely mismatched with optical mode sizes, which impedes the efficient tuning of graphene plasmon modes from the degraded light-graphene overlap. Inspired by gap plasmon modes in noble metals, here we propose low-dimensional hybrid graphene gap plasmon waves for large light-graphene overlap factor...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Leonardo G Ferreira, Adriano D Andricopulo
Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a broadly used strategy in structure-guided ligand design, whereby low-molecular weight hits move from lead-like to drug-like compounds. Over the past 15 years, an increasingly important role of the integration of these strategies into industrial and academic research platforms has been successfully established, allowing outstanding contributions to drug discovery. One important factor for the current prominence of FBDD is the better coverage of the chemical space provided by fragment-like libraries...
February 24, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Debasish Bandyopadhyay, Bimal K Banik
This review summarizes the potential application of microwave irradiation (dielectric heating) to synthesize biologically important heterocyclic small molecules in the recent past. A huge number of heterocyclic compounds are present in various natural sources like plant, marine microbe or other organisms and many of them possess unique biological activity. In addition to nature-derived heterocyclic compounds, a large number of synthetic heterocycles are being used as medicines. This review describes the relevant recent examples of microwave irradiation to accomplish various chemical transformations accelerated by a variety of catalysts which include, but not limited to, Lewis acids, other metal containing catalysts, organocatalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, phase-transfer catalysts, solid-supported catalysts, inorganic catalysts (bases, acids and salts) and so on...
February 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Remy Sounier, Yinshan Yang, Joanna Hagelberger, Sébastien Granier, Hélène Déméné
Nanobodies are single chain antibodies that have become a highly valuable and versatile tool for biomolecular and therapeutic research. One application field is the stabilization of active states of flexible proteins, among which G-protein coupled receptors represent a very important class of membrane proteins. Here we present the backbone and side-chain assignment of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of Nb33 and Nb39, two nanobodies that recognize and stabilize the µ-opioid receptor to opioids in its active agonist-bound conformation...
February 26, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Jeffrey J Kim, Nicole Sabatelli, Wojtek Tutak, Anthony Giuseppetti, Stanislav Frukhtbeyn, Ian Shaffer, Joshua Wilhide, Denis Routkevitch, John M Ondov
BACKGROUND: Despite the rising health and safety concerns of e-cigarettes, a universal e-cigarette testing method is still in its early developmental stage. The aim of this study was to develop an e-liquid Reference Material that can be used to improve accuracy and reproducibility of research results, and advance health risk assessment of e-cigarette products. METHODS: E-liquid Reference Material was developed by purity assessment, gravimetric measurement, homogeneity testing, and stability testing with material and instrument traceability (adopted from ISO 35:2006E)...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
Sunita J Varjani, Vivek N Upasani
Surfactants are one of the most versatile group of chemicals used in various industrial processes. Their market is competitive, and manufacturers will have to expand surfactant production in ecofriendly and cost effective manner. Increasing interest in biosurfactants led to an intense research for environment friendly and cost-efficient production of biosurfactant. Structural diversity and functional properties of biosurfactants make them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in wide variety of industrial, environmental and biotechnological applications...
February 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Angela Lombardi, Yaron Tomer
Despite substantial advances in the research exploring the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain unknown. We hypothesized in this study that interferon alpha (IFNα) participates in the early stages of T1D development by triggering endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To verify our hypothesis, human islets and human EndoC-βH1 cells were exposed to IFNα and tested for ER stress markers, glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin content. IFNα treatment induced upregulation of ER stress markers including Binding immunoglobulin Protein, phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, spliced- X-box binding protein-1, C/EBP homologous protein and activating transcription factor 4...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
Lars Bohlin, Paco Cárdenas, Anders Backlund, Ulf Göransson
Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
Fangang Meng, Shaoqing Zhang, Yoontaek Oh, Zhongbo Zhou, Hang-Sik Shin, So-Ryong Chae
The goal of the current article is to update new findings in membrane fouling and emerging fouling mitigation strategies reported in recent years (post 2010) as a follow-up to our previous review published in Water Research (2009). According to a systematic review of the literature, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are still actively investigated in the field of wastewater treatment. Notably, membrane fouling remains the most challenging issue in MBR operation and attracts considerable attention in MBR studies. In this review, we summarized the updated information on foulants composition and characteristics in MBRs, which greatly improves our understanding of fouling mechanisms...
