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short chain fatty acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774758/evaluation-of-natural-bv-as-a-novel-feed-additive-in-fast-growing-broilers
#1
Da Hye Kim, Sang Mi Han, Moung Cheul Keum, Sang Lee, Byoung Ki An, Sang-Rak Lee, Kyung-Woo Lee
1. The present study was designed to evaluate purified bee venom (BV) as an alternative to antibiotics in broiler chickens. The experimental treatment diets were formulated by adding BV into a maize-soybean meal-based diet to give 0, 10, 50, 100, and 500 μg BV per kg of diet. 2. Dietary BV quadratically improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio and increased body weight gain at 1-21 days as level in diet increased. Higher BV levels lowered relative weight of spleen (linear and quadratic, P<0.05), bursa of Fabricius (quadratic, P<0...
May 18, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770190/effects-of-molecular-hydrogen-dissolved-alkaline-electrolyzed-water-on-intestinal-environment-in-mice
#2
Yasuki Higashimura, Yasunori Baba, Ryo Inoue, Tomohisa Takagi, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Katsura Mizushima, Yasuko Hirai, Chihiro Ushiroda, Yoshinori Tanaka, Yuji Naito
Increasing evidence indicates that molecular hydrogen-dissolved alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW) has various physiological activities such as antioxidative activity. Gut microbiota are deeply associated with our health through a symbiotic relationship. Recent reports have described that most gastrointestinal microbial species encode the genetic capacity to metabolize molecular hydrogen, meaning that molecular hydrogen might affect the gut microbial composition. Nevertheless, AEW effects on gut microbiota remain unknown...
January 2018: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768180/dietary-fiber-confers-protection-against-flu-by-shaping-ly6c-patrolling-monocyte-hematopoiesis-and-cd8-t-cell-metabolism
#3
Aurélien Trompette, Eva S Gollwitzer, Céline Pattaroni, Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Erika Riva, Julie Pernot, Niki Ubags, Lluis Fajas, Laurent P Nicod, Benjamin J Marsland
Dietary fiber protects against chronic inflammatory diseases by dampening immune responses through short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Here we examined the effect of dietary fiber in viral infection, where the anti-inflammatory properties of SCFAs in principle could prevent protective immunity. Instead, we found that fermentable dietary fiber increased survival of influenza-infected mice through two complementary mechanisms. High-fiber diet (HFD)-fed mice exhibited altered bone marrow hematopoiesis, characterized by enhanced generation of Ly6c- patrolling monocytes, which led to increased numbers of alternatively activated macrophages with a limited capacity to produce the chemokine CXCL1 in the airways...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768170/a-little-fiber-goes-a-long-way
#4
Patricia A C Castillo, Timothy W Hand
In this issue of Immunity, Trompette et al. (2018) show that dietary fiber and short chain fatty acids reduce influenza A virus-associated immunopathology by enhancing CD8+ T cell effector function and by promoting the differentiation of alternatively activated macrophages.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767564/interorgan-metabolic-crosstalk-in-human-insulin-resistance
#5
Sofiya Gancheva, Tomas Jelenik, Elisa Álvarez-Hernández, Michael Roden
Excessive energy intake and reduced energy expenditure drive the development of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic signals derived from dietary intake or secreted from adipose tissue, gut, and liver contribute to energy homeostasis. Recent metabolomic studies identified novel metabolites and enlarged our knowledge on classic metabolites. This review summarizes the evidence of their roles as mediators of interorgan crosstalk and regulators of insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767160/effects-of-yeast-cell-wall-on-growth-performance-immune-responses-and-intestinal-short-chain-fatty-acid-concentrations-of-broilers-in-an-experimental-necrotic-enteritis-model
#6
Guang-Da Xue, Shu-Biao Wu, Mingan Choct, Robert A Swick
Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) causes devastating economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised free of in-feed antibiotics. Prebiotics are potential alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Yeast cell wall extract (YCW) derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a prebiotic with known immune modulating effects. This study examined the effects of YCW and antibiotics (AB) during subclinical NE on broiler growth performance, intestinal lesions, humoral immune response and gut microflora metabolites...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767145/an-increase-in-corn-resistant-starch-decreases-protein-fermentation-and-modulates-gut-microbiota-during-in-vitro-cultivation-of-pig-large-intestinal-inocula
#7
Xiangyu He, Weiwei Sun, Ting Ge, Chunlong Mu, Weiyun Zhu
