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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806046/electrolytes-sodium-disorders
#1
Michael M Braun, Megan Mahowald
Sodium disorders (ie, hyponatremia, hypernatremia) are common electrolyte disturbances in clinical medicine and are associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Etiologies of hyponatremia are classified into four categories. The first is pseudohyponatremia, in which the sodium level is low due to hyperproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, or hyperglycemia. The other three categories are based on overall patient fluid status and include hypovolemic (commonly due to fluid loss), hypervolemic (commonly due to fluid retention from heart failure, cirrhosis, or renal failure), and euvolemic (most often because of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone)...
August 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805913/feeding-distillers-grains-soybean-hulls-or-a-mixture-of-both-to-cows-as-a-forage-replacement-effects-on-intake-digestibility-and-ruminal-fermentation-characteristics
#2
W B Smith, K P Coffey, R T Rhein, E B Kegley, D Philipp, J G Powell, J D Caldwell, A N Young
Coproduct feedstuffs offer a unique and potentially profitable avenue for cattle feeding strategies. However, research is lacking in the evaluation of varying coproducts on ruminal fermentation and digestive characteristics when included as the major component of the diet of cows. Our objective was to determine the effect of coproduct feedstuffs as a forage replacement on digestive and fermentative characteristics of cows. Eight ruminally fistulated cows (672 ± 32.0 kg initial BW and approximately 9 yr of age) were stratified by BW and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 diets (2 cows∙diet∙period) in a 2-period study: soybean hulls (SH), distillers' dried grains with solubles (DG), an isoenergetic mixture of soybean hulls and distillers' dried grains with solubles (MX), or ad libitum hay plus 0...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801328/cytomegalovirus-related-transverse-myelitis-in-an-immunocompetent-host-a-subacute-onset-of-an-immune-mediated-disease
#3
Xavier Merchan-Del Hierro, Alexandra Halalau
We report a case of transverse myelitis in an immunocompetent host with an atypical long onset of symptoms. A 56-year-old man was admitted to the hospital reporting 5 months of progressive ascending lower extremity weakness and numbness, inability to walk, bowel incontinence,urinary retention and several episodes of nausea and vomiting. MRI showed moderate spinal swelling and multiple hyperintense signal changes on cervical levels C2-C5 and thoracic levels T1-T3. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis and was positive for anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG intrathecal antibodies, but the CSF PCR for CMV was negative...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796122/ocular-surface-lubricants
#4
Leonard Bielory, Preeti Wagle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ocular lubricants currently available, consider the components of the various formulations and highlight the status of preservative use in the treatment of anterior ocular surface diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The primary components of ocular surface lubrication have been, in the past, based on various cellulose formulations that increase hydration. Advances in lubrication have come from areas of the human body requiring lubrication such as the skeletal joints as well as examining the use of natural components of the tear fluid...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794292/cross-linked-polyelectrolyte-and-its-function-in-adsorption-of-fluid-and-excess-nitrogen-waste-products-an-experimental-study-on-dialysate-effluent-fluid
#5
Hamid Tayebi Khosroshahi, Behzad Abedi, Sabalan Daneshvar, Effat Alizadeh, Mohammadreza Khalilzadeh, Yaghoub Abedi
INTRODUCTION: One of the most important issues in patients with chronic kidney disease is fluid retention and volume overload accompanied by retention of nitrogenous waste products and some electrolytes. Bowel fluid contains high levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and electrolytes, which make it a potential candidate for intestinal excretion of nitrogen wastes and electrolytes. Cross-linked polyelectrolyte (CLP) is a polymer that, given orally, absorbs excess fluid, electrolyte, and nitrogenous waste products...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789642/uremic-encephalopathy-with-isolated-brainstem-involvement-revealed-by-magnetic-resonance-image-a-case-report
#6
Li-Jing Jia, Zhen-Zhen Qu, Xue-Qian Zhang, Yu-Juan Tian, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: Uremic Encephalopathy (UE) is a neurological complication associated with acute or chronic renal failure. Imaging findings of UE may present involvement of the basal ganglia, cortical or subcortical regions, and white matter. We report a rare case of UE caused by neurogenic bladder with isolated brainstem involvement revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Immediate therapy resulted in full recovery of neurological signs and changes on MRI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old Han Chinese woman with a history of chronic renal failure caused by neurogenic bladder...
