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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539002/from-in-vivo-to-in-vitro-the-medical-device-testing-paradigm-shift
#1
Dayna Kerecman Myers, Alan M Goldberg, Albrecht Poth, Michael F Wolf, Joseph Carraway, James McKim, Kelly P Coleman, Richard Hutchinson, Ronald Brown, Harald F Krug, Anthony Bahinski, Thomas Hartung
Amid growing efforts to advance the replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals in research, there is a growing recognition that in vitro testing of medical devices can be more effective, both in terms of cost and time, and also more reliable than in vivo testing. Although the technological landscape has evolved rapidly in support of these concepts, regulatory acceptance of alternative testing methods has not kept pace. Despite the acceptance by regulators of some in vitro tests (cytotoxicity, gene toxicity, and some hemocompatibility assays), many toxicity tests still rely on animals (irritation, sensitization, acute toxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity), even where other industrial sectors have already abandoned them...
May 25, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538665/molecular-basis-of-alcohol-related-gastric-and-colon-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Na, Ja Young Lee
Many meta-analysis, large cohort studies, and experimental studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric and colon cancer. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), catalase or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. The acetaldehyde level in the stomach and colon is locally influenced by gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori or colonic microbes, as well as polymorphisms in the genes encoding tissue alcohol metabolizing enzymes, especially ALDH2...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538005/a-survey-examining-photopatch-test-and-phototest-methodologies-of-contact-dermatologists-in-the-united-states-platform-for-the-development-of-a-consensus
#3
Eseosa Asemota, Glen Crawford, Carrie Kovarik, Bruce A Brod
BACKGROUND: There is currently no standardized protocol for photopatch testing and phototesting in the United States. Certain testing paramaters (such as chemicals tested, time between test application and irradiation, and time of final interpretation) vary from provider to provider. These variations may impact comparability and consistency of test results. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our survey-based study was to outline the photopatch test and phototest protocols used by US contact dermatologists...
May 23, 2017: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537935/cardiovascular-toxicity-of-abacavir-a-clinical-controversy-in-need-of-a-pharmacological-explanation
#4
Angeles Alvarez, Samuel Orden, Isabel Andújar, Victor Collado-Diaz, Sara Núñez-Delgado, Maria Jose Galindo, Vicente Estrada, Nadezda Apostolova, Juan V Esplugues
: There is a long-lasting controversy surrounding an association between Abacavir (ABC) and an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease in HIV-positive subjects. While differing in their specifics, a number of published cohort studies and clinical trials support such an association, usually relating it to recent exposure to the drug, independently of traditional predisposing factors. However, other clinical trials have failed to reveal such a relation, and have pointed to methodological differences to explain discrepancies...
May 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537748/pesticide-interactions-mechanisms-benefits-and-risks
#5
John E Casida
Interactions between pesticides at common molecular targets and detoxification systems often determine their effectiveness and safety. Compounds with the same mode of action or target are candidates for cross resistance and restrictions in their recommended uses. Discovery research is therefore focused on new mechanisms and modes of action. Interactions in detoxification systems also provide cross resistance and synergist and safener mechanisms illustrated with serine hydrolases and inhibitors, cytochrome P450s and insecticide synergists, and glutathione S-transferases and herbicide safeners...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535423/chromatographic-separation-and-detection-methods-of-aloe-arborescens-miller-constituents-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Jilan A Nazeam, Haidy A Gad, Hala M El-Hefnawy, Abdel-Naser B Singab