High-protein diet could cause an increase in protein fermentation in the large intestine, leading to an increased production of potentially detrimental metabolites. We hypothesized that an increase in corn resistant starch content may attenuate the protein fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistant starch on protein fermentation by inocula from large intestine of pigs using in vitro cultivation. Fermentation patterns were analyzed during a 24-h incubation of cecal and colonic digesta with varying corn resistant starch contents, using casein protein as sole nitrogen source...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766722/effects-of-whole-grain-rice-and-wheat-on-composition-of-gut-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-rats
#8
Fei Han, Yong Wang, Yangyang Han, Jianxin Zhao, Fenli Han, Ge Song, Ping Jiang, Haijiang Miao
Diets rich in whole grain (WG) cereals bring lower disease risks compared with refined grain-based diets. We investigated the effects of polished rice (PR), refined wheat (RW), unpolished rice (UPR), and whole wheat (WW) on short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiota in ileal, cecal, and colonic digesta of normal rats. Animals fed with UPR and WW diets exhibited higher total SCFA in cecal and colonic digesta compared with those fed with PR and RW diets. Wheat diets contributed higher total SCFA than rice diets...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762726/supplementation-with-organic-acids-showing-different-effects-on-growth-performance-gut-morphology-and-microbiota-of-weaned-pigs-fed-with-highly-or-less-digestible-diets
#9
S Li, J Zheng, K Deng, L Chen, X L Zhao, X M Jiang, Z F Fang, L Q Che, S Y Xu, B Feng, J Li, Y Lin, Y Y Wu, Y M Han, De Wu
Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acid (OA) supplementation in a highly digestible (Exp. 1) or a less digestible diet (Exp. 2) on the growth performance and intestinal health of weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 240 pigs weaned at day 21 were assigned to one of five dietary treatments: negative control (NC) (basal diet, 3,000 ppm ZnO in the first 2 weeks only); positive control (PC) (NC plus 10 mg/kg zinc bacitracin, 5 mg/kg colistin sulfate, and 5 mg/kg olaquindox); OA1 (NC plus a 0...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762376/microbial-fermentation-of-starch-its-impact-on-the-range-of-acceptable-carbohydrate-intake
#10
Satish C Kalhan
Starch, a major source of carbohydrates in human nutrition, is extensively hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of children and adults. A small fraction of the ingested starch reaches the cecum and colon where it is fermented by the gut microbiome into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and other products. Recent data in humans and in animal models have demonstrated the extensive effects of short-chain fatty acids on whole body energy metabolism, appetite, insulin resistance, fatty acid oxidation, fat accretion, obesity, and diabetes...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761557/effects-of-dietary-yeast-cell-wall-on-faecal-bacteria-and-fermentation-products-in-adult-cats
#11
J P F Santos, A A Aquino, M B A Glória, M J Avila-Campos, P M Oba, K de M Santos, T H A Vendramini, A C Carciofi, A R Junior, M A Brunetto
This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations of spray-dried yeast cell wall (YCW) in diets for healthy adult cats on apparent nutrient digestibility and on bacterial composition and fermentation products in the stool. Fourteen cats with an average weight of 4.40 ± 1.05 kg and an average age of 6.2 ± 0.54 years were used and assigned to treatments in an unbalanced randomized block design (by experimental period) with two blocks and three or four cats per diet in each block. Treatments included: control (0% YCW), 0...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758151/clinical-effects-of-stabilized-stannous-fluoride-dentifrice-in-reducing-plaque-microbial-virulence-ii-metabonomic-changes
#12
Michael Cannon, Deepa Khambe, Malgorzata Klukowska, David L Ramsey, Melanie Miner, Tom Huggins, Donald J White
OBJECTIVES: The clinical effects of stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice in reducing symptoms of gingivitis and reducing the virulence of subgingival plaque through suppression of activation of gene expression in toll receptor based reporter cells were previously reported. This study expanded analysis of the clinical study to include evaluation of dentifrice effects on salivary metabolites using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) systems biology-based metabonomics. METHODS: The clinical design was reported previously (J Clin Dent2017;28:16-26)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758009/a-review-on-the-weight-loss-effects-of-oxidized-tea-polyphenols
#13
REVIEW
Dylan O'Neill Rothenberg, Caibi Zhou, Lingyun Zhang
The mechanistic systems in the body through which tea causes weight loss are complex and multi-dimensional. Additionally, the bioactive components in tea such as catechins, caffeine, and products of tea polyphenol oxidation vary greatly from one major tea type to the next. Green tea has been the primary subject of consideration for investigation into the preventative health effects of tea because it contains the highest levels of phenolic compounds and retains the highest antioxidant capabilities of any major tea type...