August 8, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781803/cystoid-macular-edema-secondary-to-paclitaxel-therapy-for-ovarian-cancer-a-case-report
#7
Emma Bassi, Vera Loizzi, Claudio Furino, Rosa Martino, Giovanni Alessio, Cicinelli Ettore, Gennaro Cormio
Paclitaxel is a member of the taxane agents that has demonstrated efficacy in ovarian cancer, both in first- and in second-line therapy. Counted among the side-effects of this drug are neurological disorders. In the present study, a rare case of a non-neuropathic ocular disorder, known as cystoid macular edema (CME), due to paclitaxel in patients treated for ovarian cancer is described. Macular edema, or CME, is a common cause of visual impairment that has been classically demonstrated by fluorescein angiograms, showing capillary leakage...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781015/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-postoperative-urinary-retention-in-total-hip-arthroplasty-performed-under-spinal-anesthesia
#8
Charles M Lawrie, Alvin C Ong, Victor H Hernandez, Samuel Rosas, Zachary D Post, Fabio R Orozco
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to determine the risk factors for postoperative urinary retention (POUR) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) under spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent a primary THA without preoperative catheterization under spinal anesthesia were identified in a prospectively collected institutional patient database. All patients were monitored postoperatively for urinary retention on the basis of symptoms and the use of bladder ultrasound scans performed by a hospital technician...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776064/manufacturing-of-proteins-and-antibodies-chapter-downstream-processing-technologies-harvest-operations
#9
Richard Turner, Adrian Joseph, Nigel Titchener-Hooker, Jean Bender
Cell harvesting is the separation or retention of cells and cellular debris from the supernatant containing the target molecule Selection of harvest method strongly depends on the type of cells, mode of bioreactor operation, process scale, and characteristics of the product and cell culture fluid. Most traditional harvesting methods use some form of filtration, centrifugation, or a combination of both for cell separation and/or retention. Filtration methods include normal flow depth filtration and tangential flow microfiltration...
August 4, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774840/multi-kinetics-and-site-specific-release-of-gabapentin-and-flurbiprofen-from-oral-fixed-dose-combination-in-vitro-release-and-in-vivo-food-effect
#10
Fabio Sonvico, Chiara Conti, Gaia Colombo, Francesca Buttini, Paolo Colombo, Ruggero Bettini, Marco Barchielli, Barbara Leoni, Luca Loprete, Alessandra Rossi
In this work, a fixed-dose combination of gabapentin and flurbiprofen formulated as multilayer tablets has been designed, developed and studied in vitro and in vivo. The aim was to construct a single dosage form of the two drugs, able to perform a therapeutic program involving three release kinetics and two delivery sites, i.e., immediate release of gabapentin, intra-gastric prolonged release of gabapentin and intestinal (delayed) release of flurbiprofen. An oblong three-layer tablet was manufactured having as top layer a floating hydrophilic polymeric matrix for gastric release of gabapentin, as middle layer a disintegrating formulation for immediate release of a gabapentin loading dose and as bottom layer, an uncoated hydrophilic polymeric matrix, swellable but insoluble in gastric fluids, for delayed and prolonged release of flurbiprofen in intestinal environment...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768880/hyaluronan-supplementation-as-a-mechanical-regulator-of-cartilage-tissue-development-under-joint-kinematic-mimicking-loading
#11
Yabin Wu, Martin J Stoddart, Karin Wuertz-Kozak, Sibylle Grad, Mauro Alini, Stephen J Ferguson
Articular cartilage plays an essential role in joint lubrication and impact absorption. Through this, the mechanical signals are coupled to the tissue's physiological response. Healthy synovial fluid has been shown to reduce and homogenize the shear stress acting on the cartilage surfaces due to its unique shear-thinning viscosity. As cartilage tissues are sensitive to mechanical changes in articulation, it was hypothesized that replacing the traditional culture medium with a healthy non-Newtonian lubricant could enhance tissue development in a cartilage engineering model, where joint-kinematic-mimicking mechanical loading is applied...
August 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768320/effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-heart-failure-proposal-of-a-novel-mechanism-of-action
#12
Milton Packer, Stefan D Anker, Javed Butler, Gerasimos Filippatos, Faiez Zannad
Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducing the risk of the development or progression of heart failure. In a landmark trial called Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes [EMPA-REG Outcomes], long-term treatment with empagliflozin prevented fatal and nonfatal heart failure events but did not reduce the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke in diabetic patients...
August 2, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764190/comparison-of-plasma-levels-of-renin-vasopressin-and-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-in-hypertensive-amlodipine-induced-pedal-oedema-non-oedema-and-cilnidipine-treated-patients
#13
Kiran Shetty, Ranjan Shetty, Pragna Rao, Mamatha Ballal, Amruth Kiran, Sravan Reddy, Umesh Pai, Jyothi Samanth
INTRODUCTION: Amlodipine is a third generation dihydropyridine group of calcium channel blocker and having an excellent antihypertensive profile. Pedal Oedema (PE) is the major drawback of amlodipine therapy and the incidence of Amlodipine Induced Pedal Oedema (AIPE) has been found significantly high. Several neurohumoral factors influence the incidence of oedema. AIM: We aimed to compare the plasma levels of renin, vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide in hypertensive AIPE, non-oedema and cilnidipine treated patients...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762181/sternum-splitting-anterior-approach-following-posterior-decompression-and-fusion-in-patients-with-massive-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-in-the-upper-thoracic-spine-report-of-2-cases-and-literature-review
#14
Yoshiharu Kawaguchi, Shoji Seki, Yasuhito Yahara, Takahiro Homma, Tomoatsu Kimura
PURPOSE: Anterior approach to the upper thoracic spine is difficult. It is important for spine surgeons to know the indication and the effect of anterior decompression for upper thoracic lesions and also to recognize the complications which are related to the approach with sternotomy. We present two patients for whom we took the sternum-splitting anterior approach for thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) following posterior decompression and fusion surgery; the clinical course and surgical outcome are discussed, with particular reference to complication avoidance and also we review the previous literature...
