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Fluid retention

L J Cooper, K R Daly, P D Hallett, M Naveed, N Koebernick, A G Bengough, T S George, T Roose
The parameters in Richards' equation are usually calculated from experimentally measured values of the soil-water characteristic curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The complex pore structures that often occur in porous media complicate such parametrization due to hysteresis between wetting and drying and the effects of tortuosity. Rather than estimate the parameters in Richards' equation from these indirect measurements, image-based modelling is used to investigate the relationship between the pore structure and the parameters...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jing Zhang, Yiming Li, Zhiyong Peng
BACKGROUND: There is controversy about the efficacy and prognostic factors for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in China due to practice variation. Our aim is to investigate these questions. METHOD: A total of 613 adult patients receiving CRRT in last 3 years from one Chinese ICU were enrolled. The analysis of demographic data, vital signs, and laboratory tests prior to CRRT and outcomes were performed. The data between pre- and post-CRRT were compared for efficacy analysis...
December 7, 2017: Blood Purification
Christina Courtnadge, Flemming Madsen, Anette Bygum
Idiopathic oedema is a non-inflammatory interstitial oedema seen in fertile women. A hallmark is a daily increase in weight > 1.4 kg from morning until evening due to fluid retention, which shows as facial puffiness in the morning and more often abdominal increase and swollen lower extremities during the day. Patients may be disabled due to accompanying symptoms like headache, dizziness, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. The diagnosis is based on clinical features and exclusion of other causes of oedema...
November 27, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Mario Puviani, Federica Tovecci, Massimo Milani
INTRODUCTION: Gynoid lipodystrophy, also known as cellulite, is a very common skin alteration representing mainly a cosmetic problem rather than a real disease. An effective treatment of cellulite has not been well established. The initial phase of cellulite is characterized by subdermal tissue edema with interstitial fluids retention. A new hypertonic topical product with draining action (HTC) containing NaCl 13%, escine, caffeine, and beta-sitosterol has been recently developed. A 28-day double-blind placebo-controlled study has shown that this cream is able to reduce thigh circumference and the thickness of adipose tissue...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Masaharu Imaura
 The pathological conditions of patients who require intensive care are usually complex and extremely severe; their health and life are in a critical state. Therefore, correct, rapid treatment of these conditions is indispensable. Furthermore, the selection of drugs and adjustment of their dosage for an immediate effect are important. Moreover, most patients are immunocompromised and present an extremely high level of risk for complications involving infectious diseases. Since such complications may lead to life-threatening outcomes, a rational dosage regimen to achieve sufficient antimicrobial activity from the initial stage of treatment is essential...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Helge Wiig, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze
The role of salt in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is not well understood. According to the current understanding, the central mechanism for blood pressure regulation relies on classical studies linking blood pressure and Na+ balance, placing the kidney at the very centre of long-term blood pressure regulation. To maintain blood pressure homeostasis, the effective circulating fluid volume and thereby body Na+ content has to be maintained within very narrow limits. From recent work in humans and rats, the notion has emerged that Na+ could be stored somewhere in the body without commensurate water retention to buffer free extracellular Na+ , and that previously unidentified extrarenal, tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms are operative regulating the release and storage of Na+ from a kidney-independent reservoir...
November 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
Patricia L Clay, Ray Burgess, Henner Busemann, Lorraine Ruzié-Hamilton, Bastian Joachim, James M D Day, Christopher J Ballentine
Volatile element delivery and retention played a fundamental part in Earth's formation and subsequent chemical differentiation. The heavy halogens-chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I)-are key tracers of accretionary processes owing to their high volatility and incompatibility, but have low abundances in most geological and planetary materials. However, noble gas proxy isotopes produced during neutron irradiation provide a high-sensitivity tool for the determination of heavy halogen abundances. Using such isotopes, here we show that Cl, Br and I abundances in carbonaceous, enstatite, Rumuruti and primitive ordinary chondrites are about 6 times, 9 times and 15-37 times lower, respectively, than previously reported and usually accepted estimates...
