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Fluid and electrolytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236092/expression-and-functional-activity-of-bitter-taste-receptors-in-primary-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-m-1-cells
#1
Jie Liang, Fuxue Chen, Fu Gu, Xin Liu, Feng Li, Dongshu Du
The kidney is essential in the maintenance of in vivo homeostasis by body fluid and electrolyte conservation and metabolic waste removal. Previously, we reported the expression of a novel G protein family (Tas2rs), which includes bitter taste receptors, in the kidney tubule system, including the nephrons and the collecting duct system. Bitter taste receptors could affect kidney function via Ca(2+) intake. Alkaloids such as phenylthiocarbamide stimulate these receptors and cause an increase in Ca(2+) intake...
February 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228375/is-it-time-to-reinvent-basic-cell-culture-medium
#2
Turney J McKee, Svetlana V Komarova
The success of in vitro experiments depends largely on the quality of the cell culture media. Four synthetic media formulations, Dulbecco's Modified Minimum Essential Media (DMEM), RPMI 1640, Minimum Essential Media and its alpha modification (MEM), and Medium 199 (M199) are used in ~90% of published in vitro studies. We compared the levels of electrolytes and carbohydrates in these media formulations to physiological values in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The most commonly used media, DMEM and RPMI 1640, largely deviate from physiological levels of glucose...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228203/a-nationwide-analysis-of-kidney-autotransplantation
#3
Zhobin Moghadamyeghaneh, Mark H Hanna, Reza Fazlalizadeh, Yoshitsugu Obi, Clarence E Foster, Michael J Stamos, Hirohito Ichii
There are limited data regarding outcomes of patients underwent kidney autotransplantation. This study aims to investigate outcomes of such patients. The nationwide inpatient sample database was used to identify patients underwent kidney autotransplantation during 2002 to 2012. Multivariate analyses using logistic regression were performed to investigate morbidity predictors. A total of 817 patients underwent kidney autotransplantation from 2002 to 2012. The most common indication of surgery was renal artery pathology (22...
February 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226896/evaluation-of-biofouling-for-implantable-micro-dialysis-system
#4
T Ota, N To, Y Kanno, N Miki, T Ota, N To, Y Kanno, N Miki, T Ota, Y Kanno, N Miki, N To
Implantable artificial kidney can drastically improve the quality of life of the renal disease patients. In previous study, our group has developed a multi-layered micro dialysis device which is composed of micro stainless steel channels and nano-porous polyethersulfone (PES) membranes. The device conducts hemofiltration without dialysis fluids, which is advantageous in miniaturization. We investigated the water-permeability of the PES membrane through in vivo experiments using rat model of renal disease for 5 hours and verified the effectiveness of the device...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225808/epileptogenesis-in-organotypic-hippocampal-cultures-has-limited-dependence-on-culture-medium-composition
#5
Jing Liu, Yero Saponjian, Mark M Mahoney, Kevin J Staley, Yevgeny Berdichevsky
Rodent organotypic hippocampal cultures spontaneously develop epileptiform activity after approximately 2 weeks in vitro and are increasingly used as a model of chronic post-traumatic epilepsy. However, organotypic cultures are maintained in an artificial environment (culture medium), which contains electrolytes, glucose, amino acids and other components that are not present at the same concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Therefore, it is possible that epileptogenesis in organotypic cultures is driven by these components...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215154/stress-and-salivary-glands
#6
Beáta Kerémi, Anita Beck, Tibor Károly Fábián, Gábor Fábián, Géza Szabó, Ákos Nagy, Gábor Varga
Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion is primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system...
February 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215086/salt-segregation-and-sample-cleanup-on-perfluoro-coated-nanostructured-surfaces-for-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-of-biofluid-samples
#7
Ya Zhou, Chen Peng, Kenneth D Harris, Rupasri Mandal, D Jed Harrison
We present a surface assisted laser desorption ionization (SALDI) technique, coupled with fluorocarbon coating, to achieve selective segregation of ionic and/or hydrophilic analytes from background biofluid electrolytes for quantiatve mass spectrometric analysis. By controlling the contact angle of (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl) trichlorosilane or (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl) dimethylchlorosilane to a specific range (105-120°), background electrolytes can be made to segregate from hydrophilic analytes during a drying step on the surface of a highly nanoporous thin film...