July 31, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759762/low-level-maternal-exposure-to-nicotine-associates-with-significant-metabolic-perturbations-in-second-trimester-amniotic-fluid
#15
S Taylor Fischer, Loukia N Lili, Shuzhao Li, ViLinh T Tran, Kim B Stewart, Charles E Schwartz, Dean P Jones, Stephanie L Sherman, Judith L Fridovich-Keil
Decades of public health research have documented that smoking in pregnancy poses significant health risks to both mother and child. More recent studies have shown that even passive maternal exposure to secondhand smoke associates with negative birth outcomes. However, the mechanisms linking exposure to outcomes have remained obscure. As a first step toward defining the metabolic consequence of low-level nicotine exposure on fetal development, we conducted an untargeted metabolomic analysis of 81 paired samples of maternal serum and amniotic fluid collected from karyotypically normal pregnancies in the second trimester...
July 28, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752037/in-vivo-retention-of-poloxamer-based-in-situ-hydrogels-for-vaginal-application-in-mouse-and-rat-models
#16
Yu Liu, Fujin Yang, Linglin Feng, Long Yang, Lingyun Chen, Gang Wei, Weiyue Lu
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vivo retention capabilities of poloxamer-based in situ hydrogels for vaginal application with nonoxinol-9 as the model drug. Two in situ hydrogel formulations, which contained 18% poloxamer 407 plus 1% poloxamer 188 (GEL1, relative hydrophobic) or 6% poloxamer 188 (GEL2, relative hydrophilic), were compared with respect to the rheological properties, in vitro hydrogel erosion and drug release. The vaginal retention capabilities of these hydrogel formulations were further determined in two small animal models, including drug quantitation of vaginal rinsing fluid in mice and isotope tracing with (99m)Tc in rats...
July 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743782/-18-f-av-1451-and-csf-t-tau-and-p-tau-as-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Niklas Mattsson, Michael Schöll, Olof Strandberg, Ruben Smith, Sebastian Palmqvist, Philip S Insel, Douglas Hägerström, Tomas Ohlsson, Henrik Zetterberg, Jonas Jögi, Kaj Blennow, Oskar Hansson
To elucidate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total-tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) with the tau PET ligand (18)F-AV-1451 in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined 30 cognitively healthy elderly (15 with preclinical AD), 14 prodromal AD, and 39 AD dementia patients. CSF T-tau and P-tau were highly correlated (R = 0.92, P < 0.001), but they were only moderately associated with retention of (18)F-AV-1451, and mainly in demented AD patients. (18)F-AV-1451, but not CSF T-tau or P-tau, was strongly associated with atrophy and cognitive impairment...
July 25, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725324/cardiorenal-syndrome-role-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-vaptans-in-heart-failure
#18
REVIEW
Poornima Vinod, Vinod Krishnappa, Abigail M Chauvin, Anshika Khare, Rupesh Raina
Heart and kidney failure continued to be of increasing prevalence in today's society, and their comorbidity has synergistic effect on the morbidity and mortality of patients. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a complex disease with multifactorial pathophysiology. Better understanding of this pathophysiological network is crucial for the successful intervention to prevent advancement of the disease process. One of the major factors in this process is neurohormonal activation, predominantly involving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
June 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725223/gas-exchange-disturbances-regulate-alveolar-fluid-clearance-during-acute-lung-injury
#19
REVIEW
István Vadász, Jacob I Sznajder
Disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier and accumulation of pulmonary edema, if not resolved, result in poor alveolar gas exchange leading to hypoxia and hypercapnia, which are hallmarks of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) is a major function of the alveolar epithelium and is mediated by the concerted action of apically-located Na(+) channels [epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)] and the basolateral Na,K-ATPase driving vectorial Na(+) transport...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724598/cystometrography-of-meningitis-retention-syndrome
#20
Yuji Tanaka, Kazuo Satomi
Although the combination of acute urinary retention and aseptic meningitis has not been well recognised, this combination can be referred to as meningitis-retention syndrome (MRS). We report a case of MRS with urodynamic follow-up. A 29-year-old man developed fever and headache, and after 7 days, he developed sudden urinary retention. Neurological examination indicated stiff neck, hyper-reflexes of the lower extremities. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mononuclear leucocytosis, increased protein level...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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