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Fluid and electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909620/is-normal-saline-the-best-irrigation-fluid-to-be-used-during-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-in-renal-failure-patient-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Bimalesh Purkait, Manoj Kumar, Ankur Bansal, Ashok Kumar Sokhal, Satya Narayan Sankhwar, Kawaljit Singh
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic procedures like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) needs continuous irrigation for better vision and to wash away stone fragments and blood clots. Systemic absorption of irrigation fluids may lead to fluid overload and electrolyte disequilibrium. Renal failure patients are more prone to these electrolyte disturbances. We have evaluated the outcomes of normal saline as irrigation solution to be used in renal failure patient in comparison to distilled water. METHODS: Seventy-six patients with renal calculi were enrolled in this study between September, 2014, and December, 2015...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908485/managing-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-kidney-disease
#2
REVIEW
Cathy Langston
Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic crisis is careful management of fluid balance, which involves thoughtful assessment of hydration, a fluid treatment plan personalized for the specific patient, and repeated and frequent reassessment of fluid and electrolyte balance. Disorders of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are commonly encountered in kidney disease and some may be life-threatening...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908484/maintenance-fluid-therapy-isotonic-versus-hypotonic-solutions
#3
REVIEW
Bernie Hansen, Alessio Vigani
The goal of maintenance fluid therapy in small animals is to replace normal ongoing losses of water and salts when oral intake is withheld. Hospitalized dogs and cats may have multiple stimuli for antidiuretic hormone release that disrupt normal osmoregulation and predispose to water retention. Severe illness promotes retention of both sodium and water as edema. Commercially available fluids have electrolyte concentrations that are very different from dietary maintenance requirements, and potential consequences include development of hypoosmolality, edema, or both when excesses of water or sodium are administered...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904113/fanconi-syndrome-associated-with-hyponatremia-in-two-patients-with-legionella-pneumonia
#4
Akihiro Ryuge, Yasuhiko Ito, Taishi Yamakawa, Hitoshi Tanaka, Hirotoshi Yasui, Shuko Mashimo, Kenshi Watanabe, Rie Nomura, Nobukazu Suganuma, Shoichi Maruyama
Legionella pneumophila is a cause of community-acquired pneumonia that is reported to induce electrolyte disorders, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia. We herein report two Japanese men with Legionella pneumonia and hyponatremia and hypophosphatemia. These findings were associated with an elevation of urinary low-molecular-weight tubular protein, including urinary β2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, the fractional excretion of phosphate and uric acid, and the presence of glycosuria and panaminoaciduria, suggesting that their electrolyte disorders had been caused by Fanconi syndrome...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903458/cardiac-arrest-among-patients-with-infections-causes-clinical-practice-and-research-implications
#5
REVIEW
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
The incidence of sepsis is increasing, and the condition is now the leading cause of death in general intensive care units (ICUs). Our review failed to identify studies of the causes of cardiac arrest among infected patients, even though non-cardiac causes represent 15% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and though one-third of events have positive blood cultures. Sudden cardiac arrest is the result of local damage to the heart and of the impact of systemic and pulmonary conditions on cardiac performance, and its danger is underestimated...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901358/mdck-cells-are-capable-of-water-secretion-and-reabsorption-in-response-to-changes-in-the-ionic-environment
#6
Janne P Capra, Sinikka M Eskelinen
A prerequisite for tissue electrolyte homeostasis is highly regulated ion and water transport through kidney or intestinal epithelia. In the present work, we monitored changes in the cell and luminal volumes of type II Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown in a 3D environment in response to drugs, or to changes in the composition of the basal extracellular fluid. Using fluorescent markers and high-resolution spinning disc confocal microscopy, we could show that lack of sodium and potassium ions in the basal fluid (tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) buffer) induces a rapid increase in the cell and luminal volumes...