May 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757949/effects-of-dietary-intake-of-japanese-mushrooms-on-visceral-fat-accumulation-and-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#14
Takamitsu Shimizu, Koichiro Mori, Kenji Ouchi, Mamoru Kushida, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
A lot of Japanese people are generally known for having a healthy diet, and consume a variety of mushrooms daily. Many studies have reported anti-obesity effects of mushrooms, but few have investigated the effects of consuming a variety of edible mushroom types together in realistic quantities. In this study, we investigated whether supplementation with a variety of mushroom types affects visceral fat accumulation and gut microbiota in mice. The most popular mushroom varieties in Japan were lyophilized and mixed according to their local production ratios...
May 14, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757606/monobody-mediated-alteration-of-lipase-substrate-specificity
#15
Shun-Ichi Tanaka, Tetsuya Takahashi, Akiko Koide, Riki Iwamoto, Satoshi Koikeda, Shohei Koide
Controlling catalytic properties of enzymes remain an important challenge in chemistry and biotechnology. We have recently established a strategy for altering enzyme specificity in which the addition of proxy monobodies, synthetic binding proteins, modulates the specificity of an otherwise unmodified enzyme. Here, in order to examine its broader applicability we employed the strategy on Candida rugosa lipase 1 (CRL1), an enzyme with a tunnel-like substrate binding site. We successfully identified proxy monobodies that restricted the substrate specificity of CRL1 toward short-chain fatty acids...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757343/dietary-fiber-intervention-on-gut-microbiota-composition-in-healthy-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Daniel So, Kevin Whelan, Megan Rossi, Mark Morrison, Gerald Holtmann, Jaimon T Kelly, Erin R Shanahan, Heidi M Staudacher, Katrina L Campbell
Background: Dysfunction of the gut microbiota is frequently reported as a manifestation of chronic diseases, and therefore presents as a modifiable risk factor in their development. Diet is a major regulator of the gut microbiota and certain types of dietary fiber may modify bacterial numbers and metabolism, including short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to assess the effect of dietary fiber interventions on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756138/carboxymethyl-pachyman-cmp-reduces-intestinal-mucositis-and-regulates-the-intestinal-microflora-in-5-fluorouracil-treated-ct26-tumour-bearing-mice
#17
Canhong Wang, Shuxian Yang, Li Gao, Lili Wang, Li Cao
The compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the first choice chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), but intestinal mucositis is a primary limiting factor in anticancer therapy. There is currently no broadly effective targeted treatment to cure this side effect. Carboxymethylated pachyman (CMP) is a polysaccharide that is modified from the structure of pachyman isolated from Poria cocos (Chinese name: Fu Ling). Meanwhile, recent studies have shown that CMP exhibits immune regulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities...
May 14, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755978/development-of-an-effective-chain-elongation-process-from-acidified-food-waste-and-ethanol-into-n-caproate
#18
Mark Roghair, Yuchen Liu, David P B T B Strik, Ruud A Weusthuis, Marieke E Bruins, Cees J N Buisman
Introduction: Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), such as n-caproate, are potential valuable platform chemicals. MCFAs can be produced from low-grade organic residues by anaerobic reactor microbiomes through two subsequent biological processes: hydrolysis combined with acidogenesis and chain elongation. Continuous chain elongation with organic residues becomes effective when the targeted MCFA(s) are produced at high concentrations and rates, while excessive ethanol oxidation and base consumption are limited. The objective of this study was to develop an effective continuous chain elongation process with hydrolyzed and acidified food waste and additional ethanol...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754286/systematic-review-assessing-the-effectiveness-of-dietary-intervention-on-gut-microbiota-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
David Houghton, Timothy Hardy, Christopher Stewart, Linda Errington, Christopher P Day, Michael I Trenell, Leah Avery
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Despite improved understanding of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus, explanations for individual variability in disease progression and response to treatment are incomplete. The gut microbiota has been linked to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and may account for this variability. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity/exercise interventions in modulating the gut microbiota and improving glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751049/increased-butyrate-priming-in-the-gut-stalls-microbiome-associated-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-hepatic-metabolic-reprogramming-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#20
Ratanesh Kumar Seth, Diana Kimono, Firas Alhasson, Sutapa Sarkar, Muayad Albadrani, Stephen K Lasley, Ronnie Horner, Patricia Janulecewicz, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Kimberly Sullivan, Saurabh Chatterjee
Most of the associated pathologies in Gulf War Illness (GWI) have been ascribed to chemical and pharmaceutical exposures during the war. Since an increased number of veterans complain of gastrointestinal (GI), neuroinflammatory and metabolic complications as they age and there are limited options for a cure, the present study was focused to assess the role of butyrate, a short chain fatty acid for attenuating GWI-associated GI and metabolic complications. Results in a GWI-mouse model of permethrin and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) exposure showed that oral butyrate restored gut homeostasis and increased GPR109A receptor copies in the small intestine (SI)...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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