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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340997/immunohistochemical-biomarkers-of-mesenchymal-neoplasms-in-endocrine-organs-diagnostic-pitfalls-and-recent-discoveries
#1
Yin P Hung, Jason L Hornick
Mesenchymal neoplasms rarely present in or adjacent to endocrine organs. In this context, the recognition of these rare tumor types can be challenging, with significant potential for misdiagnosis as sarcomatoid carcinomas (i.e., anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and sarcomatoid adrenal cortical carcinoma) or neuroendocrine carcinomas, depending upon the dominant histologic patterns. In this review, we address potential pitfalls in diagnosing selected mesenchymal neoplasms arising within or near endocrine organs, including dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma, angiosarcoma, PEComa, proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and neuroblastoma...
January 16, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338938/distinct-met-protein-localization-associated-with-met-exon-14-mutation-types-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Tian Qiu, Weihua Li, Tongtong Zhang, Puyuan Xing, Wenting Huang, Bingning Wang, Lixia Chu, Lei Guo, Xiuyun Liu, Yan Li, Jianming Ying, Junling Li
BACKGROUND: The MET gene has been recognized as a potential important therapeutic target in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sought to investigate the MET exon 14 mutations in a cohort of Chinese patients with NSCLC. METHODS: We tested 461 NSCLCs for MET exon 14 mutations by sequencing whole exon 14 and its flanking introns. The protein expression was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: In this study, we identified MET exon 14 mutations in 9 (2...
December 21, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311016/the-development-of-brain-metastases-in-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma-epidemiologic-trends-survival-and-clinical-risk-factors-using-a-population-based-cohort
#3
Maxine Sun, Guillermo De Velasco, Priscilla K Brastianos, Ayal A Aizer, Allison Martin, Raphael Moreira, Paul L Nguyen, Quoc-Dien Trinh, Toni K Choueiri
BACKGROUND: The incidence of brain metastases (BM) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is hypothesized to have increased in the last 2 decades. OBJECTIVE: To define incidence trends according to patient and clinical characteristics, to identify risk factors, and to describe outcomes of patients with BM for RCC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with RCC between the years 2010 and 2013 within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database...
January 5, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306556/sarcomatoid-renal-cell-carcinoma-biology-and-treatment-advances
#4
REVIEW
Nemer El Mouallem, Steven C Smith, Asit K Paul
Sarcomatoid transformation in renal cell carcinoma, so called sacromatoid RCC (sRCC), is associated with an aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. Current therapeutic approaches are largely ineffective. Recent studies looking into the genomic and molecular characterization of sRCCs have provided insights into the biology and pathogenesis of this entity. These advances in molecular signatures may help development of effective treatment strategies. We herein present a review of recent developments in the pathology, biology, and treatment modalities in sRCC...
January 3, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302841/prognostic-value-of-the-glasgow-prognostic-score-for-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-treated-by-cytoreductive-nephrectomy
#5
Hironori Fukuda, Toshio Takagi, Tsunenori Kondo, Kazuhiko Yoshida, Satoru Shimizu, Yoji Nagashima, Kazunari Tanabe
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients treated by cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN), and the accuracy of the GPS as a prognostic factor. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who underwent CN for mRCC between March 1984 and August 2015. In accordance with the GPS criteria, the patients were classified into three groups: GPS 0: C-reactive protein (CRP) ≤ 1...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297486/mesenchymal-tumors-of-the-prostate
#6
Jesse K McKenney
Mesenchymal tumors of the prostate are rare but often cause considerable diagnostic difficulty when encountered. These may be either benign or malignant and can arise within the prostate gland or in adjacent tissues. This review covers prostatic stromal proliferations (prostatic stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential and stromal sarcoma), solitary fibrous tumor, myofibroblastic proliferations, smooth muscle neoplasms (leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma), gastrointestinal stromal tumor, schwannoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, postradiation sarcoma, and mixed epithelial stromal tumor of the seminal vesicle...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291011/transferrin-receptor-1-upregulation-in-primary-tumor-and-downregulation-in-benign-kidney-is-associated-with-progression-and-mortality-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#7
Christopher J Greene, Kristopher Attwood, Nitika J Sharma, Kenneth W Gross, Gary J Smith, Bo Xu, Eric C Kauffman
The central dysregulated pathway of clear cell (cc) renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the von Hippel Lindau/hypoxia inducible factor-α axis, is a key regulator of intracellular iron levels, however the role of iron uptake in human RCC tumorigenesis and progression remains unknown. We conducted a thorough, large-scale investigation of the expression and prognostic significance of the primary iron uptake protein, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71/TFRC), in RCC patients. TfR1 immunohistochemistry was performed in over 1500 cores from 574 renal cell tumor patient tissues (primary tumors, matched benign kidneys, metastases) and non-neoplastic tissues from 36 different body sites...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290320/-sarcomatoid-carcinoma-of-larynx-a-histological-challenge
#8
Alejandra Osorio-Velásquez, Carlos M Chiesa-Estomba, Frank A Betances-Reinoso, M Pilar San Miguel-Fraile, José A Ortiz-Rey
INTRODUCTION: Sarcomatoid carcinoma can occur in any part of the body; in the head and neck it occurs most frequently in the major salivary glands, with only about 1% of cases found in the larynx. As it has both epithelial and mesenchymal components, there are many theories concerning its origin and it can prove a diagnostic challenge. CASE REPORT: A 76 year old male smoker presented with dysphonia. Vocal cord injury was found on examination but no lymphadenopathy or metastases were present...
