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Methamphetamine manufacture

Jackie Wright, Michaela E Kenneally, John W Edwards, G Stewart Walker
The manufacture of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories occurs in various locations, including residential houses and apartments. Unlike the controlled manufacture of chemicals and drugs, clandestine manufacture results in the uncontrolled storage, use, generation, and disposal of a wide range of chemicals and the deposit of methamphetamine drug residues on indoor surfaces (1). These residues have been found at high levels on porous and nonporous surfaces and have been shown to persist for months to years (1)...
January 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
M V Nair, G M Miskelly
Clandestine laboratories pose a serious health risk to first responders, investigators, decontamination companies, and the public who may be inadvertently exposed to methamphetamine and other chemicals used in its manufacture. Therefore there is an urgent need for reliable methods to detect and measure methamphetamine at such sites. The most common method for determining methamphetamine contamination at former clandestine laboratory sites is selected surface wipe sampling, followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
November 2016: Forensic Science International
Hun Joo Lee, Eunyoung Han, Jaesin Lee, Heesun Chung, Sung-Gi Min
The aim of this study is to improve resolution of impurity peaks using a newly devised normalization algorithm for multi-internal standards (ISs) and to describe a visual peak selection system (VPSS) for efficient support of impurity profiling. Drug trafficking routes, location of manufacture, or synthetic route can be identified from impurities in seized drugs. In the analysis of impurities, different chromatogram profiles are obtained from gas chromatography and used to examine similarities between drug samples...
November 2016: Forensic Science International
Jackie Wright, John Edwards, Stewart Walker
The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine in residential homes may represent significant hazards and exposures not only to those involved in the manufacture of the drugs but also to others living in the home (including children), neighbours and first responders to the premises. These hazards are associated with the nature and improper storage and use of precursor chemicals, intermediate chemicals and wastes, gases and methamphetamine residues generated during manufacture and the drugs themselves. Many of these compounds are persistent and result in exposures inside a home not only during manufacture but after the laboratory has been seized or removed...
September 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Phillip M Mach, Ethan M McBride, Zachary J Sasiene, Katie R Brigance, Shelia K Kennard, Kenneth C Wright, Guido F Verbeck
The ability to detect atmospheric effluent from clandestine methamphetamine manufacture is a useful tool for law enforcement. A membrane inlet mass spectrometer is mounted onto an all-electric drive capable hybrid vehicle that samples the atmosphere while in motion. Attributing a latitude and longitude to each spectrum collected, unique chemical fingerprints from clandestine manufacture are then mapped. This location-based mass spectrum data provides a localization to an area of interest. The synthesis of methamphetamine precursors was performed, and the impurities from such reactions were observed...
November 17, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
Natalia Melnikova, Maureen F Orr, Jennifer Wu, Bryan Christensen
Methamphetamine (meth), a highly addictive drug, can be illegally manufactured using easily acquired chemicals; meth production can cause fires, explosions, injuries, and environmental contamination. To analyze injury incidence and trends, data on 1,325 meth-related chemical incidents reported to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR) Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system and National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP) by the five participating states (Louisiana, Oregon, Utah, New York, and Wisconsin) with complete information during 2001-2012 were examined...
August 28, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
John Myers, Carlee Lehna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Matthew N Newmeyer, Marta Concheiro, Jose Luiz da Costa, Ronald Flegel, David A Gorelick, Marilyn A Huestis
Methamphetamine is included in drug testing programmes due to its high abuse potential. d-Methamphetamine is a scheduled potent central nervous system stimulant, while l-methamphetamine is the unscheduled active ingredient in the over-the-counter nasal decongestant Vicks® VapoInhaler™. No data are available in oral fluid (OF) and few in plasma after controlled Vicks® VapoInhaler™ administration. We quantified methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomers in OF collected with two different devices and plasma via a fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
October 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jennifer E Naylor, Kevin B Freeman, Bruce E Blough, William L Woolverton, Sally L Huskinson
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cathinones are beta-ketophenethylamine analogs manufactured to avoid legal restrictions placed on illicit stimulants like methamphetamine. Regulating these "emerging" designer drugs require scientific evidence of abuse potential. METHODS: The present study evaluated the discriminative-stimulus effects of three synthetic cathinones, recently identified in commercial and confiscated products, in male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate methamphetamine (1...
April 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Tania Lecomte, Marjolaine Massé
UNLABELLED: Methamphetamine (MA) has recently become very popular in the media, due in part to its increasing popularity as well as its psychotropic effects and the negative consequences of its use. Is it a stimulant like any other, or does methamphetamine use lead to specific difficulties in its users? The aim of this article is to provide a brief review of the literature by explaining some of the reasons for its popularity in Canada as well as the physical, dental, psychiatric, cognitive and legal problems associated with its use...