September 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900717/intravenous-fluids-balancing-solutions
#7
REVIEW
Ewout J Hoorn
The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#8
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897427/structure-based-drug-design-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-to-explore-oxosteroid-receptor-selectivity
#9
Anneli Nordqvist, Gavin O'Mahony, Maria Fridén-Saxin, Marlene Fredenwall, Anders Hogner, Kenneth L Granberg, Anna Aagaard, Stefan Bäckström, Anders Gunnarsson, Tim Kaminski, Yafeng Xue, Anita Dellsén, Eva Hansson, Pia Hansson, Ida Ivarsson, Ulla Karlsson, Krister Bamberg, Majlis Hermansson, Jennie Georgsson, Bo Lindmark, Karl Edman
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in regulation of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. In this study we explore selectivity triggers for a series of non-steroidal MR antagonists to improve selectivity over other members of the oxosteroid receptor family. A biaryl sulfonamide compound was identified in a high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign. The compound bound to MR with a pKi=6.6, but displayed poor selectivity over the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the progesterone receptor (PR)...
November 29, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895287/sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-is-there-a-connection-with-inner-ear-electrolytic-disorders-a-literature-review
#10
EDITORIAL
Andrea Ciorba, Virginia Corazzi, Chiara Bianchini, Claudia Aimoni, Henryk Skarzynski, Piotr Henryk Skarzynski, Stavros Hatzopoulos
Electrolytic disorders of the inner ear represent a model that could be implicated in partially explaining the pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Different types of electrolytes and different inner-ear loci are involved in cochlear homeostasis physiologically, to ensure the maintenance of an ion-balanced cochlear environment allowing a normal hair cell function. It has been hypothesized that a sudden loss of endocochlear potential, due to a rapid disruption of the inner ear fluid osmolality, could be responsible for a deterioration of the hearing function caused by damaged hair cells...
December 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894390/-effects-of-different-fluid-resuscitation-program-on-renal-function-in-swine-during-shock-stage-of-severe-burn
#11
G L Su, W X Huang, J Chen, D J Xue, J J Zhou
Objective: To explore the effects of different fluid resuscitation program on renal function in swine during shock stage of severe burn. Methods: Twenty-four Guangxi Bama miniature swine were inflicted with 40% total body surface area on the back, and then they were divided into four groups according to the random number table, with 6 swine in each group. At post injury hour (PIH) 2, swine in succinylated gelatin group (S), hydroxyethyl starch group (H), and allogeneic plasma group (A) were respectively resuscitated with succinylated gelatin, hydroxyethyl starch 130/0...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893999/ebola-virus-disease-an-update-on-current-prevention-and-management-strategies
#12
REVIEW
M A Trad, W Naughton, A Yeung, L Mazlin, M O'sullivan, N Gilroy, D A Fisher, R L Stuart
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is characterised by systemic viral replication, immuno-suppression, abnormal inflammatory responses, large volume fluid and electrolyte losses, and high mortality in under-resourced settings. There are various therapeutic strategies targeting EVD including vaccines utilizing different antigen delivery methods, antibody-based therapies and antiviral drugs. These therapies remain experimental, but received attention following their use particularly in cases treated outside West Africa during the 2014-15 outbreak, in which 20 (80%) out of 25 patients survived...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892449/otorrhagia-and-nosebleed-as-first-signs-of-intravascular-absorption-syndrome-during-hysteroscopy-from-bench-to-bedside
#13
V Giacobbe, D Rossetti, S G Vitale, A M C Rapisarda, F Padula, A S Laganà, V I Palmara
Hysteroscopic surgery is indicated for the treatment of several intrauterine diseases. The surgeon needs to be aware of, and know how to prevent, possible complications related to these procedures. In the case of operative hysteroscopy, the systemic effects of low-viscosity fluid uptake must be considered in order to prevent the complications in the patient. We report on two unusual clinical signs of intravascular absorption syndrome (IAS) that developed during an operative hysteroscopy with glycine 1.5% as the fluid of distension...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891544/an-in-vitro-digestion-method-adapted-for-carotenoids-and-carotenoid-esters-moving-forward-towards-standardization
#14
Daniele Bobrowski Rodrigues, Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti, Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante
In vitro digestion methods are a useful approach to predict the bioaccessibility of food components and overcome some limitations or disadvantages associated with in vivo methodologies. Recently, the INFOGEST network published a static method of in vitro digestion with a proposal for assay standardization. The INFOGEST method is not specific for any food component; therefore, we aimed to adapt this method to assess the in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in a model fruit (Byrsonima crassifolia)...