January 2018: Revista Española de Patología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287310/high-grade-transformation-dedifferentiation-of-an-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-minor-salivary-gland-to-myoepithelial-carcinoma
#9
So Tando, Toshitaka Nagao, Kaori Kayano, Shinji Fushiki, Kyoko Itoh
High-grade transformation (HGT)/dedifferentiation is an unusual phenomenon in salivary gland carcinomas. Here we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) with HGT/dedifferentiation to myoepithelial carcinoma, occurring in the epipharynx of a 42-year-old woman. The surgically resected tumor was a pedunculated mass, 31 × 25 mm in size, which had two histologically distinct carcinomatous areas, including a high-grade sarcomatoid area composed of pleomorphic spindle cells and an area consisting of low-grade typical ACC...
December 29, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279323/the-hidden-genomic-and-transcriptomic-plasticity-of-giant-marker-chromosomes-in-cancer
#10
Gemma Macchia, Marco Severgnini, Stefania Purgato, Doron Tolomeo, Hilen Casciaro, Ingrid Cifola, Alberto L'Abbate, Anna Loverro, Orazio Palumbo, Massimo Carella, Laurence Bianchini, Giovanni Perini, Gianluca De Bellis, Fredrik Mertens, Mariano Rocchi, Clelia T Storlazzi
Genome amplification in the form of rings or giant rod-shaped marker chromosomes is a common genetic alteration in soft tissue tumours. The mitotic stability of these structures is often rescued by perfectly functioning analphoid neocentromeres, which therefore significantly contribute to cancer progression. Here, we disentangled the genomic architecture of many neocentromeres stabilizing marker chromosomes in well-differentiated liposarcoma and lung sarcomatoid carcinoma samples. In cells carrying heavily rearranged RGMs, these structures were assembled as patchworks of multiple short amplified sequences, disclosing an extremely high level of complexity and definitely ruling out the existence of regions prone to the neocentromere seeding...
December 26, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261796/high-dose-interleukin-2-in-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-sarcomatoid-features
#11
Tala Achkar, Ananth Arjunan, Hong Wang, Melissa Saul, Diwakar Davar, Leonard J Appleman, David Friedland, Rahul A Parikh
BACKGROUND: High-dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2) is used in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and has an overall response rate (ORR) of 12-20% and a complete response rate (CR) of 8% in unselected populations with predominantly clear cell type renal cell carcinoma. Nearly 10-15% of patients with renal cell carcinoma exhibit sarcomatoid differentiation, a feature which correlates with a median overall survival (OS) of 9 months and overall poor prognosis. We report a single institution experience with 21 patients with mRCC with sarcomatoid features post-nephrectomy who were treated with HD IL-2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246119/overexpression-of-p53r2-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-lung-sarcomatoid-carcinoma
#12
Jiewei Chen, Yongbo Xiao, Xiaoyan Cai, Jun Liu, Keming Chen, Xinke Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study aimmed to evaluate the expression of p53-inducible RR small subunit 2 homologue (p53R2) in Lung sarcomatoid carcinoma (LSC) and its association with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. METHODS: In this study, clinicopathological factors and prognostic significance of the expression of p53R2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 100 cases of LSC. RESULTS: The results showed that the expression of p53R2 was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P<0...
