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Fluid retention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911030/acellular-endocardium-as-a-novel-biomaterial-for-the-intima-of-tissue-engineered-small-caliber-vascular-grafts
#1
Feng Wang, Xin Guan, TianYi Wu, JianOu Qiao, ZhaoQing Han, JinLong Wu, XiaoWei Yu, QingJun You
We aimed to investigate whether acellular endocardium can be used as a useful biomaterial for the intima of engineered small-caliber vascular grafts. Fresh endocardium was harvested from the swine left atrium and was decellularized by digestion with the decellularization solution of Triton X-100 and SDS containing DNase I and RNase A. Surface morphological characteristics and Young's modulus were evaluated. To analyze the effect of mechanical characteristics on cell adhesion, the decellularized endocardium was stiffened with 2...
December 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908484/maintenance-fluid-therapy-isotonic-versus-hypotonic-solutions
#2
REVIEW
Bernie Hansen, Alessio Vigani
The goal of maintenance fluid therapy in small animals is to replace normal ongoing losses of water and salts when oral intake is withheld. Hospitalized dogs and cats may have multiple stimuli for antidiuretic hormone release that disrupt normal osmoregulation and predispose to water retention. Severe illness promotes retention of both sodium and water as edema. Commercially available fluids have electrolyte concentrations that are very different from dietary maintenance requirements, and potential consequences include development of hypoosmolality, edema, or both when excesses of water or sodium are administered...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906710/who-s-your-daddy-paternal-inheritance-of-metabolic-disease-risk
#3
Elvira Isganaitis, Harumi Suehiro, Connie Cardona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903275/cell-cycle-inhibition-reduces-inflammatory-responses-neuronal-loss-and-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-hypobaria-exposure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Jacob W Skovira, Junfang Wu, Jessica J Matyas, Alok Kumar, Marie Hanscom, Shruti V Kabadi, Raymond Fang, Alan I Faden
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in military settings can be exposed to prolonged periods of hypobaria (HB) during aeromedical evacuation. Hypobaric exposure, even with supplemental oxygen to prevent hypoxia, worsens outcome after experimental TBI, in part by increasing neuroinflammation. Cell cycle activation (CCA) after TBI has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to both post-traumatic cell death and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined whether hypobaric exposure in rats subjected to TBI increases CCA and microglial activation in the brain, as compared to TBI alone, and to evaluate the ability of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CR8) to reduce such changes and improve behavioral outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#5
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889820/ruxolitinib-in-clinical-practice-for-primary-and-secondary-myelofibrosis-an-analysis-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-gruppo-laziale-of-ph-negative-mpn
#6
Massimo Breccia, Alessandro Andriani, Marco Montanaro, Elisabetta Abruzzese, Francesco Buccisano, Michele Cedrone, Antonietta Centra, Nicoletta Villivà, Francesca Celesti, Malgorzata Monica Trawinska, Fulvio Massaro, Ambra Di Veroli, Barbara Anaclerico, Gioia Colafigli, Matteo Molica, Antonio Spadea, Luca Petriccione, Giuseppe Cimino, Roberto Latagliata
Ruxolitinib, a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, has been tested and approved for the treatment of primary and secondary myelofibrosis (MF). Aim of our study is to report safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib in 98 patients affected by MF treated outside clinical trials and collected and treated consecutively by the Lazio Cooperative Group for Ph negative myeloproliferative diseases.There were 45 males and 53 females; median age was 61.8 years (range 35.3-88). Forty-five patients were diagnosed as primary MF and 53 as secondary MF...
November 26, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889539/pharmacodynamics-of-s-dimethylarsino-glutathione-a-putative-metabolic-intermediate-of-inorganic-arsenic-in-mice
#7
Ayaka Kato, Yayoi Kobayashi, Osamu Udagawa, Seishiro Hirano
Inorganic arsenicals are well-known carcinogens, whereas arsenite (iAs(III)) compounds are now recognized as potent therapeutic agents for several leukemias, and arsenic trioxide has been used for the treatment of recurrent acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, recent clinical trials revealed that arsenite is not always effective for non-APL malignancies. Another arsenical, S-dimethylarsino-glutathione ([DMA(III)(GS)]), which is a putative metabolic intermediate in the hepatic metabolism of iAs(III), shows promise for treating several types of lymphoma...