February 4, 2017: Water Research
Selvakumar Palanisamy, Sayee Kannan Ramaraj, Shen-Ming Chen, Te-Wei Chiu, Vijayalakshmi Velusamy, Thomas C K Yang, Tse-Wei Chen, Sonadevi Selvam
A simple and cost effective synthesis of nanomaterials with advanced physical and chemical properties have received much attention to the researchers, and is of interest to the researchers from different disciplines. In the present work, we report a simple and one pot electrochemical synthesis of poly(melamine) entrapped gold nanoparticles (PM-AuNPs) composite. The PM-AuNPs composite was prepared by a single step electrochemical method, wherein the AuNPs and PM were simultaneously fabricated on the electrode surface...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jan-Stefan Völler, Nediljko Budisa
Orthogonal protein translation with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) has become a standard method in biosciences. Whereas much effort is made to broaden the chemical space of ncAAs, only few attempts on their systematic low-cost in situ production are reported until now. The main aim is to engineer cells with newly designed biosynthetic pathways coupled with orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs (o-pairs). These should provide cost-effective solutions to industrially relevant bio-production problems, such as peptide/protein production beyond the canonical set of natural molecules and to expand the arsenal of chemistries available for living cells...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Dao-Rui Yu, Li-Ping Ji, Tao Wang, Xi-Nan Yi, Guo-Hui Yi, Tong He, Yong-Xiao Cao, En-Wu Long, Qi-Bing Liu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the chemical structure of the new compound and investigate the protective effects of Tinosporaic acid A and B towards in-vitro neuro. METHODS: The structures of two new compounds were established by analyzing its 1D and 2D NMR spectra as well as HRESIMS. Their neuroprotective effects with respect to the antioxidant properties were evaluated by radical scavenging tests and hydrogen peroxide-injured oxidative stress model in PC12 cell lines...
February 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Yanjun Zhang, Jing Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Kebin He, Mei Zheng
As the key for haze control, atmospheric fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm (or PM2.5) is of great concern lately in China. It is closely linked to fast pace of urbanization, industrialization and economic development, especially in eastern China. A good understanding of its sources is required for effective pollution abatement. Receptor models are one of the major methods for source apportionment used in China. The major objective of this study is to understand sources that contribute to fine particulate matter in China and key challenges in this area...
February 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lucas B Bolzon, Joicy S Dos Santos, Denise B Silva, Eduardo J Crevelin, Luiz A B Moraes, Norberto P Lopes, Marilda D Assis
Apigenin-7-O-glucoside (A7G) is the main flavonoid of Bidens gardneri Bak., a Brazilian plant with wide application in folk medicine. Despite the popular use of this plant, its biological effects are not completely known. This work tested the 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin iron(III) and manganese(III) chloride (Fe(TFPP)Cl and Mn(TFPP)Cl), and Jacobsen's catalyst as P450-bioinspired catalysts for A7G oxidation by different oxidants (PhIO, H2O2, m-CPBA, and t-BuOOH). Up to nine different products were detected by HPLC analysis; Reactions with metalloporphyrin/PhIO systems afforded high catalytic conversions (58-89%)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Xinyang Xu, Bing Zhao, Manli Sun, Xi Chen, Mingchuan Zhang, Haibo Li, Shucong Xu
Co-pyrolysis characteristics of municipal sewage sludge and hazelnut shell blend have been studied in this work. The behavior of co-pyrolysis was researched by a method of multi-heating rates and different blend ratios to analyze thermal decomposition stages. The experimental data of the blended samples in TG-DTG plots were compared with calculated data to investigate the interactions during co-pyrolysis. The bio-chars investigated by SEM and FTIR spectra were used to examine the physical and chemical changes...
February 21, 2017: Waste Management
Shizhe Li, Shu Liu, Zifeng Pi, Fengrui Song, Yongri Jin, Zhiqiang Liu
Fufang Xialian (FXL) capsule, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used for a long time to treat Chronic Atrophic Gastritis, but the pharmacodynamic material basis and mechanism of action are unclear. In this research, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method and DPPH scavenging method were utilized to evaluate the antioxidant activity of FXL in vitro. An ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-IT-MS) method and an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method were utilized to acquire the constituents information of FXL...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
A Yakymovych, H Ipser
The present research focused on the synthesis of Ni and Ni-Sn nanoparticles via a chemical reduction method using hydrazine hydrate. The syntheses were performed applying highly purified water or diethylene glycol as solvent. The produced nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The as-synthesized Ni-Sn nanoparticles with nominal starting ratios Ni:Sn = 3:1, 3:2, and 3:4 consisted of different amounts of pure Ni and a low-temperature Ni3Sn2 phase. It was found that all synthesized nanopowders had a spherical shape with the largest average size for pure Ni and decreasing size for particles containing Sn...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
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