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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637328/diesel-engine-exhaust-basis-for-occupational-exposure-limit-value
#1
Piia Taxell, Tiina Santonen
Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition...
June 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636959/the-enteric-network-interactions-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-of-the-gut
#2
REVIEW
Bryan B Yoo, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636878/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharide-alleviates-nonylphenol-exposure-induced-testicular-injury-in-juvenile-zebrafish
#3
Ze-Yong Tang, Dong Sun, Chun-Wei Qian, Qi Chen, Shun-Shan Duan, Sheng-Yun Sun
Nonylphenol is an endocrine disrupting chemicals that can disrupt the organisms' reproductive system, and exists widely in rivers and lakes. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is the main active constituent (about 10%) in Lycium barbarum, which is used to protect reproductive health. In this study, we investigated whether LBP can alleviate nonylphenol exposure induced testicular injury in juvenile zebrafish. We detected histological alteration, anti-oxidant enzyme profile and P450 gene transcription to assess LBP effect on testicular development...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636761/molecular-tools-for-facilitative-carbohydrate-transporters
#4
Marina Tanasova, Joseph R Fedie
Facilitative carbohydrate transporters - Gluts - have received a wide attention over decades due to their essential role in the nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors into understanding mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in the multidisciplinary research field, branching protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics...
June 21, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636311/insights-into-integrated-lead-generation-and-target-identification-in-malaria-and-tuberculosis-drug-discovery
#5
John Okombo, Kelly Chibale
New, safe and effective drugs are urgently needed to treat and control malaria and tuberculosis, which affect millions of people annually. However, financial return on investment in the poor settings where these diseases are mostly prevalent is very minimal to support market-driven drug discovery and development. Moreover, the imminent loss of therapeutic lifespan of existing therapies due to evolution and spread of drug resistance further compounds the urgency to identify novel effective drugs. However, the advent of new public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases and the recent release of large data sets by pharmaceutical companies on antimalarial and antituberculosis compounds derived from phenotypic whole cell high throughput screening have spurred renewed interest and opened new frontiers in malaria and tuberculosis drug discovery...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636309/quantitative-chemical-proteomic-profiling-of-the-in-vivo-targets-of-reactive-drug-metabolites
#6
Landon R Whitby, R Scott Obach, Gabriel M Simon, Matthew M Hayward, Benjamin F Cravatt
Idiosyncratic liver toxicity represents an important problem in drug research and pharmacotherapy. Reactive drug metabolites that modify proteins are thought to be a principal factor in drug-induced liver injury. Here, we describe a quantitative chemical proteomic method to identify the targets of reactive drug metabolites in vivo. Treating mice with clickable analogues of four representative hepatotoxic drugs, we demonstrate extensive covalent binding that is confined primarily to the liver. Each drug exhibited a distinct target profile that, in certain cases, showed strong enrichment for specific metabolic pathways (e...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636099/spectators-or-participants-how-can-setac-become-more-engaged-in-international-climate-change-research-programs
#7
Ralph G Stahl, Jennifer L Stauber, William H Clements
Environmental toxicologists and chemists have been crucial to evaluating the chemical fate and toxicological effects of environmental contaminants, including chlorinated pesticides, before and after Rachel Carson's publication of Silent Spring in 1962. Like chlorinated pesticides previously, global climate change is widely considered to be one of the most important environmental challenges of our time. Over the past 30 yr, climate scientists and modelers have shown that greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 cause radiative forcing (climate forcing) and lead to increased global temperatures...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635627/molecular-quantum-similarity-chemical-reactivity-and-database-screening-of-3d-pharmacophores-of-the-protein-kinases-a-b-and-g-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the world's most devastating pathogens. For this reason, we developed a study involving 3D pharmacophore searching, selectivity analysis and database screening for a series of anti-tuberculosis compounds, associated with the protein kinases A, B, and G. This theoretical study is expected to shed some light onto some molecular aspects that could contribute to the knowledge of the molecular mechanics behind interactions of these compounds, with anti-tuberculosis activity...