February 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214543/theoretical-structural-characterization-of-lymphoguanylin-a-potential-candidate-for-the-development-of-drugs-to-treat-gastrointestinal-disorders
#8
Állan S Pires, William F Porto, Pryscilla O Castro, Octavio L Franco, Sérgio A Alencar
Guanylin peptides (GPs) are small cysteine-rich peptide hormones involved in salt absorption, regulation of fluids and electrolyte homeostasis. This family presents four members: guanylin (GN), uroguanylin (UGN), lymphoguanylin (LGN) and renoguanylin (RGN). GPs have been used as templates for the development of drugs for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Currently, LGN is the only GP with only one disulfide bridge, making it a remarkable member of this family and a potential drug template; however, there is no structural information about this peptide...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214096/maintenance-fluid-therapy-in-a-tertiary-hospital-a-prevalence-study
#9
R Uña Orejón, L Gisbert de la Cuadra, D Garríguez Pérez, J Díez Sebastián, M P Ureta Tolsada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the types of maintenance fluids used in our hospital, comparing their volume and composition to the standards recommended by the guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study. Volume and type of fluid therapy administered during 24h to patients admitted to various hospital departments were recorded. Patients receiving fluid therapy because of water-electrolyte imbalance were excluded. RESULTS: Out of 198 patients registered, 74 (37...
February 14, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208271/cation-dependent-surface-charge-regulation-in-gated-nanofluidic-devices
#10
Marie Fuest, Kaushik K Rangharajan, Caitlin Boone, A T Conlisk, Shaurya Prakash
Surface charge governs nanoscale aqueous electrolyte transport, both in engineered analytical systems and in biological entities such as ion channels and ion pumps as a function of ion type and concentration. Embedded electrodes in a nanofluidic channel, isolated from the fluid in the channel by a dielectric layer, act as active, tunable gates to systematically modify local surface charge density at the interface between the nanochannel surface and the aqueous electrolyte solution, causing significant changes in measured nanochannel conductance...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207920/paper-based-microfluidic-system-for-tear-electrolyte-analysis
#11
Ali K Yetisen, Nan Jiang, Ali Tamayol, Guillermo U Ruiz-Esparza, Yu Shrike Zhang, Sofía Medina-Pando, Aditi Gupta, James S Wolffsohn, Haider Butt, Ali Khademhosseini, Seok-Hyun Yun
The analysis of tear constituents at point-of-care settings has a potential for early diagnosis of ocular disorders such as dry eye disease, low-cost screening, and surveillance of at-risk subjects. However, current minimally-invasive rapid tear analysis systems for point-of-care settings have been limited to assessment of osmolarity or inflammatory markers and cannot differentiate between dry eye subclassifications. Here, we demonstrate a portable microfluidic system that allows quantitative analysis of electrolytes in the tear fluid that is suited for point-of-care settings...
February 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205588/hypoxia-induced-angiotensin-ii-by-the-lactate-chymase-dependent-mechanism-mediates-radioresistance-of-hypoxic-tumor-cells
#12
Guozhu Xie, Ying Liu, Qiwei Yao, Rong Zheng, Lanfang Zhang, Jie Lin, Zhaoze Guo, Shasha Du, Chen Ren, Quan Yuan, Yawei Yuan
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a principal determinant of arterial blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance. RAS component dysregulation was recently found in some malignancies and correlated with poor patient outcomes. However, the exact mechanism of local RAS activation in tumors is still unclear. Here, we find that the local angiotensin II predominantly exists in the hypoxic regions of tumor formed by nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, where these tumor cells autocrinely produce angiotensin II by a chymase-dependent rather than an angiotensin converting enzyme-dependent mechanism...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190443/neurologic-manifestations-of-major-electrolyte-abnormalities
#13
M Diringer
The brain operates in an extraordinarily intricate environment which demands precise regulation of electrolytes. Tight control over their concentrations and gradients across cellular compartments is essential and when these relationships are disturbed neurologic manifestations may develop. Perturbations of sodium are the electrolyte disturbances that most often lead to neurologic manifestations. Alterations in extracellular fluid sodium concentrations produce water shifts that lead to brain swelling or shrinkage...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188165/indomethacin-therapy-effective-in-a-patient-with-depletion-syndrome-from-secretory-villous-adenoma
#14
Matthew David Kagan, Kara Schmidt, Gurtej Sangha
This paper details the case of a 26-year-old woman with depletion syndrome and the effectiveness of her treatment with indomethacin. Villous adenomas are benign neoplasms with a high incidence of becoming malignant. A small percentage of villous adenomas are known to cause depletion syndrome, also referred to as the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome, a condition characterised by secretory diarrhoea, dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalaemia, hypochloraemia, metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Prostaglandin-E2 mediates the hypersecretion mechanism observed in depletion syndrome, and can be inhibited by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors...