Aloe arborescens Miller (Family Asphodelaceae) is a member of genus Aloe, which is used in traditional medicine to cure various diseases. The extracts of the plant have been reported to possess anticancer, immunomodulator, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The phytochemical investigations have revealed diverse chemical constituents, including phenolics [anthraquinones, anthrones, pyrones, chromones and coumarins], polysaccharides [arborans [(1-4) linked glucomannans, polysaccharide (A, B and C): (A: a linear (1-6)-O-α-glucan, B: a branching (1-2)-O-l-arabinose with (1-2)-O-d-galactose linkages and C: (1-4)-O-β-mannan with 18% acetyl group)]], glycoproteins and carboxypeptidase enzyme...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534867/unique-identifiers-for-small-molecules-enable-rigorous-labeling-of-their-atoms
#7
Hesam Dashti, William M Westler, John L Markley, Hamid R Eghbalnia
Rigorous characterization of small organic molecules in terms of their structural and biological properties is vital to biomedical research. The three-dimensional structure of a molecule, its 'photo ID', is inefficient for searching and matching tasks. Instead, identifiers play a key role in accessing compound data. Unique and reproducible molecule and atom identifiers are required to ensure the correct cross-referencing of properties associated with compounds archived in databases. The best approach to this requirement is the International Chemical Identifier (InChI)...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534859/workplace-hazards-faced-by-nursing-assistants-in-the-united-states-a-focused-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
AnnMarie Lee Walton, Bonnie Rogers
Nursing assistants (NAs) make up a large share of the healthcare provider workforce and their numbers are expected to grow. NAs are predominantly women who earn a low wage and report financial, work, and family demands. Working as a NA is hazardous; this manuscript specifically examines the biological/infectious, chemical, enviromechanical, physical and psychosocial hazards that appear in the literature to date. A focused search strategy was used to review literature about hazards that fell into each of the five aforementioned domains...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534207/construction-of-polyarylenes-with-various-structural-features-via-bergman-cyclization-polymerization
#9
REVIEW
Youfu Wang, Shudan Chen, Aiguo Hu
Synthetic polymer chemistry is a fundamental part of polymer science, and highly efficient polymerization reactions are essential for the synthesis of high-performance polymers. Development of new synthetic methods for emerging polymer science is of great importance in this regard. Bergman cyclization is a chemical process in which highly reactive aryl diradicals form from enediyne precursors, having a strong impact in a number of fields including pharmaceutics, synthetic chemistry, and materials science. Diradical intermediates stemming from enediynes can cause DNA cleavage under physiological conditions, leading to the strong cytotoxicity of many naturally occurring enediyne antibiotics...
June 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533985/metabarcoding-monitoring-analysis-the-pros-and-cons-of-using-co-extracted-environmental-dna-and-rna-data-to-assess-offshore-oil-production-impacts-on-benthic-communities
#10
Olivier Laroche, Susanna A Wood, Louis A Tremblay, Gavin Lear, Joanne I Ellis, Xavier Pochon
Sequencing environmental DNA (eDNA) is increasingly being used as an alternative to traditional morphological-based identification to characterize biological assemblages and monitor anthropogenic impacts in marine environments. Most studies only assess eDNA which, compared to eRNA, can persist longer in the environment after cell death. Therefore, eRNA may provide a more immediate census of the environment due to its relatively weaker stability, leading some researchers to advocate for the use of eRNA as an additional, or perhaps superior proxy for portraying ecological changes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533633/photolithography-free-laser-patterned-hf-acid-resistant-chromium-polyimide-mask-for-rapid-fabrication-of-microfluidic-systems-in-glass
#11
Konstantin O Zamuruyev, Yuriy Zrodnikov, Cristina E Davis
Excellent chemical and physical properties of glass, over a range of operating conditions, make it a preferred material for chemical detection systems in analytical chemistry, biology, and the environmental sciences. However, it is often compromised with SU8, PDMS, or Parylene materials due to the sophisticated mask preparation requirements for wet etching of glass. Here, we report our efforts toward developing a photolithography-free laser-patterned hydrofluoric acid-resistant chromium-polyimide tape mask for rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in glass...