November 29, 2017: Nature
Ryan J Avery, Soojie K Yu, Gopi Cherukuri, Ray B Runyan, John Konhilas, Zain I Khalpey
Given the limited treatment options for advanced heart failure, the intrinsic regenerative properties of stem cells have been evaluated for myocardial remodeling. Previous stem cells techniques for myocardiocyte remodeling have been limited by the low cellular retention. Presented is a hybrid approach for remodeling infarcted myocardium through implantation of allogeneic human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells within micronized human allograft-derived liquid matrix during the performance of transmyocardial revascularization (TMR)...
November 14, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Elisabeth Gludovacz, Daniel Maresch, Leonor Lopes de Carvalho, Verena Puxbaum, Laurenz J Baier, Leander Sützl, Gabriela Guédez, Clemens Grünwald-Gruber, Barbara Ulm, Sophie Pils, Robin Ristl, Friedrich Altmann, Bernd Jilma, Tiina A Salminen, Nicole Borth, Thomas Boehm
N-glycosylation plays a fundamental role in many biological processes. Human diamine oxidase (hDAO), required for hista-mine catabolism, has multiple N-glycosylation sites, but their roles, for example in DAO secretion, are unclear. We recently reported that the N-glycosylation sites Asn168, Asn538, and Asn745 in recombinant hDAO (rhDAO) carry complex-type glycans, where-as Asn110 carries only mammalian-atypical oligomannosidic glycans. Here, we show that Asn110 in native hDAO from amniotic fluid and Caco-2 cells, DAO from porcine kidneys, and rhDAO produced in two different HEK293 cell lines is also consistently occu-pied by oligomannosidic glycans...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
José Hureaux, Franck Lacoeuille, Frédéric Lagarce, Marie-Christine Rousselet, Aurélien Contini, Patrick Saulnier, Jean-Pierre Benoit, Thierry Urban
Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are potential drug carriers for pulmonary delivery since they can be nebulized without any structural or functional changes, and the aerosols produced are highly compatible with pulmonary drug delivery in human beings. The alveolar surface tension, in vitro cytotoxicity, biodistribution and pulmonary toxicity in rats of a single endotracheal spray of LNCs or paclitaxel-loaded LNCs were studied. In vitro cytotoxicity of LNCs after a spray remained unchanged. Biodistribution study showed a homogeneous repartition in the lungs in rats with an improvement in lung retention of the radiolabeled tracer loaded in LNCs compared to the absence of LNCs with a lung half-time of 8...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xiuhua Wang, Xiao Zhang, Linlin Fan, Huan He, Xiaofei Zhang, Yuyang Zhang, Shirui Mao
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of differently charged biocompatible polymers, including chitosan (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA), and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), on the disposition and retention of 20(R)-ginsenoside-rg3 (Rg3)-loaded swellable microparticles in the lung. A high-pressure homogenization method combined with spray drying was used to prepare Rg3-loaded microparticles. In vitro aerodynamic performance of different microparticles was characterized by the Next Generation Impactor (NGI)...
November 27, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Gin Way Law, Limin Wijaya, Andrew Hwee Chye Tan
Introduction: Group B Streptococcal (GBS) prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are rare, accounting for only 4.6-6% of primary and revision total knee replacements (TKRs). In 2015, there was an outbreak of GBS infections in Singapore with an association confirmed between consumption of Chinese-style raw fish dishes (snakehead fish, Asian bighead carp) and GBS infection, Type III GBS ST283 strain, affecting more than 200 patients in Singapore. This outbreak is the largest of its kind in the world and also the first time that foodborne transmission of GBS has been proven...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Shaohua Liao, Ying Qian, Huaiqiang Hu, Bing Niu, Hongwei Guo, Xiaoling Wang, Shuai Miao, Chuanfen Li, Bingzhen Cao
Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical characteristics, laboratory data, management, and outcome of patients with onconeural antibody-associated disorders (OAAD) and identify predictors for poor outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective review of all patients with potential OAAD, who were hospitalized in Jinan General Hospital between September 2009 and July 2017. We clarified the diagnosis, collected comprehensive information and categorized patients into three groups: paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs), autoimmune encephalitis (AE), and possible OAAD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Yang He, Qinghua Qiu, Taoqi Shao, Wenjing Niu, Chuanqi Xia, Haibo Wang, Qianwen Li, Zhibiao Gao, Zhantao Yu, Huawei Su, Binghai Cao
This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4×4 Latin Square experiment with 2×2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P <0...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yan Ding, Runzhen Zhao, Xiaoli Zhao, Michael A Matthay, Hong-Guang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) play an important role in re-absorbing excessive luminal fluid by building up an osmotic Na+ gradient across the tight epithelium in the airway, the lung, the kidney, and the colon. The ENaC is a major pathway for retention of salt in kidney too. MicroRNAs (miRs), a group of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, have emerged as a novel class of regulators for ENaC. Given the ENaC pathway is crucial for maintaining fluid homeostasis in the lung and the kidney and other cavities, we summarized the cross-talk between ENaC and miRs and recapitulated the underlying regulatory factors, including aldosterone, transforming growth factor-β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A in the lung and other epithelial tissues/organs...