June 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635141/high-sensitivity-non-invasive-detection-of-calcifications-deep-inside-biological-tissue-using-transmission-raman-spectroscopy
#9
Adrian Ghita, Pavel Matousek, Nick Stone
The aim of this research was to develop a novel approach to probe non-invasively the composition of inorganic chemicals buried deep in large volume biological samples. The method is based on advanced Transmission Raman Spectroscopy (TRS) permitting chemical specific detection within a large sampling volume. The approach could be beneficial to chemical identification of the breast calcifications detected during mammographic X-ray procedures. The chemical composition of a breast calcification reflects the pathology of the surrounding tissue, malignant or benign and potentially the grade of malignancy...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635119/the-detection-and-prevention-of-unintentional-consumption-of-dox-and-25x-nbome-at-portugal-s-boom-festival
#10
Daniel Martins, Monica J Barratt, Cristiana Vale Pires, Helena Carvalho, Mireia Ventura, Iván Fornís, Helena Valente
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the misrepresentation of LSD at Portugal's Boom Festival 2014 and the prevention of unintentional consumption of DOx and 25x-NBOMe among LSD consumers attending a drug-checking service. METHODS: Two hundred forty-five drug samples expected to contain LSD were submitted to the drug-checking service for chemical analysis. One hundred ten post-test questionnaires were successfully matched with test results. RESULTS: About 67...
June 21, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634795/high-toxicity-of-camphene-and-%C3%AE-elemene-from-wedelia-prostrata-essential-oil-against-larvae-of-spodoptera-litura-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#11
Giovanni Benelli, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Mohamad S AlSalhi, Sandhanasamy Devanesan, Filippo Maggi
The development of eco-friendly biopesticides in the fight against agricultural pests is an important challenge nowadays. The essential oil of Wedelia prostrata Hemsl. is known for its multipurpose biological activities in Chinese folk medicine. However, limited efforts attempted to understand the potential insecticidal activity of its main individual constituents and related mechanism of action. In this research, we investigated the insecticidal activity of W. prostrata against the crop pest Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634775/hydrophilic-acylated-surface-protein-a-haspa-of-leishmania-donovani-expression-purification-and-biophysico-chemical-characterization
#12
Manoj Kumar, Kishu Ranjan, Vijay Singh, Chandramani Pathak, Anju Pappachan, Desh Deepak Singh
Hydrophilic acylated surface proteins (HASPs) are acidic surface proteins which get localized on the surface of Leishmania parasite during infective stages through a "non-classical" pathway. In this study, we report the heterologous expression and purification of Leishmania donovani HASPA (r-LdHASPA) in E. coli system and its partial characterization. The structural aspects of the purified protein were analyzed using CD spectroscopy and modeling studies which indicate that r-LdHASPA consists of random coils...
June 21, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634758/a-general-double-library-selex-strategy-for-aptamer-selection-using-unmodified-nonimmobilized-targets
#13
Kyung Hyun Lee, Huaqiang Zeng
Aptamer discovery for unmodified nonimmobilized targets has been constantly presenting itself as a significant challenge to the research community. We demonstrate here a novel double library (DL) SELEX strategy and its usefulness and generality toward discovering both ssDNA- and RNA-based aptamers with nanomolar binding affinities toward unmodified targets of both small (e.g., doxycycline) and large (e.g., VEGF165) sizes. The same selection strategy further allows for concurrent selection of an aptamer pair, recognizing discrete epitopes on the same protein, from the same selection cycles for the sandwich aptamer pair-based biosensor development (e...
June 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634124/cell-disruption-and-lipid-extraction-for-microalgal-biorefineries-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Soo Youn Lee, Jun Muk Cho, Yong Keun Chang, You-Kwan Oh
The microalgae-based biorefinement process has attracted much attention from academic and industrial researchers attracted to its biofuel, food and nutraceutical applications. In this paper, recent developments in cell-disruption and lipid-extraction methods, focusing on four biotechnologically important microalgal species (namely, Chlamydomonas, Haematococcus, Chlorella, and Nannochloropsis spp.), are reviewed. The structural diversity and rigidity of microalgal cell walls complicate the development of efficient downstream processing methods for cell-disruption and subsequent recovery of intracellular lipid and pigment components...
