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Research chemicals

Hamid Reza Rajabi, Fatemeh Karimi, Hossein Kazemdehdashti, Leila Kavoshi
In this research, a sono-assisted chemical precipitation method was developed for a quick and efficient water-based synthesis of zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs), in room temperature. ZnS QDs as pure and doped with some transition metal ions (such as Cu2+ , Mn2+ , Ag+ ) were prepared in the presence of l-cysteine, as capping agent. In comparison with the previous conventional methods, applying the ultrasonic irradiation provides a significant decrease in the reaction time. In comparison with previous reported conventional chemical QD synthesis methods, the required time for a complete synthesis in the presence of ultrasonic irradiations was significantly reduced to a period as short as 15 min, in a temperature of 40 °C...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jay K Bhattarai, Dharmendra Neupane, Bishal Nepal, Vasilii Mikhaylov, Alexei V Demchenko, Keith J Stine
Nanoporous gold (np-Au), because of its high surface area-to-volume ratio, excellent conductivity, chemical inertness, physical stability, biocompatibility, easily tunable pores, and plasmonic properties, has attracted much interested in the field of nanotechnology. It has promising applications in the fields of catalysis, bio/chemical sensing, drug delivery, biomolecules separation and purification, fuel cell development, surface-chemistry-driven actuation, and supercapacitor design. Many chemical and electrochemical procedures are known for the preparation of np-Au...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jeiwan Tan, Wooseok Yang, Yunjung Oh, Hyungsoo Lee, Jaemin Park, Jooho Moon
Amorphous molybdenum sulfide (a-MoSx) is a promising hydrogen evolution catalyst owing to its low cost and high activity. A simple electrodeposition method (cyclic voltammetry) allows uniform formation of a-MoSx films on conductive surfaces. However, the morphology of a-MoSx, deposited on a TiO2/Sb2Se3 photocathode could be modulated by varying the starting potential. The cathodically initiated a-MoSx showed conformal film-like morphology, while anodic initiation induced inhomogeneous particulate deposition...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Berc Kalanyan, William A Kimes, Ryan Beams, Stephan J Stranick, Elias Garratt, Irina Kalish, Albert V Davydov, Ravindra K Kanjolia, James E Maslar
High volume manufacturing of devices based on transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) ultra-thin films will require deposition techniques that are capable of reproducible wafer-scale growth with monolayer control. To date, TMD growth efforts have largely relied upon sublimation and transport of solid precursors with minimal control over vapor phase flux and gas-phase chemistry, which are critical for scaling up laboratory processes to manufacturing settings. To address these issues, we report a new pulsed metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) route for MoS2 film growth in a research-grade single-wafer reactor...
August 8, 2017: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
Shelby Meier, Assaf A Gilad, J Anthony Brandon, Chenghao Qian, Erhe Gao, Jose F Abisambra, Moriel Vandsburger
Research into gene therapy for heart failure has gained renewed interest as a result of improved safety and availability of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV). While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is standard for functional assessment of gene therapy outcomes, quantitation of gene transfer/expression relies upon tissue biopsy, fluorescence or nuclear imaging. Imaging of gene expression through the use of genetically encoded chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)-MRI reporter genes could be combined with clinical cardiac MRI methods to comprehensively probe therapeutic gene expression and subsequent outcomes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Audrius Gegeckas, Aistė Šimkutė, Renata Gudiukaitė, Donaldas Jonas Čitavičius
Solid keratin-rich waste management is one of essential research area in nowadays. Conventional chemical and high thermal keratin waste decomposition methods are fully explored and not enough effective for future biotechnology perspectives. However, traditional keratin-rich waste decomposition methods could be replaced by environmentally-friendly and economical microbial keratin waste biodegradation methods without energy wastage and essential amino acids and nutrition elements loss. In this study BPKer and BAKer keratinolytic peptidases from Bacillus sp...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Wei Li, Navaneethakrishnan Polachi, Xiangyang Wang, Yang Chu, Yuan Wang, Meng Tian, Dekun Li, Dazheng Zhou, Shuiping Zhou, Aichun Ju, Yubo Li, Yanjun Zhang, Min Chen, Luqi Huang, Changxiao Liu
BACKGROUND: The quality of Chinese medicine (CM) has being an active and challenging research area for CM. Prof. Chang-Xiao Liu et al first proposed the concept of quality marker (Q-Marker) for the quality evaluation and control on CM. This article describe the exploratory studies of Q-Marker in salvianolic acids for injection (SAI) based on this new concept. PURPOSE: This study was designed to screen Q-Marker of SAI and establish its quality control method based on the concept of CM Q-Marker...