November 23, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881762/bacteria-facilitate-prey-retention-by-the-pitcher-plant-darlingtonia-californica
#9
David W Armitage
Bacteria are hypothesized to provide a variety of beneficial functions to plants. Many carnivorous pitcher plants, for example, rely on bacteria for digestion of captured prey. This bacterial community may also be responsible for the low surface tensions commonly observed in pitcher plant digestive fluids, which might facilitate prey capture. I tested this hypothesis by comparing the physical properties of natural pitcher fluid from the pitcher plant Darlingtonia californica and cultured 'artificial' pitcher fluids and tested these fluids' prey retention capabilities...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865502/retail-lighting-and-packaging-influence-consumer-acceptance-of-fluid-milk
#10
H L Potts, K N Amin, S E Duncan
Little is known about the effect of retail light-emitting diode (LED) exposure on consumer acceptance of milk. The study objective was to determine effects of fluorescent and LED lighting under retail storage conditions on consumer acceptance of milk. Consumer acceptance of milk stored under retail conditions was determined through sensory evaluation (2 studies; n = 150+ each) and analytical measures (dissolved oxygen, secondary oxidation products, riboflavin retention). Study 1 evaluated milk stored in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packages for 4 h under LED light (960 lx)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864173/salad-leaf-juices-enhance-salmonella-growth-fresh-produce-colonisation-and-virulence
#11
Giannis Koukkidis, Richard Haigh, Natalie Allcock, Suzanne Jordan, Primrose Freestone
: We show in this report that traces of juices released from salad leaves as they became damaged can significantly enhance Salmonella enterica salad leaf colonisation. Salad juices in water increased Salmonella growth by 110% over the un-supplemented control, and in host-like serum based media by more than 2400-fold over controls. In serum based media salad juices induced growth of Salmonella via provision of Fe from transferrin, and siderophore production was found to be integral to the growth induction process...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855960/polyarginine-nanocapsules-as-a-potential-oral-peptide-delivery-carrier
#12
Giovanna Lollo, Ana Gonzalez-Paredes, Macros Garcia-Fuentes, Pilar Calvo, Dolores Torres, Maria Jose Alonso
We have previously reported the development of novel nanocapsules made of polyarginine (PArg) specifically designed for the delivery of small anticancer drugs into cells. Our goal, in this work, has been to investigate the potential of these nanocarriers for oral delivery of peptide anticancer drugs. To reach this objective, we chose the antitumoral peptide, elisidepsin, and evaluated the characteristics of the PArg nanocapsules in terms of drug loading capacity, stability in simulated intestinal fluids, and ability to interact with the intestinal epithelium both in vitro (Caco-2 model cell line) and in vivo...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825650/development-of-a-multi-matrix-lc-ms-ms-method-for-urea-quantitation-and-its-application-in-human-respiratory-disease-studies
#13
Jianshuang Wang, Yang Gao, Drew W Dorshorst, Fang Cai, Meire Bremer, Dennis Milanowski, Tracy L Staton, Stephanie S Cape, Brian Dean, Xiao Ding
In human respiratory disease studies, liquid samples such as nasal secretion (NS), lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF), or upper airway mucosal lining fluid (MLF) are frequently collected, but their volumes often remain unknown. The lack of volume information makes it hard to estimate the actual concentration of recovered active pharmaceutical ingredient or biomarkers. Urea has been proposed to serve as a sample volume marker because it can freely diffuse through most body compartments and is less affected by disease states...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816621/degradation-intra-articular-retention-and-biocompatibility-of-monospheres-composed-of-pdlla-peg-pdlla-b-plla-multi-block-copolymers
#14
Maria J Sandker, Luisa F Duque, Everaldo M Redout, Alan Chan, Ivo Que, Clemens W G M Löwik, Evelien C Klijnstra, Nicole Kops, Rob Steendam, Rene van Weeren, Wim E Hennink, Harrie Weinans
In this study, we investigated the use of microspheres with a narrow particle size distribution ('monospheres') composed of biodegradable poly(DL-lactide)-PEG-poly(DL-lactide)-b-poly(L-lactide) multiblock copolymers that are potentially suitable for local sustained drug release in articular joints. Monospheres with sizes of 5, 15 and 30 μm and a narrow particle size distribution were prepared by a micro-sieve membrane emulsification process. During in vitro degradation, less crystallinity, higher swelling and accelerated mass loss during was observed with increasing the PEG content of the polymer...