June 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634068/investigation-of-changes-in-endocannabinoids-and-n-acylethanolamides-in-biofluids-and-their-correlations-with-female-infertility
#15
Jun Ding, Xiao-Tong Luo, Yan-Ru Yao, Hua-Ming Xiao, Ming-Quan Guo
Female infertility is a worldwide medical problem, and the scarcity of infertility biomarkers has hindered the ability to launch preventive and therapeutic measures in a timely manner. Intriguingly, alterations in endocannabinoids (eCBs) and N-acylethanolamides (NAEs) have been observed in the biofluids of infertile females. Therefore, a hypothesis of using eCB and NAEs in biofluids as infertility biomarkers was proposed by several researchers; however, little evidence exists to verify the hypothesis. To investigate their correlations with female infertility, we developed a magnetic liquid microextraction-chemical derivatization (MLME-CD) method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of eCBs and NAEs in biofluids...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633857/state-of-the-art-on-ultrasonic-oil-production-technique-for-eor-in-china
#16
Zhenjun Wang, Congbo Yin
Ultrasonic oil production technique for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) attracts more attention due to its high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution to the oil reservoir. In this paper, recent new downhole tools used for enhanced oil recovery developed in China are summarized. Furthermore, research advance on some key problems that affect the widespread application of ultrasonic oil production technique in China are also summarized in view of what are the primary factors that influence crude oil paraffin inhibition and viscosity reduction, whether ultrasonic excitation is better than chemical agent for any plugs removal and whether ultrasound-chemical combination plug removal technology has the best plugs removal effect...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633564/energy-harvesting-from-the-animal-human-body-for-self-powered-electronics
#17
Canan Dagdeviren, Zhou Li, Zhong Lin Wang
Living subjects (i.e., humans and animals) have abundant sources of energy in chemical, thermal, and mechanical forms. The use of these energies presents a viable way to overcome the battery capacity limitation that constrains the long-term operation of wearable/implantable devices. The intersection of novel materials and fabrication techniques offers boundless possibilities for the benefit of human health and well-being via various types of energy harvesters. This review summarizes the existing approaches that have been demonstrated to harvest energy from the bodies of living subjects for self-powered electronics...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633563/mammalian-synthetic-biology-engineering-biological-systems
#18
Joshua B Black, Pablo Perez-Pinera, Charles A Gersbach
The programming of new functions into mammalian cells has tremendous application in research and medicine. Continued improvements in the capacity to sequence and synthesize DNA have rapidly increased our understanding of mechanisms of gene function and regulation on a genome-wide scale and have expanded the set of genetic components available for programming cell biology. The invention of new research tools, including targetable DNA-binding systems such as CRISPR/Cas9 and sensor-actuator devices that can recognize and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and optical inputs, has enabled precise control of complex cellular behaviors at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633560/bioinspired-hydrogels-to-engineer-cancer-microenvironments
#19
Kyung Min Park, Daniel Lewis, Sharon Gerecht
Recent research has demonstrated that tumor microenvironments play pivotal roles in tumor development and metastasis through various physical, chemical, and biological factors, including extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, matrix remodeling, oxygen tension, pH, cytokines, and matrix stiffness. An emerging trend in cancer research involves the creation of engineered three-dimensional tumor models using bioinspired hydrogels that accurately recapitulate the native tumor microenvironment. With recent advances in materials engineering, many researchers are developing engineered tumor models, which are promising platforms for the study of cancer biology and for screening of therapeutic agents for better clinical outcomes...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633539/a-survey-on-chemical-constituents-and-indications-of-aromatic-waters-soft-drinks-hydrosols-used-in-persian-nutrition-culture-and-folk-medicine-for-neurological-disorders-and-mental-health
#20
Azadeh Hamedi, Ardalan Pasdaran, Zahra Zebarjad, Mahmoodreza Moein
In Persian nutrition culture, drinking aromatic waters (hydrosols, distillate) has a long history as functional beverages or therapeutic remedies. The co-distilled water with essential oils, which contains partial amounts of more water-soluble volatile compounds are diluted and used as beverages. Since the solubility of volatile components is different in water, the overall composition, and thus the biological activities of aromatic waters seem to be different from the essential oils they were co-distilled with...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
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