February 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183452/controversies-in-the-management-of-hyperglycaemic-emergencies-in-adults-with-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Luís Cardoso, Nuno Vicente, Dírcea Rodrigues, Leonor Gomes, Francisco Carrilho
Hyperglycaemic emergencies are associated with significant morbi-mortality and healthcare costs. Management consists on fluid replacement, insulin therapy, and electrolyte correction. However, some areas of patient management remain debatable. In patients without respiratory failure or haemodynamic instability, arterial and venous pH and bicarbonate measurements are comparable. Fluid choice varies upon replenishment phase and patient's condition. If patient is severely hypovolaemic, normal saline solution should be the first option...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177854/risk-factors-for-30-day-hospital-re-admission-with-an-infectious-complication-after-lower-extremity-vascular-procedures
#16
Joseph C Melvin, Jamie B Smith, Robin L Kruse, Todd R Vogel
BACKGROUND: Lowering the 30-d re-admission rate after vascular surgery offers the potential to improve healthcare quality. This study evaluated re-admission associated with infections after open and endovascular lower extremity (LE) procedures for peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: Patients admitted for elective LE procedures for PAD were selected from the Cerner Health Facts(®) database. Chi-square analysis evaluated the characteristics of the index admission associated with infection at 30-d re-admission...
February 8, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174411/-primary-lung-cancer-associated-with-dilated-phase-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-report-of-a-case
#17
Takehiro Sakai, Takao Tsushima, Daisuke Kimura, Ryo Hatanaka, Masahiro Sawada, Yutaka Sato
A 66-year-old man diagnosed as dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (D-HCM) was pointed out an abnormal shadow on routine chest radiography. The patient had past medical history of hypertension, congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The computed tomography showed a 3.8 cm-sized tumor in the left lower lobe of the lung, and histopathological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma (cT2aN0-1M0, cStage I B-II A). Cardiosonography showed diffuse hypokinesis from basal to mid area, and ejection fraction was 36...
February 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169156/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-associated-with-dose-adjusted-epoch-etoposide-prednisone-vincristine-cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-chemotherapy
#18
Abby E Floeter, Amila Patel, Melinda Tran, Marc C Chamberlain, Paul C Hendrie, Ajay K Gopal, Ryan D Cassaday
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of our study was to identify the key risk factors for the development of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) after administration of the combination chemotherapy regimen, DA-EPOCH (dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective medical record review of patients receiving DA-EPOCH with or without rituximab (DA-EPOCH ± R) at our institution from July 2012 to September 2014...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167686/high-salt-diet-causes-osmotic-gradients-and-hyperosmolality-in-skin-without-affecting-interstitial-fluid-and-lymph
#19
Elham Nikpey, Tine V Karlsen, Natalia Rakova, Jens M Titze, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig
The common notion is that the body Na(+) is maintained within narrow limits for fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. Several studies have, however, shown that considerable amounts of Na(+) can be retained or removed from the body without commensurate water loss and that the skin can serve as a major salt reservoir. Our own data from rats have suggested that the skin is hypertonic compared with plasma on salt storage and that this also applies to skin interstitial fluid. Even small electrolyte gradients between plasma and interstitial fluid would represent strong edema-generating forces...
February 6, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164837/perioperative-fluid-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Denise Fantoni, Andre C Shih
Anesthesia can lead to pathophysiologic changes that dramatically alter the fluid balance of the body compartments and the intravascular space. Fluid administration can be monitored and evaluated using static and dynamic indexes. Guidelines for fluid rates during anesthesia begin with 3 mL/kg/h in cats and 5 mL/kg/h in dogs. If at all possible, patients should be stabilized and electrolyte disturbances should be corrected before general anesthesia.
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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