February 10, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Samane Zare, Mehdi Nemati, Yuqing Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type. METHOD: A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type...
2018: PloS One
Cristina Rodríguez-Seco, Lydia Cabau, Anton Vidal-Ferran, Emilio Palomares
Over hundreds of new organic semiconductor molecules have been synthesized as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells. However, to date, the well-known N2 , N2 , N2' , N2' , N7 , N7 , N7' , octakis-(4-methoxyphenyl)-9,9-spirobi-[9,9'-spirobi[9 H-fluorene]-2,2',7,7'-tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD) is still the best choice for the best perovskite device performance. Nevertheless, there is a consensus that spiro-OMeTAD by itself is not stable enough for long-term stable devices, and its market price makes its use in large-scale production costly...
March 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Kasun Karunanayaka, Nurafiqah Johari, Surina Hariri, Hanis Camelia, Kevin Stanley Bielawski, Adrian David Cheok
Today's virtual reality (VR) applications such as gaming, multisensory entertainment, remote dining, and online shopping are mainly based on audio, visual, and touch interactions between humans and virtual worlds. Integrating the sense of taste into VR is difficult since humans are dependent on chemical-based taste delivery systems. This paper presents the 'Thermal Taste Machine', a new digital taste actuation technology that can effectively produce and modify thermal taste sensations on the tongue. It modifies the temperature of the surface of the tongue within a short period of time (from 25°C to 40 °C while heating, and from 25°C to 10 °C while cooling)...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Giacomo Reina, Ngoc Do Quyen Chau, Yuta Nishina, Alberto Bianco
Several studies have demonstrated the ability of graphene oxide (GO) to efficiently adsorb small-interfering RNA (siRNA) on its surface and to transport it into cells. However, studies on whether and how siRNA interacts with GO are still inconclusive. In this context, understanding the interaction between GO and siRNA is fundamental to design new efficient gene silencing tools. In this work, the interactions between GO and siRNA molecules were systematically investigated. We focused on how the GO size, oxygenated groups present on the surface and chemical functionalization affect the double helix siRNA structure, using gel electrophoresis, UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and circular dichroism (CD)...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Kentaro Teramura, Tsunehiro Tanaka
Artificial photosynthesis has recently drawn an increasing amount of attention due to the fact that it allows for direct solar-to-chemical energy conversion. However, one of the basic steps of this process, namely the reduction of CO2 by H2 O to afford O2 and CO2 reduction products (CO2 RPs) such as HCOOH, CO, HCHO, CH3 OH, and CH4 , is very difficult to achieve. In contrast to the CO2 reduction in plants and homogenous systems, the reduction of CO2 to CO2 RPs over heterogeneous photocatalysts was challenged by the competing reduction of H+ to H2 ...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
David R Glenn, Dominik B Bucher, Junghyun Lee, Mikhail D Lukin, Hongkun Park, Ronald L Walsworth
Quantum systems that consist of solid-state electronic spins can be sensitive detectors of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals, particularly from very small samples. For example, nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond have been used to record NMR signals from nanometre-scale samples, with sensitivity sufficient to detect the magnetic field produced by a single protein. However, the best reported spectral resolution for NMR of molecules using nitrogen-vacancy centres is about 100 hertz. This is insufficient to resolve the key spectral identifiers of molecular structure that are critical to NMR applications in chemistry, structural biology and materials research, such as scalar couplings (which require a resolution of less than ten hertz) and small chemical shifts (which require a resolution of around one part per million of the nuclear Larmor frequency)...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Kenji Kobayashi, Yutaka Satou