November 28, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889623/training-needs-of-clinical-nurses-at-an-university-hospital-in-turkey
#15
Emine Kol, Emine İlaslan, Mehtap Turkay
The learning needs of clinical nurses should be determined and evaluated at regular intervals for evaluate the continuity and the efficiency of education. The descriptive study was conducted to determine the training needs of nurses working in an educational hospital between February 1st 2012 and May 1st 2012. It was determined that, among the training topics related to patient care, those demanded the most were cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, fluid-electrolyte balance, safe drug administration and wound Care...
November 16, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886563/nanomechanical-properties-wear-resistance-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-ta2o5-nanotubes-coating-on-biomedical-grade-ti-6al-4v
#16
Masoud Sarraf, Bushroa Abdul Razak, Bahman Nasiri-Tabrizi, Ali Dabbagh, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim, Wan Jefrey Basirun, Eshamsul Bin Sulaiman
Tantalum pentoxide nanotubes (Ta2O5 NTs) can dramatically raise the biological functions of different kinds of cells, thus have promising applications in biomedical fields. In this study, Ta2O5 NTs were prepared on biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti64) via physical vapor deposition (PVD) and a successive two-step anodization in H2SO4: HF (99:1)+5% EG electrolyte at a constant potential of 15V. To improve the adhesion of nanotubular array coating on Ti64, heat treatment was carried out at 450°C for 1h under atmospheric pressure with a heating/cooling rate of 1°Cmin(-)(1)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881286/renal-adaptive-changes-and-sodium-handling-in-the-fetal-to-newborn-transition
#17
REVIEW
Jeffrey L Segar
Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management is critical for optimal care of very low birth weight or sick infants. Delivery of such care requires an understanding of developmental changes in renal water and salt handling that occur with advancing gestational age as well as postnatal age. This review focuses on the principles of sodium homeostasis during fetal and postnatal life. The physiology of renal tubular transport mechanisms, as well as neurohumoral factors impacting renal tubular transport are highlighted...
November 20, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878313/targeting-renal-glucose-reabsorption-to-treat-hyperglycaemia-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-sglt2-inhibition
#18
REVIEW
Volker Vallon, Scott C Thomson
Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the kidney provides a safety valve that can prevent extreme hyperglycaemia as long as glomerular filtration is maintained. Most of the capacity for renal glucose reabsorption is provided by sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the early proximal tubule...
November 22, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865300/effect-of-dapagliflozin-treatment-on-fluid-and-electrolyte-balance-in-diabetic-rats
#19
Ling Chen, Lauren M LaRocque, Orhan Efe, Juan Wang, Jeff M Sands, Janet D Klein
AIM: This study evaluates the effect of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on fluid or electrolyte balance and its effect on urea transporter-A1 (UT-A1), aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) protein abundance in diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by injection of streptozotocin into the tail vein. Serum Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) concentration, urine Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) excretion, blood glucose, urine glucose excretion, urine volume, urine osmolality and urine urea excretion were analyzed after the administration of dapagliflozin...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863592/nursing-interventions-in-stroke-care-delivery-an-evidence-based-clinical-review
#20
Dimitrios Theofanidis, Bernard Gibbon
INTRODUCTION: Generally, nursing interventions during the acute stages following a stroke aim at preventing secondary brain injury (intracranial hypertension), maintaining the airways (due to paralysis of the pharynx muscles), providing general body support (vital signs, fluid and electrolyte balance), and anticipating the occurrence of complications (atelectasis and pneumonia). AIM: This literature review is to prioritize nursing interventions for acute stroke and to update nursing roles and input considering recommended levels of evidence of care to date...
December 2016: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
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