January 2017: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering: Structures, Devices, and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533120/evaluation-of-new-chemical-entities-as-substrates-of-liver-transporters-in-the-pharmaceutical-industry-response-to-regulatory-requirements-and-future-steps
#12
Noriko Okudaira
This article discusses the evaluation of drug candidates as hepatic transporter substrates. Recently, research on the applications of hepatic transporters in the pharmaceutical industry has improved to meet the requirements of the regulatory guidelines for the evaluation of drug interactions. To identify the risk of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at an early stage of drug development, we employed a strategy of reviewing the in vivo animal pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution data obtained in the discovery stage together with the in vitro data obtained for regulatory submission...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532524/is-maternal-periconceptional-smoking-associated-with-2d-4d-digit-ratio-in-their-children
#13
M P Velez, T E Arbuckle, P Monnier, W D Fraser
The 2nd--4th finger ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a potential indicator of greater androgen exposure during fetal development. Maternal periconceptional smoking may alter the homeostasis of fetal androgens, which could in turn result in differential development of 2D:4Ds in utero. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of maternal periconceptional smoking (i.e. 1 year before through the first trimester of pregnancy) on the 2D:4D of children within The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532037/multifactor-analysis-on-the-effect-of-collagen-concentration-cross-linking-and-fiber-pore-orientation-on-chemical-microstructural-mechanical-and-biological-properties-of-collagen-type-i-scaffolds
#14
E Suesca, A M A Dias, M E M Braga, H C de Sousa, M R Fontanilla
This work evaluates the effect of processing variables on some physicochemical and mechanical properties of multi- and unidirectional laminar collagen type I scaffolds. The processing variables considered in this study included microstructure orientation (uni- and multidirectional fiber/pore controlled by freeze-drying methodology), cross-linking (chemical - using genipin and glutaraldehyde, and physical - using a dehydrothermal method), and collagen concentration (2, 5 and 8mg/ml). The biocompatibility of the scaffolds obtained in each of the evaluated manufacturing processes was also assessed...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532026/high-performance-hydrogen-sensor-based-on-mn-implanted-zno-nanowires-array-fabricated-on-ito-substrate
#15
A Renitta, K Vijayalakshmi
In the present research, we propose a novel approach for the detection of hydrogen gas using Mn implanted ZnO nanowires fabricated onto ITO coated glass substrate by chemical spray pyrolysis deposition. The effect of Mn concentration on the structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO films were investigated. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the Mn implanted ZnO films were grown as a polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite phase without any impurities. The (101) peak position of ZnO-Mn films was shifted towards a lower angle with increasing Mn concentration...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532014/advanced-review-of-graphene-based-nanomaterials-in-drug-delivery-systems-synthesis-modification-toxicity-and-application
#16
REVIEW
Qi Zhang, Zhuona Wu, Ning Li, Yiqiong Pu, Bing Wang, Tong Zhang, Jiansheng Tao
The discovery of graphene, a notable achievement in the field of novel carbon nanomaterials, has triggered the worldwide exploration of the biomedical applications of this material since 2004 because of its unique properties. The two-dimensional planar structure, large surface area, chemical stability, mechanical stability, and good biocompatibility of graphene are promising for applications in drug delivery systems (DDSs). In this review, we briefly discuss the characteristics, synthesis, and modification of graphene...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531973/properties-and-toughening-mechanisms-of-pva-pam-double-network-hydrogels-prepared-by-freeze-thawing-and-anneal-swelling
#17
Kangkang Ou, Xia Dong, Chengling Qin, Xinan Ji, Jinxin He
It is well known that preparation method of hydrogels has a significant effect on their properties. In this paper, freeze-thawing and anneal-swelling were applied to prepare poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide (PVA/PAM) double-network hydrogels with covalently and physically cross-linked networks. The properties of these hydrogels were investigated and compared to control hydrogels. Results indicated that hydrogels fabricated by freeze-thawing show larger pores size and higher swelling capacity than those made by anneal-swelling and control hydrogels...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531345/plastic-and-human-health-a-micro-issue
#18
Stephanie L Wright, Frank J Kelly
Microplastics are a pollutant of environmental concern. Their presence in food destined for human consumption and in air samples has been reported. Thus, microplastic exposure via diet or inhalation could occur, the human health effects of which are unknown. The current review article draws upon cross-disciplinary scientific literature to discuss and evaluate the potential human health impacts of microplastics and outlines urgent areas for future research. Key literature up to September 2016 relating to bioaccumulation, particle toxicity, and chemical and microbial contaminants were critically examined...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531339/limtox-a-web-tool-for-applied-text-mining-of-adverse-event-and-toxicity-associations-of-compounds-drugs-and-genes
#19
Andres Cañada, Salvador Capella-Gutierrez, Obdulia Rabal, Julen Oyarzabal, Alfonso Valencia, Martin Krallinger
A considerable effort has been devoted to retrieve systematically information for genes and proteins as well as relationships between them. Despite the importance of chemical compounds and drugs as a central bio-entity in pharmacological and biological research, only a limited number of freely available chemical text-mining/search engine technologies are currently accessible. Here we present LimTox (Literature Mining for Toxicology), a web-based online biomedical search tool with special focus on adverse hepatobiliary reactions...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530760/group-iii-nitride-nanomaterials-for-biosensing
#20
REVIEW
Xiao Li, Xinyu Liu
Biosensing has found wide applications in biological and medical research, and in clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and other analytical tasks. Recognized as novel and outstanding transducing materials because of their superior and unique physical/chemical properties, group III nitride (III-nitride) nanomaterials have been introduced into biosensor development with remarkable advancements achieved in the past few decades. This paper presents the first comprehensive review on biosensor development with III-nitride nanomaterials...
May 22, 2017: Nanoscale
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