Microinjection is a common technique used to deliver nucleic acids into eggs and embryos in Ciona species. There are three Ciona species that are commonly used for research-Ciona intestinalis type A (C. robusta), C. intestinalis type B (C. intestinalis), and C. savignyi. Here, we present the microinjection methods using eggs and embryos of C. intestinalis type A and C. savignyi; however, our methods would also be applicable to eggs and embryos of C. intestinalis type B. Microinjection is a classical and widely used delivery method, which involves the use of a glass micropipette, a hollow glass needle with a microscopic tip, to inject nucleic acids into eggs and embryos under a stereo microscope...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Seong Lin Teoh
Acrylamide (AA) is a water soluble white crystalline solid commonly used in industries. It was listed as an industrial chemical with potential carcinogenic properties. However to date, AA was used to produce polyacrylamide polymer, which was widely used as a coagulant in water treatment; additives during papermaking; grouting material for dams, tunnels, and other underground building constructions. AA in food could be formed during high-temperature cooking via several mechanisms, i.e., formation via acrylic acid which may be derived from the degradation of lipid, carbohydrates, or free amino acids; formation via the dehydration/decarboxylation of organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid); and direct formation from amino acids...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Fan-Cheng Meng, Zheng-Feng Wu, Zhi-Qi Yin, Li-Gen Lin, Ruibing Wang, Qing-Wen Zhang
Background: Coptidis rhizoma (CR) is the dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch., C. deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao or C. teeta Wall. (Ranunculaceae) and is commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of various diseases including bacillary dysentery, typhoid, tuberculosis, epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, empyrosis, pertussis, and other illnesses. Methods: A literature survey was conducted via SciFinder, ScieneDirect, PubMed, Springer, and Wiley databases...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Kelly A Campen, Katherine M Kucharczyk, Benjamin Bogin, Julie M Ehrlich, Catherine M H Combelles
STUDY QUESTION: What are the effects of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) or bisphenol S (BPS) during IVM on bovine oocyte maturation, spindle morphology and chromosome alignment? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to BPA or BPS during IVM resulted in increased spindle abnormalities and chromosome misalignment, even at very low concentrations. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: BPA is an endocrine disrupting chemical that alters oocyte maturation, spindle morphology and chromosome alignment in a range of species...
March 12, 2018: Human Reproduction
Thomas P Karbanowicz, Amanda Nouwens, Ala E Tabor, Manuel Rodriguez-Valle
Tick populations are controlled through the application of chemical pesticides. However, the rise in chemical resistance has prompted the investigation of other control methods such as the use of tick vaccines. Proteomic analysis provides valuable information about the possible function and localization of proteins, as candidate vaccine proteins are often either secreted or localized on the cell-surface membrane. Progress in the utilization of proteomics for the identification of novel treatment targets has been significant...
March 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
James C Courtenay, Ram I Sharma, Janet L Scott
Tissue engineering is a rapidly advancing field in regenerative medicine, with much research directed towards the production of new biomaterial scaffolds with tailored properties to generate functional tissue for specific applications. Recently, principles of sustainability, eco-efficiency and green chemistry have begun to guide the development of a new generation of materials, such as cellulose, as an alternative to conventional polymers based on conversion of fossil carbon (e.g., oil) and finding technologies to reduce the use of animal and human derived biomolecules (e...
March 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kevin M Walters, Gwenith G Fisher, Liliana Tenney
BACKGROUND: Understanding worker health and safety in the rapidly growing legal U.S. cannabis industry is important. Although little published research exists, workers may be exposed to biological, chemical, and physical hazards. This study investigated the Colorado cannabis industry workforce and both physical and psychosocial hazards to worker health and safety. METHODS: Two hundred and fourteen Colorado cannabis workers completed an online survey after in-person and online recruitment...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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