2014: Santé Mentale Au Québec
James K Cunningham, Russell C Callaghan, Lon-Mu Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Research shows that essential/precursor chemical controls have had substantial impacts on US methamphetamine and heroin availability. This study examines whether US federal essential chemical regulations have impacted US cocaine seizure amount, price and purity-indicators of cocaine availability. DESIGN: Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA)-intervention time-series analysis was used to assess the impacts of four US regulations targeting cocaine manufacturing chemicals: potassium permanganate/selected solvents, implemented October 1989 sulfuric acid/hydrochloric acid, implemented October 1992; methyl isobutyl ketone, implemented May 1995; and sodium permanganate, implemented December 2006...
May 2015: Addiction
Tae-Suk Kim, Douglas G Kondo, Namkug Kim, Perry F Renshaw
OBJECTIVE: Methamphetamine (MA) use rates in the United States (US) have consistently demonstrated geographical variation and have been higher in the West and Midwest. This uneven pattern of use could be explained by regional differences in MA manufacturing and distribution, but may also result from differences in altitude. The hypobaric hypoxia found at high altitude alters neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain, which may contribute to MA use. The present study investigated the relationship between mean altitude and MA use rate in the 48 contiguous US states and the District of Columbia...
October 2014: Psychiatry Investigation
Rachel Y Barnett, Daniel D Baker, Nancy E Kelly, Calvin E McGuire, Timothy C Fassette, Jan M Gorniak
Designer drugs appear to be increasing in popularity because of the ease of obtaining these constituents, the lack of ability to identify the substance(s) in routine drug screening, the appeal of the drug(s) being 'safe' due to them being marketed as a 'legal high' and possibly due to stronger restrictions that are being placed on prescription drugs. As components of designer drugs are identified and regulated by the DEA, new constituents, or analogs, of these designer drugs are being manufactured to circumvent legislation...
October 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Michael L Smith, Daniel C Nichols, Paula Underwood, Zachary Fuller, Matthew A Moser, Ron Flegel, David A Gorelick, Matthew N Newmeyer, Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2...
October 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Carl R Alving, Gary R Matyas, Oscar Torres, Rashmi Jalah, Zoltan Beck
Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role...
September 22, 2014: Vaccine
Lisa N Kates, Charles W Knapp, Helen E Keenan
The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine (MAP) produces substantial amounts of hazardous waste that is dumped illegally. This study presents the first environmental evaluation of waste produced from illicit MAP manufacture. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was measured to assess immediate oxygen depletion effects. A mixture of five waste components (10mg/L/chemical) was found to have a COD (130 mg/L) higher than the European Union wastewater discharge regulations (125 mg/L). Two environmental partition coefficients, K(OW) and K(OC), were measured for several chemicals identified in MAP waste...
September 15, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
Luca Zamengo, Giampietro Frison, Chiara Bettin, Rocco Sciarrone
New psychoactive substances (NPS), are now a large group of substances of abuse not yet completely controlled by international drug conventions, which may pose a public health threat. Anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia and cardiotoxicity are some of the common adverse effects associated with these compounds. In this paper, three case reports taken from the archive of processed cases of the authors' laboratory are presented and discussed to stress the risks of possible adverse consequences for NPS users: in particular, (i) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual consumed dose, due to variability of active ingredients concentration in consumed products, (ii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual active ingredients present in consumed products, as opposed to those claimed by the manufacturer, and (iii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual pharmacological and toxicological effects related to the simultaneous consumption of different psychoactive ingredients contained in single products, whose interactions are mostly unknown...
August 17, 2014: Toxicology Letters
Justyna M Płotka, Vasil Simeonov, Calum Morrison, Marek Biziuk, Jacek Namieśnik
The enantiomeric ratio of methylamphetamine (MAMP) is closely related to the optical activity of precursors and reagents used for the synthesis and this knowledge can provide useful information concerning the origins and synthetic methods used for illicit manufacture. The information can be utilized for regulation of the precursors and investigation of the manufacturing sources but this requires analytical procedures to determine purity of drug substances, impurity profiling and enantiomeric composition. In this study, a gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) method using a γ-cyclodextrin chiral stationary phase was developed and optimized for the simultaneous enantiomeric separations of MAMP and its common precursors, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine, as well as its chlorointermediates formed during MAMP synthesis by the Emde method, after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride...
June 20, 2014: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jan Rustemeyer, Alex Melenberg, Klaus Junker, Aynur Sari-Rieger
BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) related to toxic effects of illicit drugs such as cocaine is not very common and might be overshadowed today by the incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. However, we present a case which suggests a close relationship between abuse of the illicit drug methamphetamine (MA) and ONJ. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old male with extended osteonecrosis of the maxilla admitted chronic abuse and synthesis of MA for at least the previous two decades...
June 2014: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Marisol S Castaneto, Allan J Barnes, Karl B Scheidweiler, Michael Schaffer, Kristen K Rogers, Deborah Stewart, Marilyn A Huestis
OBJECTIVE: Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution, and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social, and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing...
December 2013: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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