November 2, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814606/regulation-and-function-of-renal-medullary-cyclooxygenase-2-during-high-salt-loading
#15
Tianxin Yang, Mi Liu
Prostaglandins (PGs) are important autocrine/paracrine regulators that contribute to sodium balance and blood pressure control. Along the nephron, the highest amount of PGE2 is found in the distal nephron, an important site for fine-tuning of urinary sodium and water excretion. Cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is abundantly expressed in the renal medulla and its expression along with urinary PGE2 excretion is highly induced by chronic salt loading. Factors involved in high salt-induced COX-2 expression in the renal medulla include the hypertonicity, fluid shear stress (FSS), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810730/an-interpenetrating-network-composite-for-a-regenerative-spinal-disc-application
#16
A H Chan, P C Boughton, A J Ruys, M L Oyen
Severe degeneration of the intervertebral disc has an immensely debilitating effect on quality of life that has become a serious health and economic burden throughout the world. The disc plays an integral role in biomechanical movement and support within the spine. The emergence of tissue engineering endeavours to restore the structural characteristics and functionality of the native tissue. Hydrogels have been widely investigated as a candidate for regeneration of the gelatinous nucleus pulposus due to its architectural resemblance and fluid retention characteristics...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809289/pretransplant-levels-of-crp-and-interleukin-6-family-cytokines-effects-on-outcome-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#17
Tor Henrik Tvedt, Stein Atle Lie, Håkon Reikvam, Kristin Paulsen Rye, Roald Lindås, Tobias Gedde-Dahl, Aymen Bushra Ahmed, Øystein Bruserud
Several pretransplant factors, including CRP (C-reactive protein) levels, reflect the risk of complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. IL-6 induces CRP increase, and we therefore investigated the effects of pretransplant IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptors, IL-6 family cytokines and CRP serum levels on outcome for 100 consecutive allotransplant recipients. All patients had related donors, none had active infections and 99 patients were in complete remission before conditioning. The incidence of acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) requiring treatment was 40%, survival at Day +100 82%, and overall survival 48%...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800480/post-exercise-rehydration-effect-of-consumption-of-beer-with-varying-alcohol-content-on-fluid-balance-after-mild-dehydration
#18
Annemarthe H C Wijnen, Jora Steennis, Milène Catoire, Floris C Wardenaar, Marco Mensink
PURPOSE: The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. METHODS: Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 years, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL kg min(-1)). Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60% of their maximal power output (Wmax) until mild dehydration (1% body mass loss)...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798457/refractory-versus-resistant-hypertension
#19
Mohammed Siddiqui, David A Calhoun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Refractory hypertension is a recently proposed phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. As such it represents an extreme subtype of resistant or difficult-to-treat hypertension. Resistant hypertension is relatively common with an estimated prevalence of 10-20% of treated hypertensive patients. It is typically defined as having an uncontrolled blood pressure on three or more antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. Refractory hypertension is rare with a prevalence of approximately 5% of patients with uncontrolled resistant hypertension...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792012/cerebrospinal-fluid-a%C3%AE-42-40-corresponds-better-than-a%C3%AE-42-to-amyloid-pet-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Piotr Lewczuk, Anja Matzen, Kaj Blennow, Lucilla Parnetti, Jose Luis Molinuevo, Paolo Eusebi, Johannes Kornhuber, John C Morris, Anne M Fagan
BACKGROUND: Decreased concentrations of amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and increased retention of Aβ tracers in the brain on positron emission tomography (PET) are considered the earliest biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, a proportion of cases show discrepancies between the results of the two biomarker modalities which may reflect inter-individual differences in Aβ metabolism. The CSF Aβ42/40 ratio seems to be a more accurate biomarker of clinical AD than CSF Aβ42 alone...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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