November 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Kevin Phan, Joshua Xu, Monish M Maharaj, Julian Li, Jun S Kim, John Di Capua, Sulaiman Somani, Kimberly-Anne Tan, Ralph J Mobbs, Samuel K Cho
The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in clinical and radiographic outcomes between short (<3 levels) and long (≥3 levels) fusions in the setting of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. A literature search was performed from six electronic databases. The key terms of "degenerative scoliosis" OR "lumbar scoliosis" AND "fusion" were combined and used as MeSH subheadings. From relevant studies identified, demographic data, complication rates, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and radiographic parameters were extracted and the data was pooled and analyzed...
November 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
Ken Howick, Ryan Alam, Barbara Chruscicka, Dalia Kandil, Dara Fitzpatrick, Aoife M Ryan, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens, Brendan T Griffin
There is an impetus to provide appropriate sustained release oral delivery vehicles to protect biofunctional peptide loads from gastric degradation in vivo. This study describes the generation of a high load capacity pellet formulation for sustained release of a freely water-soluble dairy-derived hydrolysate, FHI-2571. The activity of this novel peptidic ghrelin receptor agonist is reported using in vitro calcium mobilization assays. Conventional extrusion spheronization was then used to prepare peptide-loaded pellets which were subsequently coated with ethylcellulose (EC) film coats using a fluid bed coating system in bottom spray (Wurster) mode...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Kathiravan Asokan, Khaja Mohinddin Shaikh, Shahaji Sopan Tele, Siddheshwar Kisan Chauthe, Shabana Ansar, Muthalagu Vetrichelvan, Roshan Nimje, Anuradha Gupta, Arun Kumar Gupta, Ramakanth Sarabu, Dauh-Rurng Wu, Arvind Mathur, Lakshmikant Bajpai
Analysis and purification of boronic acid pinacol esters by RPLC is very challenging due to their degradation in aqueous and alcoholic solvents. These compounds are difficult to purify by SFC too as they are equally sensitive to traditional co-solvents like methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol. 2,2,2 trifluoroethanol (TFE), which has been reported for the purification of a few alcohol sensitive compounds, was evaluated as a co-solvent in this study for the purification of chiral and achiral boronate esters by SFC...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ji-Yuan Zhang, Xiao-Qian Liu, Li-Xin Yang, Wei-Hong Feng, Zhi-Min Wang, Chun Li
To investigate the stability and degradation kinetics of febrifugine. The results showed that within 24 hours, febrifugine content was decreased by only 1% in mobile phase solvent, but its content was decreased to be 90% of the initial content in the water, methanol, 50% methanol and 10% acetonitrile solution. When the pH value of the solution was between 3 and 7, the retention rate of febrifugine in 24 hours was over 98%, but its content was decreased by about 12% in alkaline solution (pH 9.0). The higher the temperature, the worse the stability of febrifugine...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ulrika Andersson Hall, Pernilla Svedin, Ulf Andreasson, Magnus Gren, Ameli Ingemansson, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Aurimantas Pelanis, Carina Mallard, Agneta Holmäng
OBJECTIVE: To study changes of neuropeptides and adipokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from pregnancy to post-pregnancy in relation to weight changes, fat mass and glucose metabolism. CONTEXT: With high postpartum weight retention being a risk factor in future pregnancies and of life-long obesity we evaluated neuropeptide and adipokine changes in women who either gained weight or were weight stable. DESIGN: Women were followed for 5±1 years after pregnancy and divided into two groups, Weight-Stable and Weight-Gain, by weight change from start of pregnancy...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
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