December 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240878/pulmonary-sarcomatoid-carcinoma-an-analysis-of-a-rare-cancer-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-database
#13
Mohamed Rahouma, Mohamed Kamel, Navneet Narula, Abu Nasar, Sebron Harrison, Benjamin Lee, Brendon Stiles, Nasser K Altorki, Jeffrey L Port
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a rare malignant neoplasm that accounts for a small percentage of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). At least 10% of PSCs has a spindle and/or giant cell component, which is often associated with a poor prognosis. We reviewed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for the clinicopathological characteristics and surgical outcomes of PSCs. METHODS: The SEER database (1973-2013) was queried for PSC...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239032/challenges-in-surgical-pathology-of-adrenocortical-tumours
#14
REVIEW
Lori A Erickson
Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare tumours that can be diagnostically challenging. Numerous multiparametric scoring systems and diagnostic algorithms have been proposed to differentiate adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma. Adrenocortical neoplasms must also be differentiated from other primary adrenal tumours, such as phaeochromocytoma and unusual primary adrenal tumours, as well as metastases to the adrenal gland. Myxoid, oncocytic and sarcomatoid variants of adrenocortical tumours must be recognized so that they are not confused with other tumours...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233162/sarcomatoid-hepatocellular-carcinoma-shc-a-case-report
#15
Yingying Yu, Yanping Zhong, Jingyu Wang, Di Wu
BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma (SHC) is a rare malignant hepatic tumor. Recurrent interventional therapies such as transcatheter arterial chemo-embolization (TACE), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and percutaneous ethanol injection have been reported previously utilized in a majority of SHC cases. To date, the exact pathogenic mechanisms underlying sarcomatoid transformation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we report a 68-year-old female SHC patient admitted to our hospital due to discrete abdominal distention for more than 20 days...
December 12, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232802/-sarcomatoid-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-bladder-including-an-osteosarcoma-element
#16
Kouzaburou Tanuma, Koji Kawai, Haruki Tsuchiya, Yoshitaka Matsumoto, Shuya Kandori, Takahiro Kojima, Tomokazu Kimura, Akira Joraku, Jun Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Nishiyama, Akiko Sakata
A 68-year-old Japanese man was referred to Tsukuba University Hospital for bladder cancer treatment. He had undergone a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) at a local hospital, but the pathological specimen did not contain muscle layer. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 3 cm non-papillary bladder tumor with muscle invasion, but there was no apparent calcification. The patient underwent re-TURBT at our hospital for diagnosis and staging. A non-papillary pedunculated tumor was identified in the bladder dome, and it contained a small papillary part...
November 2017: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230263/-kaposi-s-sarcoma-of-the-penis-in-a-hiv-seronegative-patient
#17
Mohammed Alae Touzani, Othmane Yddoussalah
Sarcomas of the penis account for less than 5% of all tumors of the penis. They are dominated by Kaposi's sarcoma that mainly affects HIV-positive patients. However, recent studies have shown a relationship between Kaposi's sarcoma and HHV-8 infection (Human herpes virus-8), which explains why this sarcoma occurs in non-immunocompromised and HIV-seronegative patients. We here report the case of a 72-year old patient, with no previous medical history, reporting of gradual onset of tumor-like granulation tissue of 3 years duration at the level of the gland, without secondary location...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227332/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-malignant-mesothelioma-focus-on-approach-in-challenging-cases-and-in-limited-tissue-and-cytologic-samples
#18
Sara Monaco, Mitra Mehrad, Sanja Dacic
Mesothelial proliferations can be diagnostically challenging in small specimens, such as body fluid cytology and small tissue biopsies. A great morphologic challenge for pathologists is the separation of benign reactive mesothelial proliferations from malignant mesotheliomas. Reactive mesothelial proliferations may have histologic features that resemble malignancy including increased cellularity, cytologic atypia, and mitoses. Recent advances in mesothelioma genetics resulted in identification of BAP1 mutations and p16 deletions as features of malignant mesotheliomas...
January 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225982/sarcomatoid-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-an-adolescent-with-sickle-cell-anaemia
#19
H R Ahmad, J A Faruk, M A Bugaje, A Solomon, M O A Samaila, R M Akuse
Malignancies have been reported to occur in people with sickle cell disease. Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC), also tagged seventh sickle cell nephropathy, is an aggressive cancer seen almost exclusively in people with sickle cell disease with more than 160 cases reported worldwide, but only few cases were reported in patients with sickle cell anaemia (HBSS) and from Nigeria. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is a renal tumour of any histologic variant containing foci of high-grade malignant spindle cells. We report an adolescent girl with sickle cell anaemia (HBSS) who presented with left renal tumour, histology of which confirmed a diagnosis of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC)...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223422/national-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-a-national-cancer-data-base-study
#20
Sahar A Saddoughi, Zaid M Abdelsattar, Shanda H Blackmon
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains an aggressive malignancy that is difficult to cure. However, the treatment paradigm of MPM has evolved, and the national practice patterns are unknown. This study examined the national trends in the epidemiology, national treatment patterns, and survival of patients with this disease. METHODS: We identified all patients (n = 19,134) with MPM from the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2013. We analyzed patient, tumor characteristics, and treatment patterns using descriptive statistics and used Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate survival stratified by the type of therapy administered...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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